=
N
i
i i
N N
H
1
2
log ) (
, (2)
of the normalized output service rates, where
=
=
N
i
i
N
1
1
, (3)
should reach a maximum, which in the best case is
accomplished when
1
=
2
= =
N
. (4)
Even though the node itself is capable of providing
higher service rates, due to physical link constraints it
is assumed that some links might have lower capacities
than other links, which does not allow the use of equal
departure rates, i.e., in general,
i
j
, i =1,..., N.
When dealing with the internal gateway links, it is
assumed that the nodes are located in a close proximity
to each other and the nonzero internal rates r
ji
can be
equal (in the best case) for a given set of arrival and
departure rates.
The traffic equations can be written in a compact
form,
=
=
N
j
ij i i
r
1
, i =1,..., N. (5)
There are N equations for an arbitrary number M of
nonzero rates r
ji
, where for the majority of cases the
inequality M N holds for N >2. The number of
linearlyindependent equations for closedloop (cyclic)
gateways is N1. This results in a system of N1 linear
equations with MN+1 undetermined variables, ,
and N1 internal rates can be represented as linear
functions of the said variables, . The
additional requirement for flow equalization can be
used to obtain a solution. Two approaches for solving
this problem statement are considered below.
u
kl
r
) (
u
kl ij ij
r r r =
2.1 Maximum entropy approach
The maximum entropy approach deals with the
maximization of the internal rate entropy
( )
=
=
=
N
i
N
r
j
n
ij
n
ij
ij
r r r H
1
0
1
2 max
log max ) ( (6)
of the normalized nonzero internal rates, ,
n
ij
r
=
=
N
i
N
r
j
u
kl ij
u
kl ij
n
ij
ij
r r
r r
r
1
0
1
) (
) (
, (7)
This follows to (MN+1)variable optimization
problem for the nonzero internal rates. The said rates
are being constrained within the critical rates of the
directed edges. Absolute rate values are used in the
above equations. The signs (directions) of the nonzero
directed flows are not known in advance and are to be
determined.
2.2 Minimum variance approach
The minimum variance approach deals with the
minimization of the variance determined by the
quadratic functional
=
=
=
N
i
N
r
j
u
kl ij
u
kl
ij
r r r
M
r
1
0
1
2
min
] ) ( [
1
min ) ( var , (8)
where
=
=
N
i
N
r
j
u
kl ij
ij
r r
M
r
1
0
1
) (
1
. (9)
One can set to zero the partial derivatives
0
2
1
0
1
min
) ) ( (
) ( var
=
=
u
kl
ij
N
i
N
r
j
u
kl ij
u
kl
u
kl
r
r
r r r
r
r
ij
M
,
(10)
ID: 40 IWWAN 2005
and obtain MN+1 additional linear equations. Due to
the linear relationship among the internal rates as
represented by Equation 5, it follows that
1 =
u
kl
ij
r
r
, (11)
which simplifies the rate analysis.
Note that the calculation of the first derivatives of
the entropy would produce a system of nonlinear
equations. Due to this drawback, it is preferable to use
the minimum variance approach which allows one to
obtain a simple solution with minimum computational
efforts.
3. Analytical solutions for some basic
distributed gateway topologies
The simplest distributed gateway consisting of two
nodes, N=2, M=1, assuming that
1
2
,
1
+
2
=
1
+
2
,
and r
21
=0, has the following two traffic equations
r
12
=
1
1
, and r
12
=
2
+
2
. (12)
The undetermined rate r
12
is given simply by
r
12
=[(
1
1
) (
2
2
)]/2. (13)
The direction of the flow r
12
is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4. Twonode topology.
Three nodes connected in a cyclic manner and
forming a triangle represent the simplest and most
efficient way to establish a twohop distributed
gateway topology, where N =3, M =3. Assuming that
1
2
3
and
1
+
2
+
3
=
1
+
2
+
3
, r
21
=0, r
31
=0, and r
23
=0, the traffic equations can be written as
follows:
r
12
+r
13
=
1
1
, r
12
+r
23
=
2
2
, and
r
13
r
23
=
3
3
, (14)
Since one of the equations is a linear combination
of the other equations, the rates r
13
and r
23
as well as
r depend on the undetermined rate
u
r
12
r
13
( ) =
u
r
12
1
1
, r
u
r
12
23
( ) =
u
r
12
2
2
+
and
u
r
12
r =(
1
1
+
2
2
+ )/3.
(15)
u
r
12
The first derivatives are obviously
u
dr
dr
12
13
=1,
u
dr
dr
12
23
=1, and
u
dr
r d
12
=1/3. (16)
One can set the first derivative of the quadratic
functional to zero
) ( ) (
) var(
12 1 1 12
12
3
4
3
2
[
2
r r r r
dr
r d
u u
u
ij
M
=
0 )] ( (
12 2 2
) 3 / 2 = + + r r
u
, (17)
and obtain the final result,
=[0.5(
u
r
12
1
1
) 0.25(
2
2
)]. (18)
For example, one can choose the following arrival
rate proportion,
1
:
2
:
3
=3:2:1, and the maximum rates
can be normalized to unity,
1
=
2
=
3
=1, then
1
=
3/2,
2
=1, and
3
=1/2. The directions of the flows
are shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Triangular topology.
The dependence of the entropy vs. r
12
is shown in
Figure 6. Instead of the variance (Equation 8), it is
preferable to display the standard deviation (S.D.), also
shown in Figure 6. The lines in the said figure
represent the rates r
13
and r
23
as a function of r
12
. The
minimum of the quadratic functional is observed for
=0.25 in accordance with Equation 18. Obtaining
also r
u
r
12
13
=0.25 and r
23
=0.25, one can observe an ideal
equalization of internal flows. The maximum of the
entropy is observed at the same point. The entropy has
local minima at the points where some of the rates r
ij
become equal to zero as illustrated in Figure 6 for rate
r
13
=0. The entropy function has multiple minima and
maxima with the increase of the number of nodes.
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
S.D. Entropy
Figure 6. Entropy and S.D. [a.u.] vs. r
12
of a
triangular topology.
r
13
r
23
r
12
ID: 40 IWWAN 2005
The next example deals with four nodes connected
in a cyclic manner and forming a rectangle for
establishing a threehop distributed gateway topology,
where N =4, M =4. Assuming that
1
2
3
4
and
1
+
2
+
3
+
4
=
1
+
2
+
3
+
4
, the traffic
equations can be written as follows:
r
12
+r
13
=
1
1
,
r
12
+r
24
=
2
2
,
r
13
+r
34
=
3
3
, and
r
24
r
34
=
4
4
. (19)
Since one of the equations is a linear combination
of the other equations, the rates r
13
, r
24
, and r
34
depend
on the undetermined rate
u
r
12
r
13
( ) =
u
r
12
1
1
, r
u
r
12
24
( ) =
u
r
12
2
2
+ ,
u
r
12
r
34
( ) =(
u
r
12
1
1
) +(
3
3
) , and
u
r
12
r =[2(
1
1
) +
2
2
+
3
3
)]/4, (20)
where r
21
=0, r
31
=0, r
42
=0, and r
43
=0. The first
derivatives are obviously
u
dr
dr
12
13
=1,
u
dr
dr
12
24
=1,
u
dr
dr
12
34
=1 and
u
dr
r d
12
=0. (21)
One can set the first derivative of the quadratic
functional to zero
0 ]} ) ( ) [(
) (
) ( {
) var(
12 3 3 1 1
12 2 2
12 1 1 12
12
2
= +
+ +
=
u
u
u u
u
ij
r
r
r r
dr
r d
M
(22)
and obtain the final result,
=[2(
u
r
12
1
1
) (
2
2
+
3
3
)]/4. (23)
As an example, one can choose the following arrival
rate proportion,
1
:
2
:
3
:
4
=4:3:2:1, and the maximum
rates can be normalized to unity, i.e.,
1
=
2
=
3
=
4
=1, then
1
=8/5,
2
=6/5,
3
=4/5 and
4
=2/5. The
directions of the flows are shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Rectangular topology.
The dependence of the entropy vs. r
12
is shown in
Figure 8. The standard deviation (S.D.) is also shown
in the same figure. The lines in the said figure
represent the rates r
13
and r
24
, and r
34
as a function of
r
12
. The minimum of the quadratic functional is
observed for =0.2 in accordance with Equation
23. The maximum of the entropy is observed at the
same point as expected. The entropy has two local
minima, for r
u
r
12
13
=0 and r
34
=0. There is no ideal rate
equalization in this case since r
12
=r
34
=0.2 and r
13
=
r
24
=0.4.
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Figure 8. Entropy and S.D. [a.u.] vs. r
12
of a
rectangular topology.
An efficient multicyclic topology for internal
gateway routing in a threedimensional network is the
pyramid consisting of four nodes, N=4, M=6, as shown
schematically in Figure 9. The number of
undetermined coefficients equals 3. The analysis of
this topology can be carried out using the minimum
variance approach as described above, thus obtaining
for
1
>
2
>
3
>
4
and chosen edge directions:
r
12
=[8(
1

1
)  3(
2

2
) +(
3

3
)]/20, (24)
r
13
=[5(
1

1
)  5(
3

3
)]/20, (25)
r
14
=[7(
1

1
) +3(
2

2
) +4(
3

3
)]/20, (26)
r
23
=[3(
1

1
) +7(
2

2
)  4(
3

3
)]/20, (27)
r
24
=[(
1

1
) +2(
2

2
) +(
3

3
)]/20, (28)
r
34
=[8(
1

1
) +7(
2

2
) +11(
3

3
)]/20. (29)
For the arrival rate proportion
1
:
2
:
3
:
4
=4:3:2:1 and
1
=
2
=
3
=
4
=1 one can obtain the optimized
internal rates, r
12
=r
13
=r
14
=r
23
=r
24
=r
34
=0.2.
Figure 9. Pyramidal topology.
Entropy S.D.
r
24
r
13
r
34
r
12
ID: 40 IWWAN 2005
4. Conclusion
The concept of interconnection between multiplane
ad hoc networks in terms of closedloop (cyclic)
distributed gateways established on ad hoc basis is
introduced. It is shown that the proper load balancing
among the adjacent nodes allows one to use directed
edges only. It is desirable to reduce the number of
nodes in the gateway in order to decrease the delays
imposed by the internal flow equalization and mobility
changes. Less effective openloop gateways can also
be used. Typical configurations ranging from two
nodes up to four nodes might be sufficient for efficient
communication between the planes. In reality, the
number of nodes in a gateway as well as the number of
gateways is physically limited by the number of
available first neighbors and the arbitrary network
topology.
Acknowledgements
The Montfort Brothers of St. Gabriel, Assumption
University, and the CEO, Merlins Solutions
International Co., Ltd., are gratefully appreciated.
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ID: 40 IWWAN 2005