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Industrial Furnace Energy Efficiency

Review and Acceptance
Information Submitted: 1) Industrial Furnace Energy Efficiency Workpaper
2) Furnace Efficiency Calculator, Version 1.0, April 200
Submitted by: Energy and En!iron"ental Analysis, Inc.
Date: April #, 200
Program Affected:
E$press Efficiency Energy Efficiency %rant &rogra" 'EE%&)
&rocess E(uip"ent )eplace"ent '&E)) Custo" &rocess I"pro!e"ent 'C&I)
Efficient E(uip"ent )eplace"ent 'EE)) )esidential
* +ocal ,usiness Energy Efficiency &rogra" '+,EE&)
-t.er 'please descri/e)
0.e undersigned indi!iduals .a!e re!ie1ed t.e infor"ation cited a/o!e, and accept t.is
infor"ation for deter"ining energy consu"ption and2or energy sa!ings related to energy
efficiency "easures.
Tom Dearlo! PE
Co""ercial 3 Industrial &rogra" 4anager Signature
5out.ern California %as Co"pany
Approval Date
Eric "irc#off! PE
Energy Efficiency Engineering 5uper!isor Signature
5out.ern California %as Co"pany
Approval Date
Arvind $ T#e%di! P#D
&resident Signature
E#4, Inc.
Approval Date
B-REP-06-599-13
Industrial Furnace Energy
Efficiency
April 2006
Prepared fr!
Prepared "y!
Energy and En#irn$ental Analysis% Inc&
www.eea-inc.com
'ead(uarters )est *ast +ffice
1655 N. Fort Myer Drive, Suite 600 12011 NE First Street, Suite 210
Arlinton, !irinia 2220" #ellevue, $as%inton "&005
'el( )*0+, 52&-1"00 'el( )-25, 6&&-01-1
Fa.( )*0+, 52&-5106 Fa.( )-25, 6&&-01&0
The Gas Company
E,ecuti#e -u$$ary
'%is wor/0a0er 1escri2es si. calculators t%at will allow t%e Sout%ern 3ali4ornia 5as 3om0any
)'%e 5as 3om0any, account e.ecutives an1 ot%er sta44 to estimate annual as savins 4or in1ustrial
customers a00lyin 4or incentive 4un1s 4or %eat recovery un1er t%e #usiness Enery E44iciency 6rorams
)#EE6,. '%ese calculators are as 4ollows(
• 7.yen Enric%ment
• Moisture 8e1uction
• $all 9osses
• Aluminum 3%are 6re%eat
• Steel 3%are 6re%eat.
• Furnace Fi.ture 8e0lacement
:n1ustrial 0rocess %eatin consumes a sini4icant amount o4 natural as in 3ali4ornia an1
t%rou%out t%e ;nite1 States. $%ile t%e e44iciency o4 many in1ustrial %eatin systems suc% as 4urnaces,
ovens, an1 /ilns %ave 2een im0rove1 over time, t%ere are still sini4icant o00ortunities remainin 4or
im0rovin t%e e44iciency o4 t%ese systems.
EEA i B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
.AB/E +F *+0.E0.-
Page
E.ecutive Summary ..................................................................................................................................... i
1. 7verview................................................................................................................................................. 1
2. Annual 5as ;se....................................................................................................................................... +
+. 5as Savins 3alculations.........................................................................................................................-
+.1 7.yen Enric%ment.................................................................................................................. -
+.2 Moisture 8e1uction.................................................................................................................. 6
+.+ $all 9osses ...........................................................................................................................10
+.- Aluminum 3%are 6re%eat Enery Savins 3alculator...........................................................12
+.5 Steel 3%are 6re%eat...............................................................................................................16
+.6 Fi.ture $ei%t 8e1uction.......................................................................................................1"
A00en1i. A Furnace Availa2le <eat 3alculation........................................................................................1
A00en1i. # $all <eat 9oss 3alculations....................................................................................................1
A00en1i. 3( Assume1 5as 3om0osition.....................................................................................................1
EEA iii B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
/I-. +F .AB/E-
Page
'a2le 1. 7.yen Enric%ment 3alculator......................................................................................................-
'a2le 2. Moisture 8e1uction 3alculation....................................................................................................&
'a2le +. Furnace $all 9oss Savins 3alculator :n0ut=7ut0ut 'a2le.........................................................11
'a2le -. Aluminum 6re%eat 3alculator......................................................................................................1-
'a2le 5. Steel 3%are 6re%eat 3alculator...................................................................................................1*
'a2le 6. Fi.ture $ei%t 8e1uction............................................................................................................20
'a2le *. S0eci4ic <eat o4 Materials ;se1 in Fi.ture 9oss 8e1uction 3alculator.......................................22
'a2le &. Assume1 5as 3om0osition............................................................................................................1
/I-. +F FI12RE-
Page
Fiure 1. San/ey Enery Diaram 4or 5eneric 6rocess <eater ..................................................................2
Fiure 2. 7.yen Enric%e1 #urner Sc%ematic.............................................................................................-
Fiure +. <i% E44iciency 3entri4ue Mec%anical Dewaterin 6ress...........................................................*
Fiure -. Furnace $all 9osses...................................................................................................................10
Fiure 5. Aluminum Stac/ Melter.............................................................................................................1+
Fiure 6. Steel 3%are 0re%eat in Steel 8e%eat Furnace Ac%ieve1 2y E.ten1in t%e <eatin >one..........16
Fiure *. A1vance1 9i%twei%t 3ar2on Fi2er 8ein4orce1 3ar2on Furnace Fi.ture.................................1"
Fiure &. Availa2le <eat 4or Stoic%iometric Natural 5as 3om2ustion as a Function o4 Flue 5as
'em0erature.................................................................................................................................... 2
Fiure ". <eat 3ontent o4 Air as Function o4 'em0erature..........................................................................+
Fiure 10. Sim0li4ie1 Diaram o4 <eat 9oss 4rom E.ternal Sur4ace o4 6rocess <eater ..............................1
EEA iv B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
1& +#er#ie3
'%is wor/0a0er 1escri2es si. calculators t%at will allow t%e Sout%ern 3ali4ornia 5as 3om0any
)'%e 5as 3om0any, account e.ecutives an1 ot%er sta44 to estimate annual as savins 4or in1ustrial
customers a00lyin 4or incentive 4un1s 4or %eat recovery un1er t%e #usiness Enery E44iciency 6rorams
)#EE6,. '%ese calculators are as 4ollows(
• 7.yen Enric%ment
• Moisture 8e1uction
• $all 9osses
• Aluminum 3%are 6re%eat
• Steel 3%are 6re%eat.
• Furnace Fi.ture 8e0lacement
:n1ustrial 0rocess %eatin consumes a sini4icant amount o4 natural as in 3ali4ornia an1
t%rou%out t%e ;nite1 States. $%ile t%e e44iciency o4 many in1ustrial %eatin systems suc% as 4urnaces,
ovens, an1 /ilns %ave 2een im0rove1 over time, t%ere are still sini4icant o00ortunities remainin 4or
im0rovin t%e e44iciency o4 t%ese systems. 'o illustrate t%e o00ortunities 4or enery savins, consi1er t%e
San/ey 1iaram s%own in Fiure 1. As in1icate1, t%e %eat t%at oes into an in1ustrial 0rocess ty0ically
leaves t%e 0rocess as 4ollows(
• Flue as
− Moist com0onent accounts 4or %eat re?uire1 to va0ori@e water 0ro1uce1 1urin
com2ustion,
− Dry com0onent accounts 4or %eat carrie1 away 2y %ot 4lue ases )a4ter water %as 2een
va0ori@e1,
• $all losses
• 70enin losses
• 3onveyor losses )inclu1es 4i.tures in 2atc% or continuous 4urnaces,
• <eat storae )2atc% o0erations only,
• <eat to loa1 )use4ul %eat,
EEA 1 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Source !or"h American Com#us"ion $an%#oo&' 3
r%
E%i"ion' (o) 1' 19*6
Figure 1& -an4ey Energy 5iagra$ fr 1eneric Prcess 'eater
8e4errin to Fiure 1, any %eat t%at leaves t%e 0rocess %eater, ot%er t%an t%e use4ul %eat to t%e
loa1, re0resents lost enery t%at re1uces overall e44iciency. '%is wor/0a0er s0eci4ically a11resses enery
e44iciency im0rovements t%at can 2e accom0lis%e1 t%rou% t%e 4ollowin enery e44iciency measures(
• :ncreasin t%e o.yen content o4 com2ustion air 2y usin o.yen or enric%e1 air com2ustion
A re1uces 4lue loss 2y re1ucin t%e volume an1 associate1 %eat containe1 in t%e %ot nitroen
in t%e 4lue. '%e %i%er t%e 0ercentae o4 o.yen t%at t%ere is in t%e com2ustion BairC t%e
lower will 2e t%e volume o4 nitroen t%at ets %eate1 an1 e.%auste1 2y t%e 0rocess.
• 8e1ucin wall %eat losses A #y re1ucin t%e tem0erature o4 e.ternal 4urnace walls t%rou%
t%e use o4 2etter insulatin materials an1 elimination o4 a0s an1 %ot s0ots, t%e %eat lost
t%rou% t%e walls can 2e re1uce1.
• 6re%eatin t%e loa1 )eit%er aluminum or steel, usin 4lue as enery A 3%are 0re%eatin
ca0tures some o4 t%e waste %eat in t%e 4lue as an1 trans4ers it to t%e incomin 0ro1uct
stream.
• 8e0lacin 4urnaces 4i.tures )e.., /iln 4urniture, wit% lower t%ermal mass materials A re1uces
t%e conveyor an1 4i.ture losses.
• 8e1ucin t%e moisture o4 t%e loa1 0rior to 0rocessin A A sini4icant amount o4 %eat is
re?uire1 to remove 0ro1uct moisture wit%in a 0rocess %eater. 8e1ucin t%e moisture content
EEA + B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
o4 t%e 4ee1stoc/ 2e4ore it enters t%e 4urnace can sini4icantly re1uce t%e %eat re?uire1 to
0rocess t%e 4ee1stoc/ to its 4inal out0ut con1itions.
#ecause t%e in0ut enery must matc% t%e sum o4 all o4 t%e out0ut enery streams A use4ul or
waste4ul A re1ucin any o4 t%e losses 1escri2e1 a2ove will re1uce t%e in0ut enery re?uirements
accor1in to s0eci4ic relations%i0s o4 tem0erature, mass-4low, %eat ca0acities )air, com2ustion 0ro1ucts,
4ee1stoc/, 4i.tures,, an1 %eat trans4er. '%ese relations%i0s are im2e11e1 into t%e si. savins calculators
1escri2e1 in t%is wor/0a0er to 4acilitate t%e consistent an1 correct enery savins estimation un1er #EE6
an1 ot%er e44iciency incentive 0rorams currently 2ein im0lemente1.
'%e calculators re?uire a limite1 num2er o4 in0uts
• Annual Fuel 2se A '%e estimate1 consum0tion o4 natural as 2y t%e 2aseline 0rocess %eater
)4urnace, oven, /iln, etc., :n a recent 12-mont% 0erio1 )t%erms=year,.
• Flue 1as .e$perature A '%e tem0erature o4 t%e 4lue ases e.itin t%e 0rocess 2e4ore an1
a4ter im0lementation o4 t%e e44iciency measure.
• +,ygen *ncentratin in Flue 1as A '%e 0ercentae o4 o.yen in t%e 4lue as measure1 on
a 1ry 2asis. )'%is value is assume1 to remain constant 2e4ore an1 a4ter im0lementation o4
e44iciency measure.,
• *$"ustin Air .e$perature A '%e tem0erature o4 t%e com2ustion air 2e4ore an1 a4ter
im0lementation o4 t%e e44iciency measure.
• Furnace Prduct and Fi,ture .6er$al *6aracteristics 7 For c%are 0re%eatin an1
moisture re1uction, t%e c%are tem0erature, an1 =or moisture content must 2e /nown.
• A$"ient r -tarting *nditins fr Fuel% Air% and -ecndary Prducts A t%e startin
tem0erature 4or com2ustion air, 4urnace c%are 0ro1ucts must 2e s0eci4ie1.
2& Annual 1as 2se
'%e 2aseline annual 4uel use 2y an in1ivi1ual 0rocess %eater wit%in a 4acility is rarely measure1
1irectly 2ecause, ty0ically, t%ere is no su2-meterin o4 in1ivi1ual e?ui0ment, Dust t%e main as meter 4or
t%e 4acility as a w%ole. 'o 0rovi1e a stan1ar1i@e1 estimate o4 t%e 2aseline annual 4uel use, '%e 5as
3om0any %as 1evelo0e1 an E.cel 2ase1 ,oa% Ba)ance Too)-
1
'%e tool allows t%e user to i1enti4y an1
c%aracteri@e t%e as-usin e?ui0ment wit%in t%e 4acility. '%e tool t%en allocates t%e metere1 4acility
consum0tion amon t%e e?ui0ment i1enti4ie1 wit%in t%e 4acility. '%e assum0tions an1 e?uations use1 in
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool are 1ocumente1 in its wor/0a0er
2
.
1
E.cel 2ase1 0roram, ,oa% Ba)ance Too) .ver 1/-0)s'
2
,oa% Ba)ance Too)' 1or&paper, Enery an1 Environmental Analysis, :nc. A0ril 2006.
EEA 3 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
3& 1as -a#ings *alculatins
'%e natural as consum0tion an1 savins calculations are in t%e E.cel 2ase1 2urnace Savin3s
1or&#oo&. '%ere are si. calculators in t%is wor/2oo/(
• 7.yen Enric%ment
• Moisture 8e1uction
• $all 9osses
• Aluminum 3%are 6re%eat
• Steel 3%are 6re%eat.
• Furnace Fi.ture 8e0lacement
3&1 +,ygen Enric6$ent
$%en natural as is 2urne1, o.yen in t%e com2ustion air c%emically com2ines wit% %y1roen
an1 car2on in t%e 4uel to 4orm water an1 car2on 1io.i1e, releasin %eat in t%e 0rocess. Air is com0ose1 o4
a00ro.imately 21E o.yen, *&E nitroen, an1 1E various ot%er ases. Durin air-4uel com2ustion, t%e
c%emically inert nitroen 1ilutes t%e reactive o.yen an1 carries away some o4 t%e enery in t%e %ot
com2ustion e.%aust as. An increase in o.yen in t%e com2ustion air can re1uce t%e enery loss in t%e
e.%aust ases an1 increase %eatin system e44iciency. 7.yen enric%e1 com2ustion is 0rimarily use1 in
t%e lass meltin in1ustry, 2ut %as a00lication as well to metals meltin an1 %eatin, 0ul0 an1 0a0er,
c%emicals 0rocessin, an1 0etroleum re4inin..
+
Fiure 2 s%ows a sc%ematic re0resentation o4 an o.yen
enric%e1 2urner.
Figure 2& +,ygen Enric6ed Burner -c6e$atic
8
'%e in0uts an1 t%e results 4or t%e 40y3en Enrichmen" Ca)cu)a"or are s%own in a one-0ae ta2le,
'a2le 1. ;ser in0uts are in 2lue on t%e w%ite 4iel1s, t%e ray 4iel1s re0resent interme1iate calculations,
t%e 4inal annual as savins value is s%own at t%e 2ottom o4 t%e ta2le in t%e 1ar/ 2lue 4iel1.
.a"le 1& +,ygen Enric6$ent *alculatr
+
7.yen-Enric%e1 3om2ustion,C Ener3y Tips 5 Process $ea"in3' !o-3, ;.S. D7E, Enery E44iciency an1
8enewa2le Enery, Se0tem2er 2005.
-
6#i%-
EEA 7 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Standard
Air
Enric#ed
Air
1 Connected load '4,tu.) 6,000
2 -perating ti"e '.rs2yr) 7,80
# +oad factor 0.76
9 E(ui!alent full load .ours '.rs2yr) ,001
6 Annual gas use 't.er"s2yr) #00,0#0
-$ygen in Co"/ustion Air ':) 21: 96:
8 Flue gas te"p. 'F) 2,000 2,000
7 Furnace A!aila/le ;eat : 96.0 6.9
< %as sa!ings ':) ,ase
#1:
10 =e1 %as >se 't.er"s2year) ,ase 20,60#
&& '(!)*+
12 %as )ate '?2t.er") ?0.<6
&( ,--!-)&
Annual Dollar Savings
Annual Savings .,/year0
1asSavings .t#erms/year0
E2uipment 3oad and Annual 4se alculation
Furnace onditions and 56ygen Ratio
Source( 3alculation met%o1oloy 0rovi1e1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i, E+M, :nc.
1as Savings Rate and Annual 1as Savings
Scenario
Parameter
'%e calculator re?uires only t%ree in0uts to c%aracteri@e t%e 1uty cycle an1 annual as
consum0tion, an1 two in0uts to 1escri2e t%e 2e4ore an1 a4ter 4urnace )0rocess, o0eration. '%e
calculations 1etermine t%e 4uel use, 4lue as, an1 0re%eat air enery to 1e4ine 2e4ore an1 a4ter availa2le
%eat to t%e 0rocess.
5
'%e unit savins are t%en a00lie1 to t%e annual consum0tion to 1etermine t%e annual
as savins.
E8uipmen" ,oa% an% Annua) 9se Ca)cu)a"ion 5 :n4ormation 4rom t%is section is to 2e ta/en 4rom
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool. 3ustomer su00lie1 in4ormation t%at varies 4rom t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool
re?uires a00roval.
1. :n0ut( E?ui0ment ratin or connecte1 loa1 )M#tu%, is 0rovi1e1 2y t%e customer )4or
screenin 0ur0oses, t%is in4ormation may 2e availa2le 4or customers usin t%e MAS
1ata2ase.
2. :n0ut( E?ui0ment usae rate )%ours=year, -- to 2e ta/en 4rom t%e ,oa% Ba)ance Too)
+. :n0ut( E?ui0ment loa1 4actor in use )0ercent , A to 2e ta/en 4rom t%e ,oa% Ba)ance Too)
-. 3alc( E?uivalent 4ull loa1 %ours F )9ine 2, . )9ine +,.
5
All o4 t%e relations%i0s an1 t%ermo1ynamic calculations were containe1 in a 0reliminary calculation s0rea1s%eet
t%at was 1evelo0e1 an1 0rovi1e1 to '%e 5as 3om0any 2y Dr. Arvin1 '%e/1i, E3+M 3om0any. Dr. '%e/1i also
0rovi1e1 t%e 2ac/-u0 relations%i0s.
EEA 5 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
5. 3alc.( Annual as consum0tion F )9ine -, . )9ine 1, . M#tu=t%erm conversion
2urnace Con%i"ions an% 40y3en Ra"io
6. 7.yen in com2ustion air E -- '%e concentration o4 o.yen in stan1ar1 air is
a00ro.imately 21E. '%is is use1 as t%e startin value 4or t%is calculator. '%e 0ercentae
o4 o.yen in t%e enric%e1 air stream is entere1 in t%e last column.
*. :n0ut( Flue as tem0erature A a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
&. 3alc.( Availa2le <eat to t%e 6rocess )0ercent, A '%is e?uals t%e total %eat o4 com2ustion
minus t%e sensi2le an1 latent %eat containe1 in t%e 4lue ases. :n t%is calculator t%e e44ect
o4 e.cess air is inore1. )'%e Dusti4ication an1 1ocumentation o4 t%is calculation are
0rovi1e1 in Appendi, A&9
Gas Savin3s Ra"e an% Annua) Gas Savin3s
". 3alc.( 5as Savins 6ercent A t%e 1i44erence o4 2aseline as use )5, an1 new as use )10,
1ivi1e1 2y 2aseline as use. )5,.
10. 3alc.( )5, ol1 as use . )&, ol1 availa2le %eat = )&, new availa2le %eat
11. 3alc.( Annual 5as Savins 1ue to e44iciency measure A t%is is t%e 0rimary out0ut o4 t%e
calculation 2ase1 on 2aseline as use minus as use a4ter im0lementation o4 t%e
e44iciency measure.
Annua) Gas Cos" Savin3s .4p"iona) Ca)cu)a"ion/
12. :n0ut( as rate )G=t%erm, A 3ustomer as rateHavoi1e1 commo1ity an1 1elivery rate.
1+. 3alc.( )12, as rate . )11, as savins.
:n t%e e.am0le s%own a2ove in 'a2le 1, a 5,000 M#tu% 4urnace availa2le &*60 %ours=year wit% a
6&.5E loa1 4actor consumes +00,0+0 t%erms=year usin air 4or com2ustion. 7.yen enric%ment to -5E
air is t%e 0ro0ose1 e44iciency measure. Flue as tem0erature is 2000 °FI t%is is assume1 to 2e a con1ition
o4 t%e 4urnace t%at remains unc%ane1. '%e re1uction in t%e volume o4 nitroen in t%e 4lue as results in
t%e availa2le %eat to t%e 4urnace increasin 4rom -5.0E to 65.-E. '%is c%ane will result in a +1E
enery savins, 4or t%e same 0ro1uction, or "+,52* t%erms=year. '%e customer will save G&&,&51 0er year
in as costs 2ase1 on an averae as rate o4 G0."5=t%erm.
3&2 :isture Reductin
'%e se0aration o4 water 4rom a 4ee1stoc/ or 0ro1uct is a common, o4ten enery-intensive,
4unction in many in1ustrial manu4acturin 0rocesses. '%ermal 1ewaterin in t%e 4urnace re?uires a2out
1,000 #tu=l2 o4 water t%at nee1s to 2e remove1. :4 t%e 4urnace 4ee1stoc/ can 2e 1ewatere1 mec%anically
or 2y some ot%er means suc% as air 1ryin, t%en t%e ?uantity o4 enery nee1e1 wit%in t%e 4urnace or oven
can 2e re1uce1 sini4icantly. Dewaterin a00lications are 4oun1 in a variety o4 in1ustries inclu1in 0ul0
an1 0a0er, 4oo1 0rocessin, ariculture, c%emicals, an1 minin. Fiure + s%ows a sc%ematic o4 a %i%
e44iciency mec%anical 1ewaterin 0ress.
EEA 6 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Figure 3& 'ig6 Efficiency *entrifuge :ec6anical 5e3atering Press
6
'a2le 2 s%ows t%e moisture re1uction calculation. '%e calculator measures t%e enery savins
1ue to lowerin t%e moisture 0ercentae o4 t%e 4ee1stoc/ enterin t%e 0rocess 2ase1 on t%e ca0acity an1
1uty cycle o4 t%e 0rocess, an1 t%e 4urnace o0eratin con1itions. '%e calculator assumes t%at t%e moisture
remove1 is 4ree water, i.e., not c%emically 2oun1 to t%e 4ee1stoc/ as in calcinin, an1 t%at t%e 4inal
0ro1uct moisture re?uirements are 2elow t%e in0ut con1itions.
6
Joto2u/i :n1ustries 3o., 9t1, 1i:ar% Press, 0ro1uct 1escri0tion.
EEA ; B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
.a"le 2& :isture Reductin *alculatin
7aseline
Efficiency
8easure
1 Connected load '4,tu.) 2,000
2 -perating ti"e '.rs2yr) 7,80
# +oad factor 0.968
9 E(ui!alent full load .ours '.rs2yr) 9,000
6 Annual gas use 't.er"s2yr) 70,000
Flue gas te"p. 'F) 00
8 -$ygen in Flue gas ': dry /asis) #
7 E$cess air ':) 16.6
< Co"/ustion air te"p. 'F) 100
10 A!aila/le ;eat to t.e Furnace 87.99
11 0otal 1eig.t 'l/s2.r) 6,000 6,000
12 4oisture content ':) #0 20
1# Water Content '+/s2.r) 1,600 1,000
19 0e"perature at Furnace Entrance 'F) 100 160
16 %as sa!ings ':) ,ase
99:
1 =e1 %as >se 't.er"s2year) ,ase 96,1#0
&+ (9!-+:
17 %as )ate '?2t.er") ?0.<6
&' ,((!&*;
Source( 3alculation met%o1oloy 0rovi1e1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i, E+M, :nc.
1as Savings Rate and Annual 1as Savings
Scenario
Parameter
#arge 8aterial <eig#t and 8oisture onditions
Annual Dollar Savings
Annual Savings .,/year0
1asSavings .t#erms/year0
E2uipment 3oad and Annual 4se alculation
Furnace onditions
'%e calculation ste0s corres0on1in to t%e line num2ers on t%e ta2le are 1escri2e1 2elow.
E8uipmen" ,oa% an% Annua) 9se Ca)cu)a"ion 5 :n4ormation 4rom t%is section is to 2e ta/en 4rom
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool. 3ustomer su00lie1 in4ormation t%at varies 4rom t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool
re?uires a00roval. 9ines 1-5 are t%e same 4or all calculations in t%is wor/2oo/, so are omitte1
4rom t%e 1iscussion %ere.
2urnace Con%i"ions
6. :n0ut( Flue as tem0erature A a customer su00lie1 in0ut A t%e same 4or 2ot% 2e4ore an1
EEA * B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
a4ter e44iciency measure. '%e %i%er t%e 4lue as tem0erature is t%e %i%er will 2e t%e
enery savins 4rom an e?uivalent volume o4 water removal.
*. :n0ut( 7.yen 0ercent in t%e 4lue as )E 1ry 2asis, A a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
&. 3alc.( E.cess air is a 4unction o4 7.yen in t%e e.%aust )9ine *,. '%is is 4unction is a
0olynomial curve 4it to t%e out0ut o4 a com2ustion e?uili2rium mo1el.
*
". :n0ut( 3om2ustion air tem0erature A ty0ically %i%er t%an am2ient tem0erature 1ue to
0ic/ o4 %eat 4rom t%e 2lower motor.
10. 3alc.( Availa2le <eat to t%e 6rocess )0ercent, A '%is e?uals t%e total %eat o4 com2ustion
minus t%e sensi2le an1 latent %eat containe1 in t%e 4lue ases. :n t%is calculator t%e e44ect
o4 e.cess air is inore1. )'%e Dusti4ication an1 1ocumentation o4 t%is calculation are
0rovi1e1 in Appendi, A&9
Char3e <a"eria) 1ei3h" an% <ois"ure Con%i"ions
11. :n0ut( 'otal wei%t )l2s=%our, A total wei%t o4 t%e c%are in0ut to t%e 0rocess, assume1
to 2e t%e same 2e4ore an1 a4ter moisture removal.
12. :n0ut( Moisture content )E, A t%e 2asis 4or t%e enery savins 4or t%e 0rocess.
1+. 3alc.( $ater content )l2s=%r, A 'otal wei%t )11, times )12, moisture 0ercent
1-. :n0ut( 'em0erature at 4urnace entrance A '%e in0ut tem0erature o4 t%e 0ro1uct enterin
t%e 4urnace. Drier 0ro1uct may 2e %otter 1e0en1in on moisture removal 0rocess use1.
Gas Savin3s Ra"e an% Annua) Gas Savin3s
15. 3alc.( 5as Savins 6ercent A 3alc.( 5as savins )1*, = :nitial 5as use )5,
16. 3alc.( New as use )t%erms=year, A 3alc.( :nitial 5as ;se )5, - 5as savins )1*,
1*. 3alc.( Annual 5as Savins 1ue to e44iciency measure A '%e 1i44erence in t%e %eat
re?uire1 to %eat an1 va0ori@e t%e water in t%e 4ee1stoc/ 1ivi1e1 2y t%e 4urnace availa2le
%eat. '%is is t%e 0rimary out0ut o4 t%e calculation tool.
Annua) Gas Cos" Savin3s .4p"iona) Ca)cu)a"ion/
1&. :n0ut( as rate )G=t%erm, A 3ustomer as rateHavoi1e1 commo1ity an1 1elivery rate.
1". 3alc.( )1&, as rate . )1*, as savins.
'%e calculation s%own in 'a2le 2 s%ows t%e natural as savins w%ere t%e incomin 4ee1stoc/
moisture is re1uce1 4rom +0E to 20E 2e4ore enterin t%e 0rocess. '%e e?ui0ment %as a 2,000 M#tu%
connecte1 loa1 an1 its 1uty cycle is e?ual to -,000 EF9<. '%e 0rocess %as a 600 °F 4lue as tem0erature
an1 a measure1 +E 72 )1ry 2asis, in t%e 4lue as. '%e availa2le %eat to t%e 4urnace is *&.-E. '%e 4ull
loa1 0ro1uct in0ut is 5,000 l2s=%our. 8e1ucin t%e moisture 0ercentae as s%own re1uces t%e moisture
t%at must 2e remove1 t%ermally 2y t%e 4urnace 2y 500 l2s=%r. '%is c%ane results in a --E enery
savins or +-,&*0 t%erms=year wit% a as cost savins to t%e customer o4 t G++,126.
*
Arvin1 '%e/1i, 0rivate communication, +="=06.
EEA 9 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
3&3 )all /sses
<eat is lost t%rou% t%e 4urnace walls 1urin 0ro1uction. '%ese losses are cause1 2y t%e
con1uction o4 %eat t%rou% t%e walls, roo4, an1 4loor o4 t%e %eatin 1evice, as s%own in Fiure -. 7nce
t%at %eat reac%es t%e outer s/in o4 t%e 4urnace an1 ra1iates to t%e surroun1in area or is carrie1 away 2y
air currents, it must 2e re0lace1 2y an e?ual amount ta/en 4rom t%e com2ustion ases. '%is 0rocess
continues as lon as t%e 4urnace is at an elevate1 tem0erature.
&
Figure 8& Furnace )all /sses
'a2le + s%ows t%e one-0ae in0ut=out0ut ta2le 4or t%e =a)) )osses savin3s ca)cu)a"or. .'%e 2asis
4or t%e calculations are 1escri2e1 A00en1i. # $all <eat 9oss 3alculations.
&
6mprovin3 Process $ea"in3 Sys"em Per>ormance A Source#oo& >or 6n%us"ry, ;.S. De0artment o4 Enery an1
:n1ustrial <eatin E?ui0ment Association
EEA 10 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
.a"le 3& Furnace )all /ss -a#ings *alculatr Input;+utput .a"le
7aseline
Efficiency
8easure
1 Connected load '4,tu.) 7,000
2 -perating ti"e '.rs2yr) 7,80
# +oad factor 0.76
9 E(ui!alent full load .ours '.rs2yr) ,000
6 Annual gas use 't.er"s2yr) 970,000
Flue gas te"p. 'F) <00
8 : -$ygen in flue gases 6
7 E$cess air ':) 2<.90
< A"/ient te"perature 'F) 86 86
10 Co"/ustion air te"p. 'F) 100
11 5urface area 'ft@2) 1,860 1,860
12 Wall 5urface te"perature 'F) 260 196
1# ;eat +oss A,tu2'.r.ft@2)B 918 1#
19 %as sa!ings ':) ,ase
7:
16 =e1 %as >se 't.er"s2year) ,ase 990,9
&; ('!()9
18 %as )ate '?2t.er") ?0.<6
&- ,(+!(-;
E2uipment 3oad and Annual 4se alculation
Furnace onditions
Scenario
Parameter
Furnace <all Area and Temperature
Annual Dollar Savings
Annual Savings .,/year0
1asSavings .t#erms/year0
Source( 3alculation met%o1oloy 0rovi1e1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i, E+M, :nc.
1as Savings Rate and Annual 1as Savings
'%e calculation ste0s corres0on1in to t%e line num2ers on t%e ta2le are 1escri2e1 2elow.
E8uipmen" ,oa% an% Annua) 9se Ca)cu)a"ion 5 :n4ormation 4rom t%is section is to 2e ta/en 4rom
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool. 3ustomer su00lie1 in4ormation t%at varies 4rom t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool
re?uires a00roval. 9ines 1-5 are t%e same 4or all calculations in t%is wor/2oo/.
2urnace Con%i"ions
6. :n0ut( Flue as tem0erature A a customer su00lie1 in0ut A t%e same 4or 2ot% 2e4ore an1
a4ter e44iciency measure.
*. :n0ut( 7.yen 0ercent in t%e 4lue as )E 1ry 2asis, A a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
EEA 11 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
&. 3alc.( E.cess air is a 4unction o4 7.yen in t%e e.%aust )9ine *,. '%is is 4unction is a
0olynomial curve 4it to t%e out0ut o4 a com2ustion e?uili2rium mo1el.
". :n0ut( Am2ient air tem0erature A 0art o4 t%e calculation o4 %eat loss 4rom t%e wall.
10. :n0ut( 3om2ustion air tem0erature A ty0ically %i%er t%an am2ient tem0erature 1ue to
0ic/ o4 %eat 4rom t%e 2lower motor.
2urnace 1a)) Area an% Tempera"ure
11. :n0ut( Sur4ace area o4 t%e 4urnace )s?.4t., A #ase1 on t%e lent%, %ei%t, an1 wi1t% o4 t%e
4urnace.
12. :n0ut( $all sur4ace tem0erature A t%e re1uction in tem0erature 4rom t%e 2aseline to t%e
e44iciency case is t%e 2asis 4or t%e savins.
1+. 3alc.( <eat loss )#tu=s?.4t., A Estimate1 %eat loss 0er s?uare 4oot 2ase1 on t%e 1i44erence
2etween t%e 4urnace sur4ace tem0erature an1 am2ient con1itions )see Appendi, B9
Gas Savin3s Ra"e an% Annua) Gas Savin3s
1-. 3alc.( 5as Savins 6ercent A 3alc.( 5as savins )16, = :nitial 5as use )5,
15. 3alc.( New as use )t%erms=year, A 3alc.( :nitial 5as ;se )5, - 5as savins )16,
16. 3alc.( Annual 5as Savins 1ue to e44iciency measure A <eat loss 1i44erence . sur4ace
area . EF9< )see A00en1i. 3,
Annua) Gas Cos" Savin3s .4p"iona) Ca)cu)a"ion/
1*. :n0ut( as rate )G=t%erm, A 3ustomer as rateHavoi1e1 commo1ity an1 1elivery rate.
1&. 3alc.( )1*, as rate . )16, as savins.
:n t%e e.am0le s%own a2ove in 'a2le +, t%e 4urnace insulation is to 2e re2uilt so t%at averae wall
tem0erature 1urin o0eration will 1ro0 4rom 250 to 1-5 °F. 5iven t%e 4urnace ca0acity an1 1uty
cycle s%own, t%e annual savins are +","5- t%erms re0resentin an &E savins.
3&8 Alu$inu$ *6arge Pre6eat Energy -a#ings *alculatr
$%ere 0ermitte1 2y system con4iuration, 0re%eatin t%e 0ro1uct c%are can also 2e a 4easi2le
e44iciency im0rovement. Muc% li/e com2ustion air 0re%eatin, t%is 4orm o4 enery trans4er to an u0stream
mass can re1uce 4uel use. Aluminum melters can use stac/ c%arin o4 scra0 or 0re%eatin c%am2ers 4or
inots an1 sows. :n t%ese systems, aluminum scra0 is c%are1 t%rou% an incline1 rate at t%e to0 o4 t%e
4urnace t%at serves as t%e stac/ 4or e.%austin 4lue ases. '%is con4iuration allows t%e c%are to 2e
0re%eate1 t%ere2y re1ucin ca0turin a11itional enery 4rom t%e %i% tem0erature 4lue ases re?uire1 4or
t%e melt @one. '%ese 4urnaces are ca0a2le o4 meltin aluminum 4or as little as 1,000 #tu=l2.
'%e aluminum 0re%eat calculator 1e4ines t%e enery savins attri2uta2le to t%e increase in
aluminum c%are tem0erature.
"
'%e calculator is s%own in 'a2le -&
"
:4 t%e aluminum tem0eratures are not /nown, 2ut t%e c%ane in 4lue as tem0erature is /nown, t%e savins can 2e
calculate1 usin t%e E44icient 3om2ustion 3alculation in t%e <eat 8ecovery $or/2oo/.
EEA 1+ B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Therma) Pro%uc" So)u"ions
Figure 5& Alu$inu$ -tac4 :elter
'%e calculation ste0s corres0on1in to t%e line num2ers on t%e ta2le are 1escri2e1 2elow.
E8uipmen" ,oa% an% Annua) 9se Ca)cu)a"ion 5 :n4ormation 4rom t%is section is to 2e ta/en 4rom
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool. 3ustomer su00lie1 in4ormation t%at varies 4rom t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool
re?uires a00roval. 9ines 1-5 are t%e same 4or all calculations in t%is wor/2oo/.
6. :n0ut( Annual 0ro1uction )tons=year, A customer su00lie1 in0ut on tons o4 molten
aluminum 0ro1uce1 2y t%e 4urnace.
*. 3alc.( Enery use )#tu=l2 Aluminum, A annual enery consum0tion )5, 1ivi1e1 2y annual
0ro1uction )6, wit% unit conversion 4rom t%erms to #tus an1 tons to l2s.
2urnace Con%i"ions
&. :n0ut( Flue as tem0erature A a customer su00lie1 in0ut A t%e same 4or 2ot% 2e4ore an1
a4ter e44iciency measure.
". :n0ut( 3om2ustion air tem0erature A ty0ically %i%er t%an am2ient tem0erature 1ue to
0ic/ o4 %eat 4rom t%e 2lower motor.
10. :n0ut( 7.yen 0ercent in t%e 4lue as )E 1ry 2asis, A a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
11. 3alc.( E.cess air is a 4unction o4 7.yen in t%e e.%aust )9ine 10,. '%is is 4unction is a
0olynomial curve 4it to t%e out0ut o4 a com2ustion e?uili2rium mo1el.
12. 3alc.( Availa2le <eat to t%e Furnace )0ercent, A '%is e?uals t%e total %eat o4 com2ustion
minus t%e sensi2le an1 latent %eat containe1 in t%e 4lue ases. :n t%is calculator t%e e44ect
o4 e.cess air is inore1. )'%e Dusti4ication an1 1ocumentation o4 t%is calculation are
0rovi1e1 in Appendi, A&9
EEA 13 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
.a"le 8& Alu$inu$ Pre6eat *alculatr
7aseline
Efficiency
8easure
1 Connected load '4,tu.) 19,000
2 -perating ti"e '.rs2yr) 7,80
# +oad factor 0.<1#
9 E(ui!alent full load .ours '.rs2yr) 7,000
6 Annual gas use 't.er"s2yr) 1,120,000
Annual production 'tons2yr) 90,000
8 Energy >se ',tu2l/ Al) 1900
7 Flue gas te"p fro" furnace F) 1960
< Co"/ustion air te"p.'F) 100
10 -2 in flue gas ': dry /asis) #.00
11 E$cess air ':) 16.6
12 Furnace A!aila/le ;eat : 69.66
1# C.arge Initial te"p 'F) 100 800
19 Final 4olten Alu"inu" te"p. 'F) 1#60 1#60
16 ;eat re(uired for Alu"inu" ',tu2l/) 977. #99.9
1 ;eat in ot.er losses ',tu2l/) 286.1 286.1
18 0otal net .eat re(uired ',tu2l/) 8#.8 1<.6
17 %ross .eat input re(uired ',tu2l/) 1900.0 11#6.
1< %as sa!ings ':) ,ase
17.<:
20 =e1 %as >se 't.er"s2year) ,ase <07,608
*& *&&!9'(
22 %as )ate '?2t.er") ?0.<6
*( ,*::!'&-
Source( 3alculation met%o1oloy 0rovi1e1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i, E+M, :nc.
1as Savings Rate and Annual 1as Savings
Scenario
Parameter
Annual Savings .,/year0
1asSavings .t#erms/year0
E2uipment 3oad and Annual 4se alculation
Furnace onditions
Aluminum Input and 5utput onditions
Annual Dollar Savings
EEA 17 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
A)uminum 6npu" an% 4u"pu" Con%i"ions
1+. :n0ut( 3%are initial tem0erature A #aseline tem0erature o4 t%e aluminum c%are1 to t%e
melter, a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
1-. :n0ut( 3%are 0re%eat tem0erature A '%e sueste1 c%are 0re%eat 4or t%e e44iciency
measure, a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
15. :n0ut( Final molten aluminum tem0erature )F, A t%e tem0erature o4 t%e molten aluminum
leavin t%e 4urnace, a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
16. 3alc.( <eat re?uire1 4or t%e aluminum )#tu=l2, A t%is calculation inclu1es t%e %eat
re?uire1 to raise t%e aluminum to melt tem0erature, t%e %eat re?uire1 4or t%e 0%ase
c%ane 4rom soli1 to li?ui1, an1 t%e %eat re?uire1 to raise t%e molten aluminum to its
4inal tem0erature. '%is calculation re?uires t%e s0eci4ic %eat o4 soli1 aluminum 4rom
am2ient to meltin tem0erature, a00ro.imately 1225
o
F, t%e %eat o4 4usion, an1 t%e
s0eci4ic %eat o4 molten aluminum 4rom 1225
o
F to its 4inal tem0erature.
1*. 3alc.( <eat in ot%er losses )#tu=l2, A t%is calculate1 value is t%e 1i44erence 2etween t%e
availa2le %eat to t%e 4urnace an1 t%e %eat containe1 in t%e 4inal 0ro1uct. '%ese losses
inclu1e losses 4rom t%e walls, o0enins, conveyors an1 4i.tures, an1 %eat store1 in t%e
4urnace. :t is assume1 4or t%is calculation t%at t%ese ot%er losses remain t%e same, a
reasona2le assum0tion i4 t%e c%are 0re%eat is use1 to 1ecrease enery use rat%er t%an to
increase t%e t%rou%0ut o4 t%e 4urnace.
1&. 3alc.( 'otal net %eat to t%e 4urnace )#tu=l2, A t%is calculate1 value e?uals t%e sum o4 t%e
%eat re?uire1 4or t%e 0ro1uct an1 t%e ot%er losses, or as 0reviously 1e4ine1 t%e availa2le
%eat to t%e 4urnace.
1". 3alc.( 5ross %eat to re?uire1 )#tu=l2, A net %eat re?uire1 )1&, 1ivi1e1 2y availa2le %eat E
)12, = 100.
Gas Savin3s Ra"e an% Annua) Gas Savin3s
20. 3alc.( 5as Savins 6ercent A 3alc.( '%e 1i44erence 2etween 2aseline an1 e44iciency
measure ross %eats )line 1", = 2aseline ross %eat )1",
21. 3alc.( New as use )t%erms=year, A 3alc.( )1 A as savins E )20,, . 2aseline as use )5,
22. 3alc.( Annual 5as Savins 1ue to e44iciency measure A #aseline as use )5, minus new
as use )20,.
Annua) Gas Cos" Savin3s .4p"iona) Ca)cu)a"ion/
2+. :n0ut( as rate )G=t%erm, A 3ustomer as rateHavoi1e1 commo1ity an1 1elivery rate.
2-. 3alc.( 5as savins )22, . 5as rate )2+,.
'%e savins calculation s%own a2ove in 'a2le - is 2ase1 on a 1-,000 M#tu% 4urnace wit% a 1uty
cycle e?ual to &,000 EF9<. '%e 4urnace 0ro1uces -0,000 tons=year o4 molten aluminum wit% an averae
enery use o4 1-00 #tu=l2. '%e 4urnace o0erates wit% 15.65E e.cess air )calculate1 4rom +E o.yen in
t%e e.%aust on a 1ry 2asis, an1 %as a 4lue as tem0erature )2e4ore any c%are 0re%eatin, o4 1-50 °F. '%e
resultin availa2le %eat to t%e 4urnace is 5-.55E. #y raisin t%e c%are tem0erature 4rom 100-*00 °F, t%e
averae enery re?uire1 is re1uce1 to 11+6 #tu=l2, an 1&."E savins in enery consum0tion. Annual
enery savins o4 211,-"+ t%erms translate to a G200,"1& re1uction in as costs to t%e customer.
EEA 15 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
3&5 -teel *6arge Pre6eat
Steel c%are 0re%eatin is conce0tually similar to aluminum 0re%eatin only t%e steel a00lication
involves steel re%eat rat%er t%an meltin. Fiure 6 s%ows %ow c%are 0re%eat can 2e ac%ieve1 1irectly 2y
e.ten1in t%e %eatin @one in a continuous steel re%eat 4urnace. '%e steel c%are %eatin calculator is
s%own in 'a2le 5& '%e only conce0tual 1i44erences 2etween t%is calculator an1 t%e aluminum 0re%eat
calculator is t%at t%ere is no meltin in t%e steel 4urnaceI t%ere4ore, only t%e s0eci4ic %eats o4 t%e soli1
material nee1 to 2e consi1ere1 an1 t%e steel calculator also inclu1es com2ustion air 0re%eat t%at is
u0stream o4 t%e 0ro1uct %eatin.
Figure 6& -teel *6arge pre6eat in -teel Re6eat Furnace Ac6ie#ed "y E,tending t6e
'eating <ne
10
10
Arvin1 '%e/1i, BEnery E44iciency :m0rovement 700ortunities in 6rocess <eatin 4or t%e Forin :n1ustry,C F:A
Forin 3linic, Fe2ruary &K", 2005.
EEA 16 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
.a"le 5& -teel *6arge Pre6eat *alculatr
7aseline
Efficiency
8easure
1 Connected load '4,tu.) 16,000
2 -perating ti"e '.rs2yr) 7,80
# +oad factor 0.76
9 E(ui!alent full load .ours '.rs2yr) ,000
6 Annual gas use 't.er"s2yr) <00,000
Annual production 'tons2yr) 0,000
8 Energy >se ',tu2l/ steel) 860
7 Flue gas te"p fro" furnace 'F) 100 &;::
< Airpre.eat te"p. 'F) 800 +::
10 Current -2 in flue gases ':) #.00 ($::
11 E$cess air ':) 16.6 16.6
12 Furnace A!aila/le ;eat ':) 9.20 9.20
1# C.arge Initial te"p 'F) 70 800
19 Final steel te"p. 'F) 2100 2100
16
;eat in steel at final te"perature
',tu2l/)
##0.7 2#8.7
1 ;eat in ot.er losses ',tu2l/) 160.# 160.#
18 0otal net .eat re(uired ',tu2l/) 971.9< #77.9<
17
;eat 'gross) input re(uired
',tu2l/)
860.00 06.19
1< %as sa!ings ':) ,ase
1<.#:
20 =e1 %as >se 't.er"s2year) ,ase 82,19
*& &+(!-(;
22 %as )ate '?2t.er") ?0.<6
*( ,&;)!&99
Source( 3alculation met%o1oloy 0rovi1e1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i, E+M, :nc.
1as Savings Rate and Annual 1as Savings
Scenario
Parameter
Annual Dollar Savings
Annual Savings .,/year0
1asSavings .t#erms/year0
E2uipment 3oad and Annual 4se alculation
Furnace onditions
Steel Input and 5utput onditions
'%e calculation ste0s corres0on1in to t%e line num2ers on t%e ta2le are 1escri2e1 2elow.
EEA 1; B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
E8uipmen" ,oa% an% Annua) 9se Ca)cu)a"ion 5 :n4ormation 4rom t%is section is to 2e ta/en 4rom
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool. 3ustomer su00lie1 in4ormation t%at varies 4rom t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool
re?uires a00roval. 9ines 1-5 are t%e same 4or all calculations in t%is wor/2oo/.
6. :n0ut( Annual 0ro1uction )tons=year, A customer su00lie1 in0ut on tons o4 %eate1 steel
0ro1uce1 2y t%e 4urnace.
*. 3alc.( Enery use )#tu=l2 steel, A annual enery consum0tion )5, 1ivi1e1 2y annual
0ro1uction )6, wit% unit conversion 4rom t%erms to #tus an1 tons to l2s.
2urnace Con%i"ions
&. :n0ut( Flue as tem0erature A a customer su00lie1 in0ut A t%e same 4or 2ot% 2e4ore an1
a4ter e44iciency measure.
". :n0ut( 3om2ustion air tem0erature A may inclu1e com2ustion air 0re%eat.
10. :n0ut( 7.yen 0ercent in t%e 4lue as )E 1ry 2asis, A a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
11. 3alc.( E.cess air is a 4unction o4 7.yen in t%e e.%aust )9ine 10,. '%is is 4unction is a
0olynomial curve 4it to t%e out0ut o4 a com2ustion e?uili2rium mo1el.
12. 3alc.( Availa2le <eat to t%e Furnace )0ercent, A '%is e?uals t%e total %eat o4 com2ustion
minus t%e sensi2le an1 latent %eat containe1 in t%e 4lue ases. :n t%is calculator t%e e44ect
o4 e.cess air is inore1. )'%e Dusti4ication an1 1ocumentation o4 t%is calculation are
0rovi1e1 in Appendi, A&9
S"ee) 6npu" an% 4u"pu" Con%i"ions
1+. :n0ut( 3%are initial tem0erature A customer su00lie1 in0ut concernin t%e tem0erature
o4 t%e steel c%are1 to t%e 4urnace.
1-. :n0ut( 3%are 0re%eat tem0erature A '%is in0ut 1escri2es t%e 0re%eat to 2e ac%ieve1 2y
t%e enery e44iciency measure an1 is t%e 2asis 4or t%e savins. )Note( s%oul1 2e less t%an
1-00
o
F.,
15. :n0ut( Final steel tem0erature )F, A t%e tem0erature o4 t%e steel 0ro1uct leavin t%e
4urnace, a customer su00lie1 in0ut. )Note( s%oul1 2e reater t%an 1*00
o
F.,
16. 3alc.( <eat re?uire1 4or t%e steel )#tu=l2, A t%is calculation inclu1es t%e %eat re?uire1 to
raise t%e steel to its 4inal tem0erature. '%is calculation re?uires t%e mean s0eci4ic %eat o4
steel 4rom initial c%are tem0erature to its 4inal e.it tem0erature.
1*. 3alc.( <eat in ot%er losses )#tu=l2, A t%is calculate1 value is t%e 1i44erence 2etween t%e
availa2le %eat to t%e 4urnace an1 t%e %eat containe1 in t%e 4inal 0ro1uct. '%ese losses
inclu1e losses 4rom t%e walls, o0enins, conveyors an1 4i.tures, an1 %eat store1 in t%e
4urnace. :t is assume1 4or t%is calculation t%at t%ese ot%er losses remain t%e sameI a
reasona2le assum0tion i4 t%e c%are 0re%eat is use1 to 1ecrease enery use rat%er t%an to
increase t%e t%rou%0ut o4 t%e 4urnace.
1&. 3alc.( 'otal net %eat to t%e 4urnace )#tu=l2, A t%is calculate1 value e?uals t%e sum o4 t%e
%eat re?uire1 4or t%e 0ro1uct an1 t%e ot%er losses, or as 0reviously 1e4ine1 t%e availa2le
%eat to t%e 4urnace.
1". 3alc.( 5ross %eat to re?uire1 )#tu=l2, A net %eat re?uire1 )1&, 1ivi1e1 2y availa2le %eat E
)12, = 100.
EEA 1* B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Gas Savin3s Ra"e an% Annua) Gas Savin3s
20. 3alc.( 5as Savins 6ercent A 3alc.( '%e 1i44erence 2etween 2aseline an1 e44iciency
measure ross %eats )line 1", = 2aseline ross %eat )1",
21. 3alc.( New as use )t%erms=year, A 3alc.( )1 A as savins E )20,, . 2aseline as use )5,
22. 3alc.( Annual 5as Savins 1ue to e44iciency measure A #aseline as use )5, minus new
as use )20,.
Annua) Gas Cos" Savin3s .4p"iona) Ca)cu)a"ion/
2+. :n0ut( as rate )G=t%erm, A 3ustomer as rateHavoi1e1 commo1ity an1 1elivery rate.
2-. 3alc.( 5as savins )22, . 5as rate )2+,.
'%e e.am0le calculation s%own in 'a2le 5 s%ows t%e enery savins attri2uta2le to increasin t%e
tem0erature o4 t%e steel c%are1 to t%e 4urnace 4rom &0 to *00 °F, resultin in a 1".+E
3&6 Fi,ture )eig6t Reductin
'%e 0ro1uct 2ein %eate1 in many 4urnaces must 2e carrie1 or su00orte1 2y conveyors, 4i.tures,
trays, etc. '%is material must 2e %eate1 to t%e same tem0erature as t%e 0ro1uct an1 will e.it t%e 4urnace
carryin t%at %eat away wit% it. 8e1ucin t%e %eat lost t%rou% 4i.tures re?uires a re1uction in t%e %eat
ca0acity )mass times mean s0eci4ic %eat, o4 t%ese systems an1 materials. Fiure * s%ows an innovative
e.tremely li%twei%t car2on 4i2er 4urnace 4i.ture t%at coul1 re0lace a muc% %eavier metal 4i.ture.
'%e 4urnace 4i.ture %eat loss re1uction calculator is s%own in 'a2le 6. '%e enery savins are
1etermine1 2y t%e ty0e o4 4i.ture material an1 its associate1 mean s0eci4ic %eat, accesse1 2y means o4 a
1ro0-1own menu an1 loo/-u0 ta2le, t%e re1uction in t%e %eat leavin t%e 4urnace, t%e 4urnace con1itions,
an1 t%e 1uty cycle.
Source( Sc%un/ 5ra0%ite 'ec%noloy, 993
Figure =& Ad#anced /ig6t3eig6t *ar"n Fi"er Reinfrced *ar"n Furnace Fi,ture
EEA 19 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
.a"le 6& Fi,ture )eig6t Reductin
7aseline
Efficiency
8easure
1 Connected load '4,tu.) 9,000
2 -perating ti"e '.rs2yr) 7,80
# +oad factor 0.76
9 E(ui!alent full load .ours '.rs2yr) ,000
6 Annual gas use 't.er"s2yr) 290,000
Flue gas te"p. 'F) 1,200
8 -$ygen in Flue gas ': dry /asis) #
7 E$cess air ':) 16.6
< Co"/ustion air te"p. 'F) 100
10 A!aila/le ;eat to t.e Furnace 1.67
11 Initial te"p. entering furnace 'F) 100
12 Final te"p. lea!ing furnace 'F) 1,200
1# 0otal Fi$ture Weig.t 'l/s) #,000 1,000
19 4aterial used for t.e fi$ture C furniture Car/on 5teel 5tainless steel
16
4ean specific .eat of t.e "aterial used
',tu2l/. F)
0.19 0.18
1 %as sa!ings ':) ,ase
11:
18 =e1 %as >se 't.er"s2year) ,ase 21#,<9<
&- *;!:)&
1< %as )ate '?2t.er") ?0.<6
*: ,*9!+9'
Source( 3alculation met%o1oloy 0rovi1e1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i, E+M, :nc.
1as Savings Rate and Annual 1as Savings
Scenario
Parameter
#ange in Fi6ture 8aterial and/or <eig#t
Annual Dollar Savings
Annual Savings .,/year0
1asSavings .t#erms/year0
E2uipment 3oad and Annual 4se alculation
Furnace onditions
EEA +0 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
'%e calculation ste0s corres0on1in to t%e line num2ers on t%e ta2le are 1escri2e1 2elow.
E8uipmen" ,oa% an% Annua) 9se Ca)cu)a"ion 5 :n4ormation 4rom t%is section is to 2e ta/en 4rom
t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool. 3ustomer su00lie1 in4ormation t%at varies 4rom t%e 9oa1 #alance 'ool
re?uires a00roval. 9ines 1-5 are t%e same 4or all calculations in t%is wor/2oo/.
2urnace Con%i"ions
6. :n0ut( Flue as tem0erature A a customer su00lie1 in0ut A t%e same 4or 2ot% 2e4ore an1
a4ter e44iciency measure.
*. :n0ut( 7.yen 0ercent in t%e 4lue as )E 1ry 2asis, A a customer su00lie1 in0ut.
&. 3alc.( E.cess air is a 4unction o4 7.yen in t%e e.%aust )9ine *,. '%is is 4unction is a
0olynomial curve 4it to t%e out0ut o4 a com2ustion e?uili2rium mo1el.
11
". :n0ut( 3om2ustion air tem0erature A ty0ically %i%er t%an am2ient tem0erature 1ue to
0ic/ o4 %eat 4rom t%e 2lower motor.
10. 3alc.( Availa2le <eat to t%e 6rocess )0ercent, A '%is e?uals t%e total %eat o4 com2ustion
minus t%e sensi2le an1 latent %eat containe1 in t%e 4lue ases. :n t%is calculator t%e e44ect
o4 e.cess air is inore1. )'%e Dusti4ication an1 1ocumentation o4 t%is calculation are
0rovi1e1 in Appendi, A&9
Char3e in 2i0"ure <a"eria) an%?or1ei3h"
11. :n0ut( :nitial tem0erature )F, A t%e tem0erature o4 t%e 4i.ture enterin t%e 4urnace, a
customer in0ut.
12. :n0ut( Final tem0erature )F, A t%e tem0erature o4 t%e 4i.ture leavin t%e 4urnace, a
customer in0ut.
1+. :n0ut( 'otal 4i.ture wei%t )l2s, A '%e wei%t o4 t%e 4i.tures 4or 2ot% t%e 2aseline an1 t%e
enery e44iciency measure cases, a customer in0ut.
1-. :n0ut( Material use1 4or t%e 4i.ture=4urniture A t%e calculator %as a 1ro0 1own list o4
materials. '%e user selects 4rom t%is list 4or 2ot% t%e 2aseline an1 t%e e44iciency measure
cases.
15. 3alc.( mean s0eci4ic %eat o4 t%e 4i.ture material A once t%e 4i.ture material is selecte1
)1-, t%e s0eci4ic %eat 4or t%at material 2etween t%e entrance )11, an1 e.it tem0eratures
)12, is entere1 into t%e calculator automatically 2y means o4 a loo/-u0 ta2le, s%own in
'a2le *.
Gas Savin3s Ra"e an% Annua) Gas Savin3s
16. 3alc.( 5as Savins 6ercent A 3alc.( 5as savins )1&, = :nitial 5as use )5,
1*. 3alc.( New as use )t%erms=year, A 3alc.( :nitial 5as ;se )5, - 5as savins )1&,
1&. 3alc.( Annual 5as Savins 1ue to e44iciency measure A EF9< . )e.it tem0 - initial tem0,
. )$ei%t1 . 301 -$ei%t2 . 362,=Availa2le %eat to 4urnace, wit% units correcte1 to
11
Arvin1 '%e/1i, 0rivate communication, +="=06.
EEA +1 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
t%erms=year 4rom #tu=year
Annua) Gas Cos" Savin3s .4p"iona) Ca)cu)a"ion/
1". :n0ut( as rate )G=t%erm, A 3ustomer as rateHavoi1e1 commo1ity an1 1elivery rate.
20. 3alc.( )1", as rate . )1&, as savins.
.a"le =& -pecific 'eat f :aterials 2sed in Fi,ture /ss Reductin *alculatr
8aterial
Specific
=eat 7tu/.lb$
F$0
>otes
Car/onC grap.ite 0.21 to 0.9 fro" 200 F. to 1200 F.
Car/on 5teel 0.1# to 0.1 fro" 200 F to 2200 F.
Cast Iron2Iron 0.118
Cera"ics 0.2#
Copper 0.1
%lass 0.1# to 0.2 fro" 0 F. to 1200 F.
Inconel 0.12
4agnesiu" 0.28
=ickel '=ickel alloys) 0.1#9
&latinu" 0.0#
DuartE 0.2#
5ilicon car/ide 0.2#
5ilicone 0.18
5tainless steel 0.19 to 0.29 fro" 900 F. to 1200 F.
5tone 0.2
0itaniu" 0.19
0ungsten 0.0#9
Finc 0.12
Source( 3om0ile1 2y Arvin1 '%e/1i 4rom various sources inclu1in Nort% American 3om2ustion
<an12oo/.
Note( 9inear inter0olation use1 to et value o4 s0eci4ic %eat at a re?uire1 tem0erature w%ere a rane
o4 values is iven.
'%e savins calculation s%own in 'a2le 6 illustrates t%e savins t%at can 2e ac%ieve1 2y re1ucin
total 4i.ture wei%t 4rom +,000 l2s to 1,000 l2s inclu1in a c%ane 4rom car2on steel to stainless steel.
5iven t%e ca0acity an1 1uty cycle o4 t%e 4urnace an1 t%e availa2le %eat o4 61.5&E, annual as savins o4
26,051 t%erms are 0ossi2le )an 11E savins over 2aseline enery consum0tion, wit% customer as cost
savins o4 G2-,*-".
EEA ++ B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Appendi, A Furnace A#aila"le 'eat *alculatin
'%e calculation o4 t%e value o4 %eat recovery 4or 0re%eatin com2ustion air is 2ase1 on t%e
%eatin value o4 t%e 4uel, t%e ?uantity o4 %eat leavin t%e 0rocess in t%e 4lue ases, an1 t%e amount o4 %eat
t%at can 2e 0ut 2ac/ into t%e 0rocess 2y 0re%eatin t%e com2ustion air. '%is eneral relations%i0 is
1escri2e1 in t%e e?uation 2elow(
12
;eating !alue of fuel G .eat in flue gases
$ 100:
+;V H lo1er .eating !alue of fuel
V
poc
H !olu"e of flue gas
V
air
H !olu"e of co"/ustion air
t
2
H te"perature of flue gases at furnace e$it
t
2air
H te"perature of pre.eated co"/ustion air
cp"
poc
H "ean specific .eat of flue gases at t
2
cp"
air
H "ean specific .eat of pre.eated co"/ustion air at t
2air
+;V G 'V
poc
)'t
2
)'cp"
poc
)
+;V I 'V
air
)'t
2air
)'cp"
air
) G 'V
poc
)'t
2
)'cp"
poc
)
1 C $ 100:
: 5a!ings H
: 5a!ings H 1 C
;eating !alue of fuel I .eat in co"/ustion air C .eat in flue gases
+;V H lo1er .eating !alue of fuel
V
poc
H !olu"e of flue gas
V
air
H !olu"e of co"/ustion air
t
2
H te"perature of flue gases at furnace e$it
t
2air
H te"perature of pre.eated co"/ustion air
cp"
poc
H "ean specific .eat of flue gases at t
2
cp"
air
H "ean specific .eat of pre.eated co"/ustion air at t
2air
+;V G 'V
poc
)'t
2
)'cp"
poc
)
+;V I 'V
air
)'t
2air
)'cp"
air
) G 'V
poc
)'t
2
)'cp"
poc
)
1 C $ 100:
+;V G 'V
poc
)'t
2
)'cp"
poc
)
+;V I 'V
air
)'t
2air
)'cp"
air
) G 'V
poc
)'t
2
)'cp"
poc
)
1 C $ 100:
: 5a!ings H
: 5a!ings H 1 C
;eating !alue of fuel I .eat in co"/ustion air C .eat in flue gases
'o calculate a numerical result 4or t%is eneral e?uation, one nee1s to /now 2ot% t%e com0osition
o4 t%e 4uel )in or1er to 1etermine t%e stoic%iometric air to 4uel ratio an1 t%e %eatin value, an1 also t%e
amount o4 e.cess air t%at is in t%e 4lue as. 74 course, t%e 4lue as tem0erature an1 t%e 1esire1
com2ustion air 0re%eat must also 2e in0ut. '%e 0ro2lem is solve1 usin 4itte1 e?uations to t%e results o4 a
eneral e?uili2rium com2ustion mo1el. '%ere are t%ree e?uations t%at o into t%e 1etermination o4
Avai)a#)e $ea" "o "he Process Percen"( '%ese e?uations estimate t%e 4ollowin(
1. Availa2le %eat to t%e 0rocess 4or stoic%iometric air to 4uel ratio 2ase1 on an assume1
natural as com0osition )A00en1i. 3.,
F"5 - 0.025 . t2 )see varia2le 1e4initions a2ove,
2. Minus a correction 4actor 4or t%e %eat containe1 in t%e e.cess air t%at is also Boin u0 t%e
4lueC
F-)-2 L 0.02 . t2,M)E.cess AirE=100, alternatively
F .02 . )t2 -100, . E.cess AirE=100 )w%ere .02 #tu=sc4 is t%e averae s0eci4ic %eat o4 air
an1 100 is t%e assume1 2ase com2ustion air tem0erature in 1erees F.,
+. 6lus a correction 4actor 4or t%e %eat t%at is containe1 in t%e "o"a) com2ustion air inclu1in
t%e e.cess air
12
Com#us"ion Techno)o3y <anua)' 2our"h E%i"ion, :n1ustrial <eatin E?ui0ment Association, 1"&&, 0026*-2*0.
EEA A-1 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
F)-2L0.02M t2air,M)1 L E.cess AirE==100,
As in )2, t%is e?uation is 2ase1 on an averae s0eci4ic %eat o4 air o4 0.02 #tu=sc4 an1 an
assume1 startin 0oint o4 100
o
F.
-. '%e Availa2le %eat to t%e 0rocess F )1, A )2, L )+,
5. Enery savins e?uals t%e c%ane in as consum0tion 1ivi1e1 2y t%e oriinal enery
consum0tion. '%e actual calculation 4or t%is value comes 4rom t%e c%ane in availa2le
%eat to t%e 0rocess 0ercent 1ivi1e1 2y t%e new availa2le %eat to t%e 0rocess 0ercent.
'%ese two terms are e.actly e?ual 2ecause enery consum0tion is inversely 0ro0ortional
to availa2le %eat to t%e 0rocess 0ercent.
'%e 4irst e?uation is 2ase1 on a 4itte1 line to t%e results o4 an e?uili2rium com2ustion mo1el o4
stoic%iometric com2ustion wit% natural as an1 *5
o
F. air. '%is curve is s%own in Fiure &&
Available =eat ? >atural 1as ombustion
Stoic#iometric using +) deg$ F$ ombustion Air
0:
10:
20:
#0:
90:
60:
0:
80:
70:
<0:
00 700 1,000 1,200 1,900 1,00 1,700 2,000 2,200 2,900
Flue 1as Temp Deg$ F
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

=
e
a
t

@

o
f

=
e
a
t

I
n
p
u
t
Figure >& A#aila"le 'eat fr -tic6i$etric 0atural 1as *$"ustin as a Functin f
Flue 1as .e$perature
'%e %eat content o4 air t%at is use1 in e?uations )2, an1 )+, is 2ase1 on t%e relations%i0 s%own in
Fiure ".
EEA A-+ B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
?
&:
*:
(:
9:
):
;:
*:: 9:: ;:: -:: &!::: &!*:: &!9:: &!;:: &!-:: *!::: *!*:: *!9:: *!;::
Temperature .Deg$ F$0
=
e
a
t

o
n
t
e
n
t

.
7
t
u
/
s
c
f
0
Figure 9& 'eat *ntent f Air as Functin f .e$perature
'%ere are a num2er o4 sim0li4yin assum0tions an1 cavea"s 4or t%e relations%i0 in t%e calculator(
 '%ere are no wall losses assume1 in t%e recu0erator an1 1uctin.
 '%ere is no am2ient air in4iltration assume1. All o4 t%e e.cess air is assume1 to come
4rom t%e com2ustion air.
 Enery losses in t%e 4urnace )0rocess, itsel4 are assume1 to 2e unc%ane1 A 4urnace wall
losses, ra1iation losses, etc. '%ese losses 1o not a44ect t%e value o4 t%e %eat recovery
measure, 2ut may 2e o00ortunities 4or ot%er e44iciency measures.
 '%e calculation tool 1oes not measure t%e e44ectiveness o4 t%e 0ro0ose1 %eat recovery
e?ui0ment. '%e 0er4ormance, inlet an1 outlet tem0eratures must come 4rom t%e customer
or ven1or. :t is im0ortant t%at realistic values 2e entere1 4or 4lue as tem0erature an1
com2ustion air 0re%eat.
 '%e calculations are 2ase1 on a 4i.e1 as com0osition an1 stoic%iometric air to 4uel ratio.
'%e results are relatively insensitive to assum0tions rear1in 4uel com0osition. 5oin
4rom 100E met%ane to 100E 0ro0ane only c%anes t%e availa2le %eat estimate 2y 1E.
.
EEA A-3 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Appendi, B )all 'eat /ss *alculatins
3onsi1er t%e 0rocess %eater s%own in Fiure 10. Durin o0eration, t%e e.ternal sur4aces o4 t%e
0rocess %eater are %ot, an1 enery is trans4erre1 to t%e surroun1in environment t%rou% t%e 0rocesses o4
con1uction, convection, an1 ra1iation. For 0ractical 0ro2lems suc% as t%e 0rocess %eater s%own in Fiure
10, enery is trans4erre1 4rom t%e %ot e.ternal soli1 sur4ace o4 t%e 0rocess %eater to t%e surroun1in air.
For %eat trans4er 4rom soli1 sur4aces to a surroun1in 4lui1 suc% as air, t%e con1uction an1 convection
terms are 4re?uently com2ine1 an1 e.0resse1 as 4ollows(
T A h
A
@
8
c
c
c
∆ · · E(uatin 1
w%ere
?c A %eat trans4er 0er unit area )#tu=%r-4t,
N
c
A %eat trans4er rate )#tu=%r,
A A sur4ace area )4t
2
,
%
c
A %eat trans4er coe44icient, inclu1in 2ot% convection an1 con1uction )#tu=%r-4t
2
-F,
O' A tem0erature 1i44erence 2etween 0rocess %eater wall an1 surroun1in air )F,
Figure 10& -i$plified 5iagra$ f 'eat /ss fr$ E,ternal -urface f Prcess 'eater
8a1iation %eat trans4er 2etween two 2o1ies is 0ro0ortional t%e 1i44erence o4 t%e 4ourt% 0ower o4
t%e a2solute tem0erature o4 eac% 2o1y. <owever, to 0reserve similarities wit% t%e 4orm o4 t%e convection
%eat trans4er e?uation, t%e ra1iation %eat trans4er is o4ten e.0resse1 as
T A h
A
@
8
r
r
r
∆ · · E(uatin 2
EEA B-1 B-REP-06-599-13
&rocess ;eater
Conduction
Con!ection
)adiation
T A h
A
@
8
r
r
r
∆ · ·
T A h
A
@
8
c
c
c
∆ · ·
The Gas Company
w%ere
?r A %eat trans4er 0er unit area 1ue to ra1iation )#tu=%r-4t,
N
r
A %eat trans4er rate )#tu=%r,
%
r
A ra1iation %eat trans4er coe44icient )#tu=%r-4t
2
-F,
'%e %eat trans4er 4rom t%e soli1 sur4aces o4 a 0rocess %eater, suc% as t%at 1e0icte1 in Fiure 10,
vary 4or %ori@ontal an1 vertical sur4aces, an1 4or 1i44erence ty0es o4 materials )emissivity c%anes, w%ic%
c%anes ra1iation,. '%e %eat trans4er 4rom soli1 sur4aces is also stronly 1e0en1ent on e.ternal air 4low.
For e.am0le, i4 t%ere is 4orce1 convection )e.., a 4an t%at moves air across t%e 0rocess %eater,, t%e %eat
trans4er rates can 2e sini4icantly %i%er com0are1 to natural convection )air movement only occurs 1ue
to natural 2uoyancy e44ects t%at occur 4rom tem0erature variations o4 t%e air,. '%ere will also 2e
variations in %eat trans4er across t%e e.ternal sur4ace 1ue to tem0erature variations on t%e wall )e.., t%e
e.ternal sur4ace o4 t%e 4urnace roo4 may 2e %otter t%an t%e si1es,.
For 0ractical 0ro2lems suc% as t%e %eat loss 4rom t%e e.ternal walls o4 0rocess %eaters, several
sim0li4yin assum0tions are enerally set suc% t%at an estimate can 2e o2taine1. '%e sim0li4yin
assum0tions use1 in t%is wor/0a0er inclu1e(
• Mo1el e.ternal 4urnace area as a vertical wall. E.clu1e t%e 4loor area o4 t%e 4urnace an1 only
inclu1e t%e si1es an1 roo4 t%at are in contact wit% t%e surroun1in air.
• :sot%ermal wall tem0erature
• No 4orce1 convection
;sin t%ese sim0li4yin assum0tions, enineers %ave 1evelo0e1 em0irical %eat trans4er e?uations
t%at are enerally vali1 4or a rane o4 wall tem0eratures an1 am2ient air tem0eratures. 7ne suc%
em0irical e?uation 1evelo0e1 4or wall tem0eratures in t%e rane o4 a00ro.imately 1-0 to -00
o
F an1 an
am2ient air tem0erature o4 *5
o
F is(
( ) ( )
1
]
1

¸

+ −

,
_

¸
¸ −

1
]
1

¸

+ − · · "0 100 0&5 . 0
50
*5
16- -2 . 1
000 , 1
* . "
2
=a))
am#
=a))
=a))
T
T
T
T
A
@
8
E(uatin 3
13
'%e 0rece1in e?uation re0resents a curve 4it o4 1ata 1evelo0e1 2y Dr. Arvin1 '%e/1i )see
Appendi, A,. At low tem0eratures ra1iation is insini4icant relative to convection, an1 t%e %eat trans4er
relations%i0 can 2e sim0li4ie1. :n t%is wor/0a0er, 4or wall tem0eratures in t%e rane o4 60 to 1-0
o
F t%e
4ollowin e?uation is use1(
( )( )
am# =a)) =a))
T T T
A
@
8 − + · · 006 . 0 6 . 1 E(uatin 8
18
'%e 0rece1in two e?uations are t%e 4un1amental relations%i0s use1 in t%e 6rocess <eatin 'ool
to estimate %eat loss 4rom t%e e.ternal walls o4 an oven, 4urnace, or any ot%er 0rocess %eatin system wit%
%ot e.ternal sur4aces.
1+
'%e/1i, A., 0rivate communication.
1-
'rin/, $., :n1ustrial Furnaces, !olume 1, -
t%
E1ition, 1"51.
EEA B-+ B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
EEA B-3 B-REP-06-599-13
The Gas Company
Appendi, *! Assu$ed 1as *$psitin
'%e as com0osition assume1 in t%e analysis is s%own in 'a2le &&
.a"le >& Assu$ed 1as *$psitin
%as
Analysis
4olar
Volu"e :
C;9 <9.1000:
C2; #.0100:
C#;7 0.9200:
C9;10 0.2700:
C- 0.0190:
;2 0.0#26:
C-2 0.8100:
-2 0.0100:
=2 1.9100:
EEA C-1 B-REP-06-599-13