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APEC Energy

Balances
WorkshoponEnergyStatisticsand
EnergyBalance
BerjayaTimesSquareHotel
KualaLumpur
5December2011
E.Barcelona
EDMMC/IEEJ
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Outline
TheAPECEnergyDatabase
TheAPECEnergyBalances
Description
DifferenceswithMalaysiannationalenergybalance
DataCollection
Processing
Review
Analysis
DifferenceswithNationalEnergyBalances
WhyareEnergyBalancesImportant?
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The APEC Energy Database
http://www.ieej.or.jp/egeda/
Opentothepublic
Annualenergybalancesandstatisticsof21APECmember
economiesfrom1980(formosteconomies)
Quarterlyenergysupplydatafrom1994ofmostofthe21APEC
membereconomies
MonthlyOil(JODIOil)andnaturalgas(JODIGas)from2001for
allAPECeconomies
Formembersonly
AnnualCO
2
emissionsforallthe21APECeconomies
Socioeconomicstatisticsforall21membereconomies
Energyrelatedstatistics
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The APEC Energy Database
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Description of the APEC
Energy Balances
Primaryenergysupply
Indigenousproduction,importsandexports,internationalmarineand
aviationbunkers,stockchanges
Transformation
Oilrefining
Electricityandheatgeneration
Coaltransformation
Gasprocessing
Others
Energysectoruseandlosses
Energysectorconsumptionandlosses
Finalenergyconsumption
Energyconsumptionbyindustry,transportation,residential,commercial
andothersectors(industryfurtherbrokendownintomajorbranches)
Nonenergyconsumption
Numbersarecalculatedfromnetcalorificvaluesofeachproduct
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Differences of APEC Energy Balances
and Malaysian National Energy Balance
Conversionofprimaryelectricity
APECmethodologyassumes100%efficiencyofhydro,windand
solarelectricitygeneration
Malaysiausestheaverageefficiencyofthermalpowerplants
whichcouldvaryeveryyear
IndigenousProduction
IndigenousproductioninAPECdefinitionisthemarketable
productionthatis:
Forcrudeoilandcoal,afterremovalofimpurities
Fornaturalgas,excludesgasventedreinjectedandflared
InMalaysia,gasflaredandreinjectedareincluded;forcrude
oil,thereishugestatisticaldiscrepancyintheprimarysupply(is
thisbecauseproductioniswellheadproduction?)
Noothermajordifference
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Collection of Data for APEC
Energy Balances
Collectedin5annualquestionnairessincethecollection
of2004data(2006)
Coal kilotonsforsolidand10
10
kilocaloriesforcoalgases
Oil kilotonsforallproducts
naturalgas millioncubicmeters,kilotonsforLNG
electricityandheat GWhforelectricityand10
10
kilocaloriesfor
heat
newandrenewableenergy kilotonsforsolidandliquid
productsand10
10
kilocaloriesforbiogases
Calorificvaluesorenergycontentperunitofmassor
volumearealsocollectedfortheconversionofphysical
unitstoenergyunits
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Processing of Annual Energy
Supply Demand Data
Uponreceiptoftheannualquestionnaires,thestatistical
discrepanciesarechecked.Ifthesearelarge(greaterthan5%),
contactsinmembereconomiesarenotifiedbyemailandasked
forpossiblerevisions
Completenessandconsistencyarealsocheckedreferringto
previousyearsenergybalances
Checkformissingflows,missingproductsandcalorificvalues
Efficiencyofelectricitygenerationischeckedaswellas
transformationlossesorgains
The5questionnairesarethenprocessedintoenergybalance
tables
Forcountries,withoutofficialdata,CO
2
emissionsarecalculated
usingthesectoralapproach
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Review of Energy Balances
GrowthratesofTPESandTFECandallother
flows
Transformationgainsandlosses
Thermalefficiencies
Statisticaldiscrepancies
Completeness
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Data Analysis Using the APEC
Energy Balances
Checkonthecompletenessofthedata
Highlevelcheckonthedataaccuracyasapparent
gainsinconversionprocessesorlargelossesindicate
dataproblems.Allowstheusertoseethefuel
conversionefficiencies
Anaturalstartingpointfortheconstructionof
variousindicatorsofenergyconsumption
Measureforthedegreeofdependencyofthe
countrytoeachkindofenergy.
Analysisofenvironmentalimpactoftheenergyuse
Startingpointforenergymodeling
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Analysis of EBT
Check for Completeness and Accuracy of Data
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Analysis of EBT
Check for Conversion Efficiency
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Analysis of EBT
Basis for Energy Indicator Analysis
Divide this number with GDP,
you get Energy Intensity
Divide this number with
population, you get per Capita
Final Energy Consumption
Divide by steel production, you get Energy
Consumption per unit of steel output
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Final Energy Consumption of Selected Countries
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Final Energy Consumption vs. GDP per Capita
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Electricity Consumption per Capita
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Residential Electricity Consumption per Capita
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Road Transport Consumption per Capita
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Energy Consumption in Iron & Steel Production
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Energy Indicator Analysis
Energy Consumption in Iron & Steel Production
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Analysis of EBT
Reveals Degree of Energy Dependency
Coal Dependence:
2,947/29282 =10.1%
Oil Dependence:
12,248/29,282 =41.8%
Self Sufficiency Level:
9,310/29,282 =31.8%
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Analysis of EBT
Basis for Analysis of Environmental Impact of
Energy Use
CO
2
emission can be calculated from the above data using emission factors.
OIL AND OIL PRODUCTS t C/TJ COAL AND COAL PRODUCTS t C/TJ
Crude Oil 20.0 Anthracite 26.8
Orimulsion 22.0 Coking Coal 25.8
Natural Gas Liquids 17.2 Other Bituminous Coal 25.8
Gasoline 18.9 Sub-bituminous Coal 26.2
J et Kerosene 19.5 Lignite 27.6
Other Kerosene 19.6 Oil Shale 29.1
Shale Oil 20.0 Peat 28.9
Gas/Diesel Oil 20.2 Coal Briquettes 25.8
Residual Fuel Oil 21.1 Coke Oven/Gas Coke 29.5
LPG 17.2 Coke Oven Gas 13.0
Ethane 16.8 Blast Furnace Gas 66.0
Naptha 20.0 NATURAL GAS
Bitumen 22.0 Natural Gas (Dry) 15.3
Lubricants 20.0 BIOMASS
Petroleum Coke 27.5 Solid Biomass 29.9
Refinery Feedstocks 20.0 Liquid Biomass 20.0
Refinery Gas 18.2 Gas Biomass 30.6
Other Oil 20.0
Sources: IPCC, IEA
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ThisEBTgivesanideathatelectricitydemandwouldbesuppliedbycoal,oil,naturalgas,
hydroandotherelectricitysources.Italsohassomeelectricityimports
Italsogivesinformationonthefuelneededtoproducetherequiredelectricity(fuelinputs
andelectricityoutputindicatethermalefficiencyofeachtypeofpowerplants)
Italsogivesanideaonhowthecountrysrefinerywillproducethepetroleumproducts
neededbytheconsumers
TheEBTalsogivesanideahowthecountrywillmeetitsprimaryenergyrequirements
(productionorimportation)
Analysis of EBT
Starting Point for Energy Modeling
Manyenergymodelsaredemanddriven;i.e.:solutionsaresoughttomeet
projecteddemand
Modelingstartswithprojectionoffinalenergyconsumption
Howthenwoulddemandbemet?
TheEBTgivessomeinformationonhowdemandwould
besupplied.
Electricity
Petroleumproducts
Coalproducts
Etc.
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Differences with National
Energy Balances
Usesthenetcalorificvalue(NCV)ofeachenergy
productNCVexcludesthewastedheatduring
combustionofthefuel
TheunitusedintheAPECenergybalancesisinenergy
unit,ktoeorthousandtonsofoilequivalent,whichis
equalto10
10
kilocalories
TheAPECEnergyBalancehas70columnsand78rows
Morecolumnsforavarietyofproducts
Moretransformationrows
Moreorlessfinalconsumptionrows
StatisticalDifferenceisthedifferencebetweensupply
anddemandandisnotsubtractedoraddedtotheTPES
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Why are Energy Balances
Important?
Providesbasicdataforenergypolicyformulation
Supplypolicies
Demandpolicies
Securitypolicies
Energyefficiencypolicies
Environmentalprotectionpolicies
Climatechangemitigationpolicies
Incentive/subsidypolicies
Measuringefficiencyofutilization
Measuringpublicwelfare
Canbeusedinsettingvariousbenchmarks
Canbeusedtomodelthefutureenergysituation
Thank you for your attention