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Group 3

B2B – TATA STEEL

Submitted By:
Adithya Raj Gaurav Kumar Nishant Choubisa Surbhi Agarwal R Urpreet Kaur Soni Vipul Gupta

Introduction:
Tata Steel, formerly known as TISCO and Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited, is the world's sixth largest steel company, with an annual crude steel capacity of 31 million tonnes. It is the largest private sector steel company in India in terms of domestic production. Ranked 258th on Fortune Global 500, it is based in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. It is part of Tata Group of companies. Tata Steel is also India's second-largest and second-most profitable company in private sector with consolidated revenues of Rs 1,32,110 crore and net profit of over Rs 12,350 crore during the year ended March 31, 2008. Backed by 100 glorious years of experience in steel making, Tata Steel is among the top ten steel producers in the world with an existing annual crude steel production capacity of 30 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA). Established in 1907, it is the first integrated steel plant in Asia and is now the world`s second most geographically diversified steel producer and a Fortune 500 Company. Its main plant is located in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, with its recent acquisitions; the company has become a multinational with operations in various countries. The Jamshedpur plant contains the DCS supplied by Honeywell. The registered office of Tata Steel is in Mumbai. The company was also recognized as the world's best steel producer by World Steel Dynamics in 2005. The company is listed on Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange of India, and employs about 82,700 people (as of 2007). Tata Steel has a balanced global presence in over 50 developed European and fast growing Asian markets, with manufacturing units in 26 countries. It was the vision of the founder; Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata., that on 27th February, 1908, the first stake was driven into the soil of Sakchi. His vision helped Tata Steel overcome several periods of adversity and strive to improve against all odds. Tata Steel`s Jamshedpur (India) Works has a crude steel production capacity of 6.8 MTPA which is slated to increase to 10 MTPA by 2010. The Company also has proposed three Greenfield steel projects in the states of Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh in India with additional capacity of 23 MTPA and a Greenfield project in Vietnam. The TATA Steel story is a classic example of synergy leveraged through the inorganic route. In 2005, Tata Steel acquired NatSteel Asia. This helped the company not only to establish a beachhead in seven countries across the region, namely Singapore, Thailand, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Australia, but also provided it with a customer base for close to two million tonnes of steel. As a brand, NatSteel's strong equity in the region was yet another strategic gain for Tata Steel. The company's strong human resources and management

effectiveness is also an inheritance of immense value. Operationally, NatSteel's finishing facilities across the region provided Tata Steel with the necessary support for upstream capacity expansions in India, as well as access to knowledge and expertise in downstream processing of bars and wire rods. The acquisition of Millennium Steel in 2005, Thailand's dominant steel producer, still consolidated Tata Steel's gains from the NatSteel deal. Millennium's three operating units gave the company a cumulative capacity to produce 1.2 million tonnes of steel per annum through the electric arc furnace route along with a long products rolling capacity of 1.7 million tonnes a year. Geared towards the construction and automotive sector, Millennium provided Tata Steel strategic space in the heart of the ASEAN region, enhancing its market position in South East Asia. Apart from the existing backward integration with its own iron ore mines and collieries, the company has enhanced its competitive advantage in raw materials further, buying a five per cent interest in the Carborough Downs coal project located in Queensland, Australia. Its backward and forward integration plans include the development of a deep-sea port in Orissa. Through investments in Corus, Millennium Steel (renamed Tata Steel Thailand) and NatSteel Holdings, Singapore, Tata Steel has created a manufacturing and marketing network in Europe, South East Asia and the pacific-rim countries. Corus, which manufactured over 20 MTPA of steel in 2008, has operations in the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Norway and Belgium. Tata Steel Thailand is the largest producer of long steel products in Thailand, with a manufacturing capacity of 1.7 MTPA. Tata Steel has proposed a 0.5 MTPA mini blast furnace project in Thailand. NatSteel Holdings produces about 2 MTPA of steel products across its regional operations in seven countries. Tata Steel, through its joint venture with Tata BlueScope Steel Limited, has also entered the steel building and construction applications market. The iron ore mines and collieries in India give the Company a distinct advantage in raw material sourcing. Tata Steel is also striving towards raw materials security through joint ventures in Thailand, Australia, Mozambique, Ivory Coast (West Africa) and Oman. Tata Steel has signed an agreement with Steel Authority of India Limited to establish a 50:50 joint venture company for coal mining in India. Also, Tata Steel has bought 19.9% stake in New Millennium Capital Corporation, Canada for iron ore mining. Exploration of opportunities in titanium dioxide business in Tamil Nadu, ferro-chrome plant in South Africa and setting up of a deep-sea port in coastal Orissa are integral to the Growth and Globalisation objective of Tata Steel.

Tata Steel’s vision is to be the global steel industry benchmark for Value Creation and Corporate Citizenship. Tata Steel India is the first integrated steel company in the world, outside Japan, to be awarded the Deming Application Prize 2008 for excellence in Total Quality Management. The Tata Group made a huge acquisition in 2006 when it acquired the Dutch company Corus for more than USD12 billion, making Tata-Corus one of the world's largest steelmakers. Divisions:
Corus : Europe’s second largest steel maker with operations in the UK and mainland Europe and over 40,000 employees worldwide. Its long and strip products cater to the construction, automotive, packaging, engineering and other markets worldwide. Corus is implementing major investments at its plants at IJmuiden, in the Netherlands and at Scunthorpe in the UK as part of its drive to strengthen product differentiation, improve operational efficiency and reinforce existing competitive position, particularly in the construction and automotive sectors, including the development of new advanced high strength steels.
(www.corusgroup.com)

Tinplate Company of India Limited (TCIL) : With a market share of over 35%, it is the industry leader in India. It has the capability to supply all tinning line products including electrolytic tinplate / tin-free steel and cold-rolled products.

(www.tatatinplate.com)

Tayo Rolls Limited : India's leading roll manufacturer and supplier, the company produces rolls which find application in integrated steel plants, power plants, the paper, textile and food processing sectors, and the government mint.
(www.tayo.co.in)

Tata Ryerson Limited (TRYL) : TRYL Is in the business of steel processing and distribution. It offers hot and cold rolled flat steel products in customised sizes and quantities through processing services and materials management services.
(www.tataryerson.com)

Tata Refractories Limited (TRL) : It produces High Alumina, Basic, Dolomite, Silica and Monolithic Refractories and offers design, procurement and re-lining applications services. It is one of the few companies worldwide to produce silica refractories for coke ovens and the glass industry. The Company has a basic bricks manufacturing unit in China.

(www.tataref.com)

Tata Sponge Iron Limited (TSIL) : TSIL is the first Indian sponge iron plant based on Tata Steel's Direct Reduction Technology. Its major product lines are sponge iron lumps and fines.
(www.tatasponge.com)

Tata Metaliks : Amongst the top wealth creating companies (EVA+) in the country, Tata Metaliks is engaged in the business of manufacturing and selling foundry grade pig iron.
(www.tatametaliks.com)

Tata Pigments Limited : TPL's range of products includes oxides of iron, dry cement paint, exterior emulsion paint and distemper. Its products are used in paints, emulsion, cement floors, plastic etc.

(www.tatapigments.com)

Jamshedpur Injection Powder Limited (Jamipol) : JAMIPOL manufactures carbide de-sulphurising compounds which are used for de-sulphurising hot metal for the production of low-sulphur, high-quality steel.
(www.jamipol.com)

TM International Logistics Limited (TMILL) : TMILL provides material handling and port operation services at Haldia and Paradip Ports in addition to providing freight forwarding and chartering services.
(www.tmilltd.com)

mjunction services limited : mjunction, operating at the cutting edge of Information Technology, is a 50:50 venture of SAIL and Tata Steel. It is India's largest eCommerce company and the world's largest eMarketplace for steel. mjunction offers a wide range of selling, sourcing and knowledge services that empower businesses with greater process efficiencies.
(www.mjunction.in)

TRF Limited : TRF, one of India's leading companies in the business of design, manufacture, supply, installation and commissioning of engineered-to-order equipment and systems in the areas of bulk material handling, processing, reclaiming and blending. TRF has also made its mark in the fields of coke oven equipment, coal dust injection systems for blast furnaces and coal beneficiation systems.
(www.trfltd.com)

Jamshedpur Utility and Service Company Limited (JUSCO) : Re-engineered out of Tata Steel's town services, JUSCO is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Steel and is the country's first enterprise that provides municipal and civic services for townships. JUSCO is the only EMS 14001 civic services provider in the country.
(www.juscoltd.com)

The Indian Steel and Wire Products Limited (ISWP) : Recently acquired by Tata Steel, ISWP has two units - a wire unit comprising wire drawing mills, wire rod mills and a fastener division and a steel roll manufacturing unit named Jamshedpur Engineering and Machining Company - JEMCO.

Tata BlueScope Steel Limited : A joint venture with BlueScope Steel Limited, Australia, Tata BlueScope Steel Limited offers a comprehensive range of branded steel products for building and construction applications. The Company is constructing a state-of-the-art metallic coating and painting facility at Jamshedpur.
(www.tatabluescopesteel.com)

Dhamra Port Company, Orissa : A JV between Larsen & Toubro Ltd. and Tata Steel Ltd., the company will build a deep-draft (18 metres) all weather port on the east coast of India. The port will handle 80 million tonnes per annum of cargo.

(www.dhamraport.com)

Hooghly Met Coke & Power Company : A joint venture with West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation Ltd., HMC&PC envisages an annual met coke production capacity of 1.2 million tonnes and 90 MW of electric power.

(www.hooghlymetcoke.com)

Lanka Special Steel Limited : The only unit in Sri Lanka manufacturing galvanised wires.

Sila Eastern Company Limited : Established to develop limestone mines in Thailand, mainly for the captive use of Tata Steel.

NatSteel Holdings (NSH) : A leading supplier of premium steel products for the construction industry. NatSteel Holdings became a 100% subsidiary of Tata Steel in February 2004. NSH produces about 2 MT of steel products annually across its regional operations in seven countries.
(www.natsteel.com.sg)

Tata Steel Thailand : The company is the dominant steel producer in Thailand. The company has the capacity to produce 1.7 million tonnes of steel for the construction industry per year.

(www.tatasteelthailand.com)

Tata Steel KZN : Proposes to set up high carbon ferrochrome plant in South Africa. The plant is slated to and commissioned by October 2007 with an annual production capacity of 135,000 tonnes during Phase 1. Tata NYK : A joint venture with Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (NYK Line) for setting up a shipping company to cater to dry bulk and break bulk cargo. Tata Steel and NYK will each hold 50% stake in the joint venture company.

Benefits from acquisition of CORUS:

Portfolio of Products:
The Company’s products consist of TSL products, produced by the Company’s Indian operations and its NatSteel and Tata Steel Thailand operations, and Corus products, produced in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. TSL’s products can be divided into three main categories: 1. Finished and semi-finished steel products; 2. Ferro alloys products; and 3. Other products and services, including tube products, bearing products, refractory products, pigments, municipal services and investment activities. Corus has four main product segments: (1) strip products; (2) long products; (3) distribution and building systems; and (4) aluminum.

TSL Products: Finished and Semi-finished Steel Segment Products
TSL’s finished steel products are produced at its Indian facilities, as well as in various Asia Pacific countries by NatSteel and in Thailand by Tata Steel Thailand. TSL’s finished steel products can be principally divided into flat products and long products, including wires. In addition, TSL also produces relatively smaller quantities of semi-finished steel, rings, agricultural tools, and steel equipment. NatSteel and Tata Steel Thailand’s finished steel production consists principally of long products.

The following table lists the various finished and semi-finished products TSL produces, as well as the principal uses for these products and their principal markets:

In recent years, TSL has been expanding its production of high value added products, which generally command higher prices and margins than low value added products. Within the flat product category, cold rolled sheets, galvanized and tinplate products are considered to be high value added products by TSL, as are wire rods in the long products category. Wires are also considered a high value added product.

Ferro Alloys Segment Products
TSL’s ferro alloys segment produces chrome ore, pyroxenite and manganese ore as well as ferro chrome and ferro manganese. Ferro chrome and ferro manganese are used by the steel industry to create stainless steel products. TSL is the leading manufacturer of ferro chrome in India and the leading manufacturer of chrome ore internationally.

Other Services Segment
TSL’s other services segment can be principally divided into the production of tubes, bearings and the provision of services. TSL is the largest manufacturer of steel tubes in India. TSL produces tube products mainly in the commercial tube and precision tube categories. Commercial tubes are used primarily for piping water, gas and steam for irrigation and other agricultural uses as well as for industrial purposes and are marketed primarily to builders, contractors and distributors. Precision tubes are sold primarily to automotive and bicycle manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, the fertilizer industry and to furniture manufacturers. TSL’s bearings division manufactures ball bearings and taper roller bearings. Major customers of the bearings division include companies in the automotive and engineering industries.

Corus Products
Corus has four main product segments: (1) strip products; (2) long products; (3) distribution and building system products; and (4) aluminum.

Strip Products
Corus’ strip products are produced in the United Kingdom at Port Talbot and in The Netherlands at IJmuiden. Uncoated strip products comprise hot rolled, cold reduced and electrical steels, which are sold both in coil form and, cut to length, in sheet form. Corus is one of the market leaders in the manufacture of coated strip products. Its coated strip product range comprises metallic coated products (e.g. zinc and alloy-coated), non-metallic coated products (e.g. painted and plastic coated steels) and tinplate. Corus is also one of the global market leaders in steel for packaging production.

Long Products
Corus produces long products at Scunthorpe, its largest steelmaking site in the United Kingdom, and at Teesside. Long products comprise sections and plates, and rods. Engineering steels also form part of the long products division and are produced by the electric arc method as opposed to the basic oxygen steelmaking method in the United Kingdom at Rotherham. Corus’ wide range of engineering steels products include free cutting, improved machining, spring, forging and general steel for the automotive and related markets, together with specialist steels for the aerospace, power generation, oil and gas exploration and engineering industries. Corus also produces a variety of other carbon steel products. In addition, Corus supplies a range of semifinished carbon steel products in the form of billets, blooms and slabs for re-rolling and subsequent processing for Corus’ service centers and to third party service centers.

Distribution and Building Systems
Corus sells its finished carbon steel products directly to end users and through its own stockholding and service center businesses. Stockholders purchase steel from high-volume producers for subsequent resale, and service centers purchase steel stocks for further processing prior to selling to customers. The stockholding and service center section plays a major role in the distribution of most finished products. In addition to offering rapid off-theshelf service to low volume customers, major U.K. stockholders and service centers, including Corus’ business, increasingly offer further processing facilities to the automotive, construction and earth-moving equipment industries, among others. Typically, the large volume purchasers buy directly from Corus’ business units, while low volume customers buy from stockholders and service centers, including those owned by Corus.

Aluminum
On August 1, 2006, Corus completed the sale of its downstream aluminum rolled products and extrusionsbusinesses to Aleris International Inc., for a net consideration of GBP 477 million, subject to adjustment. Turnover and operating profits from Corus’ aluminum division now only reflect retained aluminum smelting and metal trading operations. Corus’ primary aluminum smelters produce rolling ingots and billets made from alumina (processed bauxite) using an electrolysis process. Approximately 75% of this division's 272,000 tonnes output is dedicated to

the downstream operations that were sold to Aleris International Inc., with the remainder sold to external customers under tolling or direct sales contracts.

Sales and Distribution

Tata Steel Limited Sales and Distribution Indian Sales
Tata Steel Limited currently sells approximately 91% of its Indian operations’ production in the Indian market. In India, Tata Steel Limited sells the majority of its steel products to the construction and infrastructure industries, the automotive industry and the general engineering industry. Tata Steel Limited’s principal products sold to the Indian construction and infrastructure industry are long products. Tata Steel Limited targets large construction companies involved in infrastructure projects as customers. Tata Steel Limited’s principal products for the Indian automotive industry are hot rolled sheets, cold rolled sheets and galvanized products. Tata Steel Limited’s Indian operations supplied 664,000 tonnes of products to the Indian automotive industry in the year ended March 31, 2006 and 856,881 tonnes in the year ended March 31, 2007. Tata Steel Limited supplies such automotive-grade steel products to a significant proportion of Indian automotive industry participants, including Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Toyota Kirloskar Motor Limited, Honda Siel Car India and Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Limited. Tata Steel Limited’s principal products for the Indian general engineering industry are cold rolled sheets and galvanized sheets. Tata Steel Limited also a supplier of steel to the appliance sector, including to customers such as Whirlpool, LG and Voltas.

Indian Distribution and Marketing
Tata Steel Limited delivers steel products to Indian customers through:      direct supply channels, 21 stockyards, 25 consignment agents, 15 external processing agents and A network of distributors and retailers operating through 22 sales locations in India.

Because Tata Steel Limited’s operations are located in eastern India while much of the market for steel is on the west coast of India, Tata Steel Limited incurs additional inland transportation costs relative to its competitors that are in closer proximity to the bulk of the Indian market. In addition, Tata Steel Limited’s Jamshedpur plant is approximately 250 kilometers away from the nearest port, which adds to Tata Steel Limited’s distribution costs. Tata Steel Limited has established brands for many of its products in the Indian market. For example, Tata Steelium, the “steel with soul”, is one of the first branded cold rolled steel products in India. Tata Steel Limited is also using the Tata Shaktee brand for its corrugated galvanized sheets, Tata Steelium for cold rolled sheets, Tata Tiscon for rebars and Tata Wiron for wires. Products manufactured by Tata Steel Limited’s tubes unit are marketed under three brands: Tata Pipes, Tata Structura and Tata Precision.

Tata Steel Limited has introduced a number of marketing initiatives in recent years. For example, Tata Steel Limited was the first company in India to introduce the concept of a recommended consumer price on a steel product, by fixing the price of Tata Tiscon products for a set period of time according to a pre-determined price list. In 2006, through its Steelium service center, Tata Steel Limited trained through 29 sessions in eight different languages, approximately 550 dealers of Tata Shaktee products on various selling techniques. Through initiatives such as “Customer Value Management” and “Retail Value Management”, Tata Steel Limited has developed new collaborative approaches to meet its customers’ needs. In addition, on December 12, 2005, Tata Steel Limited inaugurated its Steeljunction store. As India’s first organized steel retail store, Steeljunction is a mid-size specialty store that sells a range of steel products. The store was launched with the aim of raising awareness about the versatility of steel products and to promote a new and more direct venue for selling steel products to endusers. Key Automotive Customers:

Exports from India
Excluding intra-company transfers, in the year ended March 31, 2007, TSL exported from India approximately 403,000 tonnes of steel products, corresponding to 9% of its net sales, with Europe as its most significant export market. An increased demand in India for steel products starting in 2005 led to a comparatively lower level of exports as a percentage of net sales in the year ended March 31, 2007 (9%) compared to those in the year ended March 31, 2006 (12%).

Asia Pacific Sales outside of India
TSL currently has 14 sales offices in 12 countries in Asia Pacific countries outside of India. The NatSteel and Tata Steel Thailand acquisitions have strengthened TSL’s sales capability in the Asia Pacific region. For example, NatSteel’s sales distribution network includes direct sales to private customers and to wholesalers in the Asia Pacific region. Tata Steel Thailand sells its products almost entirely within Thailand.

Corus Sales and Distribution
Corus sells its carbon steel products direct to end users and through its own and external stockholding and service center businesses. Typically, high-volume purchasers buy directly from Corus mills, while low-volume customers buy from stockholders and service centers, including those owned by Corus. Stockholders purchase steel from steel producers for subsequent resale and service centers purchase steel inventories for further processing prior to selling to customers. Corus has a number of stockholders and service centers in various EU countries. The stockholding and service center sector plays a major role in the distribution of most finished products in the EU steel market. In addition to offering rapid off-the-shelf service to lowvolume customers, major stockholders and service centers, including Corus’ businesses, increasingly offer further processing facilities to sectors such as the automotive, construction and earth-moving equipment industries. Corus’ service center network consists of over 60 service centers across Europe, including in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland and Spain, which supply and process over 4 million tones of steel and aluminum each year. The Corus International unit is responsible for managing Corus’ network of sales offices throughout the world. Its trading division operates on a global basis buying and selling steel both internally and externally, while its projects division also operates globally and is responsible for sourcing multi-metal requirements and providing supply chain services on major construction projects. Corus has established a range of branded products across its portfolio.

One of the more recent brands, the ‘Advance’ range of structural sections, was launched in September 2006 following a program of technical improvements at its Scunthorpe and Teesside plants. The key driver for introducing Advance was the requirement, starting in September 2006, for structural sections in Europe to comply with the Construction Products Directive. Corus was the first steel company to be allowed to use the CE mark and all Advance sections carry the mark. At the same time flexibility offered to designers has been increased by adding 21 new beams and columns sizes to the range, as well as introducing a simplified method of steel grade specification and a new section designation system.

TATA Steel Limited Strategies:

Competitive Advantages:
Harnessing New and Better Sources of Raw Materials
One of the biggest strengths of Tata Steel was that it had captive sources for all key raw materials: coal, iron ore, and limestone. The company began to harness its unutilized deposits of iron ore at Joda in Orissa. Beginning from the early nineties, this mine was developed as the main source for iron ore.

Innovating to Use Blue Dust
The company had, over the years, accumulated large quantities of very fine iron ore called blue dust (an iron rich ore which is as fine as talcum powder), which was a by-product of iron-ore mining operations. Historically, the mining of ore was done leaving areas of the blue dust. The management decided to explore the possibility of using the blue dust as raw material for its sinter plant. This change resulted in uniform mining operations.

Process Innovation in the Sinter Plant
By benchmarking with the best plants in the world such as Nippon Steel (Japan), CST (Brazil), and Posco (South Korea), the production of the sinter plant was increased by 60 per cent which was as good as having one sinter plant free.

New Coke Making Technology
Until the late eighties, Tata Steel, like all other steel manufacturers in India, was importing large quantities of coking coal as Indian coal has high ash content compared to imported coal and cannot be used as coking coal. Coke is an important part of a steel plant. Besides being used for feeding the blast furnaces, it also generates gas that is used as fuel in the rest of the plant. A programme was launched to use the company’s own poor quality coal (from its captive mines) for making good quality coke. At that point of time, however, there was no technology anywhere in the world that could be used to convert poor quality coal into high grade coke. Tata Steel had to indigenously develop the ‘stamp charging technology’ through painstaking laboratory tests and pilot plant trials over a ten-year period. After successful pilot plant trials, one of the coke ovens was converted to stamp charging. This change to stamp charging involved significant risk. If the technology failed, it would have been a big setback for the company as it would not be possible to revert back to the conventional type of coke oven. The

gamble, however, paid off and all the coke ovens were eventually redone using this new method. The new technology reduced the use of imported coal for coke to a large extent. This has given the company significant sustainable cost advantage because Indian coal is relatively low-cost and the company has an unlimited supply of medium coking coal.

Blast Furnace Optimization
The company took aggressive steps to maximize usage of its blast furnaces. Examples included increasing the production of hot metal from 2,800 tonnes per day (tpd) to 4,000 tpd in Blast Furnace G through process optimization.Since the company’s own iron ore contained high phosphorous, which is not conducive to producing high quality steels, a process was developed to manufacture low phosphorous steel through in-house technology.

Reducing Energy Costs
The company embarked on several steps to become self-sufficient in its fuel needs. Earlier, it used large quantities of liquid fuel from one of the petroleum refineries. Significant process changes enabled the company to totally stop the use of liquid fuels. With a focus on saving energy costs, the company set up an integrated system wherein the gas generated from coke ovens, blast furnaces, and LD converters would provide the fuel needed for other downstream processes. This was a major contributor in reducing the cost of manufacture of steel.

Addressing Overstaffing
The top management of the company was rudely awakened when, in the early nineties, it went overseas to raise US $ 100 million from international investors. Potential investors acknowledged Tata Steel as a good company but were unhappy that it was grossly overstaffed. Its employee strength was well beyond international norms. This prompted the top management to begin to seriously address the issue of headcount in the company. Implementing reduction of manpower was complicated by the fact that Tata Steel was well-known for its employeefriendly human resource policies. The process of workforce reduction had to commence by convincing the workers’ union. The company gave union leaders the full facts about the low productivity of the company vis-àvis global standards. The same message was repeated again and again in various forums for over two years.

These included the Joint Department Councils (JDCs) which are forums involving senior management and workmen, held about 50 times a year, covering different departments and divisions of the company. The union leaders were sent to see for themselves the phenomenal productivity gains of steel makers in South-East Asia and Japan. Based on various initiatives taken, the company set a record for reducing manpower while maintaining the human touch. Its Employee Separation Scheme (ESS) has become a benchmark in terms of its humane approach. From the time of the realization that it had a hugely bloated manpower, it kept dropping its employment figures by a few thousand every year. The manpower was progressively brought down to below 40,000.

Modernization of Facilities
Many of the initiatives discussed above resulted in improving the performance of the existing assets. Simultaneously, the modernization of the facilities became an important focus area. Although the initiative for modernizing the plant started a few years prior to the liberalization of the Indian economy, it gained urgency and momentum during the post-liberalization period as the company had to grapple with the new realities of the environment. The modernization process took over a decade to complete. These were difficult years in terms of cash flows and liquidity. The company resorted to increased borrowings to finance the modernization projects. The hot roll mill (1993) and the cold roll mill (CRM) (2000) were set up to enable the company to move towards the production of higher value-added products.

Creation and Spread of a New Performance Culture
Tata Steel attempted cultural transformation in a very innovative way. When the CRM project was conceived in Jamshedpur, the management thought it appropriate to begin the process of cultural transformation of the company from there. The CRM was fenced off as a ‘new plant’ creating a physical barrier between the new plant and the old one. This was a ‘nursery’ where a new culture was being created. Employees for the CRM plant were especially handpicked from the other parts of the company as well as through fresh recruitment at lower levels. Nearly all the employees who were inducted into the CRM were very young in age. All of them were computer-literate. The number of hierarchical layers in CRM was reduced from over 11 in the rest of the company to just three in the CRM plant. The systems and the working culture in CRM were totally different from those in the rest of the company. The union was requested to hold off and let the new culture develop. Seeing the success of the new culture after three years, the rest of the departments in the company and the

union started asking for the same systems and culture to be implemented across the organization.

Quality and Cost at the Centre-stage
The top management of Tata Steel was part of a delegation organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in the early nineties to study how the Japanese implemented quality. They found vast differences between the quality practices in Japan and India. ISO 9000, which is a quality certification, was not even heard of in India at that time. Thereafter, the CII formed a Quality Division and Tata Steel enrolled as a member. The start was tentative with certain quality systems being implemented and integrated into the company. These were important but rudimentary quality systems. The management did not stop at being content with having the ISO system in place. Instead, it launched several initiatives successively to drive quality firmly into the organization. They were not based on the latest fad but, instead, were deliberate steps introduced as part of a larger design to take the company into higher levels of performance on the two important dimensions of quality and cost. Over a period of time, the company has institutionalized several initiatives related to quality and good practices. These include: value engineering, ISO 9000, benchmarking, quality circles, continuous improvement projects, and cost reduction initiatives.

The Journey towards Excellence
In 1996, the company systematically embarked on the quest for excellence for the organization as a whole through the JRD Tata Quality Value (JRDQV) process which leads to JRDQV Total Quality Award. Managed by the Tata Quality Management Services (TQMS), Pune, for Tata Group companies, the process of qualifying for the JRDQV Award requires the company to successfully pass through exhaustive tests conducted by trained external assessors over a three-month period. Adapted from the stringent Malcolm Baldrige criteria for business excellence, the Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM) covers almost every aspect of a corporation including visionary leadership, focus on the future, focus on results, organizational agility, customer-driven excellence, valuing employees and partners, management by fact, managing innovation, systems perspective, and public responsibility.

Accountability Issues
The willingness of the top management to create total transparency and subject its performance to discipline and scrutiny of the entire organization helped greatly in bringing about a mental transformation in the entire

workforce. The company relies heavily on the balanced scorecard, a performance management and strategy deployment method developed by Robert Kaplan, a Harvard Professor and David Norton, a Consultant, to break down strategy into its component elements and track performance across the organization starting from the Managing Director. It defines KRAs for the top managers which are then cascaded down. The Managing Director’s balanced scorecard is widely known across the company. A similar culture of transparency prevails at other levels as well such as at the Vice President and Departmenthead levels.

Transformation into a Customer-driven Culture
By 1998, the company had successfully made the transition from operating in a seller’s market prior to liberalization to one that was ready to win in a buyer’s market. Tata Steel produces flat products such as hot and cold rolled coils and sheets (66% of sales) and long products in the form of wire rods, rebars, forging quality bars, etc. (34% of sales) to cater to the consuming sectors such as auto/auto ancillaries, consumer durables, construction/infrastructure, capital goods, general engineering, and railways. The delivery system was re-engineered with the help of consultants to cater to customer and market requirements. The changed mindset of the company with respect to customer orientation is illustrated by a huge sign in the company that reads, “If we do not take care of our customers, someone else will”.

Challenge of being Internationally Competitive
With all the steps discussed above, a lot of progress had been made in putting Tata Steel back on track and positioning it strongly to face the emerging competition in India. The plants were modernized with significant investments (over Rs.100 billion over a ten-year period). The company had implemented several initiatives towards quality enhancement. Product delivery was reasonably streamlined. However, the emerging global steel scenario during the late nineties was a cause for concern for the top management. The forces at play during the turn of the century clearly indicated that the steel industry was indeed in dire straits. There was severe pressure on world steel prices. The world steel industry’s cyclical nature had been irrelevant during the pre-liberalization era. However the process of liberalization forced the Indian steel industry to reckon with many factors that were outside its direct control including the various dynamics of the world steel.

Since quality was largely addressed due to the enormous progress made through the various business excellence initiatives, the spotlight now shifted to reducing manufacturing costs and maximizing output from the plants.

Tata Steel: THE QUEST FOR BUSINESS EXCELLENCE

Tata Steels 3C model for excellence More than the use of tools and techniques, Tata Steel’s journey to international competitiveness had much to do with the personal commitment and change-oriented leadership of its top management with an intense focus on the 3Cs: change, costs, and customers. The top management’s checklist for driving change in the company included the following:  Lead the change process and take personal ownership; the responsibility cannot be delegated.  Be the role model and the first to change; personal involvement and investment of time is the key to success.  Create endless opportunities for two-way communication within the company.

 Create a sense of urgency (not panic); embrace change even when it does not appear necessary.  Set up a small hand-picked group to drive change in the organization; train and empower them.  Set key result areas (KRAs) carefully; include the top management in it. In Tata Steel, this is now done through the Managing Director’s balanced scorecard. Through this process, the Managing Director puts himself through the credibility test by including himself in the accountability process.

Retail Value Management:
Tata Steel has redefined steel retailing in the country through its RVM initiative launched in 2002. It has brought order and discipline into the hitherto disorganized retail steel business. While retailing has been central to FMCG and consumer durables for years, there were no practical examples for the company to emulate on how the company should break the shackles of unstructured retail to pioneer a retail story. RVM provides such a stellar example. Tata Steel has found that the actual process of implementing such a significant change in the functioning of the retail channels in the steel business requires investment of considerable resources, time, and effort of the company including its top management.

Essential philosophy of TOP programme In the case of a large corporation such as Tata Steel, it requires a complete change in organizational culture, structure, incentives, and mindset. Tata Steel went for a home-grown process to implement RVM by adopting the TOP methodology (that the company earlier perfected to achieve drastic improvement of its plant operations). Through RVM, it ‘cleaned up’ the working of the retail channels. Of late, selection of market entry points for expansion to rural areas has become a major long– term decision for steel producers. It was 2000–2001 when for the first time the second largest player in Indian steel industry—TATA Steel acknowledged the presence of millions of small retail steel consumers in rural areas and thought of reaching these consumers directly. TATA Steel launched its Retail Value Management (RVM) program in 2002. The purpose of RVM was to redefine the concepts of retailing in steel and upgrade the retail network to more than 4000 retailers across the sub-continent to directly service the rural market (Mandal, 2006). Thus it is imperative to adopt a scientific approach to identify rural market entry points. This research study could be construed as a step in that direction. We envisage the taluka/tehsil/block (henceforth to be referred to as ‘block’) to be the entry points for rural steel retail. Through the RVM process, Tata Steel has attempted to map the market place in detail in terms of current distribution, channel capabilities, retailers, demand intensity and specific customer needs. The focused approach here is to increase the number of foot falls in their shops so that their business grows at a faster pace vis-à-vis other retailers. This requires support to them in terms of advertising, participation in events, authorizing them to represent Tata Steel in panchayats, etc. Tata Steel also conducts specific training programmes for their sales personnel. Continuous consumer research has helped Tata Steel to identify the needs, in the market place. Feeding this information back to the retailers has helped them to further improve their position in the market place.

Customer Value Management:
Through its partnership with SAP, Tata Steel can now offer small and medium sized businesses in the industry, a pre-configured industry specific solution. A unique programme, “World Class Work Force” was launched at the Ferro Alloys Plant, Bamnipal to upgrade the skills of employees to world class standards. The Bearings division has emerged as a preferred supplier with Hero Honda Motors Limited (HHML) and Toyota Motors. Hero Honda has conferred on Tata Steel the status of “Direct OnLine Supplier”. Toyota Qualis has recognised Tata Bearings as a ZERO ppm supplier.

In keeping with the effort of unlocking value through initiatives like Customer Value Management and Retail Value Management, Tata Steel continues to work with customers to assess on-going progress and to generate new ideas that benefit the customers.

CAMs (Customer Account Managers):
“Old way of selling was no longer relevant”.
Hitherto, the focus of the sales-force comprising of CAMs (customer account managers) was on meeting the targets to the company’s business customers. However, the sales were largely based on price, supplies, deliveries, and leveraging the Tata name. Moreover, the company did not focus much on retail markets in the past. The old paradigm of doing business suddenly appeared to have lost its relevance in the changed environment. In the past, lowest price was the basis for obtaining an order. This was further reinforced by the customer’s aggressive approach of treating steel as a commodity product. Thus, supplier-customer relationships, far from being cooperative, were largely transactional. The steel industry, in general, historically operated on a ‘one size-fits-all’ approach. The top management saw that all this had to change and if it could drive the change in the industry, it would emerge as a leader. Two distinct profit centers, viz., flat products and long products were created, each headed by a Vice President (VP), who was responsible for both manufacturing and sales. A key challenge was how the sales force, which was essentially the same set of people from yesteryears, could be energized to take up the new challenges. Based on a detailed analysis of the customer base of Tata Steel, the company came up with the following three categories of business market customers: • Potentially large, long-term accounts called Enterprise Accounts (about 80 accounts). • Commercial accounts called key accounts (about150 accounts). • Distribution (customers accessed through over 50 distributors across the country). The investments made by the company in modernization and various related initiatives in its plant during the recent times had further strengthened its market image as a quality producer. The brand new cold rolling mill of international standards that was commissioned during 2000 was the first of its kind in India. A new galvanizing line, which was part of the cold rolling mill, produced steel of intricate specifications for the first time in the country. This line catered to high-end applications for the automotive and appliance segments. The company made some headway in setting up service centers across the country to deliver products to its customers using the principles of JIT (just-in-time) manufacturing.

These, along with its innovations in processed steel materials as well as technology-related improvements in long and flat products, had positioned Tata Steel as a benchmark of sorts in the Indian steel industry. Yet the predominant mindset of the company with regard to the sales function had not undergone significant transformation vis-à-vis the previous ways of doing things. As Tata Steel had to meet the sales targets at the end of each month, steel would be thrust on to its business market customers at the end of each month even if the customers did not need the material. Consequently, the customers would often find ways to delay the payment. The purchase managers of the customer firms were typically the sole points of contact for Tata Steel’s CAM. It was not uncommon for the customers to squeeze Tata Steel on price frequently demanding a 3 to 5 per cent drop in price each year. With the resulting suspicion on the part of both, it was clear that neither was gaining from the relationship. Customers clearly began to have many options. The company became acutely aware of the fact that it needed to find ways to come out of the commodity trap. The company found answers to these issues and launched customer value management (CVM) initiative for business markets and retail value management (RVM) for its retail markets. CVM and RVM have redefined the way steel is marketed and sold in the country and have placed the company firmly on a trajectory of profitable growth. These were relentlessly driven by the top management and, in a span of about four years, the entire sales and marketing was brought on par with the best practices of the top steel plants anywhere in the world.

Cost of Tata Steel vs. Global Players:
Following the acquisition of Corus, the Company is currently the world’s sixth largest steel company in terms of actual crude steel production, with a global presence in nearly 50 countries and strong market positions in Europe and the Asia Pacific region. As a global producer, the Company’s principal competitors are many of the major global steel manufacturers, including Arcelor Mittal, Nippon Steel, JFE, POSCO and ThyssenKrupp.

Before the acquisition of Corus, TSL was named among the top five steel makers in the world for the last six years and was ranked as the number one world class steel maker in 2001, 2005 and 2006 by World Steel Dynamics, a leading steel information service that specializes in the analysis of the global steel market. Among some of the factors that World Steel Dynamics considers as key parameters of competitiveness are cash operating cost, profitability, balance sheet strength, dominance in home country and region, home market growth, expanding capacity, access to outside funds, cost cutting efforts, environment and safety, liabilities to retired employees, captive iron ore and coal mines, pricing power with large buyers, product quality, skilled and productive workforce and stock market performance. In March 2007, the Company, including Corus, was ranked as the number five world class steel maker by World Steel Dynamics.

Tata Steel Branding steel based on customer focus:
Branding Steel
The profitability of the steel industry in India is generally linked to business cycles, reaping profits when economy is going well and eroding them when it is in depression. In the late 1990s, the Indian steel industry was experiencing a glut in the market which strongly affected the profit margin of all related companies. To reduce its dependence on the external environment and business cycles, Tata Steel adopted a strategy which stressed the following two points: branding its products and moving to high value added products. The company soon realized that a strong customer focus is essential if any branding approach was to be successful. It soon began to introduce internal campaigns in order to bring the customer-centric message to its employees. In the late 1990s, the company launched several internal marketing programs to emphasize customer focus and service. The programs had

taglines such as, “customer first – her haal mein” (Customer comes first in any case), “customer first – her haal mein, her saal” (customer comes first in every case, every year), “customer ki kasam – hain taiyaar hum” (We pledge to the customer that we are ready for him). These are the mantras behind Tata Steel’s success. This transfer from producer logic to customer logic was seen as the path to influence customer behavior for mutual gain. Before jumping on to the brand wagon, Tata Steel set up a branding task force in January 2000 to explore the possibilities of branding Tata Steel products. Only three months later, the task force evolved into a brand management department. Within this department they created the distinct sub functions “market development”‘, “order generation” and “order fulfillment”‘ which were computerized, enabling Tata Steel to reduce its customer response time significantly. The company also initiated the concept of “customer account managers” who were authorized and empowered to solve specific customer grievances immediately. The company furthermore sought to increase customer interaction in order to better understand customer needs and to explore new and improved ways to meet these needs and expectations. Tata’s second area of key focus was to shift into the domain of high value added products. In April 2000, Tata Steel launched its first branded product, along with the commissioning of its CRM plant. Tata Shaktee is their brand for galvanized corrugated sheets. Eight months later the company introduced its second brand, Tata Tiscon (re-bars) for rods used in the construction industry. In February 2003, Tata Steel launched another product brand Tata Steelium. By September 2003, Tata Steel had three products as well as three generic brands in its brand portfolio, as Tata Pipes, Tata Bearings, and Tata Agrico (hand tools and implements) and Tata Wiron (galvanized wire products). “To beat the industry trend in a situation of over supply we need to move away from selling commodities into marketing brands. Even as we will continue to leverage and take to greater heights the value of the Tata brand there will be efforts to create new images and associations for our services our product in current as well as new businesses” The leader of the company had decided that branding the commodity steel would provide them a unique selling proposition in a great way. Branding Steel would help Tata Steel in two big ways: It would help stabilize the flow of revenues even during business downturns, and it would make premium pricing possible. Similar development could be noticed in other steel companies around the world. Usinor Steel, today part of Arcelor Steel conglomerate established in 2000 a clear set of product brands which propelled their sales to new heights. Tata went on a similar road. Because the corporate brand Tata was already associated with various products and attributes the company decided not to put the main focus on it but to create subbrands with separate identities, supported by the corporate brand as co-driver. At that time the Tata group was involved in a wide range of product and service categories ranging from automobiles to software and was one of the biggest industrial houses of the country. They had learned from the European competition that specialty product offerings and strong brand associations had guarded the market against the low cost importers from the Far East. Tata Steel wasn’t the first company to brand its steel in India. Other steel companies are hoping to keep their bottom-line

healthy by producing branded steel in their furnaces that customers will ask for by name. But Tata was pushing ahead with its ambitious plans to ensure that larger quantities of its steel are branded in the coming years. At the beginning, one of the major obstacles Tata Steel had to overcome was its inexperienced marketing personnel. Their knowledge of branding techniques was quite limited and moreover, many of them had doubts about the feasibility of branding steel. As a solution they started several training programs for them and organized seminars and workshops where experienced people from other sectors came and spoke to employees regarding various issues related to branding. It also formed separate marketing teams for its “long” and “flat” products, keeping in view, the different approaches required for both. The positioning reinforces especially the brand’s leadership position, both in the market place and in the minds of the Indian consumer. The communication tools used for the brand launches were primarily print ads and outdoor advertising. Yet, they also created TV commercials that portrayed signs of happy customers and employees reveling in the concern the company had for them. “We also make Steel” was the punch line that signaled the triumphant finale of that TV ad. They also began to engage in community welfare programs. They were instrumental in controlling AIDS in the state of Jharkhand, by their AIDS awareness initiatives. Many such programs for community and employee welfare put Tata Steel well ahead in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility practices in the industry. Around 60 per cent of Tata Steel’s products are sold through contracts – quarterly, half-yearly or annually – and so these products are naturally protected from price fluctuations. It is, therefore, the remaining 40 per cent that are subject to price fluctuations. This is where branding becomes important. Tata Steel is spending between 1 per cent and 1.3 per cent of brand-related turnover to establish the brands, and it pays off. The company claims that as a product example, Tata Agrico currently commands a premium of 15 per cent over competing brands. Company sources say there are plans to increase Agrico’s market share even further than 25 per cent. Keeping customers is only one side of the picture. At another level steel companies have come to believe that branding can create a greater level of awareness and interest at the shop floor level. The theory is that if workers know where their products are headed and what they will be used for, it creates a higher level of commitment. Value Management Tata recognized earl on that their employees were essential assets in the course of becoming more customer-focused. Therefore it adopted a program of Retail Value Management, under which the company provided training to sales people recruited by the retailers to help increase sales. In a region in northern India, for instance, sales teams trained by the company approached local architects and convinced them of the advantages of using more steel, resulting in a doubling of the market share of Tata Tiscon in that region. One of the most important things in branding is to know who you are actually messaging to. One of the major implications that Tata undertook in the course of their branding efforts was a concise target group check and distribution revamp.

Fig. 1 Tata Steel print advertising, source: www.tatasteel.com

The company was actively involved in bothB2B and B2C areas. The B2B customers were mainly automakers Maruti, Telco and Ford, who with their knowledge of steel helped the company to focus on product quality on a holistic way, negotiating for specifications and discussing the advantages of using different grades of steel. When Tata Steel scrutinized its customer base, it revealed the quite common Pareto effect in the allocation of total sales related to customers. Only 200 large industrial customers were providing the big chunk of its total sales – 80 percent – while the remaining 20 percent were contributed to by around 5,000-6,000 smaller customers. The logical consequence was to adopt different sales strategies for B2B and B2C?. For the 200 key accounts that made up for 80 percent of the sales, the company started an extensive Customer Value Management program. Under this program they allocated a whole team consisting of people from various departments of the company to one customer.

Future Prospects From the beginning, the branding initiative of Tata Steel showed impressive results. Tata Steel’s corporate sustainability report for 2003-04 states that the sale of branded products increased by 84 per cent. This resulted in a share of branded products as a percentage of total turnover of 22 percent in that fiscal year. The future expectations and prospects of the company are also very positive. Today, Tata Steel is already one of the best branded names in steel industry and has already started initiatives in the co-branding arena with high end customers like Ashok Leyland and Telco. Looking to the future, Tata Steel has announced that the company would be focusing on co-branding initiatives with its high-end customers such as Telco, Ashok Leyland. Company sources say that initially Tata Steel would be focusing on the automobile sector; later the co-branding initiative will be expanded to the consumer durables sector also. Just recently, in November 2005, Tata Steel and BlueScope Steel announced that they have agreed to enter into a partnership and form a new Joint Venture company in India. The 50/50 Joint Venture Company will build a new business across India and South Asia that will manufacture zinc/aluminum metallic coated steel, painted steel and rolls formed steel products, and deliver pre-engineered buildings (PEBs) and other building solutions. The new company will offer a comprehensive range of branded steel products for building and construction applications. The steel industry has been racing along at a surprisingly high speed during recent years, largely due to the huge buying from China. Tata Steel has also done extraordinarily well as the industry

moved upwards, but the next big challenges are already seen on the horizon: global reach with global branding.

Corporate Sustainability:
Regarded globally as a benchmark in corporate social responsibility, Tata Steel's commitment to the community remains the bedrock of its hundred years of sustainability. Its mammoth social outreach programme covers the company-managed city of Jamshedpur and over 800 villages in and around its manufacturing and raw materials operations through uplift initiatives in the areas of income generation, health and medical care, education, sports, and relief. The Company, fully conscious of its responsibilities to the future generations, has always taken proactive measures to ensure optimum utilization of natural resources. This is reflected in the ISO-14001 certification that all its operations have achieved for environment management. The SA 8000 certification for work conditions and improvements in the workplace at the steel works in Jamshedpur, along with its Ferro Alloys and Minerals Division, is a reiteration of its commitment towards the Company's employees. Tata Steel has pioneered numerous employee welfare measures such as the 8 hours working day and the three tier joint consultation system of management which have been the platform for nearly 80 years of industrial harmony in its Steel Works in Jamshedpur.

Having espoused the philosophy of Sustainable Development, the Company’s operations, including all its out locations are inextricably interlinked with the progress of the enterprise, the welfare of the people and the health of the environment. As global initiatives in promoting responsible business gather momentum, Tata Steel stands as a beacon of social and environmental commitment, not only in India but across the world as well. Today, Tata Steel is well positioned to take forward its 100-year ethos with renewed vigor, having formally integrated its economic, environmental and social performance reporting. Tata Steel’s commitment to sustainable development and growth is amply reflected in its Vision. The Company has identified and is proactively engaged in addressing economic sustainability, environmental concern and the social needs of its stakeholders. The core issue, however, identified by Tata Steel, which underpins all these is Value Balancing; such that long-term partnerships are established with its stakeholders.

Sustainability has also been integrated into the business systems at Tata Steel. Inputs from stakeholders through formal and informal processes allow the Company to focus on their concerns, to identify issues and delineate strategic objectives. Vision into reality: Tata Steel is Asia’s first and India’s largest private sector integrated steel manufacturer. The Company in 2008 co-created a shared vision with its employees of becoming a global benchmark in Value Creation and Corporate Citizenship. Although the Corporate Citizenship concept in Tata Steel has evolved considerably over the years, it has been reinforced by goal setting, measurement and reporting across the organization. Sustainable Development, through the improvement of the quality of life of its employees and the communities it serves, is enshrined within it. To translate this Vision into reality, Tata Steel has altered paradigms, repositioned benchmarks and has re-evaluated its core competencies.

TBEM:
According to a report by World Steel Dynamics (WSD), in April 2001, Tata Steel(TISCO) was ranked as the world's lowest cost producer of steel (Refer Exhibit I). TISCO's operating cost at the 'hot metal' (liquid) stage was $75 per tonne. The company's cost per tonne of finished steel stood at $152 in the financial year 2001. The ranking was based on several factors including low operating costs, special company culture, good profitability, skilled and productive workforce, high quality and niche products and proactive and experienced management. According to the media reports, TISCO's achievement of becoming the lowest cost producer of steel in the world was mainly attributed to the company's successful implementation of the Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM). Based on the Malcolm Baldrige Award, TBEM aimed at establishing a link between business performance and individual performance. TISCO was the first and only Tata group company to achieve the JRD QV award (Refer Exhibit II) in 2000, having scored 616 points out of 1000 points on the TBEM scale. The adoption of TBEM had helped not only TISCO, but also several other companies in the Tata group (Refer Exhibit III) in enhancing the quality of their business processes. The objective of TBEM was to facilitate every Tata group company achieve business excellence and establish themselves as leaders in their respective industries. The implementation of TBEM had benefited several Tata group companies by improving their productivity significantly. R Gopalakrishnan, Executive Director, Tata Sons Limited,5 commented on the benefits of TBEM: "The renewal of Tata group is principally on the basis of TBEM. The model itself is under constant updation so as to keep itself fresh, vibrant, and contemporary. The model has done a great deal of good for the Tata group as a whole." The significance of 'organizational excellence' was not much appreciated in the corporate sector as late as 1982, when Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman's book, 'In Search of Excellence' was published.

Earlier, organizations focused on a single aspect to improve quality, for example, improving product and process, or systems quality. However, focusing only on a single aspect was considered insufficient in improving the overall organizational performance. Peters and Waterman proposed that there was a need for a broad-based business excellence model for businesses that should focus on an organization-wide thrust to improve quality. In 1987, Malcolm Baldrige proposed a business excellence model for achieving organizational excellence in quality management. Companies that successfully adopted the model were given the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality (MBNQ) Value Award, introduced in the US in 1988. This award was conferred exclusively on the US-based companies.

Further to the above developments, the Tata Group introduced the Tata Business Excellence Model in 1996. By implementing TBEM, the management of the Group aimed at bringing about organizational transformation, which was necessitated by the rising global competition. The objective of TBEM was to improve the performance and efficiency of the Tata Group in various business areas and to enable them to successfully overcome the global competitive challenges. However, the management felt that the attitudes and perceptions of people had to be changed first before a major change could be brought about in the functioning of the organization.

Business excellence has been embedded in the Tata Group through a holistic methodology that enables companies to heed the call of quality. We have adopted the Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM) to achieve well-defined levels of business excellence. TBEM is a framework defining the quality movement in the TATA Group. It has been adapted in the early 1990’s from the renowned Malcolm Baldrige archetype. The Model works under the aegis of Tata Quality Management Services (TQMS), an in-house organisation mandated to help different Tata companies achieve their business objectives through specific processes. The TBEM methodology has been moulded to deliver strategic direction and drive business improvement. It contains elements that enable us to capture the best of global business processes and practices. It translates into an ability to evolve and stay in step with ever-changing business performance parameters.

Prioritisation, Target Setting & Senior Management Review:
Sustainable development is about adding value to our products and services with focus on customers, shareholders, employees and local community in which we operate and more widely to regional and national development. Our Policies, Statement of Purpose, Vision and Mission statements are deployed through a well-structured and defined business model called Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM). These statements act as guiding principles for development of organizational structure and action plan with clear-cut delineation of responsibilities and authorities. Sustainability concerns are built into the model through “Leadership” that is founded on Tata Values, Code of Conduct, Policies and Guidelines. The management leadership prioritises the concerns of stakeholders based on current business needs market situation and the need to improve the quality of life of the “communities Tata Steel serves”. The targets are set based on the historical data, technological and financial constraints and the industry benchmark as shown below:

Style in steel
Steeljunction, the new steel retail outlet from Tata Steel, combines innovation, functionality and style, to offer a never-before range in steel lifestyle products

Next time you're in Kolkata and want to buy some jewellery, you might want to hop across to check out the spanking new steel mall. Yes, you heard it right. Steel is no longer restricted to unglamorous kitchens and washrooms. Steeljunction has made it a trendy product that makes a lifestyle statement. India's first organized steel retail store, you can shop for stylized furniture, objects d'art, kitchenware, crockery and cutlery, bath fittings, garden tools, fitness equipment, home security products and wire products. There's also jewellery, some of which is even stone-studded. The mall has two levels. The ground level has the more functional home construction and maintenance products department, while level one houses the home aesthetics department. Wide aisles, a warm ambience, concept kiosks with innovative product displays and pleasant sales personnel to answer your queries make shopping here a happy experience. The mall has thoughtfully provided ramps for wheelchair access. Tata Group Chairman Ratan Tata described it as an impressive and farsighted initiative. He said, "I am proud to know that Tata Steel is paving the way and stretching the envelope to show how steel touches us in our daily life." The idea took shape in November 2004, when Tata Steel managing director B Muthuraman approved the concept of a steel retail store. A retail initiatives department was formed, and the mall opened a year later. Says Sumit Ray, chief, retail initiatives, "The project seeks to cover the last mile of the distribution channel that has been meticulously developed by Tata Steel. It will help in building an emotional connect with the end customer." In this new avatar, steel has struck a chord right away. What catch people's fancy is its beauty, low maintenance and eco-friendliness. Mr. Ray elaborates: "The key objective is to support Tata Steel's quest to catalyze steel consumption in India's emerging mass market and to build downstream retailing excitement for steel as a category." The vision is to create a unique retail experience displaying the versatility of steel, from its functionality to its aesthetics.

It's not just retailing. steeljunction also serves as a platform for vendors and manufacturers to understand consumer behavior. It helps them to innovate and develop newer products and services that add value to the end customer. It makes steel buying a pleasant experience. The mall gets an average of 400-plus footfalls daily. Sales have been brisk and continue to grow at 20 per cent. The clientele is varied, from local contractors to high-end interior designers. Steeljunction also caters to bulk orders from small and medium enterprises (SMEs), restaurant owners, offices and hospitals. A unique feature of the store is the Knowledge Centre, which offers a wide range of information on things related to steel. But it has a more critical role to play than merely sharing steel trivia. The centre designs and hosts a variety of in-store promotions and programmes to attract increased footfalls. It studies buyer needs and behavior, develops systems and processes, and shares this with retailers and distributors. This, it is hoped, will boost steel retailing at large. The sections in the store are arranged in real-life settings. The concept, believes the team, makes the wares on display much more appealing. Designed by Manashi Interiors, the décor is similar to any upmarket mall. Steeljunction even boasts of its own coffee counter that, incidentally, is Café Nescafe's first outlet in Kolkata. Besides Tata Steel brands, the mall showcases wares from other steel makers. Shoppers can choose products from Tata Agrico, Parryware, Magpie, Ess Ess, Art-d-inox, Tata Tiscon, Taparia Tools, Godrej, GKW, Neelam, Faber, Franke, ST Unicom, and Glen, to name a few. Steeljunction hopes to forge better relationships and partnerships, to develop new products and increase its offerings. It is also working with architects to explore ways to increase use of the metal in the construction sector. So far, the going has been good. The retail initiatives department hopes to set up a few more stores across the country soon. "We will keep a close watch on the progress of this store and use the experience to roll out more stores across India," says Mr. Ray. Steeljunction's small but exuberant team is enthusiastic, and is rooting for more in the months to come. So, the next time you need bathroom fittings, kitchenware, furniture and gardening tools, and this store could be a one-stop destination. Rest assured, your visit will be rewarding.

Knowledge Management in Tata Steel:

Tata Steel decided to embark on formal KM initiative in the year 1999. The beginning was made in July’99 to place a Knowledge Management (KM) programme for the company to systematically & formally share and transfer learning concepts, best practices and other implicit knowledge. The emphasis on knowledge management was clearly demonstrated in 1999 while coining the vision statement of the company – which read “Tata Steel enters the new millennium with the confidence of learning and knowledge based organization…..” Then followed the new vision statement, co-created by the employees in 2001 (which again identified ‘Manage Knowledge’ as one of the main pillars in strategy to become EVA+ by 2007. This clearly indicated the thrust Senior Management wanted on an initiative like KM. . The essence of Knowledge management is to capture the available abundant knowledge assets either in form of tacit (experience, learning from failure, thumb rules, etc.) or explicit (literature, reports, failure analysis etc.), to organize and transform the captured knowledge, and to facilitate its usage at right place and at the right time.

Phases of Knowledge Management
Starting from a small sapling in 1999, the KM system of Tata Steel underwent a lot of improvements, and changes. In the process, it passed through many learning phases to reach its current state. The various phases of KM spiral at Tata Steel are shown in Fig 2. In its latest phase, the Knowledge Management has been identified as one of the main enablers to make

Tata Steel self reliant in technology which will enable the company become a global player in near future.

Stakeholders in KM
Tata Steel aims at capturing knowledge from various working groups and outside agencies who play a major role in day-to-day functioning. The major stakeholders covered under KM being:       Senior Management Officers Employees (Supervisors & Workmen) Customers Supplier Experts (In & outside company)

Opportunity of knowledge transfer
Tata Steel’s knowledge management initiative is driven by its corporate KM group which attempts to cover all possible opportunities of knowledge generation in and outside the steel works. The primary sources being: Day-to-day operation Learning from failure Published Papers by employees (National and International publications) Task Force/Consultant/Technical Groups Engineering Project Knowledge Sharing across the value chain: Tata Steel defines its value chain as a connected series of internal and external organizations, resources, and knowledge streams involved in creation and delivery of value to end customers. It includes the organization’s suppliers and customers. In fact, one of the organization’s strategic goals is to develop value-creating partnerships with customers and suppliers. Tata Steel developed two programs in particular to help manage knowledge across its value chain: the customer value management (CVM) program and its supplier value management (SVM) program.

Improvement Activities Knowledge generated through Suggestions, Small Group Activity,etc.

The most important milestone in the company's history is its transition from a company operating in a controlled economy to one that is flourishing in a globally competitive environment. The quality of Tata Steel’s products was not the best and cost of production was high. A culture of continuous improvement was ushered into the company. Apart from quality

circles, value engineering and quality improvement projects, the Company undertook a programme called 'Total Operating Performance' (TOP) which help in increasing our focus of cost and improving throughput.

Within the Tata Group, Tata Steel was in fact one of the first to adopt the Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM). It helped Tata Steel to detail its business processes, benchmark with the best and improve them. In the last few years we have adopted several other initiatives such as TPM, Six Sigma, Aspire and Theory of Constraints. The Company is now in the process of bringing improvement initiatives under a single umbrella of Aspire T3 which comprises TOC, TQM and Technology to enthuse its people to newer heights of excellence. ASPIRE includes improvement tools like Suggestion Management, VE, TOP, Six Sigma, TPM, Knowledge Management, TOC and some others. The broad improvement processes relate to TQM principles of Daily Management, Policy Management, Problem solving and Task achieving under the Aspire model.

The various improvement initiatives adopted by Tata Steel which are recognized as Aspire Tools are:   Value Engineering (VE): Value Engineering is an organized approach for identification and elimination of unnecessary cost. QIP, QC & Benchmarking: Tata Steel adopted Juran Trilogy concept for undertaking Quality Improvement Projects (QIP). Quality Circles (QC) are small group activities which involves first-line employees who continually control and improve the quality of their work, products and services. Benchmarking is a process of exploring for best practices and performances across the world and putting systematic efforts to bridge the gap. Total Operational Performance (TOP): Total Operational Performance initiative was launched in 1998 with the help of McKinsey. Major focus of this initiative was on cost reduction, quality & throughput improvement. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): TPM is an approach to maintenance that optimises equipment effectiveness, eliminates breakdowns and promotes autonomous maintenance by operators through day to day activities involving the total workforce. Knowledge Management (KM): Tata Steel decided to embark on formal KM initiative in the year 1999. The beginning was made in July ’99 to place a Knowledge Management (KM) program for the company and systematically as well as formally share and transfer learning concepts, best practices and other implicit knowledge. Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control (DMAIC): The fundamental objective of the DMAIC methodology is the implementation of a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction. Define-Measure-Analyse-Design-Improve-Control (DMADIC): This tool is based on Design for Six Sigma Philosophy. DMADIC focus is predominantly on design aspects. It is generally used for Task Achieving Projects like New Product Development, New Market Development etc. TOP in Marketing: Launched in 2002 with the help of McKinsey, TOP in Marketing was the first new ASPIRE initiative launched with a focus on creating value through partnership with customers. Supplier Value Management (SVM): This aims to reduce costs and resources in the entire value chain of supplier and Tata Steel. Value creation is focused through better understanding of customer (internal) requirements and supplier capabilities. Quality Management Systems (QMS): Quality Management Systems as required, like ISO 9000, TS16949, OSHAS, ISO 14000 etc. are adopted by various units to establish basic management systems. Small Group Activities (SGA): Small Group Activities (SGA) are promoted under daily management through SGA teams who meet, identify, discuss and implement small

improvements (Kaizens) in the area of work. QC circles and TPM circles are known as SGA teams. ASPIRE T3: ASPIRE T3 Launched in November, 2006 this initiative focuses on implementation of Theory of Constraints (TOC), Total Quality Management (TQM) and Technology. This will help the company to become more competitive and a global leader by achieving excellence in product & service quality. TQM & Technology will help to achieve superior product quality through process consistency, process capability and technological capability, whereas service quality is being focused through TOC implementation. J. N. Tata / S. Vishwanathan Total Quality Assurance Process: Tata Steel has instituted J N Tata / S Vishwanathan Total Quality Assurance process. This process is developed in line with Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM) which is based on US Govt. Malcolm Baldridge Model. Deming Assessment: This assessment is done by Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) for the companies implementing TQM practices and applying for Deming Application Prize.

THE TATA WAY: EVOLVING AND EXECUTING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS STRATEGIES
The TATA way

Why do so few corporations do business the Tata way? There is a catch. First, every single employee working for TATA companies, from the CEO to the most recent intern share in the deep values of their leaders, still a guidepost for every new project within the group. Second, Tata companies have evolved a collective commitment to evolving stronger connections between their values and first- in-class business practice – not by putting either one ahead of the other, but by finding mutually beneficial bridges between them.
“In a free enterprise, the community is not just another stakeholder in business, but is in fact the very purpose of its existence.” Jamsetji N. Tata (Founder, Tata Group, 1868) “The Tata philosophy of management has always been and is today more than ever, that corporate enterprises must be managed not merely in the interests of their owners, but equally in those of their employees, of the customers of their products, of the local community and finally of the country as a whole.” – J. R. D. Tata

Starting in the early 1990s, the group has invested in structures and processes that would gradually align its pro-social and pro-environmental values with excellence in business endeavors. These efforts culminated in 2003 with the introduction of The Tata Index for Sustainable Human Development, a pioneering effort aimed at directing, measuring and enhancing the community work that assists all TATA companies in their social responsibility efforts. The index had been developed by the TATA Council for Community Initiatives (TCCI), a council of Tata companies CEOs chaired by Mr. Kishor Chaukar, in partnership with TATA Quality Management Services (TQMS). Since June 2004, the Tata Index has been deployed annually to assure continuous improvement in the delivery of social responsibility initiatives at the company level. In 2005, reporting companies averaged almost half of its intended goal, i.e. 452.95 points on a 1000 point scale, with companies scoring as high as 712 (Tata Steel). In 2006/07, TCS scored 490. Tata Motors, now at 663, was one of the best performers on corporate sustainability within the group. The purpose behind the Index was to seed new benchmarks and motivate continuous innovation in sustainability across each company’s operations. TCCI offered a common platform where each company could share their challenges and achievements with the others and would learn how to nurture stronger internal leadership structures that promoted business excellence “the TATA way”.

The idea of explicitly tracking social impact originated with Tata Sons. Under the Chairmanship of Mr. Ratan N. Tata, the Group searched for a new way to harness collective synergies among the Tata companies. This led to the Business Excellence Model (TBEM), a detailed business process reform which began formalizing the set of core values that the Tatas had lived by for over a century. One of the offshoots of this effort was the adoption of a more systematic, unified TATA approach to CSR, rooted in Jamsetji Tata’s social legacy, and the creation of the Tata Index for Sustainable Human Development, a trendsetting approach to mapping and measuring the social development endeavours of Tata Group companies. The Index itself was a remarkable innovation. First, it broke down sustainability responses into three nested levels: systems (275/1000), people (175/1000) and program (550/1000), making it easy to measure, and easy to identify areas for improvement.

Source: TCCI, February 2008.

Second, the indexation exercise places great emphasis on process – not just outcomes. For example, here is how a company might apply the index to its own operations: For each assessment, the Corporate Sustainability Facilitator representing a Tata company and the Community Head for the project would also identify specific opportunities for improvement. These might read: “The Company mentions of a regular convention of review. However, it is not clear as to how the review findings are incorporated into Company’s strategy.” or “The Company trains its Facilitators / project leaders for leadership. However, it is not clear how the training imparted is actually benefiting them.” or “The Company declares ‘underprivileged women’ as its key community. However, there is no evidence on the process of identification of this community.” or “The Company states that the key community has

benefited in terms of self-reliance. However, it is not clear as to how the key community has actually built self-reliance.”
Figure 2: Example of Tata Company Self-Assessment using the Tata Index Scores Process Outcomes Total

Assurance Item Systems Level Response 1 2 3 4 Leadership is by example Deployment through networking and commitment Strategy to build lasting businesses Accountability towards value creation Total for Systems Reponse: People Level Response 1 2 3 4 Put the best people! Train and empower them! Make them Leaders! Most employees are like that! Total for People Reponse: Program Level Response 1 2 3 4 Managing Risks Opportunities to serve people Build Community and Livelihoods Encourage entrepreneurs and self-employment Total for Program Reponse: Source: TCCI, February 2008.

23 14 12 13 62

16 12 8 12 48

39 26 20 25 110

10 9 10 8 37

8 7 4 4 23

18 16 14 12 60

28 44 25 34 131

25 30 21 23 99

53 74 46 57 230

Each project leader is responsible for understanding the specific concerns of each community, defining the key beneficiaries, and placing a clear focus on how a company’s core capabilities would contribute to a specific need. They would specify tangible measures both in terms of what will actually be done and in terms of the human achievement. The project leader will also determine the human excellence indicators and clearly identify which aspects have clear sustainability payoffs for the community engaged. Why do Tata companies care so much? Because that is the Tata way – and because their employees are trusted (and expected) to approach their tasks and their volunteering with

society in mind. They do not do something because it pays. They do it because it matters – to their business model, to their own development as leaders, and to the legacy their company wants to leave behind. This selflessness may catch cynics by surprise, but it is part and parcel of forging a strong connection between sustainability and competitiveness. Much like, “Think not what society can do for your company, but what your company can do for society.” There has been recent recognition by Harvard Business School professors Clayton Christensen and Michael Porter, among others, that such an orientation can trigger disruptive innovations. At Tata, the Index has made the disruption itself a way of doing business, to ensure that Tatas’ commitment to sustainable business will expand in the future and across its increasingly global base of operations. How do you develop Leaders for Corporate Sustainability? At Tata, this is a two-fold approach. On the one hand, the Index encourages a proactive application of the Tata Business Excellence model in ways that promote positive social and environmental contributions. Annual scoring ensures constant process improvement. The assessment triggers company-wide workouts that help strategic leaders work with their internal teams to jointly identify major risks, opportunities and innovations that can meet both sustainability and business excellence objectives. Using this collective understanding, the leaders then formulate a 3-5 year corporate sustainability strategy for their organization. This gives their company a more sustainable edge (competitively, socially and environmentally). It also gradually widens their own leadership bandwidth to make a larger difference in their community and competitive context by setting new standards of what businesses can achieve. On the other hand, the Corporate Sustainability Leadership Profile guides their personality footprints to trigger a virtuous cycle of enhanced goodwill and reputation. First, the leaders assume responsibility for themselves and their leadership team, and work personally to tighten convergence between the trained corporate sustainability facilitators and their unit’s business excellence goals. They lead for sustainability by example – through involvement in volunteering initiatives and through regular integration of sustainability issues in business meetings. Their performance on corporate sustainability is reviewed periodically (including their ability to promote and recognize such leadership among their subordinates). There is even a flowchart showing how any organizations can systematically implement leadership for sustainability. At Tata, the Leadership Protocol translates the group mission statement into executable leadership for sustainability: “The Tata name is a unique asset representing leadership with trust. Leveraging this asset to enhance Group synergy and becoming globally competitive is the route to sustained growth and long-term success.” (Group Mission Statement, 2007). Projects like the Nano or adult literacy in 40 hours do not happen by chance. But they can happen by design.

Figure 3: The Tata Corporate Sustainability Leadership Profile: Process of Deployment

Source: TCCI, February 2008.

Tata companies have unleashed a virtuous cycle of evolution and execution of sustainability strategies. The Index assesses and guides sustainability-enhancing processes; the Leadership Profile articulates the steps for strengthening leadership capabilities. By embedding a societyminded logic to value creation, Tata have given back many-fold to society. Their learning in turn has strengthened their corporate identity, and encouraged bold steps in rethinking transportation, information technology, or steel manufacturing. Could your company follow their lead and make a difference? The Tata’s approach is simple, but it is not easy. You can position your firm for a lasting competitive advantage by deliberately embedding sustainability assessments in both operations and leadership. Taking a comprehensive approach helps you indentify and configure the various capabilities needed to create value sustainably – in systems, people and programs. And if your company is not changing fast enough, you can. Become the change you wish to see, and lead others by example: Take a holistic view of value creation. Demonstrate unusual creativity in solving tough problems for society. Practice strong ethical leadership with a deep sense of human purpose. Recalibrate the connection between your inner self and your footprints.

Innovative Market Place Initiatives:
For Retail Customers:
Innovation with Retail Customers such as Distributors, Retailers, End Customer, Fabricator, Smaller OE’s has been done by: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) E- Linking the distributors Retail Value Management Brand Management Recommended Consumer Price Retail Identity Programme

For Institutional Customers: Key Accounts are handled using innovations like:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Customer Value Management Advanced Planning System Dedicated Service Centres Tie-up with global majors for highend products EVI for the Auto Segment Long tem Contracting

Sustainable Development:
Having espoused the philosophy of Sustainable Development, the Company’s operations, including all its outlocations are inextricably interlinked with the progress of the enterprise, the welfare of the people and the health of the environment. As global initiatives in promoting responsible business gather momentum, Tata Steel stands as a beacon of social and environmental commitment, not only in India but across the world as well. Today, Tata Steel is well positioned to take forward its 100-year ethos with renewed vigour, having formally integrated its economic, environmental and social performance reporting. Tata Steel’s commitment to sustainable development and growth is amply reflected in its Vision. The Company has identified and is proactively engaged in addressing economic sustainability, environmental concern and the social needs of its stakeholders.

The core issue, however, identified by Tata Steel, which underpins all these is Value Balancing; such that long-term partnerships are established with its stakeholders. Sustainability has also been integrated into the business systems at Tata Steel. Inputs from stakeholders through formal and informal processes allow the Company to focus on their concerns, to identify issues and delineate strategic objectives.

Human Resource Innovations:
Over the years Tata Steels have done pioneering innovations in HR stream and have set standards and benchmarks for the industry to follow. Some of the initiatives started were: 1912 - 8 hour workday 1916 - Social Welfare Scheme launched for employees 1920 - Leave with pay 1934 - Profit Sharing bonus 1934 - Tata Steel responded to earthquake in its Bihar province with relief supplies 1951 - Planned family norms promoted at community level 1970 – Included Corporate Social Responsibility in its Articles of Association 1958 - 225 acre Jubilee park created for the citizens of Jamshedpur 1979 - Launched concerted rural development initiatives 1995- Tata Business Excellence Model - makes sustainable growth a priority and has I included this in its Key Enterprises Process 1999- Tata Code of Conduct - mandates good governance ethical behavior by organiz organizations as well as each and every employee 1995- Tata Council for Community Initiatives – provides the superstructure for CSR efforts across the Group 2003- Tata Index for Sustainable Development - a CSR measure adopted across the Tata Group

eff

G

Many landmarks in Labour Welfare:
1915 - Free Medical Aid to all employees and dependent family members 1917 - Welfare Department set up 1956 - Joint Consultation instituted with Union Management Agreement 1990 - Incentive for Higher Technical Education 2001 - Family Benefit Scheme 2003 - R D Tata Technical Education Centre 2003 - Initiated process for SA 8000 certification 2004 - Completed 75 years of Industrial Harmony 2004 - Inserted clause against Sexual Harassment in the Works Standing Order

Corporate Social Responsibility Policy
“Tata Steel believes that the primary purpose of a business is to improve the quality of life of people. Tata Steel will volunteer its resources, to the extent that it can reasonably afford, to sustain and improve a healthy and prosperous environment and to improve the quality of life of the people of the areas in which it operates.”

Areas of Impact
o o o o o o o o o Environment Employee Relations Stimulating Economic Growth Civic Amenities & Community Service Population Management Sports and Adventure Health for All Relief During Natural Calamities Education / Arts and Culture

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