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DC Power Supply - AC to DC Converter

Any invention of latest technology cannot be activated without the source of power.
So in this fast moving world we deliberately need a proper power source which will be
apt for a particular requirement. All the electronic components starting from diode to
only wor with a !C supply ranging from "# to $%#.&e are utili'ing for the same( the
cheapest and commonly available energy source of %)*#-"*+' and stepping down(
rectifying( filtering and regulating the voltage. . ,icrocontroller operates at -"v !C
also for other ICs and displays. A %%*v ac to $%-*-$%v transformer is used and for
rectification( four diodes I./**0 are connected for rectification of the step down ac
supply. 1ilter capacitor of $***2f is used. It is regulated to -"v using a regulator
*.$ 21 capacitor is used for filtration of high frequency noise. 4he power supply
is shown below.
A bridge rectifier coupled with a step down transformer is used for our design. 4he
voltage rating of transformer used is *-$%# and the current rating is "**mA. &hen AC
voltage of %)*# is applied across the primary winding an output AC voltage of $%# is
obtained. 8ne alteration of input causes the top of transformer to be positive and the
bottom negative. 4he ne9t alteration will temporarily cause the reverse.
In the power supply unit( rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode.
!iode has the property that will let the electron flow easily at one direction at proper
biasing condition. :ridge rectifiers of / diodes are used to achieve full wave
4wo diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the other two will conduct
the positive half cycle.
1iltering unit:-
1ilter circuit which is usually a capacitor acts as a surge arrester always follows
the rectifier unit. 4his capacitor is also called as a decoupling capacitor or a bypass
capacitor( is used not only to short the ripple with frequency to ground but also leave
frequency of the !C to appear at the output.
4he voltage regulators play an important role in any power supply unit. 4he primary
purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in providing a constant
voltage to the device. 7ower supplies without regulators have an inherent problem of
changing !C voltage values due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the
line voltage. &ith a regulator connected to !C output( the voltage can be maintained
within a close tolerant region of the desired output. IC 03*" and 03$% regulators are
in this pro;ect for providing a !C voltage of -"# and -$%# respectively.
4echnical !etails:-
4ransformer: %)*<$% volts step down transformer( $ ampere
!iodes: I. /**0
#oltage regulators: 03= Series 03$%: 4he 03$% supplies $% volts at % amp ma9imum
with an input of $)-%" volts
03*": 4he 03*" supplies " volts at $ amp ma9imum with an input of 0-%" volts
5lectrolytic Capacitors: $**p1( ))*p1 and $**>1( power rating of %"#.
? @ives a well regulated -$%# and -"# output voltages
? :uilt in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator IC gets too hot.
? #ery stable output voltages( reliable operation
? 4he circuit has overload and thermal protection.
Difference Between CMOS and TTL
Circuitary and logics
TTL stands for Transistor-Transistor Logic.It is a classification of integrated circuits. The
name is derived from the use of two Bipolar Junction Transistors or BJTs in the design
of each logic gate. CMOS Complementar! Metal O"ide Semiconductor# is also another
classification of ICs that uses $ield %ffect Transistors in the design.
A Not gate TTL Circuit
The primar! advantage of CMOS chips to TTL chips is in the greater densit! of logic
gates within the same material. & single logic gate in a CMOS chip can consist of as
little as two $%Ts while a logic gate in a TTL chip can consist of a su'stantial num'er of
parts as e"tra components li(e resistors are needed.
TTL chips tend to consume a lot more power compared to CMOS chips especiall! at
rest. The power consumption of a CMOS chip can var! depending on a few factors.
One ma)or factor in the power consumption of a CMOS circuit is the cloc( rate* with
higher values resulting to higher power consumption. T!picall!* a single gate in a CMOS
chip can consume around +,n- while an e.uivalent gate on a TTL chip can consume
around +,m- of power. That is such a huge margin* which is wh! CMOS is the
preferred chip in mo'ile devices where power is supplied '! a limited source li(e a
CMOS chips are a 'it more delicate compared to TTL chips when it comes to handling
as it is .uite suscepti'le to electrostatic discharge. /eople often unwittingl! damage
their CMOS chips from simpl! touching the terminals as the amount of static electricit!
needed to damage CMOS chips are too minute for people to notice.
The prominence of CMOS chips has pushed TTL chips to the 'ac(ground. Instead of
'eing the primar! IC of choice* it is now used as components that lin( the whole circuit
as 0glue logic1. CMOS chips that emulate the TTL logic has also gained prominence and
is slowl! replacing most TTL chips. These chips have similar name to their TTL
e.uivalent so that users can easil! identif! them.
A Set of CMOS ICs
+. TTL circuits utili3e BJTs while CMOS circuits utili3e $%Ts.
4. CMOS allows a much higher densit! of logic functions in a single chip compared to
5. TTL circuits consumes more power compared to CMOS circuits at rest.
6. CMOS chips are a lot more suscepti'le to static discharge compared to TTL chips.
7. There are CMOS chips that have TTL logic and are meant as replacements for TTL
An Example of TTL IC
Posted 13th May 2012 by Ash
Labels: cmos difference between CMOS and TTL electronic basics lectronics learn electronics
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Capacitor and its Types
The capacitor's function is to store electricity, or electrical energy
The capacitor also functions as a filter, passing alternating current !AC", an# $loc%ing
#irect current !&C"
This sym$ol is use# to in#icate a capacitor in a circuit #iagram
The capacitor is constructe# 'ith t'o electro#e plates facing eachother, $ut separate#
$y an insulator
(hen &C )oltage is applie# to the capacitor, an electric charge is store# on each
electro#e (hile the capacitor is charging up, current flo's The current 'ill stop flo'ing
'hen the capacitor has fully charge#
(hen a circuit tester, such as an analog meter set to measure resistance, is connecte#
to a *+ microfara# !,-" electrolytic capacitor, a current 'ill flo', $ut only for a moment
.ou can confirm that the meter's nee#le mo)es off of /ero, $ut returns to /ero right
(hen you connect the meter's pro$es to the capacitor in re)erse, you 'ill note that
current once again flo's for a moment Once again, 'hen the capacitor has fully
charge#, the current stops flo'ing So the capacitor can $e use# as a filter that $loc%s
&C current !A 0&C cut0 filter"
1o'e)er, in the case of alternating current, the current 'ill $e allo'e# to pass
Alternating current is similar to repeate#ly s'itching the test meter's pro$es $ac% an#
forth on the capacitor Current flo's e)ery time the pro$es are s'itche#
The )alue of a capacitor !the capacitance", is #esignate# in units calle# the -ara# ! - "
The capacitance of a capacitor is generally )ery small, so units such as the microfara# !
*+23- ", nanofara# ! *+24- ", an# picofara# !*+2*5- " are use#
6ecently, an ne' capacitor 'ith )ery high capacitance has $een #e)elope# The
Electric &ou$le Layer capacitor has capacitance #esignate# in -ara# units These are
%no'n as 0Super Capacitors0
Sometimes, a three2#igit co#e is use# to in#icate the )alue of a capacitor There are
t'o 'ays in 'hich the capacitance can $e 'ritten One uses letters an# num$ers, the
other uses only num$ers In either case, there are only three characters use# 7*+n8 an#
7*+98 #enote the same )alue of capacitance The metho# use# #iffers #epen#ing on the
capacitor supplier In the case that the )alue is #isplaye# 'ith the three2#igit co#e, the
*st an# 5n# #igits from the left sho' the *st figure an# the 5n# figure, an# the 9r# #igit
is a multiplier 'hich #etermines ho' many /eros are to $e a##e# to the capacitance
:icofara# ! p- " units are 'ritten this 'ay
-or example, 'hen the co#e is 7*+98, it in#icates *+ x *+9, or *+,+++p- ; *+ nanofara#!
n- " ; ++* microfara#! ,- "
If the co#e happene# to $e 755<8, it 'oul# $e 55 x *+< ; or 55+,+++p- ; 55+n- ;
=alues un#er *++p- are #isplaye# 'ith 5 #igits only -or example, <> 'oul# $e <>p-
The capacitor has an insulator! the #ielectric " $et'een 5 sheets of electro#es &ifferent
%in#s of capacitors use #ifferent materials for the #ielectric
?rea%#o'n )oltage
(hen using a capacitor, you must pay attention to the maximum )oltage 'hich can $e
use# This is the 0$rea%#o'n )oltage0 The $rea%#o'n )oltage #epen#s on the %in# of
capacitor $eing use# .ou must $e especially careful 'ith electrolytic capacitors
$ecause the $rea%#o'n )oltage is comparati)ely lo' The $rea%#o'n )oltage of
electrolytic capacitors is #isplaye# as (or%ing =oltage
The $rea%#o'n )oltage is the )oltage that 'hen excee#e# 'ill cause the #ielectric
!insulator" insi#e the capacitor to $rea% #o'n an# con#uct (hen this happens, the
failure can $e catastrophic
Electrolytic Capacitors !Electrochemical type capacitors"
Aluminum is use# for the electro#es $y using a thin oxi#i/ation mem$rane
Large )alues of capacitance can $e o$taine# in comparison 'ith the si/e of the
capacitor, $ecause the #ielectric use# is )ery thin
The most important characteristic of electrolytic capacitors is that they ha)e polarity
They ha)e a positi)e an# a negati)e electro#e7:olarise#8 This means that it is )ery
important 'hich 'ay roun# they are connecte# If the capacitor is su$@ecte# to )oltage
excee#ing its 'or%ing )oltage, or if it is connecte# 'ith incorrect polarity, it may $urst It
is extremely #angerous, $ecause it can Auite literally explo#e Ma%e a$solutely no
Benerally, in the circuit #iagram, the positi)e si#e is in#icate# $y a 0C0 !plus" sym$ol
Electrolytic capacitors range in )alue from a$out *,- to thousan#s of ,- Mainly this
type of capacitor is use# as a ripple filter in a po'er supply circuit, or as a filter to
$ypass lo' freAuency signals, etc ?ecause this type of capacitor is comparati)ely
similar to the nature of a coil in construction, it isn't possi$le to use for high2freAuency
circuits !It is sai# that the freAuency characteristic is $a#"
Tantalum Capacitors
Tantalum Capacitors are electrolytic capacitors that is use a material calle# tantalum for
the electro#es Large )alues of capacitance similar to aluminum electrolytic capacitors
can $e o$taine# Also, tantalum capacitors are superior to aluminum electrolytic
capacitors in temperature an# freAuency characteristics (hen tantalum po'#er is
$a%e# in or#er to soli#ify it, a crac% forms insi#e An electric charge can $e store# on
this crac%
These capacitors ha)e polarity as 'ell Dsually, the 0C0 sym$ol is use# to sho' the
positi)e component lea# &o not ma%e a mista%e 'ith the polarity on these types
Tantalum capacitors are a little $it more expensi)e than aluminum electrolytic
capacitors Capacitance can change 'ith temperature as 'ell as freAuency, an# these
types are )ery sta$le Therefore, tantalum capacitors are use# for circuits 'hich
#eman# high sta$ility in the capacitance )alues Also, it is sai# to $e common sense to
use tantalum capacitors for analog signal systems, $ecause the current2spi%e noise that
occurs 'ith aluminum electrolytic capacitors #oes not appear Aluminum electrolytic
capacitors are fine if you #on't use them for circuits 'hich nee# the high sta$ility
characteristics of tantalum capacitors
Ceramic Capacitors
Ceramic capacitors are constructe# 'ith materials such as titanium aci# $arium use# as
the #ielectric Internally, these capacitors are not constructe# as a coil, so they can $e
use# in high freAuency applications Typically, they are use# in circuits 'hich $ypass
high freAuency signals to groun#
These capacitors ha)e the shape of a #is% Their capacitance is comparati)ely small
Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors
The multilayer ceramic capacitor has a many2layere# #ielectric These capacitors are
small in si/e, an# ha)e goo# temperature an# freAuency characteristics
SAuare 'a)e signals use# in #igital circuits can ha)e a comparati)ely high freAuency
component inclu#e#
This capacitor is use# to $ypass the high freAuency to groun#
:olystyrene -ilm Capacitors
In these #e)ices, polystyrene film is use# as the #ielectric This type of capacitor is not
for use in high freAuency circuits, $ecause they are constructe# li%e a coil insi#e They
are use# 'ell in filter circuits or timing circuits 'hich run at se)eral hun#re# E1/ or less
:olyester -ilm Capacitors
This capacitor uses thin polyester film as the #ielectric
They are not high tolerance, $ut they are cheap an# han#y Their tolerance is a$out
FGH to F*+H
:olypropylene Capacitors
This capacitor is use# 'hen a higher tolerance is necessary than polyester capacitors
offer :olypropylene film is use# for the #ielectric It is sai# that there is almost no
change of capacitance in these #e)ices if they are use# 'ith freAuencies of *++E1/ or
The picture# capacitors ha)e a tolerance of F*H
Mica Capacitors
These capacitors use Mica for the #ielectric Mica capacitors ha)e goo# sta$ility
$ecause their temperature coefficient is small ?ecause their freAuency characteristic is
excellent, they are use# for resonance circuits, an# high freAuency filters Also, they
ha)e goo# insulation, an# so can $e utili/e# in high )oltage circuits It 'as often use#
for )acuum tu$e style ra#io transmitters, etc
Mica capacitors #o not ha)e high )alues of capacitance, an# they can $e relati)ely
Metalli/e# :olyester -ilm Capacitors
These capacitors are a %in# of a polyester film capacitor ?ecause their electro#es are
thin, they can $e miniaturi/e#
=aria$le capacitors are use# for a#@ustment etc of freAuency mainly
(hen a#@usting the )alue of a )aria$le capacitor, it is a#)isa$le to $e careful
One of the component's lea#s is connecte# to the a#@ustment scre' of the capacitor
This means that the )alue of the capacitor can $e affecte# $y the capacitance of the
scre'#ri)er in your han# It is $etter to use a special scre'#ri)er to a#@ust these
Posted 21st A!"!st 2011 by Ash
Labels: Ca#acitor electrolytic ca#acitor electronic basics Learn learn electronics mica ca#acitor
new technolo"ies #olyester ca#acitor #olystyrene tantal!m ty#es of ca#acitor $ideo %idnis
Difference between Microprocessor and
A Microprocessor an# a Micro2controller are $oth essentially processors that are
#esigne# to run computers The type of the computer machinery that the t'o run is
#ifferent, though essentially the main tas% of $oth the microprocessor an# the
microcontroller is the same ?oth are generally terme# as the core of any machinery
that has a computeri/e# form One is a speciali/e# form of processor 'hereas the other
is foun# in all computers
Microprocessors are normally calle# 'hat 'e refer to as a Central :rocessing Dnit, also
commonly %no'n as the heart an# the $rain of any computing machine A
microprocessor is reAuire# to perform an array of tas%s These are of general purpose
an# therefore it is sai# that the microprocessor is essential to perform the logical
operations The microprocessors are configure# into microchips to ser)e their purpose
of start a computer an# $oot comman#s as an# 'hen the computer is prompte# to #o
Microcontrollers are specific in nature to the tas% they nee# to perform Dsually foun#
present in automo$iles an# appliances, the microcontroller has a microprocessor on its
$oar# to carry out all the logical operations of the ga#get The microcontroller once
programme#, can 'or% on its o'n since it has a store# set of instructions that it
executes as an# 'hen reAuire# A microcontroller can $e easily sai# to $e a small
microprocessor that has a C:D, 6AM, 6OM an# the input an# output ports all
em$e##e# on the single microchip
&ifference $et'een Microprocessor an# Micro2controllerem
The ma@or #ifference $et'een a microprocessor an# a microcontroller are their
functions (here a microprocessor has more generali/e# functions, a microcontroller is
more specific to its tas%
A microprocessor may not also $e programme# to han#le real2time tas%s 'hereas a
microcontroller such as in #e)ices that nee# to control temperature of 'ater or perhaps
measure the temperature of a room reAuire real time monitoring an# therefore 'ith its
in$uilt set of instructions the microcontroller 'or%s on its o'n
A microprocessor reAuires constant input $y a human such as in a personal computer
so that instructions can $e $oot A microprocessor is the memory of the computing
machine 'hereas the microcontroller integrates the entire computer in a single chip
Not only #oes it ha)e the memory em$e##e# in, it also has input an# output ports plus
peripherals such as timers an# con)erters All this can $e han#le# 'ith a single touch
?oth microprocessors an# microcontrollers ha)e to run comman#s an# therefore run a
#e)ice on its o'n, ho'e)er itIs the minute architectural #esign of the microcontroller
that lea)es a person intereste# in a'e of the tas%s it can perform 'hen it is compare#
to a microprocessor (hen a person reAuires running a 'or# #ocument or a )i#eo
game on their computers they are essentially using the microprocessor, an# 'hen they
ha)e to 'or% a micro'a)e o)en, they are 'or%ing a microcontroller Therefore,
microcontrollers are more specific to the appliance they are configure# for
Posted 1&th A!"!st 2011 by Ash
Labels: difference between micro#rocessor and microcontroller lectronics embedded 'now new
technolo"ies learn electronics microcontroller micro#rocessor %idnis
What is Voltage Regulation ?
The %olta"e re"!lation is the #ercenta"e of %olta"e difference between no load and f!ll load
%olta"es of a transformer with res#ect to its f!ll load %olta"e(
Explanation of Voltage Regulation of Transformer
Say an electrical #ower transformer is o#en circ!ited) means load is not connected with
secondary terminals( *n this sit!ation) the secondary terminal %olta"e of the transformer will be
its secondary ind!ced emf
( +hene%er f!ll load is connected to the secondary terminals of the
transformer) rated c!rrent *
flows thro!"h the secondary circ!it and %olta"e dro# comes into
#ict!re( At this sit!ation) #rimary windin" will also draw e,!i%alent f!ll load c!rrent from
so!rce( The %olta"e dro# in the secondary is *
where -
is the secondary im#edance of
transformer( .ow if at this loadin" condition) any one meas!res the %olta"e between secondary
terminals) he or she will "et %olta"e $
across load terminals which is ob%io!sly less than no
load secondary %olta"e
and this is beca!se of *
%olta"e dro# in the transformer(
Expression of Voltage Regulation of Transformer
/#ression of oltage !egulation of Transfor"er) re#resented in #ercenta"e) is
Voltage Regulation of Transformer for Lagging Power Factor
.ow we will deri%e the e/#ression of %olta"e re"!lation in detail( Say la""in" Power 0actor of
the load is cos1
) that means an"le between secondary c!rrent and %olta"e is 1
2ere) from the abo%e dia"ram)
OC 3 OA 4 A5 4 5C
2ere) OA 3 $
2ere) A5 3 Acos1
3 *
and) 5C 3 7sin1
3 *
An"le between OC 9 O7 may be %ery small) so it can be ne"lected and O7 is considered nearly
e,!al to OC i(e(

3 OC 3 OA 4 A5 4 5C

3 OC 3 $
4 *
oltage !egulation of transfor"er at la""in" #ower factor)
Voltage Regulation of Transformer for Leading Power Factor
Let<s deri%e the e/#ression of %olta"e re"!lation with leadin" c!rrent) say leadin" Power 0actor
of the load is cos1
) that means an"le between secondary c!rrent and %olta"e is 1
2ere) from the abo%e dia"ram)
OC 3 OA 4 A5 = 5C
2ere) OA 3 $

2ere) A5 3 Acos1
3 *
and) 5C 3 7sin1
3 *
An"le between OC 9 O7 may be %ery small) so it can be ne"lected and O7 is considered nearly
e,!al to OC i(e(

3 OC 3 OA 4 A5 = 5C

3 OC 3 $
4 *
oltage !egulation of transfor"er at leadin" #ower factor)