Corneliu Zelea Codreanu


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#etember $%%&
Translated 'rom the (omanian
)riginally ublished as
Pentru Legionari
by *ditura +Totul Pentru Tara+, #ibiu, -./0.
*nglish translation 'irst ublished by
*ditura +1ibertatea+, 2adrid, -.&0

3 Coyright -.&0 by
*ditura +1ibertatca+
Calle 4nita 5indel $&,
2adrid $/, #ain.
6nternational coyright and all rights, including
that o' translation and/or abridgement reserved.
Printed in the 7nited #tates o' 4merica
T481* )F C)9T*9T#
To the legionaries
In the Dobrina Forest
At the University of Iasi
Revolution being prepared
The Guard of the National Consiene
Constantin Pancu 6
The occuation o' the 4gency o' #tate 2onoolies by the Guard o' the 9ational Conscience
The tricolor 'lag over the 9icolina :or;s
9ational-Christian #ocialism, the 9ational #yndicates
The Creed o' 9ational-Christian #ocialism
4 truth'ul icture o' the situation in -.-.
The leaders o' the (omanian !or;ers
The attitude of the !e"ish press
The first #tudent Congress after the $ar
The opening of the Iasi University in the fall of %&'(
The %&'()%&'% university year
*<elled 'rom 6asi 7niversity 'orever
The Council o' the #chool o' 1a!
The %&'%)%&'' university year
President o' the 1a! #tudents= 4ssociation
5isiting the Cernauti 7niversity
The revie! +4ararea 9ationala+
The 'ounding o' the 4ssociation o' Christian #tudents
)bligation o' honor
4t the end o' my university studies
The summer o' -.$$
6n Germany
Dee*ber %(+ %&''
The ,Nu*erus Clausus,
The nu*ber of !e"s
The roblem o' the (omanian land
The roblem o' the cities
The roblem o' the (omanian school
The roblem o' the (omanian leading class
The roblem o' national culture
The return to Ro*ania
4t 6asi
4t 8ucharest
4t Clu>
The Asse*bly of Iasi+ -arh .+ %&'/0 The founding of the League of National Defense
2arch ?, -.$/ @-
1ther anti)#e*iti and nationalist organi2ations
+The (omanian 9ational Fascia+ and +The (omanian 4ction+
-odifiation of the Art0 3 of the Constitution
2y 'irst arrest
The great *en of Ro*ania of %43&
5asile Conta
5asile 4lecsandri
2ihail Aogalniccanu
2ihail *minescu
6on Heliade (adulescu
8ogdan Petriceicu Ha>deu
Costache 9egri
4.D. Benool
The student general stri5e ontinues
Cune -.$/
The plans of !udais* against the Ro*anian Nation
4gainst the (omanian eole
4gainst the (omanian land
4gainst the student movement
Ce!ish arguments and attitudes
The Congress of the #tudent *ove*ent6s Leaders
The 1.4.9.C. Congress at Camul-1ung
The 1tober %&'/ student plot
6n the 5acaresti rison
The mite o' the 2oti 'or the students in 5acaresti
Thoughts o' a ne! li'e
The isolation o' oliticians
4venging the betrayal and the trial
At Iasi
The Christian Cultural 7o*e
The 'irst !or; cam
4 ne! blo!
)ver!helmed by blo!s at the garden
7stairs, in the re'ect=s o''ice
)n the (arau 2ountain
)n the (arau 2ountain
2y betrothal
The -ota)8lad trial
Around "bat happened at the garden
The !ord o' Pro'essor 4.C. CuDa
Protest meetings against 2anciu
4n administrative investigation is ordered
The fatal day
T!o articles regarding the 2anciu case
Hunger stri;e
4lone at Galata
The trial is trans'erred to Focsani
4t Turnul-#everin
The trial
(eturning to 6asi
JUNE 1925 - JUNE 1926
2y !edding
The batismal ceremony at Ciorasti
After one year+ "or5 resu*es
Dangers that threaten a olitical movement
The critiEue o' the leader
4 case o' conscience
In Frane at shool
6n France at school
General elections bac; home
6n the 4ls
4t Pinet-d=7riage among French easants
At 9uharest ) The League of Christian National Defense bro5en in t"o
:hat haened
2y reaction in the 'ace o' this state o' a''airs
The Legion of -ihael the Arhangel
2atter versus sirit
4gainst treachery
The beginnings o' legionary li'e
)ur rogram
4sects o' (omanian ublic li'e
)ur arehensions 'acing this !orld
The stages of the Legion6s develop*ent
,Pa*antul #tra*oses,
The contents o' the 'irst issue
The 'undamental rinciles o' legionary ethics
The disinterestedness in battle
The disinterestedness in battle
The struggle 'or maintaining our revie!
)ther names encountered in the 'irst issues o' our revie!
)ur action as seen 'rom the outside
8eyond 'orms
The national movements and dictatorshi
The 'irst beginnings o' organiDation
The vo! o' the 'irst legionaries
4 ne! battle
Problems o' a material ;ind
The summer o' -.$@
Fighting misery
Pro'essor Gavanescul receives the sac; o' earth
The 'irst assembly o' nest leaders and the 'ormation o' the 1egionary #enate
4mong the 2oti
4mong the 2oti
The deision to go to the *asses
December -F, -.$.
6n Transylvania, at 1udosul-de-2ures
6n 8essarabia
6n 8essarabia again
Troubles in 2aramures
The march into 8essarabia is 'orbidden
The attemt on the li'e o' 2inister 4nghelescu
Dissolution of the Legion of -ihael the Arhangel and the Iron Guard
4rrest !arrant
The trial
The legionary *ove*ent in the first eletions
The camaign o' 9eamt
In Parlia*ent
#everal observations regarding democracy
*lection, selection, heredity
6ndividual, national collectivity, nation
The nation
The 'inal aims o' the nation
2onarchy and the la! o' monarchy
The battle of Tutova
The seond dissolution of the Guard
Ne" general eletions
6n Parliament 'or the second time
The ondition of the legionary organi2ation in %&/')%&//
,Anarhi and terroristi *ove*ent,
+The 6ron Guard in the #ervice o' Freigners+
+The 6ron Guard in the Pay o' Hitlerites
Printing counter'eit ban;notes in (asinari
The death tea*
4t Teius
The da* of 8isani
The 1iberal Party assumes resonsibility 'or e<terminating the 6ron Guard
This volu*e ontains the story of *y youth+ fro* %& to /. years
of age+ "ith its feelings+ faith+ thoughts+ deeds+ and its errors0
C)(9*167 C)D(*497
December 0, -./F,
Cannen #ylva
6 !rite 'or our legionary 'amily. For all legionariesG those in villages, 6n 'actories and in the
university. 6 do not ay attention to any regulation imosed on boo; authors. 6 have no time. 6 !rite
hastily on the battle'ield, in the midst o' attac;s. 4t this hour !e are surrounded on all sides. The
enemies stri;e us treacherously and treason bites us.
For t!o years !e have been bound by the chains o' an in'amous censorshi. For t!o years our
name and that o' legionary are tolerated by the ress only to be insulted. 4 rain o' treacheries is
heaed uon us !hile our enemies alaud and hoe that !e shall erish. 8ut these ;nights o'
co!ardice, as !ell as their masters, !ill be convinced, in 'act, soon, that all the attac;s in !hich
they ooled their hoes o' destroying the legionary movement, all their agitation and deserate
e''orts, !ill remain 'ruitless.
1egionaries do not die. *rect, immovable, invincible and immortal, they loo; 'orever victorious
over the imotent convulsions o' hatred.
The oinion created in the non-legionary !orld by the lines that 'ollo! is o' no conseEuence to me
and their e''ect uon that !orld does not interest me.
:hat 6 !ant is that you, soldiers o' other (omanian horiDons, !hile reading these recollections,
recogniDe in them your o!n ast and remember your battlesJ that you re-live the su''ering you
endured and the blo!s you too; 'or our eoleJ that you 'ill your hearts !ith 'ire and stand 'irm in
the di''icult and righteous struggle in !hich you are engaged and out o' !hich !e all have the
command to emerge either victorious or dead. 6 thin; o' you as 6 !rite.
)' you !ho !ill have to die, receiving the batism o' death !ith the serenity o' our ancestral
Thracians. 4nd o' you, those !ho !ill have to ste over the dead and their tombs, carrying in your
hands the victorious banners o' the (omanians.
Here !e are, congregated one a'ternoon in the sring o' -.-. in the Dobrina Forest !hich stands
sentinel on the heights around Husi.
:hoK 4 grou o' about $% high school students, sohomores, >uniors and seniors.
6 called these young comrades together to discuss a grave roblem, though our li'e !as but budding.
:hat are !e going to do i' the 8olshevi;s invade usK 2y oinion, !ith !hich the others !ere in
accord, !as thisG i' the 8olshevi; army crosses the Dniester, then the Pruth, reaching our region, !e
shall not submit, but !ill ta;e re'uge in the !oods armedJ !e !ill organiDe there a center o'
(omanian action and resistance, and by s;ill'ul action sha;e u the enemyJ !e !ill maintain a sirit
o' non-submission, and ;ee alive a sar; o' hoe amidst the (omanian masses in villages and
to!ns. :e all too; an oath in the middle o' the ancient 'orest. This 'orest !as a corner o' that
'amous !oods o' Tigheciu on !hose aths, throughout 2oldavia=s history, many an enemy 'ound
:e decided to acEuire !eaons and ammunition, to maintain total secrecy, to engage in
reconnoitering and battle e<ercises there in the 'orest and to establish a 'ront !hich !ould mas; our
intentions. :e easily 'ound this 'ront and !e soon brought it into beingG a cultural-national
association o' the students at the high school o' Husi !hich !e named +2ihail Aogalniceanu.+ 6t
!as aroved by the high school rincial. Then !e began get-togethers and lectures in to!n. :e
treated the customary sub>ects in ublic, !hile in the !oods !e simulated battle e<ercises. 6n those
titnes one could 'ind !eaons every!here, so that !ithin about t!o !ee;s !e collected all !e
There !as then such a chaotic state o' a''airs in the country that !e, though but children hardly over
-@ years o' age, understood all too !ell. *verybody !as thin;ing about the 8olshevi; revolution
!hich !as !ell under!ay only a 'e! stes over the border. The easantry !as oosed to this
destroying !ave out o' instinct, but comletely disorganiDed, could not ut u a serious resistance.
8ut industrial !or;ers !ere vertiginously sliding to!ard Communism, being systematically 'ed the
cult o' these ideas by the Ce!ish ress, and generally by the entire Ce!ry o' the cities.
*very Ce!, merchant, intellectual or ban;er-caitalist, in his radius o' activity, !as an agent o' these
anti-(omanian revolutionary ideas. The (omanian intelligentsia !as undecided, the state aaratus
disorganiDed. )ne could e<ect at any moment, either an internal erution o' some determined and
organiDed elements, or an invasion 'rom over the Dniester. This e<ternal action, coordinated !ith
that o' the Cudeo-communist bands !ithin - !ho could bear do!n on us, destroying bridges and
blo!ing u stores o' ammunition - !ould have then decided our 'ate as a eole. 6t !as in such
circumstances, our thoughts, in turmoil, !orrying about the li'e and liberty o' our country >ust
uni'ied at the end o' a di''icult !ar, that in our youth'ul minds the idea that led us to the oath in the
Dobrina Forest germinated.
6 had had 'ive years at the 2ilitary 4cademy in 2anastirea Dealului (The Cloister on the Hill",
!here the head o' 2ichael the 8rave reoses, under the searching eye o' 9icolae FiliescuI. There,
under the orders o' 2a>., later Col. 2areel )lteanu, the school=s commandant, that o' Cat. 5irgil
8adulescu, o' 1ieut. *mil Palangeanu and under the guidance o' the ro'essors, 6 received a strict
soldierly education and a healthy con'idence in my o!n o!ers.
: Former cabinet minister (-..%%--.-/" !ho 'ounded the 2ilitary 4cademy hang his name... ;Translator6s note0<
6n 'act, my military education !ill be !ith me all my li'e. )rder, disciline, hierarchy, molded into
my blood at an early age, along !ith the sentiment o' soldierly dignity, !ill constitute a guiding
thread 'or my entire 'uture activity. Here too, 6 !as taught to sea; little, a 'act !hich later !as to
lead me to hate +chatter bo<ing+ and too much tal;. Here 6 learned to love the trench and to desise
the dra!ing room.
The notions o' military science 6 !as receiving then !ill ma;e me later >udge everything through
the rism o' this science. This cult o' the sentiment o' human and military dignity, in !hich the
o''icers brought me u, !as to create 'or me di''iculties and e<ose me to su''ering, in a !orld
o'ten times lac;ing both honor and a sense o' dignity.
6 sent the summer o' -.-0 at home in Husi.
2y 'ather had been recalled into the military 'or the last t!o years and le't !ith the regiment 'or the
Carathians. )ne night my mother !o;e me u and, crying and crossing hersel', saidG +:a;e u, all
the bells o' all the churches are ringing.+ 6t !as 4ugust -F, -.-0, the Feast o' #t. 2ary. 6
understood that mobiliDation had been decreed and that at that moment the (omanian army had
crossed the mountains.
#eiDed by emotion, my !hole body trembled. Three days later 6 le't home to trail my 'ather, ushed
by my yearning that 6 too, be among the 'ighters on the 'ront. Finally, 'ollo!ing many adventures, 6
reached the regiment in !hich my 'ather !as commanding a comany, the $Fth 6n'antry (egiment
under the command o' Col. 5. Pierescu, as it !as advancing into Transylvania on the )ituD valley.
2y mis'ortune !as great, 'or, being only -& years old, the regimental commander turned me do!n
as a volunteer. Let 6 too; art both in the advance into and the retreat 'rom Transylvania, and on
#etember $%th !hen my 'ather 'ell !ounded above #ovata on the Ceres-Domu mountain, 6 !as
use'ul to him ahead o' the enemy=s advance. Though !ounded he re'used to be evacuated, leading
his comany throughout the retreat and later in the heavy 'ighting that 'ollo!ed at )ituD.
4t t!o o=cloc; one night the regiment received orders to advance. The o''icers insected their
troos massed in a tomb-li;e Euiet on the high!ay.
2y 'ather !as as;ed to reort to the colonel. (eturning a'ter a short !hile, he told meG
+:ould it not be better 'or you to go bac; homeK :e !ill soon be engaged in battle and it is not
good that both o' us die here, 'or 2other then is going to be le't !ith si< small children, !ith no
suort. The colonel called me and told me he does not !ant to ta;e the resonsibility o' your
remaining here on the 'ront.+
6 could tell his heart !as in doubtG he hesitated at leaving me alone in the middle o' the night, out in
the oen, on un'amiliar roads, $F miles 'rom the nearest railroad.
9oting his insistence, ho!ever, 6 turned in my carbine and the t!o cartridge holders !hile the
columns o' the regiment moved on, disaearing into the Euiet and dar;ness o' night. 6 remained
alone on the edge o' a ditch, then started in the direction o' the old 'rontier and home.
:hen, a year later, on #etember lst, 6 entered The 2ilitary #chool o' 6n'antry at 8otosani, the
thought !as still in my mind to be able to reach the 'ront. Here 6 comleted my education and
military ;no!ledge, 'rom #etember 6st, -.-& to Culy -&, -.-@, in the 2ilitary #chool=s 4ctive
Comany. The 'our distinguished o''icers, Col. #lavescu, Cat. Ciurea, 1ieut. Florin (adulescu and
2a>. #te'lea, guided my stes in the !ays o' battle and sacri'ice 'or my country.
4nother year assed--.-. brought eace, and !e, the children ready to die, !ere scattered, each to
his home.
2y 'ather, a teacher in secondary schools, had been a li'etime nationalist 'ighter. 2y grand'ather
!as a 'orester, li;e!ise my great-grand'ather. The eole o' my nation have been 'rom the very
beginning, in any di''icult historical times, a eole o' !oods and mountains. That is !hy my
soldierly ubringing and the blood in my veins imressed on the action at Dobrina - a naive
mani'estation - a note o' seriousness, !hich our tender age !ould not have resuosed.
6n those moments, !e 'elt in our hearts, !ith their advice and e<erience, the resence o' all our
ancestors, !ho had 'ought 'or 2oldavia on the same aths the enemies never enetrated.
The summer assed. 6 too; my baccalaureateI in the 'all and our grou arted !ays, each directing
his stes to!ard a university. From Dobrina !e retained only the memories o' de'ending our
country against the !aves o' enmity menacingly raised both 'rom
!ithout and 'rom !ithin our borders.
6 !as leaving Husi at this crossroad 'or every youth, the enrollment into a university, the long-
a!aited enrolment at the universityM 4s rearation 6 had the caital o' ;no!ledge acEuired in high
school, #ensational literature, or that o' siritual erversion !hich today occuies such an imortant
lace in the 'ormative years o' a high schooler-to his mis'ortune-6 have not tasted. 6n addition to the
customary literature o' the (omanian classics, 6 had read all the articles in the #e*anatorul (+The
#o!er+" and Nea*ul Ro*anes (+The (omanian Peole+" o' 9. 6orga and 4.C. CuDa. 2y 'ather
had these in some bo<es in the attic. That is !here 6 climbed in my 'ree hours to busy mysel' !ith
such literature. The essence o' these articles contained the e<ression in a high 'orm, o' the three
ideals o' li'e 'or the (omanian eoleG
-. The uni'ication o' the (omanian eole.
$. The elevation o' easantry through land re'orm and olitical rights
/. The solution o' the Ce!ish roblem.
There !ere t!o ma<ims rinted on the >ac;ets o' all nationalistic ublications o' that timeG
+(omania o' the (omanians, only o' the (omanians and o' all (omanians.+ - 9. 6orga.
+9ationality is the creative o!er o' human culture, culture is the creative o!er o' nationality.+
- 4.C. CuDa.
6 aroached 6asi !ith great reverence-the 6asi loved and understood by every (omanian, the city
everybody at least !ants to visit.
2any to!ns in 2oidavia have some 'ragment o' glory. :e cannot ronounce the namesG Hotin,
8arlad, 5aslui, Tighina, Cetatea-4lba, #oroca, !ithout 'eeling our souls uli'ted.
8ut above all these rise #uceava and 6asi.
#uceava, the 'ortress o' #te'an the GreatJ and 6asi, the city o' CuDa-5oda,-the city o' the 7nion o'
-@F., !hich through the 'ounding o' the university, became the city o' youth and that o' its noblest
6n 6asi livedG 2iron Costin, 8o dan Petriceicu Hasdeu, 2ihail *minescu, 6on Creanga, 5asile
4lecsandri, ostache 9egri, 6acob 9egruDDi, 2ihail Aogalniceanu, #itnion 8arnutiu, 5asile Conta,
9. 6orga, 6on Gavanescul. Here, li;e a lighthouse, shines in Political *conomy, the great ersonality
o' Pro'essor CuDa. The university became a school o' nationalismJ 6asi, the city o' the great
(omanian thrust 'or!ard, o' our national greatness, ideals and asirations. 6t is great 'rom the
sorro! o' -.-& !hen here in his troubled hours the tormented soul o' Aing Ferdinand 'ound re'ugeJ
great through its destiny o' being in -.-@ the city o' union o' all (omaniansJ great by virtue o' its
great ast and great by its resent tragedy- 'or the city o' the 'orty churches - dies daily 'orgotten
under the merciless Ce!ish invasion 6asi, li;e (ome, built on seven hills, is and remains the eternal
city o' (omanianism.
Ho! many glorious memoriesM
Here !ere heard 'or the 'irst time, resounding, those harmonious verses o' 4lecsandriG
I Comrehensive e<amination reEuired be'ore graduation 'rom high school. ;Tr0<
+(omanians o' every 'eather,
Come let us >oin hands together,+
Here, as no!here else, the student 'eels hovering in the air over silent 6asi, !ith their mysterious
aeals and !ith their sacred urgings, the sirits o' our ancestors. The 6asi student, in the Euiet o'
the night, hears, as i' maddened by ain, the hantom o' 2ihail *minescu running through the
tortuous streets o' the city, moaning li;e a ghostG
+He !ho ta;es strangers to heart
2ay the dogs eat his heart
2ay the !aste eat his home
2ay ill-'ame devour his 'ol;s.+
This is the to!n 6 !as aroaching !ith ro'ound reverence in the 'all o' -.-. being attracted by its
great aura, but moved also because it !as here that 6 !as born t!enty years earlier. 4nd >ust li;e
any child 6 !as moved to again see and ;iss my native earth.
6 registered in the #chool o' 1a!.
6asi 7niversity, closed during the !ar years, had reoened a year earlier. The old students, returned
no! as veterans, retained the line o' the traditional nationalism o' student li'e be'ore the !ar. They
!ere divided into t!o cams. one, under the leadershi o' 1abusca 'rom 1etters, and another, under
that o' 9elu 6onescu, 'rom 1a!. These grous, small in number, !ere over!helmed by the
immense mass o' Ce!ish students coming over to school 'rom 8essarabia, all communist agents and
roagandists. The university=s ro'essors, e<ceting a very limited grou headed by 4.C. CuDa,
6on Gavanescul and Corneliu #umuleanu, !ere suorters o' the same le'tist ideas. Pro'essor Paul
8u>or, one o' the ma>ority=s e<onents stated Euite dearly in the country=s 'ull #enateG +The light
comes 'rom the *ast,+ namely, 'rom beyond the Dniester.
#uch an attitude on the art o' the ro'essors !ho considered +barbarous+ any nationalistic idea or
note, resulted in the total disorientation o' the students, some oenly suorting 8olshevism, others
- the greater art - sayingG +#ay !hat you !ill, nationalism is asse, man;ind moves to!ard the
le't.+ The 1abusca grou slied totally in this direction. The 9elu 6onescu grou, to !hich 6
adhered, scattered in time, 'ollo!ing some elections in the university !hich they lost.
The advancement o' these anti-(omanian ideas, suorted by a comact mass o' ro'essors and
students, and encouraged by all enemies o' uni'ied (omania, 'ound among the student body no
(omanian resistance. 4 'e! o' us !ho !ere still trying to man the barricades !ere surrounded by
an atmoshere o' scorn and enmity. )n the streets or in the halls o' the university, colleagues
holding other oinions,,those !ith +'reedom o' conscience+ and !ho reach every other ;ind o'
'reedom, sat behind us as !e assed and became increasingly aggressive. Thousands o' students in
meeting a'ter meeting in !hich 8olshevism !as roagated, attac;ed 4rmy, >ustice, Church,
Cro!n. There !as only one association that yet maintained a (omanian characterG +4vram 6ancu+
belonging to the 8ucovinans and Transylvanians, under the leadershi o' 5asile lasinschi, a student.
The university, traditionally nationalistic since -@0%, became a nest o' anti-(omanianism.
8ut it !as not !holly in the university that this situation e<isted. 6asi=s mass o' !or;ingmen, almost
entirely immersed in Communism, !as at the ready to erut into revolution. 1ittle !or; !as done
in 'actories. Hours on end they held meetings and councilsJ mostly about olitics rather than !or;.
:e 'ound ourselves systematically sabotaged, according to lan and by commandG +brea;, destroy
machinery, create the state o' general material misery !hich leads to the erution o' revolution.+
4nd indeed, the more this command !as obeyed, the more the misery sread, hunger threatened
menacingly and rebellion gre! in the souls o' the multitudes.
*very three or 'our days on the streets o' 6asi there !ere huge communist demonstrations. Those
-%--F,%%% starved !or;ers, maneouvered. by the Cudaic criminal hand 'rom 2osco!, araded the
streets !hile singing the intemationale, yellingG +Do!n !ith the =ing>, 6Do"n "ith the Ar*y>, and
carrying lacards on !hich one could read +1ong live the communist revolutionM+ +1ong live #oviet
6' these had been victorious, !ould !e have had at least a (omania led by a (omanian !or;ers=
regimeK :ould the (omanian !or;ers have become masters o' the countryK 9oM The ne<t day !e
!ould have become the slaves o' the dirtiest tyrannyG the Talmudic, Ce!ish tyranny. Greater
(omania, a'ter Cess than a second o' e<istence, !ould have collased.
:e, the (omanian eole, !ould have been mercilessly e<terminated, ;illed or deorted
throughout #iberiaG easants, !or;ers, intellectuals, all ell-mell. The land 'rom 2aramures to the
8lac; #ea, snatched 'rom (omanian hands, !ould have been coloniDed by Ce!ish masses. Here it is
that they !ould have built u their true Palestine.
6 !as er'ectly a!are that in those hours the li'e and death o' the (omanian eole !as at sta;e.
4nd, so !ere the Ce!s !ho !ere ushing the (omanian !or;ers into revolution. They had no
symathy !ith the anguish !hich gried our hearts in those moments or !ith the an<iety betrayed,
in our eyes. They ;ne! !hat they !ere doing. )nly the (omanian intellectuals !ere unconscious,
the intellectuals !ho had gone to school and !ere suosed to enlighten the eole in di''icult
times - 'or that is !hy they !ere intellectuals - !ere absent 'rom their duty. These un!orthy beings
in those decisive moments maintained !ith a criminal unconsciousness that +the light comes 'rom
the *ast.+ :ho !as to oose the revolutionary columns !hich marched menacingly through the
streets o' all our to!nsK The studentsK 9oM The intelligentsiaK 9oM The oliceK #igurantaIK These,
!hen hearing the columns aroach, anic;ed and vanished. 9ot even the military could bar their
!ay. For one did not tal; o' -,%%% men, but o' -F,%%%, o' $%,%%%, organiDed and hungry.
)ne rainy evening in the 'all o' -.-. in the mess-hall o' The #chool o' 4rts and Cra'ts, !here 6 !as
a councillor, a 'riend o' mine sho!ed me a ne!saer notice.
+The Guard o' the 9ational Conscience holds a meeting this evening, Thursday, . o=cloc;, 9o. /
4lecsandri #t.+
6 le't immediately, running !ith great imatience to ;no! and to enroll in this organiDation !hose
anti-communist 'lyers 6 had read several months earlier.
6n the room on 9o. / 4lecsandri #t., set u !ith ne!ly-made benches, 6 'ound only one man
already there. He !as about ?%, bra!ny and do!ncast, sitting at a table, !aiting 'or eole to come.
4 big head, t!o strong arms, heavy 'ists, o' middle stature. He !as Constantin Pancu, the President
o' The Guard o' the 9ational Conscience.
I The #ecurity #ervice o' (omania be'ore the communist ta;eover. ;Tr0<
6 introduced mysel', telling him 6 !as a student and that 6 !ished to be admitted as a 'ighter into the
Guard. He acceted me. 6 sat in at that meeting. 4bout t!enty ersons cameG a tyesetter, 5oinescuJ
a studentJ about 'our mechanics 'rom (.2.#.I, t!o 'rom the rail!aysJ several tradesmen and
!or;ersJ the la!yer 5ictor Climescu, and a riest. #everal Euestions !ere discussed in connection
!ith the momentum gained by the communist movement in various 'actories and art o' the city
and !ith the roblem o' organiDing the Guard.
From that evening on my road bi'urcated. one hal' in the 'ight at the university, the other hal' !ith
Constantin Pancu, among the !or;ers. 6 became attached to this man and 6 stood !ith him under his
leadershi constantly till the organiDation disbanded.
Constantin Pancu, !hose name !as on the lis o' all 6asians in both cams, uttered hoe'ully by
(omanians, in horror by the others, !as not an intellectual.
He !as a tradesman, lumber and electrician. He never !ent beyond 'our rimary grades. He had a
lucid, balanced mind !hich he himsel' enriched !ith adeEuate ;no!ledge. For t!enty years he had
been occuied !ith !or;ers= roblems. He had been 'or several years
the resident o' the metallurgical union. He !as a 'irst class sea;er. 4t the odium, be'ore a
cro!d, he !as imressive. He had a soul and a conscience that !ere clearly (omanian. He loved his
country, the military, the Aing. 4 good Christian. He had the muscles o' a circus 'ighter and 'orce
truly Herculean. 6asians had ;no!n him 'or a long time.
8e'ore the !ar a circus came to 6asi !hich held 'ighting sho!s. There !ere among the combatants
men 'rom all nations. Hungarians, Tur;s, (omanians, (ussians, etc. one evening, !hen one o' them
!on over all the other 'ighters, 'rom among the sectators a citiDen stood u as;ing to 'ight the
!inner. He !as ermitted to do so. He undressed and the 'ight started. in t!o minutes the
Hungarian circus strongman !as thro!n to the ground, de'eated. The (omanian !ho !on amidst
the cro!d=s enthusiastic admiration, !as none other than Constantin Pancu. That is !hy !hen his
call to battle aeared 'or the 'irst time onthe streets o' 6asi, the ublic !hich !orshis strength,
acceted it !ith trust.
His e''ort lasted one year, increasing as the 8olshevi; menace gre!, then decreasing as it
#mall meetings !ere held at 'irst, then rallies that reached F, 0, even -%,%%% eole. These too;
lace !ee;ly during the critical eriod in the Prince 2ircea Hall, or sometimes in 7nion #Euare.
4mong those !ho so;e regularly !as mysel'. This is !here 6 learned ho! to sea; be'ore a
cro!d. 7ndeniably The Guard o' the 9ational Conscience raised the conscience o' (omanians at a
critical time, in an imortant lace as that o' 6asi and laced it li;e a barrier be'ore the communist
This activity ho!ever, !as not limited only to 6asi. :e !ent to other to!ns. 6n addition, the aer
Constiinta (+The Conscience+" !hich !as regularly ublished, enetrated !ith its cry o' alarm into
nearly all the to!ns o' 2oldavia and 8essarabia. 4lmost daily out in the 'ield bet!een the t!o
cams, inevitable bloody clashes occurred, our side sustaining the most !ounded. This tense
situation lasted until sring, but a'ter t!o great victories 'or our side, the o''ensive o!er o' our
adversaries !as much reduced.
6t !as either on the -%th or the --th o' February, -.$%. For t!o !ee;s there had been tal; o' a
nation!ide general stri;e. The decisive battle !as aroaching. it !as rurnored in to!n that around
noon at the 4.#.2., !here about -J%%% !or;ers !ere emloyed, the
stri;e !as declared, the red 'lag raised, the Aing=s icture lo!ered and trainled under'oot, being
then relaced by those o' Aarl 2ar<, TrotD;i and (aco!s;i.
)ur eole there !ere beaten, the mechanics, members o' The Guard, !ounded. 4t - o=cloc;, about
-%% o' us got together at our headEuarters. :hat to doK Pancu chaired the discussion. There !ere
t!o oinions. #ome claimed !e should send telegrams to the government, reEuesting military
intervention. 2y oinion !as that those resent should head 'or the 4.#.2. and tear do!n the red
'lag at any ris;. 2y oint o' vie! !as agreed uon. :e too; our 'lag and at - o=cloc; led by Pancu
!e started marching on 1ausneanu and Pacurari singing Desteata-te (omane (+4!a;en, Le
Close to the 'actory in the street !e bro;e u several grous o' communists.
:e entered the 'actory=s courtyard and !ent into the building, carrying the 'lag oil the !ay to the
roo', !here 6 lanted it. From there 6 gave a tal;. The military aeared and occuied the 'actory.
:e retreated singing, then returned to our headEuarters, considering our raid incursion a success.
The ne!s o' our attitude 'lashed through the to!n li;e lightning, yet the stri;e continued. The
military could only de'end the 'lag, it could not ma;e the lant run.
:hat !as to be doneK 4n idea occurred to us to search the city 'or !or;ers in order to oen the
lant. in three days, ?%% ne! !or;ers, gathered 'rom all Euarters o' 6asi, entered the lant. This
began to runJ the stri;e had 'ailed. T!o !ee;s later, hal' the stri;ers demanded that they be.returned
to !or;. )ur victory !as great. The 'irst ste to!ard the general stri;e !as re>ected. The lans o'
the Cudeo-communist consortium began to be 'rustrated. )ur action had a resounding echo !ithin
(omanian ran;s raising their morale.
The most o!er'ul communist center !as 'ormed by the (omanian rail!ay !or;s at 9icolina. )ver
?,%%% men !or;ed there, nearly all bolsheviDed. (esidential areas around these !or;s, Podul (os,
#ocola and 9icolina, !ere invaded by a considerable number o' Ce!s. That is !hy the leader o' the
communist movement in 6asi, Dr. Ghelerter and his aide, Gheler, 'i<ed their oint o' resistance here.
4 month had not assed since their de'eat at the 4.#.2. and as a signal to begin the general stri;e
and the decisive battle, the red 'lag !as hoisted 'luttering over the !or;s. 4 stri;e !as declared.
Thousands o' !or;ers !ere ouring out. The authorities !ere o!erless.
I The 4gency o' #tate 2onoolies, herea'ter called the 4.#.2. ;Tr0<
Through 'lyers !e convo;ed all (omanians to a meeting in the Prince 2ircea Hall. 4'ter the
seeches, !e le't the building !ith our 'lags and the !hole cro!d headed 'or 9icolina. 6n 7nion
#Euare !e !ere stoed by the authorities !ho advised us against continuing, 'or there !ere over
F,%%% armed communists there !aiting 'or us and rriuch bloodshed !ould ta;e lace.
#o !e turned 'rom 7nion #Euare to!ard the rail!ay station, !here !e hoisted 'lags over the engine
roundhouse and over the station. Then !e commandeered a train on the trac; and !ent to 9icolina.
#omeone thre! the s!itch in the 9icolina station and train
and all entered the 9icolina !or;s. :e got o''. 6n the shos, no one. )n one o' the buildings, the
red 'lag. 6 climbed u a 'ire escae holding a tricolor 'lag bet!een my teeth. :ith some di''iculty,
'or it !as at a great height, 6 reached the rooN 6 got on the roo' and cra!led to the to. 6 snatched
the red 'lag and amidst the truly tremendous hurrahs, lasting several minutes, 6 hoisted and secured
the tricolor 'lag. Then, 'rom there 6 so;e. )utside the !alls, the communists increasing in
numbers, steadily gre! into a comact mass and demonstrated menacingly.
4n in'ernal rac;et. 6nside, hurrahsi, outside, boos and cursing. Then 6 slo!ly descended to the
ground. Pancu ordered our dearture. 8ut at the gate the communists barred our e<it, yellingG +1et
Pancu and Codreanu come 'or!ardM+ :e steed /% yards in 'ront o' our cro!d and headed 'or the
gate. 6n the middle, Pancu, on his right a tradesman, 2argarint, !ith mysel' on the le't. 4ll three o'
us advanced saying nothing, ;eeing our hands in our oc;ets on the revolvers. Those at the gate
!atched us, Euiet and unmoving. 9o! !e !ere but a 'e! stes a!ay. 6 e<ected the !hiD o' a
bullet going ast my ear. 8ut !e ;et on, straight and determined. Ho!ever, this !as a very
unusual, soul'ul moment. :e !ere no! but a coule o' stes a!ay. The communists steed aside
oening u 'or usM For about ten yards !e !al;ed in tomb-li;e silence through their midst. :e
loo;ed neither to the le't nor to the right. 9othing !as heard, not even human breathing. )ur men
'ollo!ed us. 8ut as they came through, the silence !as bro;en. Cursing began, !ith threats on both
sides, 8ut no 'ighting. in a body, !e headed along the railroad to!ard the station. 8ehind us, over
the !or;s, the blo!ing !ind 'luttered the cloth o' the victorious tricolor.
The moral e''ect o' this action !as incomarable. The !hole o' 6asi !as in an uroar. *verybody
on the streets so;e only about The Guard o' the 9ational Conscience. 4 current o' (omanian
a!a;ening !as 'elt in the air, The trains, carried 'urther to the 'our corners o' the country the ne!s
o' this resurrection. :e realiDed that 8olshevism !ould be de'eated because 'acing it, as !ell as on
its 'lan;s, a barrier o' conscience had been raised !hich !ould revent its e<ansion.
4ll roads to its 'urther encroachment !ere no! closed. From no! on it must retreat, not long a'ter,
action by Geti. 4verescu=s administration !as added to our e''orts, enough so that this movement=s
rosects !ere altogether nulli'ied.
The Guard o' the 9ational Conscience !as a 'ighting organiDation designed to ;noc; out the
enemy. 6 !as tal;ing !ith Pancu many time those evenings in -.-., 'or !e !ere together
constantly and almost regularly ate at his table. 4nd 6 !as telling himG
+6t is not enough to de'eat Communism. :e must also 'ight 'or the rights o' the !or;ers. They have
a right to bread and a 'ight to honor, :e must 'ight against the oligarchic arties, creating national
!or;ers organiDations !hich can gain their rights !ithin the 'rame!or; o' the state and not against
the state.+
+:e Permit no one to try raising on (omanian soil another 'lag, save that o' our national bistory,
9o matter bo! Hgbt the !or;ers= class may be, !e do not tolerate that it rise u against the country
or that it ma;e common cause !ith 'oreign movements outside our borders, 9o one !ill admit that
'or your bread you lay !aste and band over into the bands o' a 'oreign eole o' ban;ers and
usurers, everything that 'or t!o millenia the s!eat o' a
eole o' !or;ers and brave ones bas saved, Lour rights, yes-but !ithin the rights o' your eole. 6t
is inadmissible that 'or your tight, the historic right o' the nation to !hich you belong be tramled
=8ut !e !ill neither admit that in the shelter o' the color 'ormulas an oligarchic and tyrannical class
may install itsel' on the bac;s o' the !or;ers o' all categories and
literally s;in them, !hile continually !aving banners through the air 'or Fatherland-!hich they do
not loveJ God-in :hom they do not believeJ Church-into !hich they never enter and 4rmy-!hich
they sent to !ar emty-banded.
+These are realities !hich cannot be used as 'alse emblems 'or olitical 'raud in the hands o' some
immoral restidigitators.+
Then !e began organiDing the !or;ers into national unions, and even a olitical artyG +The
9ational-Christian #ocialism=.+ 6t !as then that Pancu !roteG
6 believe in the one and undivided (omanian #tate, 'rom Dniester to the Tisa,.the holder o' all
(omanians and only o' (omanians, lover o' !or;, honor and in 'ear o' God, concerned about the
country and its eoleJ giver o' eEual rights, both civil and olitical, to men and to !omenJ
rotector o' the 'amily, aying its ublic servantsI. 4t that time !e had not heard o' 4dol' Hitler
and German 9ational #ocialism and !or;ers on the basis o' the number o' children and the !or;
er'ormed, Euality and EuantityJ and in a #tate, suorter o' social harmony through minimiDing o'
class di''erencesJ and in addition to salaries, nationaliDing 'actories (the roerty o' all !or;ers" and
distributing the land among all the loughmen.
6t !ould distribute bene'its bet!een o!ner (state or rivate" and !or;ers. The 'ormer o!ner, in
addition to his o!n salary should get a ercentage inversely roortional to the siDe o' his original
investmentJ 'urthermore, the #tate !ould insure his original investmentJ 'urthermore, the #tate
!ould insure the !or;ers through a =ris;s 'undJ= !ould rovide storehouses 'or 'ood and clothing
'or !or;ers and civil servants !ho, organiDed in national unions !ill have their reresentatives in
the administrative boards o' the various industrial, agricultural and commercial institutions.
6 believe in a great and strong ='ather o' the !or;ers= and Aing o' the easants, Ferdinand the First,
!ho has sacri'iced all 'or the hainess o' (omania and !ho 'or our salvation became as one !ith
the eoleJ !ho at the head o' his troos at 2arasti and 2arasesti vanEuished the enemyJ !ho ever
since, loo;s lovingly and trustingly uon the soldiers o!ing him allegiance, soldiers !ho !ill 'ind
their military duty to be a real school o' their nation !hich they can 'inish in a year. +6 believe in
one tricolor surrounded by the rays o' 9ational-Christian #ocialism, symbol o' harmony among the
brothers and sisters o' Greater (omania.
6 believe in one #acred Christian Church !ith riests living the Gosel and 'or the Gosel, and !ho
!ould, li;e the aostles, sacri'ice themselves 'or the enlightenment o' the many.
6 recogniDe the election o' the 2inisters by the Chamber, the abolition o' the #enate, the
organiDation o' rural olice, a rogressive income ta<, schools o' agriculture and cra'ts in the
villages, =circles= 'or house!ives and adults, homes 'or invalids and old 'ol;s, national homes, the
determination o' aternity, e''ectively bringing the ;no!ledge o' the la!s to everybody, the
encouragement o' rivate initiative in the interest o' the 9ation, and the develoment o' the
easant=s home industry.
6 a!ait the resurrection o' national conscience even in the most humble sheherd and the descent o'
the educated into the midst o' the tired, to strengthen and hel them in true brotherhood, the
'oundation o' (omania o' tomorro!, 4menM +The Guard o' the 9ational Conscience.+
The ne!saer Constiinta (+The Conscience+", 2onday, February ., -.$%.
Then !e began the organiDation o' the national unions.. The 'ollo!ing document sho!s ho! one o'
our =unions !as 'ormed. 6 ublish it in order to emhasiDe the conscientiousness o' the 6asian
!or;ers at that timeG
+The undersigned tradesmen, !or;ers and cler;s o' the tobacco lant 4.#.2., met this evening,
2onday February $,-.$%, at the headEuarters o' the Guard o' the 9ational Conscience, 9o. /
4lecsandri #t.= under the chairmanshi o' 2r. C. Pancu, active resident o' the Guard. :H*(*4#
the criminal tendencies o' certain individuals !ho serve interests that are 'oreign to this eole, and,
:H*(*4# the roaganda in !hich they engage, namely to stri;e at the !ell-being o' this
institution and at the very e<istence o' those o' us !ho have been !or;ing all our lives 'or a slice o'
bread, !hich is our only 'ood and that o' our children, :*, honest and la!-abiding (omanian
!or;ers, !ishing to march united beneath the 'lag o' our country on the road dictated by the
sureme interests o' our eole, 'or the !ell-being o' this institution in order to hel sto once
and 'or all the roaganda o' our enemy !ithin our ran;s, D*C6D*D to constitute ourselves into a
ro'essional national union, 'or !hich !e elected the 'ollo!ing committee and a delegate o' the
Guard o' the 9ational Conscience.+
There 'ollo! -@/ signatures.
+Constiinta+ (+The Conscience+", February ., -.$%, 9os. -& and -@.
6 try to reort the moment o' -.-.-$%, ta;ing 'rom ne!saers and mani'estoes !hat 6 consider to
be signi'icant. The 'irst mani'esto issued by Constantin Pancu at 6asi in 4ugust
-.-., osted on all !alls every!here in 6asi, in a moment o' general disorientation, is the signal to
battle 'or the (omanian !or;ers o' 6asiG
A!"# $% $&! '%(")*") $'"+!,(!), -%'.!',, ,%#+*!', ")+ !",")$,
Follo!ing years o' 'right'ul battles the !orld celebrates eace among menJ the !ise leaders in all
civiliDed countries endeavor, to do a!ay !ith !ar by establishing a la! to guarantee a eace'ul
e<istence in the 'uture.
8ut lo, 'rom the *ast one hears voices o' hatred !hich indicate the attemt o' our enemies to ri us
aart through discord and misunderstandings among us. From (ussia, ruled by the dar;ness o'
erroneous teachings, !e are urged to battle and 'ire and to ;ill our brothers o' li;e blood.
From Hungary, !hich !ees over her 'ormer grandeur, one hears the same urgings. The enemies in
the *ast have united !ith those in the :est to disturb our eace so they can invade us.
The 'oreigners beyond our borders try to ass the cu o' oison among us, through the aliens living
in the bosom o' our country. They dare state that they rod us 'or!ard
in the name o' eace, >ustice and liberty, and in the name o' the !or;ers. Their !ord is a lie, their
urgings a ;illing oison 'orG
They say they !ant eace, but they themselves destroy it, ;illing the most !orthyJ
Demand 'reedom, but by death threats, oblige eole to submit to themJ
:ish brotherhood, !hile they so! hatred, in>ustice, and licentiousness !ithin nations.
2oreover, they say they !ant the abolishment o' caital earned by the s!eat o' one=s bro!. =
They tell us they do not !ant !ar, but they !ar.
They demand the army be abolished, but they arm themselves. They urge us to discard the tricolor
'lag, !hile in its stead they hoist the red 'lag o' hatred. Do not lend any credence to their
mani'estoes and urgings >ust as you did not believe that o' the enemy !hen you !ere 'ighting at
)ituD, 2arasti and 2arasesti.
The duty o' every good (omanian is to see to it that in the 'uture, too, the seed o' dissention the
enemy endeavors to thro! among us does not ta;e root.
Per'ect the :or; you began by your labor and your honor. Lour enemies are the indolence, hatred
and dishonor that rule across the borders, that threaten us as !ell.
8e!areM Aee clean your soul, do not 'orget that our salvation is !or;, unity and honor.
8rother soldiers,
:ith 'aith in God, you have bro;en the enemy=s o!er. :ith your !eaons you have carved 'or
eternity the country=s borders.
:ith your blood you have er'ected and sealed your sacri'ice.
That is !hy you must not allo! 'oreign and la!less bands to destroy that !hich you er' ected.
Continue to hold your love o' country and 'aith in your Aing. Lou too; an oath to de'end !ith your
blood to the last dro the 'atherland=s borders. Guard them a,,tentively against the evil intentions o'
the enemy, 'or that is !hat our arents and ancestors did.
8rother easants,
The God o' our arents too; mercy on our su''ering and gave us as bounti'ul a year as !as rarely
seen. 8e grate'ul to the good 1ord, through your labor and your 'aith. (ene! your !or;ing o!ers,
gather assiduously the yield o' the land. (est assured that the land 'rom the Tisa, the Danube, and
the 8lac; #ea, !as entirely !on by you.
Aee it in sacredness, de'end its riches through your labor and your love.
8rother (omas,
6t is in you that the hoes and strength o' this country lie. Lou are also the hainess o' tomorro!.
Do not gather 'or yourselves curses, but blessings.
The enemy is attac;ing at the Dniester and at the Tisa. He also tries to disrut the inner eace o' our
)ur deliverance is in labor, honor, love o' country and 'aith in God.
8e care'ul, call onto the righteous ath also those !ho straying have crossed over to those !ithout a
eole and !ithout a 'aith. 7nited around the throne and under the shado! o' the tricolor banner
stand !atch 'or the eace o' the country.
Tell the 'oreigners and 'oreign-lovers !ho try to disturb us, that around us a national guard has
'ormed that !atches, that !ill 'ight those !ishing to so! among us discord.
(omanians every!here, !or;ers, cra'tsmen, soldiers and easants, be !orthy o' our ancestors and
o' the call o' these times in !hich !e live.
(ss" the (omanian circle o' tradesmenJ the (ail!ay Traction 7nionJ the #ociety o' the :ar
6nvalidsJ the 6ron!or;ers= Guild, etc.
Constiinta (+The Conscience+", 4ugust /%, -.-., lst year, 9o. -
The leaders o' the (omanian communist !or;ers !ere neither (omanians nor !or;ers.
4t 6asiG Dr. Ghelerter, Ce!J Gheler, Ce!J #iegler, Ce!J #chreiber,
Ce!, etc. .
4t 8ucharestG 6lie 2oscovici, Ce!J Pau;er, Ce!, etc.
4round them, grous o' lost (omanian !or;ers.
Had the revolution been success'ul, the resident o' the reublic that !ould have usured the great
Aing Ferdinand, !ould have been 6lie 2oscovici.
6n Greater (omania=s Parli!nent in -.-. !hile the deuties and senators o' all reunited (omanian
rovinces, thrilled by the great act o' the 7nion, stood u and alauded the uni'ier great Aing, this
2r. llie 2oscovici re'used to stand u, ostentatiously sitting do!n.
6t is necessary to underscore the attitude o' the Ce!ish ress in those erilous times 'or the
(omanian eole. *very time the (omanian nation !as menaced in its e<istence, this ress
suorted the theses that best suited our enemies. 4s in 'act, 'ollo!ing the events, it can easily be
seen that the same theses !ere doggedly oosed any time they !ere 'avouring a movement o'
(omanian revival.
For them, our !orries !ere days o' >oy, !hile our >oys 'or them !ere days o' mourning.
Freedom, so much today denied to the national movement, !as bac; then considered dogma,
because it !as to serve the cause o' our destruction. Here is, 'or instance, !hat 4devarul (+The
Truth+" o' December $@, -.-. !rote under the signature o' *mil D. Fagure (real name
+8y according to the #ocialist Party the right to 'reely demonstrate, one cannot maintain that said
arty is granted a rivilege. 9o matter !hat the arty that !ants to demonstrate is, this right !ill
have to be re>ected .....+
:e can read in the same aerG
+Hatred must 'orever be the guide against the arty o' murderers, that ruled, headed by 6on
The Cudaic hatred o' the (omanians is blessedJ is suortedJ one invo;es it. 6t is not a crime. 6t is
not a medieval shame. 8ut !hen it comes time 'or the (omanians to de'end their in'ringed rights,
their action is labeled +hatred+ and hatred becomes a sign o' barbarism, a debasing sentiment on
!hich nothing can be built.
L!/"# %'+!'
4devarul (+The Truth+", )ctober F, -.-.
6t is 'inishedM 8y the =high= decree-la!, 'or the duration o' the electoral eriod a ne! regime is
instituted, much rougher than be'ore, one o' siege and censorshi, the oosition and the !hole
country being ta;en outside o' the la!. it is ure and simle, the regime o' military dictatorshi in
!hich the cro!n alone is all-o!er'ulJ the cro!n and the 1iberal Party, and as an e<ecutor o' these
t!o !ills, you have the government o' generals ...... thus the decree-la! 'orbids us to attac; the
Cro!n. 6' telling the truth be ta;en as an attac;, i.e., that the cro!n too; onto itsel' the heavy
burden o' governing the country !ith the 1iberal Party, then still, this attac; !e must ma;e.
The decree 'orbids us 'rom attac;ing the resent 'orm o' administration, i' by this is understood that
!e have no right to rotest !ith all vehemence against the resent
government !hich is the result o' the unconstitutional !ill o' t!o ersons, !e !ill rotest....
6' there is no other !ay oen against this state o' a''airs, i' !e ;ne! that the incitation to revolt or
against the so-called legal order !ould have any e''ect-this un'ortunately is not the case- !e !ould
not hesitate a single moment to do it, 'or there is no other means o' 'ighting against such a
dictatorial and tyrannical regime.
I (omania=s Prime 2inister during the First :orld :ar, ;Tr0<
:e consider ourselves 'acing an armed band !hich laces itsel' outside the la! and uses brutal
Desite all this !e !ill raise this banner and 'alling !e !ill yet cryG =Do!n !ith tyrannyJ= =1ong live
This then is the Ce!ish ress o' -.-..
6n other !ordsG inciting to rebellion against the Cro!n, against the 'orm o' government and the
legal order.
I)0*$"$*%) $% '!1%#$
4devarul (+The Truth+", )ctober --, -.-.
+The madmenM :here are the madmenK+
4s !e said, !e have too many !ell-behaved men and no madmen. )r, madmen is !hat !e need.
Those o' -@?@ !ere madmen and they urooted the boyarsI regime o' the time ....
:e too, need madmen. :ith !ell-behaved men !ho slit a hair into -? st: not, arriving, at a
decision, there is nothing to be done. :e need at least one madman, i' not more o' them. :hat is
this madman going to do, ho! do 6 ;no!K.....
)ne madman then is as;ed 'or. 1et then the madmen come.
*ven the socialists have become !ell-behaved, 6n reality they have a arty behind them and men
!ho should 'ear no one. 6 see they are not a'raid, but they are nevertheless !ell-behaved. 4s 6.
9ade>de did o' old, they stubbornly stay !ithin the legal 'rame!or;, Those in o!er, civilians and
military, !ish to ta;e them out, a useless endeavor, Their tactic is the legal state. *ven !hen they
are shot at, as on December -/, -.-@, !hen they are beaten to a ul, !hen Frimu is lo!ered by his
henchmen into his grave, the socialists rotest-granted, !ith great dignity-but they do not ste
outside the la!.
6n any case !e need madmen.
1et the madmen !ho !ould begin the illegal action, or that against the la!, against today=s state o'
a''airs, come 'or!ard.
T&! 0'%-)
To the (omanians the cro!n al!ays constituted a dear atrimony. 4s the guarantor o' our unity and
resistance 'acing any dangers, the Ce!s never hesitated to attac; it, to insult and comromise it by
any means. Here is, 'or e<amle, ho! Dimineata (+The 2orning+" o' 9ovember -0, -.-., treats
Aing Ferdinand.
=8ecause o' an error=
4n animal has need o' limited reoccuations, but its brain su''ices to 'ul'ill them. (arely,
e<tremely rarely, is the animal !rong. 1i;e!ise his intelligence, no matter ho! small, revents it
'rom 'alling into gross error.
6t is not the same !ith the Aing.
6 !ant to sea; o' the ;ing o' creation.
The ;ing o' creation is much more intelligent than a dog, a horse, an ass. This is certain. 8ut
!hereas none o' these animals !ould ste o'' the edge o' a reciice, !ould not thro! themselves
into the !aters to dro!n or !ould not attemt an unsa'e move, the ;ing o' creation daily commits
unardonable errors.....
I 2e+ers o'Jdvi;ged -hudho;hn-g @s. KKK ;Tr0<
:isdom demanded that the Aing not ermit himsel' to 'all risoner into the hands o' a single man
or arty.
:ith all due resect 6 am duty-bound to tell His 2a>esty he erred. The situation !hich is so unclear
is the !or; o' His 2a>esty. For His 2a>esty, giving in to some guilty and interested obsessions, has
run a!ay 'rom the natural solutions that the internal situation demanded.
6' even today the cro!n !ill not decide to enter into the natural !ays !hich are divorced 'rom
'uture interests, nature !ill e<act its rights !ith even greater determination.
1et the ;ing o' creation be advised.
T&! C&'*,$*") 0&2'0&
)inia (+The )inion+", 4ugust -%, -.-.
The nationalists o' 6asi begin to agitate. There are too 'e! o' them and they are too scoundrely, that
is !hy their agitating !hich in times ast !as revolting, is today ridiculous, ure and simle.
The nationalists 'ormed a =Guard o' the 9ational Conscience=. 2ani'estoes !ere issuedJ meetings
!ere held...
Chauvinistic students !ere also invited. The customary riests also came... 4t a time !hen
every!here, out o' the most desotic la!s, di''erences among nationalities are, being abolished, in
our country nationalists !ant to accentuate these di''erences.... this articularly at the moment !hen
the eace con'erence !ants to imose by treaty the control o' minorities....
:hen every!here the church is being searated 'rom the state, remaining the rivate concern o'
every individual, in our country the nationalists aeal to the clergy 'or organiDed religious
roaganda o' rincile...
Then the riest intervenesG he gently grass the eole by the hair o' their heads and beats their
'oreheads against the stones o' the church until they are daDed. 6t is in the church that the eole
learn humility and resignation. #uch is the !ill o' God.
9o one is 'ooled by lies any longer. 6t is in vain that the nationalists in tricolor bands on their
sleeves, that they incite the lebeian intellectuals against the Ce!s, that they have the riests
anathemiDe us in church. 9o one today 'ears their anathema.
:e reach love among eole. 4nd ;ic; at the door o' the temles !hich shelter hatred and
revenge ......
#ignedG 2. #evastos
T&! '%0!,,*%)
)inia (+The )inion+", )ctober $0, -.-.
To the aeal o' the =Guard o' the 9ational Conscience,= the honorable clergy laced at the disosal
o' the demonstrators, their beards, vestments, and cburcb banners.
8ut the lu<ury o' having at one=s disosal a God !ith a !hole sta'' must be aid 'or. :e re'er that
'rom our ta<es a ro'essor be hired, not a riest. :e !ish there'ore the searation o' church 'rom
the state. For !e do not !ish that our 'orced contribution serve to encourage obscurantism,
renunciation and the sirit o' resignation, than;s to !hich olice regimes are maintains maintained,
8ac; to the 2iddle 4gesK To the 6nEuisitionK :e are e<aserated by the terror in stried ants and
tails, and military tunic, nor can !e any longer tolerate the terror !earing the religious habit, 6t hurts
us to see street demonstrations romted by olitical intrigues and the military, and no longer !ish
to !itness arades o' mitres and o' red nec;-;erchie's...
The cuolas o' the churches !eigh heavily uon the shoulders o' humanityJ the rostrations ull it
to the ground.
This rocession is going to be an insiid one. )ne !ill see on the streets museum vestments,
brilliant-studded seeters, miters... Crosses !ill be seen, and stoles.
8eards !ill ass, )rators !ith contorted gestures !ill bare their chests sho!ing the cro!d their
bloodied side-suc;ing bet!een teeth songes soa;ed in vinegar...
#ignedG 2. #evastos
6t is clear. From here to attac;ing o''icers and tearing o'' their stries is but one ste. 4lso one ste
to ;noc;ing do!n the churches !ith ic;s or to their tran'ormation into stables or laces o' sadistic
arties 'or the little Ce!ish reorters 'rom )inia (+The )inion+", 4devarul (+The Truth+",
Dimineata (+The 2orning+" and their eole.
6 sa! in the columns o' these ne!saers, at a time o' great (omanian hardshi, all the hatred and
'o<y lotting o' an enemy race, settled and tolerated here by the ity and only by the ity o' the
(omanians. 6 sa! ho! they 'launted their lac; o' resect 'or the (omanian 4rmy=s glory and 'or the
hundreds o' thousands !ho died in its sancti'ied uni'ormJ their lac; o' resect 'or the Christian 'aith
o' an entire eole.
9o day assed !ithout venom being oured into our hearts 'rom each age.
8y reading those ne!saers !hich crised my soul, 6 came to ;no! the real 'eelings o' these
aliens, !hich they revealed !ithout reticence, at a time they thought !e had been ;noc;ed to the
ground. 6 learned enough anti-#emitism in one year to last me three li'etimes. For one cannot stri;e
the sacred belie's o' a eole or !hat their heart loves and resects, !ithout hurting them to the
deths and !ithout blood driing 'rom their !ound. #eventeen years have assed since and the
!ound is still bleeding.
2ay 6 be ermitted once again to 'ul'ill a sacred duty, mentioning here this hero, an athlete o'
Christian !or;ingmen, the cra'tsman Constantin Pancu, under !hose command 6 stood and by
!hose side 6 !ould stay until the +(ed 8east,+ as he called it, !as de'eated.
6t is to this man-to his courage and stead'astness-that is o!ed the deliverance o' the city o' 6asi 'rom
destruction. #even years later, this giant, !ea;ened by su''ering and overty, !as !al;ing the
streets o' 6asi li;e a shado!, see;ing aid to!ard the treatment o' a heart ailment. He died ill and
oor, 'orgotten and unaided, in the midst o' a country that cared not, and in a city !hich he
de'ended !ith his o!n body in its most trying hours.
C17C, #*PT*28*( ?,F,0,-.$%
This congress !as held in the 9ational Theater in Clu>, in an atmoshere o' great enthusiasm, as a
result o' the uni'ication o' the $0
(omanian eole by 'orce o' arms and their sacri'ice. This !as the 'irst meeting o' the young
intellectuals o' a eole !ho had been u to then scattered to the 'our !inds by destiny and
mis'ortune. T!o thousand years o' in>ustices and su''ering !ere coming to an end.
:hat enthusiasmM Ho! many sacred emotionsM Ho! many tears did !e all shedM
8ut as great as our enthusiasm !as 'or the resent !hich over!helmed our hearts through its
ma>esty, >ust as great !as our disorientation !ith resect to !hat line to 'ollo! in the 'uture.
6t !as 'rom this uncertainty that the Cudaic o!er sought to ro'it, by suggesting to and ultimately
e<erting ressure on the ministries, 2asonry and oliticians to lace on the agenda o' the congress
the ossible admittance o' Ce!ish students into the students= associations.
6n other !ords the trans'ormation o' the (omanian associations into mi<ed (omanian-Ce!ish ones
!as attemted. The danger !as seriousG on one hand 8olshevism ;noc;ing at the door, on the other
the robability o' being over!helmed numerically by Cudeo-communist elements in our o!n
grous. 6n at least t!o o' them, 6asi and Cernauti, the situation !as tragic. 6n site o' this, the
leaders o' the congress, 1abusca, the resident o' the 6asi student association and his entire
committeeJ 9aDarie, 8ucharest=s resident !ith his !hole committee and all associationsJ and
Puscaru, Clu>=s resident, !ere !on over to this idea. Loung students are in'luenced very easily
articularly !hen they lac; a 'aith. They let themselves be lured not so much by the immediate
material advantages they might be o''ered but more articularly by 'lattery and by the rosect o' a
great 'uture they !ere romised. 8ut the youth must ;no! that no matter !hat osition he !ill hold,
he is a sentinel in the service o' the nation and that ermitting himsel' to be bought, 'lattered, lured,
means a dereliction o' duty, and could even lead to desertion or betrayal.
4 small uno''icial grou o' us 'rom 6asi, unsha;eable in our determination, united !ith that o' the
8ucovinans, 'ought 'iercely 'or t!o days. 4nd ultimately !e !on. The congress assed the motion
6 roosed, by norm=nal vote, as oosed to the motion suorted by the entire student leadershi, 6
believe the congress voted thus not so much out o' conviction, as out o' admiration 'or the
determination and deseration !ith !hich our 'ight !as conducted.
The students 'rom Cernau,ti, no more than 0%, behaved admirably. )ur small grou o' 6asians, not
more than $%, li;e!ise. i' !e add the Ciochina grou o' $%, also 'rom 6asi, the t!o-day, battle !as
!on by -%% versus F,%%%.
That victory o' ours then !as decisive. Had our oint o' vie! lost, the student associations !ould
have also lost their (omanian character, and in contact !ith the Ce!s !ould have turned to!ard
8olshevism. The (omanian student body !as at a great crossroad.
4nd later, in -.$$, !e !ould not have had the erution o' a (omanian students= movement, but
erhas an erution o' the communist revolution.
6n the other university centers there !as Euiet. )nly ours in 6asi !as condemned to continuous
struggle. For the 'irst time in the history o' 6asi 7niversity, the 7niversity #enate announced the
oening o' the academic year !ithout the customary religious service. 6n order 'or someone to
understand our sorro!, one must ;no! that this solemn ceremony has been, !ithout interrution,
'or hal' a century, the 7niversity=s most beauti'ul event. This occasion embraced the entire
7niversity #enate, all ro'essors, all students ne!ly-registered, and the intellectual elite o' 6asi. The
service !as al!ays celebrated =2 the auditorium by 2oldavia=s 2etroolitan or his vicar, blessing
the start o' a ne! year in the education o' the (omanian eole. 8ut no! our university !as casting
aside by a gesture o' the 7niversity #enate this >e!el o' its hal'-century tradition.
Graver yet, the university o' our Christian 6asi, the highest institution o' (omanian learning !as
thus roclaiming in those di''icult times, the 'ight against God, the banishment o' God in schools,
institutions and country.
The ro'essors o' 6asi 7niversity, e<ceting ? or F ;no!n to oose this trend, !elcomed !ith great
satis'action the heathen decision o' the #enate as a ste 'or!ard that !ould ta;e +(omanian
science+ out o' +barbarism+ and +medieval reconcetions+.
Communist students !ere >ubilant, Ce!ry triumhant, !hile a 'e! o' us ondered sorro!'ullyG
!e !ondered ho! long it !ould be be'ore churches !ere torn do!n and riests in their vestments
cruci'ied on their altarsK
4bout eight o' us nationalist students in 6asi at the time ;noc;ed in vain at the doors o' many o' the
ro'esssors trying to convince them to rescind the measure ta;en by the #enate, but our reeated
attemts 'ailed.
4n then, on the evening be'ore the start o' the academic year, !e decided to ta;e a grave steG !e
!ould 'orcibly oose the oening o' the university.
6n order to stay groued, !e all slet at 9o. ? #uhuan #t., the headEuarters o' our action. 4t si< in
the morning 5ladimir Frir-nu and mysel' le't 'or the university-the others !ere to 'ollo!. :e
closed and barricaded the rear door o' the university leaving Frimu there to guard it. 6 ut u a
oster in red encil on the large entrance door reading,
+6 bring to the attention o' the students as !ell as to that o' the ro'essors that this university is
going to oen only 'ollo!ing the traditional religious service.+
The rest o' our comrades came late, too late. #tudents started coming at @ o=cloc;. 4lone at the
entrance, 6 resisted until about nine thirty, by !hich time over /%% students had gathered. :hen
mathematics Pro'essor 2uller !anted to 'orce his !ay in, 6 told himG +Lou s!ore on the cross !hen
you became a ro'essor at this university. :hy do you no! raise yoursel' against the crossK
Lou are a er>urer, because you had s!orn on something you did not believe in and no! you brea;
that oath.+
Then, the students, headed by 2arin the communist leader, Hritcu and 6onescu 'rom 8otosani,
dashed at me, oened the university=s main entrance, too; me into the lobby hitting me over the
head !ith stic;s and 'ists. 9o de'ense, no rioste !as ossible, 'or 6 !as caught in the middle,
ushed 'rom all directions, getting blo!s 'rom every!here. Finally 6 !as le't alone. 4s 6 stood in a
corner re'lecting uon the mis'ortune o' my de'eat, in came the si< students. Ho!ever, the victory
o' the enemy did not last very long, 'or shortly the university=s secretary came do!n 'rom the
rectorate and osted the 'ollo!ing noticeG +6t is brought to everybody=s attention that the rectorate
has decided that this university !ill remain closed until :ednesday, !hen it !ill oen !ith the
religious service.+ This !as a great victory that !e !elcomed !ith unsurassed >oy. :ednesday
morning, t!o days later, in the auditorium 'illed to caacity by city eole, !as conducted the
religious service. 6 !as congratulated by everybody. Pro'essor 4.C. CuDa so;e !ith unsurassed
eloEuence. 6t !as at that moment that the belie' too; hold in me - and it has never le't me - that one
!ho 'ights 'or God and his eole, even i' alone, !ill never be de'eated. 6n the ublic oinion at
6asi, these battles, esecially those at the 4.#.2. and the (ail!ay :or;s, and lastly that at the
university, have had a o!er'ul echo. The enemy began to realiDe that 8olshevism cannot advance
!ithout serious obstacles, even !hen it is suorted by nearly all the university=s ro'essors, the
entire ress, all Ce!ry, the largest roortion o' !or;ingmen, !hile on the other side there is only a
minimal grou o' youth oosing these huge !aves, armed only !ith their great 'aith in the 'uture
o' their country. These youth resented the barrier o' their !ills comarable to some >agged roc;s in
the ground over !hich one can easily see, but cannot climb over !ithout great hurt, in 'act one
!ould not even ever thin; o' trying to. The enemies 'eared not so much us, but our determination.
The sane art o' the oulation, the Christian and (omanian 6asi, encouraged us and
symathetically !atched us.
8egun in the conditions mentioned earlier, this year !as an unending series o' battles and clashes.
:e, the 'ighting students, organiDed ourselves around the student +#te'an 5oda+ association !hose
resident 6 !as. From here !e attac;ed our adversaries, vanEuishing them time and again.
Desising (omanian culture, they loo;ed do!n uon the university and everything !e had in this
country !ith retensions o' being savants and advisors, li;e some men arriving 'rom a great country
uon this sin'ul and bac;!ard (omanian soil.
They may have been right in certain oints, but soon they !ould clash in our little country !ith a
great centuries-old common sense, that they in their large emire there beyond the Dniester, roved
never to have had at all, 4t the university, meetings became imossible. 9o decision could any
longer be ta;en. The great ma>ority o' students !as made u o' communists and their symathisers.
8ut they could not ta;e one ste 'or!ard because our grou, never over ?%, !as al!ays resentJ !e
attac;ed and did not ermit the airing o' communist ideas and ractices. The general stri;e tried at
the 6asi 7niversity !hen the communist student #iegler !as arrested, 'ailed a'ter one day, because
our grou occuied the mess hall 'orbidding stri;ers entrance to meals on the grounds that
+:hoever does not !or;, does not eat.+ 4ll leadings o' the rector and the ro'essors to convince
us that these students ought to be ermitted to enter 'or their meals, !ere made in vain. #hortly
therea'ter, our grou !as to !in another victory - the change o' the uni'orm.
Communist students !ere !earing (ussian cas, not that they had no other cas, but as an
ostentatious sign o' a''irming 8olshevism.
)n the occasion o' a clash at the university, these cas !ere grabbed and burnt in 7nion #Euare.
Then, daily, at the university, on the streets, through ubs, the hunting started. 4ll cas !ere burnt,
4'ter one !ee; they comletely disaeared.
)ur grou !ent even 'urther and engaged the Cudeo-communist ress in battle. :e did not have any
rinting resses to sread our !ord. Follo!ing several disresect'ul articles about the Aing, the
4rmy and the Church, our grou, running out o' atience, invaded
the o''ices and rinting remises o' the ne!saers 1umea (+The :orld+" ublished by the Ce!
He'ter and )inia (+The )inion+", and !rec;ed the resses that had se!ed oison and insult. :e
rovo;ed disorders, no doubt, but those disorders !ould sto
the great disorder, the irrearable disorder that the hirelings o' communist revolution !ere
rearing 'or our country.
8ut all this activity made me the rincial ob>ect o' their revenge.
The Ce!ish ress attac;ed usJ 6 violently resonded. 2eeting the editors o' )inia (+The )inion+"
one day on the street, 'ollo!ing a verbal e<change, a'ter 6 demanded they account 'or their insults,
!e had a 'ight. 2y adversaries !ere soundly beaten u. 8ut the ne<t day all ne!saers in 6asi
made common 'ront against me, )inia (+The )inion+", 1umea (+The :orld+", 2iscarea (+The
Things did not sto here. The university #enate too; action immediatelyJ it met and, !ithout giving
me a hearing, e<elled me 'orever 'rom 6asi 7niversity.
Finally, both the university and city o' 6asi !ould get rid o' the disturber o' the ublic order, !ho
'or t!o years disruted the eace o' Cudeo-communists and oosed all their endeavors to unleash
the revolution 'or the dethronement o' our ;ing, the burning do!n o' churches, the shooting o' the
o''icers and the massacre o' hundreds o' thousand o' (omanians. The men o' order and legality
!ere, in the eyes o' the university #enate, the communistsJ the disruter o' this order.
8ut their lans 'ell 'lat, because a truly uniEue event intervened in the ordinary course o' our
student li'e. The Council o' the 1a! Faculty too; issue !ith the e<ulsion ronounced by the
#enate, and, led by Pro'essor CuDa, its Dean, along !ith Pro'essors 2atei CantacuDino and Dimitrie
4le<andrescu, oosed this move. The endeavors o' the council to moderate the 'ury o' the
7niversity #enate 'ailed. The #enate did not rescind the e<ulsion order.
Then the Faculty o' 1a! !ithdre! is reresentative 'rom the #enate, no longer oosed its decision
and declared itsel' indeendent. 6 !as in'ormed by the 1a! Faculty that 6 could continue to attend
classes, 'or the ro'essorial council re'used to recogniDe the decision o' the 7niversity #enate. Thus
6 continued to remain on as a student at 6asi 7niversity. 4s a result o' this incident the council o' the
Faculty o' 1a! did not send its reresentative to the 7niversity #enate 'or three years. This con'lict
continued 'or years longer, even a'ter 6 le't the university. 1ater on !hen 6 obtained my degree, the
rectorate re'used to issue my diloma. 4nd to this day they have not issued it. To register in the bar
and to continue my studies abroad 6 made use o' the certi'icate issued me by the Faculty o' 1a!.
The ne! academic year oened under normal conditions - that is, !ith a religious service. 4gain,
the university and the city o' 6asi !ere in a 'estive mood. This great event assed almost unnoticed
in 8ucharest. There, !hen students arrive, their number is lost in the multitude o' hundreds o'
thousands o' eole, in the noise, the lights, and the many con'licting interests. 6n 6asi, !hen
students leave, a general melancholy descends as !hen the cranes and the birds leave in the 'all.
:hen students return, the youth comes, the li'e. 6t is a holiday. 6n 8ucharest the student 'eels alone
in the middle o' an immense !orld that sees him not, does not areciate him or admonish or have
any interest in him, does not love him. The student=s education at 6asi bears no similarity to that at
8ucharest, 'or he develos li;e a child under the love o' his mother, in the shelter o' the (omanians
love. Here the nation raises her students. 6 mysel' o!e this 6asi an imortant share o' gratitude 'or
anything that 6 !as able to do. 6 have al!ays 'elt the concern that this sirit o' 6asi held 'or me, 6
have 'elt the ray o' its love, 6 have 'elt its admonition, encouragement, urging, its call to the 'ight.
These are 'ollo!ing us - the students o' 6asi - even no!, and they !ill 'ollo! us to the end o' our
lives, as the ever resent memory o' my mother=s urgings and love. )ut o' all the student
generations !ho assed through 6asi, ho! many !ere not stimulated all their lives by 6asi=s call to
'ightM Ho! many !ere not accomanied all the !ay to their graves, ho! many are even today
haunted by its reroachesM
6t !as noticeable at the beginning o' the year that Cudeo-Communism bac;ed do!n, disoriented, its
morale ractically nil, and ut u no resistance. 4ll the ne!ly-enrolled students had heard o' our
battles and had 'or a long time been !aiting to come to our side, )nce here, they >oined our ran;s.
6 !as elected that 'all resident o' the 4ssociation o' 1a! #tudents. The 7niversity #enate re'used
my validation on the rete<t that 6 had been e<elled 'rom the university. 6 validated mysel'.
)ur 1a! #tudent=s 4ssociation, li;e the associations in all the other colleges, had as its urose the
scienti'ic activity o' comleting and deeening studies in their resective 'ields. For instance, under
the residency o' 9elu 6onescu, t!o years ahead o' me, the 4ssociation o' 1a! #tudents held
meetings almost every !ee;. #ome student read a boo; on la! or a related 'ield, condensed it and
in a meeting resented a critiEue. Contradictory discussions then too; lace. 6 retained this general
'ormat but 6 also added something ne!. 4ll these, themes and reorts could not be treated unless
they delved scienti'ically into the Ce!ish roblem. :or;s, treating this roblem in (omania and
abroad !ere read, on the international Ce!ish o!er, on the history o' this roblem at home and
abroad. :e !ere studying not only their methods o' 'ighting us, but the Cudaic sirit and mentality
as !ell, and then !e roosed various means o' 'ighting bac; and de'ending ourselves.
Then, a'ter each e<osition, there 'ollo!ed discussions, comletions, and lastly, the 'ormulation o'
the established truth so that everyone could leave enlightened. Furthermore, in the same meetings
!e sought to accomlishG
a" the identi'ication, at every ste, o' this Cudaic sirit and mentality, that have stealthily in'iltrated
the thin;ing and 'eeling attern o' a large ortion o' (omanians.
b" our deto<i'ication, namely, the elimination o' >udaism that !as introduced in our thin;ing
through boo;s in schools, literature, ro'essors, through lectures, theater and cinematograhy.
c" the understanding and the unmas;ing o' the Ce!ish lans hidden under so many 'orms. For !e
have olitical arties, led by (omanians, through !hich >udaism sea;sJ (omanian ne!saers that
are !ritten by (omanians, through !hich the Ce! sea;s 'or his interestsJ (omanian lecturers and
authors, thin;ing, !riting and sea;ing Ce!ish in the (omanian language.
#tudying all these, !e began to realiDe, that 'or the 'irst time in his history, the (omanian had come
into contact !ith a eole !hich use as !eaons to 'ight and to destroy - as national !eaons -
slyness and er'idy.
The (omanian has al!ays ;no!n only the honest 'ight. Faced !ith the ne! Ce!ish method, he !as
at a loss. :e realiDed that everything comes do!n to ;no!ing the enemy, and that as soon as !e
(omanians ;no! him, !e !ill vanEuish him.

)ur meetings continued regularly 'or the !hole year. They attracted larger and larger numbers o'
students 'rom other colleges, so that the General 4ssociation o' the 6asi students became almost
non-e<istent. The entire student body gravitated around the activity o' the la! grou.
The auditorium became too small 'or the cro!ds o' students !ho !ished to ta;e art in these
meetings. The 8essarabian students !ere articiating in greater and greater numbers. )ne hal'-
year o' activity brought us a real miracleG three 'ourths o' the Christian 8essarabian students !o;e
u, 'elt themselves called to a ne! li'e, became enlightened. 6n a short time, they !ere to become
the most 'aith'ul soldiers in our 'ight, reaching through 'aith, devotion, urity o' heart and sirit o'
sacri'ice, the leadershi o' the movement that had >ust begun to bud.
This moment o' brotherhood in the same 'aith and o' ledging to 'ight 'or our Christian country
against the cheating Cudaic hordes, !ill never be 'orgotten. :e !ho !ere 'ighting each other but
yesterday, !ere no! embracing.
The orientation guidelines in our meetings !ere the !ritings o' our national geniuses 8ogdan
Petriceicu Ha>deu, 5asile Conta, 2ihail *minescu, 5asile 4lecsandri, etc. but esecially the
!ritings and lectures o' Pro'essor CuDa, the !ritings o' Pro'essor Paulescu, the lessons in national
education o' Pro'essor Gavanescul.
4ll the !ritings o' Pro'essor CuDa !ere read not only once, but three, 'our times, and they !ere
studied. Particularly his course in olitical economy treating brilliantly the Ce!ish Euestion 'rom his
restigious osition, as;ing (omanians to understand this their gravest resent roblem,!as 'or us a
guide 'or every moment in our e''ort to get to ;no! it. )ur greatest good 'ortune, and that o'
(omanians, !as thus having Pro'essor CuDa, one o' the most ;no!ledgeable men on the !orld-
!ide Ce!ish roblem. it !as than;s to him that !e !ere able to orient ourselves to any Ce!ish
His courses, o' the highest academic standard, !ere 'ollo!ed by all students !ith hitherto
unrecedented attention. The auditorium o' the #chool o' 1a! roved al!ays too small. For a long
time to come this 7niversity o' 6asi !ill not have a ro'essor !ith sermons
on nationalism that !ill insire a similar enthusiasm.
During this time 'or many o' us li'e began to reveal a uniEue urose, over all other interestsG that
o' 'ighting 'or our eole !hose very e<istence !as threatened.
4t the other universities, Euiet revailed. #ince the sring o' the revious year, - .$ -, in Cernau ti
there had begun stirrings around the (omanianiDation o' the theater. 4 'ierce battle o' several days
ended !ith the students= victory. 9o!, in the sring o' -.$$,- organiDed under the ausices o' the
4ssociation o' 1a! #tudents a visit o' the
6asians to Cemauti. :e !ere !ell received by both ro'essors and students. :e -%% visitors did
nothing else the three days !e stayed there but imart to our colleagues in Cernauti the ne! 'aith
!hich !as ta;ing sbae in our souls, it !as not di''icult, 'or Cernauti, >ust li;e 6asi only more so,
su''ered='rom the Ce!ish invasion, !ith its streets, its6commerce, its dilaidated churches, its land
and (omanians, all groaning under Ce!ish domination. 8rie'ly, bet!een us a ne! and tight siritual
;inshi !as created, based on a yearning and our common dream to see 'or once our eole
a!a;ened to the consciousness o' dignity, o!er and rights as master o' their o!n 'ate and that o'
their country. This ;inshi then gre! stronger through the visit reaid us by the Cemauti students
one month later. 6t !as no! that 6 met 'or the 'irst time Tudose Poescu, that handsome 'igure o' a
young 'ighter resembling a andur, !ho !as later one o' the leaders o' the student movement, but
!ho today slees in a oor cemetery under a 'orgotten cross.
)n 4ril -, -.$$ the bimonthly 4ararea 9ationala (+The 9ational De'ense+" !as ublished under
the editorshi o' Pro'essors CuDa and 9.C. Paulescu. 4nyone can imagine !hat the ublication o'
this magaDine meant 'or us in the midst o' our thoughts and concerns.
6n it !e 'ound everything that !e needed 'or our o!n comlete comrehension and useable
arguments. The articles o' Pro'essors CuDa and Paulescu !ere religiously read by all the youth and
had every!here uon students both in 8ucharest and in Clu> a resounding imact. :e considered
the ublication o' each issue a triumh, because it !as 'or us another munitions transort 'or
combating the arguments in the Ce!ish ress.
6 deem it aroriate to reroduce here t!o articles ublished at that time under the signatures o'
Pro'essors CuDa and Paulescu.

+The divine sirit o' tmtb !ill 'orever de'end man;ind. 6n resume, the Talmud - the olitico-
religious legislation o' the Hebre!s - in lieu o' combating li;e the Gosel the assions o' o!nershi
and domination, on the contrar usbes these vices to an unbeard-o' ea; in order y to accomlish
Cudah=s dream o' being at the same time both the o!ner o' the entire earth and the master o' all
8ut, !hile the Christian aostles reached their ideal in the oen, the Talmud hidesJ and its t!o
aendages, the Aahal and Freemasonry, are even more invisible.
The three o' them use, in order to remain in the dar;, a scabrous and accursed means, namely the
lie. +6n other !ords, the lie is the basis o' the system used by Ce!s, to !hom one can say.. =Lou
sea;, there'ore you be.
8ut the lie has a mortal enemy, namely the truth. For truth is the distinctive trait o' christianity.
Christ saidG =6 am the truth= and that is !hy His doctrine is in e<ecration by 6srael.
The lie, on the contrary, characteriDes !hat is called the sirit o' evil or o' the Devil. Thus Cesus,
sea;ing to the Hebre!s, said to themG
=Lou are o' your 'ather the devil and the lusts o' your 'ather it is your !ill to do. He !as a murderer
'rom the beginning, and standeth not in the truth because there is no truth in him. :hen he sea;eth
a lie he sea;eth o' his o!n 'or be is a liar and the 'ather thereo'.=
+1eaving this !orld, Christ sent his disciles an invincible !eaon, namely His Ghost. The divine
sirit )' truth, !hich !ill de'end man;ind 'orever against the devilisb sirit o' the lie, +6 bo!
be'ore this #irit o' Truth saying 'rom the bottom o' my soul. 6 believe in the Holy GhostM+
(Pro'. Dr. 9.C. Paulescu, 'rom+Philosohic Physiology.
The Talmud, the Aahal, Freemasonry+ vol. 6l., 8ucharest -.-/, . /%%-/%-"
T&! ,0*!)0! %5 ")$*-S!(*$*,(
+4nother horrible airing o' !ordsG the science o' anti-#emitism. Ho! can anti-#emitism be a
scienceK= !ill as; themselves indignantly the scientists !ith their roc;s, those !ith their seals, the
mathematicians !ith their <=s, the hilologists !ith their su''i<es, the scientists !ith their retended
+'i<ed+ ideas o' culture. +4nti-#emitismK For these scientists it is only a savagery, a blind
mani'estation o' brutal instincts, vestiges o' rehistoric times, the shame o' our civiliDation !hich
both science and the enlightened conscience o' man, 'ree o' reconcetions and assion, condemn.
This is the atmoshere created articularly by the Ce!s-and !hich those >udaiDed nurture-around
anti-#emitism, 'ooling the naive or e<loiting the naivete o' the stuid !ith retensions that they
too be on a ar !ith modern civiliDation.= 4nd !ho does not !ant to beK
For e<amle, there is this interesting case o' a >udaiDed individual, himsel' hal' Ce!ish, sea;ing
several years earlier !ith the air o' a terri'ic scientist about our anti-#emitism, !hich !as then, as it
is today, unchanged. 4nd here is !hat this author, nomen-odiosum, tells us in 5iata (omaneasca
(+The (omanian 1i'e+", second year, 9o. -- o' 9ovember -.%&, . -@0, $%?-$%&- a traitor then o'
national thought as he !as later a traitor o' our national action during the !arG
=6 !ant to tal; about the Ce!ish Euestion... totally denatured by the vulgar and 'erocious Cudeohagy
o' our anti-#emites, !ho thus... comromise us be'ore the civiliDed !orld...
=:ith rusted !eaons dug out 'rom the arsenal o' medieval ersecutions, !ith hatred roaganda,
!ith imassioned incitement to e<cesses, !ith the stirring o' bestial instincts in oular masses...
one can only comromise a >ust cause-but the cause o' anti-#emitism is not a >ust one...
=8ut, to give this con'lict... a 'alse air o' ersecuting a race, o' religious ersecution, in a !ord, o'
anti-#emitism, can serve only the enemy=s cause, only too glad to e<loit the divagations o' some
maniacs... anti-#emitic scandalmongers, rematurely laces on the order o' the day the entire
Euestion... =9o eole, let alone our o!n, can 'ence itsel' in ad
in'initum 'ree o' reercussions, against modem ideas, nor against e<ternal olitical action... (These
dots are those o' the author. That is, they are not susensive, but
threatening, seemingly containing a 'antastic olitical rovision. *d. Oi.e. CuDa, Tr0P.
+There'ore, to lace our Euestion in the realm o' anti-#emitism, o' racial hatred, means 'or us being
led to a shame'ul and 'atal de'eat... 4siatic urgings... violent demagoguery, unhealthy agitation... an
endeavor o' seculating dar; assions ..... (The last dots, again, are those o' the author=s, ortending
the same threat 'or such horrible crimes li;e those o' anti-#emitism. *d. Oi.e. CuDa, Tr0P

6 Euoted this tyical concet, tyical o' all !ho sold themselves to the Ce!s. 4nd one sees !hat it
comes do!n toG cliches (=the civiliDed !orld,= =modern ideas=", but articularly to slander (=vulgar
and 'erocious Cudeohagy,= =rusty !eaons,= bestial instincts,= =divagations o' some maniacs,= =anti-
#emitic scandalmongers,= =4siatic urgings,= =dar; assions=".
:e 'ind such =areciations= not only coming 'rom the vulgar Ce! lovers but sometimes even 'rom
some other!ise distinguished reresentatives o' culture in other 'ields.
Thus, 'or instance, the eminent >urist, university ro'essor, orator, man o' olitics, 'ormer minister
o' ublic instruction, 2r. 4.C. 4rion, levelled at me because o' my anti-#emitism, in the 'ull
session o' the Chamber o' Deuties the aostrohe-!e can say ='amous= coming 'rom such a man-
calling me the caveman. 4s 'or the Ce!s, their e<lanation o' anti-#emitism is more characteristic
yet. 6n addition to the usual cliche, =!ith hatred and savagery= - naturally !ith no motive, they do not
care to discuss motives - according to them, anti-#emitism is a madness, an intellectual
degeneration, an a''liction o' the sirit. This is ho! !e are considered by one o' the most
distinguished modern =intellectuals= o' the Ce!s, Dr. A. 1ie, o' illustrious origin as great-grandson
o' the 'amous commentator o' the Talmud in the 2iddle 4ges (asi, !ho said tob sebegoim barog
(;ill the best o' the Goyim".
Dr. A. 1ie, 2.D. came our !ay 'rom Galitia and settled do!n in 6asi !here he served time 'or
having ;illed a !oman !hile er'orming an abortion on her, even authored a secial !or; in
German entitledG #ymtoms o' the mental illness-anti-#emitism (-@@&".
4nd as roo' that the arguments used by the arasitic Ce!s against anti-#emitism are very oor, >ust
as are those o' the >udaiDed, and al!ays the same, here is !hat Curierul 6sraelit (+The 6sraelite
Courier+", o''icial organ o' the 7nion o' 9aturaliDed Ce!s says in the editorial o' its issue o' this
Friday, #etember -F, -.$$, under the title-to us !ho !rite at the 4arare=a 9ationala (+The
9ational De'ense+", slanderous - =4 band o' rascals=.
There e<ists !ith these anti-#emites a state o' intellectual degeneration that reached the erversity
o' the senses, some ;ind o' mental sadism by !hich those touched are ushed to lies and calumnies.
4s you can see, this is a very simle e<lanation as !ell as an e<tremely naive oneG all that is said
against the Ce!s is lies and calumnies due to a seci'ic intellectual degeneration.
The de'inition o' anti-#emitism - according to Ce!s and those >udaiDed - is, then, summed u in
these t!o !ords, savagery and madness, naturally, o' the =anti-#emites.= 4s 'or the Ce!s as a social
henomenon, they do not even enter into this =e<lanation.= 4s i' they did not e<ist. 6t !as this
savagery and madness that comelled all eoles o' all time, *gytians, Persians, (omans, 4rabs,
as !ell as the modern nations u to this day, to consider Ce!s as a national menace and ta;e
measures against them.
6t !as this savagery and madness !hich dar;ened the understanding o' the most rominent
reresentatives o' the culture o' all nations, such as Cicero, #eneca, Tacitus, 2ohamed, 2artin
1uther, Giordano 8runo, Frederic; the Great, 5oltaire, Cose' 66, 9aoleon 6, Goethe, Herder,
6mmanuel Aant, Fichte, #choenhauer, Charles Fournier, 1ud!ig Feuerbach, (ichard :agner,
8ismarc;, (udol' 5ircho!, Theodor 8illroth, *ugen D'ihring-and countless others in all 'ields to
come out against the Ce!s.
#avagery and madness, 'inally, e<lains the anti-#emitism o' the most distinguished reresentatives
o' our culture, such as #imion 8arnutiu, 8.P. Ha>dau, 5asile 4lecsandri, 5asile Conta, 2ihail
#avage and madG all these, CiviliDed and !ell-behavedG those >udaiDed, 4nd the Ce!sG none<istent,
and venality o' those CudaiDed is incaable o' e<laining anti-#emitism as a social henomenon, !e
!ill call it the anti-#emitic theory.
4ccording to this theory o' ours, in the ma;e-u o' anti-#emitism !e must distinguish three stagesG
instinct, consciousness, science.
6nstinct al!ays made the cro!d, 'irstly reoccuied by its immediate material interests, oose
Ce!ish arasitism through oular movements, o'ten times general and bloody, as it !as among
many others all over, e.g., the terrible movement o' the Cossac;s in the 7;raine led by 8ogdan
Hmelnischy in !hich over $F%,%%% Ce!s erished in -0?..
Consciousness o' the Ce!ish menace is a!a;ened gradually, 'irst in the educated classes. Then it
sreads and enetrates the masses. The 'ormer grou unites !ith the eole in suorting their
demands. The latter thus become rogressively a!are themselves.
#cience begins !ith artial researches, until it reaches - only in our day - the determination o' its
ob>ective, namely, studying Cudaism as a social henomenon, li'ted out 'rom the medium in !hich
it see;s to hide, concluding that it is a human roblem, in 'act the biggest, !hose solution must be
:e could say, by virtue o' the conclusions reached by artial studies so 'ar, that they 'orm the anti-
#emitism o' science, This is the basis, !hich is not to be con'used !ith the science o' anti-
#emitism, :hat distinguishes them, is their di''erent ob>ectives. 4nd here is the de'inition as
determined by its ob>ective, o' this science, !hich clearly demonstrates it to be a true science !ith
its o!n domainG
The science o' anti-#emitism has as its ob>ect >udaism as a social roblem, being thus, necessarily,
the synthesis o' all sciences that can contribute to its solution.
:hich sciences these are, that through their artial studies contribute to the ;no!ledge o' >udaism,
!e already have seen. 4nd this is the !ay in !hich the science o' anti-#emitism uses their 'indings
in order to arrive at a solution.
History establishes that 'rom the earliest times the Ce!s have been a eole !andering among
others, nomadic, countryless. The science o' anti-#emitism establishes that this nomadism is
contrary to the !ell-being o' agricultural, sedentary eoles and cannot be tolerated.
4ntbroology establishes that Ce!s are a mi<ture o' unrelated races, di''ering among themselves, as
the #emitic, 4ryan, 9egro, 2ongolian. The science o' anti-#emitism e<lains the sterility o' the
Ce!ish nation in the domain o' culture, as a result o' this mongreliDation and sho!s that this
mongrel cannot contribute anything to the culture o' other nations, !hich they only 'alsi'y,
denaturing their characteristics.
Theology establishes that the Ce!ish religion is an e<clusivist religion, based on the secial
covenant made bet!een their God, Lah!eh, and the Ce!s considered as a chosen, sacred (am
codes" eole, aart 'rom other eoles.
The science o' anti-#emitism rigorously deduces that such a concet e<cludes the ossibility o' any
eace'ul cooeration or any assimilation !ith the Ce!s.
Politics establishes that every!here, !ithin the other nations, Ce!s have their uniEue social
organiDation, constituting a state !ithin the state, The science o' anti-#emitism concludes= that Ce!s
are an anarchic element, dangerous to the e<istence o' all states.
Political *conomy establishes that Ce!s have lived in all times, even in Palestine, as a suerimosed
eole over other nations, e<loiting their labour, themselves not being direct roducers. The
science o' anti-#emitism says that any eole has the right to de'end its roductive labor 'rom
e<loitation by Ce!s, !ho cannot be tolerated living li;e arasites, >eoardiDing eoles= e<istence.
Philosoby establishes that >udaism=s concet o' li'e is an anachronism contrary to human
advancement. The science o' anti-#emitism imoses, as a duty to!ard civiliDation, that this cultural
monstrosity be eliminated by the united e''orts o' all nations.
The science o' anti-#emitism bases its conclusions on !hat various, but di''ering, secial sciences
ob>ectively established - all o' !hich lead necessarily to the same conclusionG
The elimination o' Ce!s 'rom the midst o' other eole utting an end to their unnatural, arasitic
e<istence that is due to an anachronistic concet oosed to the civiliDation and eace o' all nations
!ho can no longer tolerate it.
This anti-#emitic theory di''ers, as one can see, 'rom the Ce!ish theory and that o' the >udaiDed
!hich reduced anti-#emitism to the t!o individual e<ressions - that in 'act, the minute they are
mani'ested en masse become themselves a social roblemG savagery and batred-and e<lains this as
The instinct o' anti-#emitism can sometimes be accomanied by savagery and hatred. For instinct is
blind - so they say - though it is essential in de'ending li'e.
The consciousness o' anti-#emitism is added, ho!ever, to the instinct, en'orcing its urges, no matter
ho! =savage.=
For in order to be =CiviliDed= one must 'irst e<ist.
The science o' anti-#emitism 'inally comes to e<lain this henomenon, enlightening 'urther the
consciousness o' eole, 'ully satis'ying their instinct and its violent erutions thus legitimiDed by
revealing their cause-the arasitism o' the Ce!s. Thus it gives us the 'ormula o' the scienti'ic
solution 'or the roblem o' >udaism, !hich in order to realiDe !e have only to aly, modern anti-
#emitism then, ools all energiesG the energy o' instinct, conscience, science, o' 'ully revealed truth,
'orming a 'ormidable social 'orce, certainly caable o' solving the greatest roblem o' civiliDation
o' our times, !hich is the Ce!ish roblem. 4nd !hat do the Ce!s and the >udaiDed ut u against
this great o!er, see;ing to rolong the condemned e<istence o' their arasitismK :e have seenG
cliches, slander and !hims.
=The vulgar Cudeohagy o' our anti-#emites...= =they comromise us in the eyes o' the civiliDed
!orld...=, =(usty !eaons, dug out o' the arsenal o' medieval ersecutions...=, =The stirring u o'
bestial instincts in the oular masses...=, =4siatic urges...=, =madness...=, =mental sadism.=
These are all the arguments they oose to our anti-#emitism, 'or they have no others, thin;ing they
can do a!ay !ith it by their stuidities, !hile !ithin all the nations revolted by the nomadic >udah=s
arasitism revenging energies boils.+
4.C. CuDa, 4ararea 9ationala (+The 9ational De'ense+" 9o. -0, 9ov. -F, -.$$, lst year.
)n 2ay $%, -.$$, in a limited meeting !e abolished the General #tudents 4ssociation o' 6asi !hich
had been still in the hands o' a remnant o' adversaries suorted by the rectorate and !e 'ounded
+The 4ssociation o' Christian #tudents+ !hich even today is still alive. :e !ere a small grou
!hen !e started, then !e 'ounded a student circle evolving later into the 4ssociation o' 1a!
#tudents, and no! 'inally, 'rom our labors, a real general student association !as being born under
the name o' TH* 4##)C64T6)9 )F CH(6#T649 #T7D*9T# 'or !hich the hearts o' all the 6asi
students !ere beating, but a di''erent student body, unli;e that o' -.-..
8y no!, not !ithout considerable melancholy in my soul, 'ollo!ing three years o' battle and dear
'riendshis annealed in the 'ire o' so many trials, 6 !as aroaching the day o' my dearture 'rom
the university, 'rom student li'e, and 'rom my comrades in battle. 6 only had one month be'ore
ta;ing my degree e<am and 6 could not resign mysel' to the idea o' having to leave, that !e, the
-.-. high school graduates, so tightly bound in heart, !ould scatter, God only ;no!s to !hich
corners o' the country. That is !hy, a'ter !e designated my successors, #ava 2argincanu in the
4ssociation o' #tudents in 1a!, and 6lie Garneata in the 4ssociation o' Christian #tudents, $0
comrades !ho 'elt ourselves closer together, too; a vo! aiming to 'ight no matter !here !e !ere,
'or the creed that bound us together !hile students at the university. :e all signed this vo!, laced
it in a bottle, then buried it in the ground. 4'ter 6 assed my degree e<!ns, another vo! !as ta;en
'rom a second grou o' ?0, ne!er in battle. These !ere my guests in Husi !here 'or 'our days !e
held meetings, clari'ying in our minds the minutest details regarding our 'uture activity. Here, my
'ather so;e to my comrades on several occasions, urging them to 'ight. Then !e arted !ays
carrying in our soul the yearning 'or better and more >ust days 'or our eole.
The undersigned, students at the 7niversity o' 6asi, realiDing the di''icult situation in !hich the
(omanian eole 'inds itsel' menaced in its very e<istence by an alien eole that grabbed our land
and tends to grab the leadershi o' the countryJ so that our descendants not !ander through 'oreign
lands chased 'rom their land by overty and misery, and so that our eole not bleed under the
tyranny o' an alien eole, !e determinedly rise around a ne! and sacred ideal, that o' de'ending
our 'atherland against Ce!ish invasion.
6t is around this ideal that !e 'ormed the 4ssociation o' Christian #tudents at the 6asi 7niversity. 6t
is !ith this ideal in our hearts that !e leave the school halls today.
To 'ight !herever !e may be, 'or our >ustice, 'or the threatened li'e o' our eole, !e consider
being our 'oremost honor-bound duty. That is !hy, congregated today, #aturday, 2ay $&, -.$$, !e
ledge ourselves to a common obligation, that, scattering throughout the country, !e ta;e !ith us
every!here the 'ire !hich animated us in the times o' our youth to light in the saddened hearts o'
our eole the torch o' truth, that o' their right to a 'ree li'e in these lands.
:e shall maintain the closest contact !ith the 4ssociation !hich !e leave behind today and in
!hich !e remain suorting members, it being the central oint that shall al!ays unite us in our
common struggle. :e !ill meet again in @ years, na<nely in -./%, 2ay ---? at 6asi 7niversity. The
4ssociation=s Committee !ill see to it that all members shall be noti'ied t!o months be'ore this day
and !ill reare 'or their arrival. :e invite all student generations 'ollo!ing us through this
4ssociation, !ho shall sho! an understanding o' consecrating their labor on the 'atherland=s altar,
to >oin us that year and that day at 6asi 7niversity.
2ay $&, -.$$
Corneliu Qelea-Codreanu-Husi
9. 9ade>de, $- 7niversity #t.-6asi
Grig. Ghica, $/ Carol #t.-6asi
6. #arbu, (udi, #oroca County
Grigoriev *usevie, Caragaiani, Cetatea-4lba County
6lie Gameata, ?% 2uDelor #t.-6asi
4le<andru P. Hagiu, Chetresti-5aslui
loan 8lanaru, /F Tabacari #t.-Husi
Constantin C. Qotta, -/ 2aior Teleman #t.-Husi
4. 6braileanu, / Ghica 5oda #t.-Galati
2. 8erthet, Purcari, Cetatea-4lba County
6acob 6. Filiescu, Tg. Falciu, Falciu County
1eonid 8ondac, F 6. Heliade (adulescu #t.-#oroca
C. 2adar>ac, &- 4ostol #t.-Galati
-. 2iclescu, -0F Portului #t.-Galati
lonel -. Teodoreanu, 2uDelor-Galati
1aseu 9icolae, $$ #inadino #t.-Chisinau
8obov 2ihail, @F Podols;aia #t.-Chisinau
2ihail 5. #arbul, 2ascauti, )rhei County
9icolae 8. 6onescu, F. Constantin 8rancoveanu #t.-(-#arat
Pavel *ure-Cetatea-4lba, Cathedral
Gh. 8oca, 8alaceana, #uceava County
5asile 9icolau, 0- 1ascar Catargiu #t.-Husi
4ndronic Qaharia, Partestii de #us, 8ucovina
5asile 9. Poa, Paunesti, Plutna County
5asile Corniciuc, Putrauti, #uceava County
9icolae 9. 4urite, Tereblecea, #iret County
Gr. 2ihuta, #cheia, #uceava County
Ciobanu #te'an, . #turDa #t.-#uceava
*ugeniu Cardeiu, 8ilca, (adauti County
*ug. 9. 2anoilescu, *ureni, Falciu County
5iadimir Frirnu, Calmatui, Cahul County
Gh. Qaro>eanu, ?% 2uDelor #t.-6asi
Preliceanu Tit. 5asile, Horodnicul de >os, (adauti County
Preliceanu Gr. 5asile, Horodnicul de >bs, (adauti County
Constantin Darie, Horodnicul de #us, (adauti County
Pasearu loan a #te'an, Tereblecea, #iret County
2ihail 6. 8abor, 8alaceana, #uceava County
#ava 2argineanu, #troesti, #uceava County
Taranu Traian, #troesti, #uceava County
4l. Pistuga, Tarnauca, Dorohoi County
Dragomir 1aDarescu, Tarnauca, Dorohoi County
Constantin C. Camanu, #cheia, #uceava County
D. Porosnicu, GurmeDoaia, Falciu County
9. Gh. 7rsu, 2alusteni, Covurlui County
C. Ghica, $/ Carol #t.-6asi
4t home, the three years sent at the university assed be'ore my eyes and 6 !as as;ing mysel'G
ho! could !e overcome so many obstaclesJ ho! could !e de'eat the mentality, the !ill o'
thousands o' menJ ho! could !e vanEuish university senatesJ and ho! could !e so'ten the daring
o' an entire enemy ressK Did !e have money to hire mercenaries, to ublish aers, to go out into
the countryside, to 'eed this real !arK :e had nothing.
:hen 6 thre! mysel' into that 'irst battle, 6 did not do it because o' someone else=s urging, or as a
result o' some con'ab, or some earlier decision !hich 6 !as charged to e<ecute, or even under the
imulse o' the great rolonged inner turmoil or dee thin;ing in !hich 6 had considered this
roblem. 9othing o' the sort. 6 could not describe ho! 6 entered this 'ight. Perhas as a man !ho,
!al;ing do!n the street !ith his !orries and thoughts, surrised by the 'ire !hich consumes a
house, ta;es o'' his coat, >uming to the aid o' those engul'ed by 'lames. 6, !ith the mind o' a youth
o' -.-$% years o' age, understood 'rom all that 6 sa! that !e !ere losing our country, that !e !ere
no longer going to have a country, that by the unconscious collaboration o' the oor (omanian
!or;ingmen, imoverished and e<loited, the ruling and devastating Ce!ish horde !ould engul' us.
6 acted on orders 'rom my heart, 'rom an instinct o' de'ence ossessed by even the least cra!ling
!orm, not out o' an instinct 'or mere ersonal reservation, but one 'or de'ending the eole o'
!hom 6 !as a art. That is !hy, all the time, 6 had the 'eeling that the !hole eole !as behind us,
!ith all the living, !ith all those !ho have died 'or their country, !ith its 'uture generationsJ that
our eole 'ights and sea;s through us, that the enemy numbers, no matter ho! large, 'aced !ith
this historic entity, are but a hand'ul o' human !retches that !e !ill scatter and vanEuish. That is
!hy all our adversaries 'ailed, beginning !ith the thoughtless university senates, !ho, believing
they !ere 'ighting in us a hand'ul o' craDy youth, 'ought and struc; in reality their o!n eole.
There e<ists a la! o' nature !hich uts everyone in his laceJ rebels against nature, 'rom 1uci'er to
the resent day, all these rebels, o'tentimes very intelligent, though al!ays lac;ing !isdom, have
'allen thunderstruc;.
:ithin the 'rame!or; o' this natural la!, o' this !ise order, anyone can 'ight, has the right to 'ight
'or bettennent. )utside it, against it, over this order, no one can activate ununished and
unvanEuished. 6n the human organism blood globules must remain !ithin its 'rame!or; and in its
service. 4 rebellion !ould e<ist not only i' a globule should bestir itsel' against the organism, but
!hen it !ould do even less, namely, !hen it !ould be in its o!n emloy, !hen it !ould only
satis'y itsel', !hen it !ould have no other urose and ideal outside itsel', :hen it !ould become
its o!n God.
The individual !ithin the 'rame!or; and in the service o' his eole. The eole !ithin the
'rame!or; and in the service o' their God and o' God=s la!s.
:hoever shall understand these things !ill be victorious even i' he be alone. :hoever shall not
understand !ill be de'eated. 6 'inish my third university year under the imerium o' these thoughts.
From an organiDational oint o' vie! !e had settled on the idea o' leader and disciline.
Democracy !as e<cluded, not out o' seculation or by conviction reached by !ay o' theory.
:e had lived anti-democracy 'rom the very start. 6 al!ays led. 6n three years it !as only once that 6
!as elected resident o' the 4ssociation o' 1a! #tudents. 4t all other times it !as not the 'ighters
electing me leader, but 6 choosing them to 'ollo!. 6 never had committees and never ut
roositions to a vote. Ho!ever, !henever 6 'elt a need, 6 consulted !ith everyone, but on my o!n
resonsibility 6 too; decisions on my o!n. That is !hy our small grou !as al!ays an unsha;eable
unit. Factions o' divided oinions, ma>orities or minorities, clashing among themselves on Euestions
o' action or theory, did not e<ist. :ith all the other grous the oosite !as true. That is !hy they
'ell de'eated.
one gre at 'aith, li;e a 'lame continuously burning in our hearts, lighting our !ayJ a great and
un'orgettable love 'or one another, a great disciline, one decision during the battle, and a balanced
!eighing o' the lan o' battleJ these, our Fatherland=s blessing and God=s, assured us the victory
those three years.
The summer o' -.$$ did not ass eace'ully. )n the stages o' (omanian national theaters or
communal ones in 2oldavian to!ns, Ce!ish lays began to be er'ormed in Liddish by the
+Aanao'+ troue. )ur youth considered this a threat, 'or it sa! a beginning o' the alienation o' this
institution, meant to be 'or the national and moral education o' the (omanian eole. *<roriated
in commerce, industry, in the richness o' the (omanian soil and subsoil, in the ress, !e !ill see
ourselves one day e<roriated also 'rom the stages o' our national theaters. The theater, together
!ith the school and the church, can elevate a decayed nation to the consciousness o' its rights and
historical mission. 6t can reare and motivate a nation to liberating struggle. From no! even this
redoubt shall be ta;en a!ay 'rom us. )ur theaters that !ere built by the (omanian=s s!eat and
money !ill serve Ce!ry 'or the rearation and strengthening o' their 'orces in the 'ight against us.
4nd, on the other hand, 'rom these (omanian stages they !ill serve us (omanians as +siritual
nourishment+ everything that !ill contribute to our national demoraliDation and moral decadence
and destruction.
6t !as the duty o' others, namely, the government, or any authority, or the ro'essors, to ta;e a
stance against this ne! anti-(omanian attac;. 8ut none !as ta;en. )nly youth reacted as best it
could, ris;ing blo!s, being sho!ered !ith countless insults, 'inding no!here any suort. This
struggle !as ursued in every to!nG Husi, 8ariad, 8otosani, Pascani, etc. by the grou o' 6asian
students !ho !ere every!here heled by high school students. They entered halls 'ull o' Ce!s,
thro!ing at #atan=s artists anything they could grab, thus chasing them o'' the (omanian stage.
Perhas - some may say - in an unciviliDed manner. 6 too, say, erhas. Ho!ever, ho! civiliDed is it
that an alien nation disossess me, one a'ter the other, o' all the goods o' my countryK Ho!
civiliDed is it that the same nation oison my culture, then serve it on the stage to ;ill meK
To !hat e<tent !ere the means used by Ce!s in (ussia civiliDedK Ho! civiliDed is it to slaughter
millions o' eole !ithout trialK To !hat e<tent is it civiliDed to set 'ire to churches or to trans'orm
them into cabaretsK
For mysel', in my overty and !ith my oor o!ers, 6 de'end mysel' against an assault as best 6 can
- by the rinted !ord i' 6 canJ !ith the aid o' authorities, i' they are still (omanianJ by !ord, i'
someone listensJ by 'orce, as a last resort, and i' everybody ;ees Euiet. 7n!orthy and a traitor is
he !ho does not de'end his country either because o' selling out or because o' innate co!ardice, or
does not react in any 'ashion.
4ny!ay, this 'ight !as a rotest, the only rotest in the center o' a co!ardly and terri'ying silence.
9e<t day our comrades returned 'ull o' blo!s and !ounds, 'or it !as no easy matter 'or a grou o'
-F youth to enter a theater !ith / or ?,%%% Ce!sJ and articularly they returned borne do!n !ith
the orobium and invectives 'rom our (omanians.
2any a time 6 as; mysel'G !hat ;et us going, such a small grou, 'aced !ith so many blo!s, so
many rebu;es heaed uon us 'rom all directionsK :e 'ound suort no!here. 6n this 'ight against
everybody !e 'ound the only suort in ourselvesJ in our belie' that !e !ere on the great ath o'
our national destiny, side by side !ith all those !ho 'ought, su''ered and died as martyrs 'or our
land and its eole.
6 returned to 6asi in the 'all o' -.$$. There, 6 shared !ith my comrades an old thought o' mine, that
o' going to Germany to continue my studies in olitical economy !hile at the same time trying to
realiDe my intention o' carrying our ideas and belie's abroad. :e realiDed very !ell, on the basis o'
our studies, that the Ce!ish roblem had an international character and the reaction there'ore should
have an international scoeJ that a total solution o' this roblem could not be reached e<cet
through action by all Christian nations a!a;ened to the consciousness o' the Ce!ish menace.
8ut 6 had neither money nor clothing. 2y comrades got me some clothes and borro!ed the sum o'
@,%%% lei 'rom engineer Grigore 8e>an, !hich they !ere to reay monthly, each contributing
according to his ability. :ith this money 6 le't 'or 8erlin, accomanied to the station by all those
'rom !hom 6 arted, !ho no! !ere staying behind at home to 'ight on.
)nce arrived in 8erlin, t!o student 'riends, 8alan and C. Qotta, !ere o' great hel. 6 registered at
the university. )n registration day 6 donned my national costume and !ent to that beauti'ul
ceremony !herein the rector, 'ollo!ing an old tradition, sha;es the hand o' each ne! registrant. 6n
the university=s halls 6 !as the sub>ect o' general curiosity because o' my (omanian costume.
T!o Euestions in articular might interest the reader o' these lines regarding Germany o' -.$$ - a
loo; at the general situation, and the status o' anti-#emitic movements.
The !ounds le't by the !ar >ust ended in de'eat !ere still so bleeding. 2aterial misery blan;eted
both 8erlin and the rest o' the country ali;e. 1ately the (uhr valley, an imortant center o' riches,
had been occuied too. 6 !as !itnessing the vertiginous and catastrohic do!n'all o' the mar;. 6n
the !or;ingmen=s Euarters, lac; o' bread, lac; o' 'oodstu''s, lac; o' !or;, hundreds o' children
!ere accosting assers-by, begging. The 'all o' the mar; also thre! the German aristocracy into the
same misery. Peole !ho had money, in a 'e! days !ere le't enniless. Those !ho sold their land
and real estate holdings, being attracted by the mirage o' high rices, became imoverished in the
course o' a 'e! !ee;s. Domestic and 'oreign Ce!ish caitalists closed colossal business deals.
Those ossessing strong currency became o!ners o' huge buildings o' F% aartments 'or only a 'e!
hundred dollars. #eculators combed through the entire city, scoring 'ormidable cous. #haring this
great misery !ere also several 'oreigners, among them mysel', 'or 6 had no money at all. The @,%%%
lei 6 came !ith !ere sent. Then began hunger. 8ut, in the midst o' general su''ering, your o!n
su''ering is easier to bear. 8eing a tye !ho does not bend easily 'aced by di''iculties, 6 did not
submit to misery, but 6 tried to 'ight it. 6 studied all ossibilities and 6 decided to engage in
commerce. 6 needed a very little caital to rocure a stoc; o' 'ood items in the country, bring them
into 8erlin, then sell them to restaurants. This 'act made me move to Cena be'ore the holidays,
!here li'e !as cheaer. There, in the midst o' the misery in !hich the German eole struggled, 6
!as imressed by the sirit o' disciline, the caacity 'or labor, sense o' duty, correctitude, o!er
o' resistance, and the 'aith in better days. 6t !as a healthy eole and 6 could see it !ould not ermit
itsel' to be ;noc;ed do!n and that it !ould !ith unsusected o!ers resurrect itsel' 'rom under the
roc; o' all the di''iculties burdening it.
The anti-#emitic movement. There !ere in Germany several anti-#emitic olitical and doctrinaire
organiDations, !ith aers, mani'estoes, insignia, but all o' them 'eeble. #tudents in 8erlin, as those
in Cena, !ere divided in hundreds o' associations and numbered very 'e! anti-#emites. The student
mass ;ne! the roblem but vaguely. )ne could not tal; o' an anti-#emitic student action or even o'
a doctrinaire orientation similar to that o' 6asi. 6 had many discussions !ith the students at 8erlin in
-.$$, !ho are certainly Hitierites today, and 6 am roud to have been their teacher in anti-#emitism,
e<orting to them the truths 6 learned in 6asi. )' 4dol' Hitler 6 heard 'or the 'irst time around the
middle o' )ctober -.$$. 6 had gone to a !or;er in 9orth 8erlin !ith !hom 6 established a good
relationshi, !ho !as ma;ing +s!asti;as.+ His narne !as #trum' and he lived at / #alD!edeler
#trasse. He told meG +6t is said that an anti-#emitic movement has been started in 2uenchen by a /0
year old ainter, Hitler. 6t seems to me he is the man !e Germans have been !aiting 'or.+ The
'oresight o' this !or;er !as 'ul'illed. 6 al!ays admired his intuitive o!ers by !hich he could
select !ith the antennae o' his soul, a stranger among scores o' men, ten years be'ore his time, the
one !ho !ould succeed in -.//, uniting under a single great command the entire German eole.
6t !as also in 8erlin and at about the same time, that 6 heard the ne!s o' the huge Fascist erutionG
the march on (ome and 2ussolini=s victory. 6 re>oiced as much as i' it !ere my o!n country=s
victory. There is, among all those in various arts o' the !orld !ho serve their eole, a ;inshi o'
symathy, as there is such a ;inshi !nong those !ho labor 'or the destruction o' eoles.
2ussolini, the brave man !ho tramled the dragon under'oot, !as one o' us, that is !hy all dragon
heads hurled themselves uon him, s!earing death to him. For us, the others, he !ill be a bright
9orth #tar giving us hoeJ he !ill be living roo' that the hydra can be de'eatedJ roo' o' the
ossibilities o' victory.
+8ut 2ussolini is not anti-#emitic. Lou re>oice in vain,+ !hisered the Ce!ish ress into our ears. 6t
is not a matter o' !hat !e re>oice in say 6, it is a Euestion o' !hy you Ce!s are sad at his victory, i'
he is not anti-#emitic. :hat is the rationale o' the !orld!ide attac; on him by the Ce!ish ressK
6taly has as many Ce!s as (omania has Ciangai Oa Euite minor ethnic grouP in the #iret valley. 4n
6talian anti-#emitic movement !ould be as i' (omanians started a movement against the Ciangai.
8ut had 2ussolini lived in (omania he could not but be anti-#emitic, 'or Fascism means 'irst o' all
de'ending your nation against the dangers that threaten it. it means the destruction o' these dangers
and the oening o' a 'ree !ay to li'e and glory 'or your nation.
6n (omania, Fascism could only mean the elimination o' the dangers threatening the (omanian
eole, namely, the removal o' the Ce!ish threat and the oening o' a 'ree !ay to the li'e and glory
to !hich (omanians are entitled to asire. Cudaisin has become master o' the !orld through
2asonry, and in (ussia through Communism. 2ussolini destroyed at home these t!o Cudaic heads
!hich threatened death to 6talyG Communism and 2asonry. There, >udaism !as eradicated through
its t!o mani'estations. 6n our country, it !ill have to be eradicated through !hat it has thereG Ce!s,
communists and masons. These are the thoughts that !e, (omanian youth in general, oose to
Cudaic endeavors to derive us o' >oy in 2ussolini=s victory.
DECEMBER 10, 1922
6 !as still in Cena, !hen one day 6 !as surrised by the ne!s that the entire (omanian student body
'rom all universities arose to battle. This collective demonstration o' the (omanian youth,
unsusected by anybody, !as a volcanic erution rising 'rom the nation=s deths. 6t 'irst mani'ested
itsel' in Clu>, the heart o' that Transylvania !hich too; a stand any time the nation e<erienced an
imasse, then almost concomitantly it violently eruted in all other university centers.
6n 'act on December /rd and ?th great street demonstrations too; lace in 8ucharest, 6asi and
Cernauti. The entire (omanian student body rose to its 'eet as in a time o' great eril. For the
thousand time this earthy race, menaced so many times throughout history, thre! its youth to 'ace
the threat in order to save its being. 4 great collective electri'ying moment, !ith no rearation
be'orehand,!ithout any ro and con discussions, !ithout any committee decisions, !ithout those in
Clu> even ;no!ing those in 6asi, Cernauti or 8ucharest. 4 great moment o' collective enlightment
li;e the lightning in the middle o' a dar; night, in !hich the entire youth o' the country recogniDed
its o!n destiny in li'e as !ell as that o' its eole.
This destiny runs brightly through our entire national history and it e<tends into our !hole
(omanian 'uture ointing the !ay to li'e and honor both !e and our grandchildren !ill have to
'ollo!, i' it is li'e and honor !e !ish 'or our eole. Generations can 'ollo! this destiny, can stay
close to it or deart 'rom it, having thus the caability o' giving to their nation a ma<imum o' li'e
and honor or a ma<imum o' dishonor and shame.
#ometimes only isolated individuals, abandoned by their generation, can reach this destiny. 6n that
moment, they are the eole, they sea; in its name. 4ll the millions o' dead and o' the martyrs o'
the ast are !ith them, as !ell as the nation=s li'e o' tomorro!.
Here, the ma>ority !ith its oinions does not matter though it might be .. ercent. 6t is not the
oinions o' the ma>ority that determine this destiny o' li'e 'or our eole. They, ma>orities, can only
get nearer or 'arther a!ay 'rom it according to their state o' consciousness and virtue or that o'
unconsciousness and decadence, )ur eole have not survived through the millions o' slaves !ho
ut their nec;s under the 'oreigner=s yo;e, but through Horia, 4vram 6ancu, Tudor, 6ancu Cianu,
through all the haiduciI, !ho, 'aced by the alien yo;e, did not submit, but ut their muDDle-loaders
on their bac;s heading u the mountain aths carrying !ith them honor and the sar; o' 'reedom. 6t
!as through them our eole so;e, not through co!ardly and !ell-behaved +ma>orities.+ They
!ould conEuer or die, no matter !hat. For !hen they die, the !hole eole lives 'rom their death
and is honored by their honor. They shine in history li;e golden beacons on the heights bathed at
sundo!n in the sun=s rays, !hile over the vast lo!lands, no matter ho! e<tensive and numerous,
settles the dar;ness o' 'orget'ulness and death. 6t is not he !ho lives and !ins by sacri'icing the
destiny o' his eole=s lives !ho belongs to national history but only he !ho, !hether he !ins or
loses, !ill hold himsel' to this destiny. )ur (omanian destiny is redetermined by God=s !isdomJ it
could be seen on December -%, by the (omanian students. 4nd it is in this that the value o' the day
residesG the entire (omanian youth sa! the light. )n December -%, delegates 'rom all student
centers congregated in 8ucharest, 'i<ed in ten oints !hat they thought 'ormed the essence o' their
movement and declared a general stri;e 'or all universities, demanding the realiDation o' these
December -% is not great through the value o' the 'ormulation o' oints agreed uon, as much as the
delegates could 'ormulate o' the truth=s essence that then troubled the entire (omanian youth. 6t is
great by virtue o' the miracle o' this youth=s a!a;ening to the light its soul had seenJ by its decision
'or common action to declare the holy !ar that !as to demand o' this youth so much strength o'
heart, so much heroism, so much maturity, so much ;no!n and un;no!n sacri'ices, so many
gravesM December -%, -.$$ called the youth o' this land to a great test.
I (obin Hood tye legendary men. ;Tr0<
9either those in 8ucharest, nor 6 !ho !as 'ar a!ay, nor others !ho !ere erhas high school
students, but !ho today languish in so many risons or slee under the earth, could believe that this
day !ould carry us through so much danger, !ould bring us so many blo!s and so many !ounds in
battles to de'end our country.
6n 8ucharest, Clu>, 6asi and Cernauti 'ormidable erutions o' student masses too; lace, !hich, led
by their o!n o!er o' intuition-not by leaders- turn to!ard the enemy. They eye 'irst the Ce!ish
ressG 4devarul (+The Truth+", Dimineata (+The 2orning+", 2antuirea (+The (edemtion+", )inia
(+The )inion+", 1umea (+The :orld+", hot-beds o' moral in'ection, oison and con'usion 'or the
(omanians. They turn to these in order to destroy them, but also to sbo! the (omanian eole the
danger o' the enemy=s 'ront line against !hich they must be on guard. Demonstrating against the
ress meansG declaring it an enemy o' national interest and thus calling it to the attention o'
(omanians that they not ermit themselves to be 'ooled, blinded, or led by the ress !ritten by
Ce!s or >udaiDed (omanians.
This ress attac;s the religious idea, thus !ea;ening (omanian moral resistance and brea;ing their
contact !ith God. This ress disseminates anti-national theories, !ea;ening 'aith in their nation and
brea;ing them 'rom their country=s land, o' their love 'or it, land that !as at all ast times an urge to
battle and sacri'ice.
This ress 'alsely resents our (omanian interests, disorienting and directing (omanians on aths
oosed to national interests. This ress elevates mediocre elements and men caable o' corrution
so that the alien can satis'y bis interests, and do!ngrades the moral eole !ho !ill not stoo to do
>udaism and its interests any 'avors.
This ress oisons the soul o' the nation, daily and systematically ubliciDing sensational crimes,
immoral a''airs, abortions, adventures.
This ress murders truth and serves u lies !ith diabolical erseverance, using slander as a !eaon
o' destruction o' (omanian 'ighters. That is !hy (omanians must be care'ul !hen they read a
Ce!ish aer, being on guard against each !ord, not one o' !hich is hahaDardly rinted, and
see;ing to deciher the Ce!ish lan behind it. 6t is these matters the student movement !anted to
call to the attention o' all (omanians !hen it turned on Ce!ish editorial o''ices, declaring them
enemies o' the (omanian eole. 6 emhasiDed that the 'ormidable erutions o' the student masses
!ere led by their o!er o' intuition and not by leaders.
For it is easy 'or someone to direct several individuals to!ards somebody=s house to stage a hostile
demonstration, but !hen great multitudes turn on someone !ith hostility by order o' their instinct,
then that erson is condemned, !ith no right o' aeal, as an enemy o' the nation.
The 'ormula +numerus clausus+ asses 'rom mouth to mouth during student battles, but not as a
saving 'ormula, 'or masses do not issue 'ormulas, they oint out threats.
+9umerus clausus+ means that, the Ce!ish menace being in its great numbers, !e can no longer
suort them either in schools, in commerce or industry, or in the indeendent ro'essions.
+4ttention to their great number+ is !hat +numerus clausus+ means to say, 'or
it surasses our o!ers o' national resistance and i' !e do not ta;e any measures, !e die as a
This is the !hole value o' this 'ormula. )r, i' you !ish, as a saving measure, it has the value o' an
emergency 'ormula, o' necessary 'irst aid, though totally inadeEuate to cure the illness. +9umerus
clausus+ er se, meansG the limitation o' Ce!s in schools, ro'essions, etc. To !hat numbers, this
limitationK To the roortion bet!een the number o' all Ce!s in relation to that o' (omanians
!ithin (omania. 9amely, i' there are in (omania -F million (omanians and / million Ce!s, the
roortion is $%R. 4ccording to the +numerus clausus+ 'ormula, Ce!s are to be admitted into
schools, medical ro'essions, the bar, etc. in the roortion o' $%RG +numerus clausus+ means the
limitation o' the number o' Ce!s u to the roortion bet!een their number and the total number o'
+9umerus clausus+ is only a 'ormula o' redistribution o' the Ce!s !ithin nations, and not a 'ormula
'or resolving the roblem. This 'ormula resolves almost nothing, 'or it treats o' resecting
roortions but does not cut do!n the high roortion o' Ce!s. 6' the Ce!s are / million that is !hat
they remain. *secially it does not treat the cause o' this high roortion and does not sho! the
means by !hich it can be diminishedJ in 'ine, it does not constitute o' itsel' the means 'or resolving
the Ce!ish roblem.
The large number o' Ce!s raises a series o' roblemsG
-. The roblem o' the (omanian landJ
$. The roblem o' the citiesJ
/. The roblem o' the (omanian school and o' the leading classJ
?. The roblem o' national culture.
4ll these are imeccably treated by Pro'essor 4.C. CuDa in his !ritings.. The Peolehood,
9ationality in 4rt, 4rticles, Parliamentary Discourses, Course in Political *conomy. The ideas that
6 give belo! belong essentially to Pro'essor CuDa=s thought. The number o' Ce!s in (omania is not
;no!n e<actly. That is because the statistics ta;en !ere done !ith the greatest lac; o' interest on
the art o' (omanian oliticians so that they could cover u their !or; o' national treason and
because Ce!s every!here run a!ay 'rom the truth o' statistics. 4 roverb saysG +Ce!s live by lies
and die !hen coming in contact !ith truth.+ 4s a matter o' 'act, 'or a long time the Director o' the
#tate=s #tatistics in the 2inistry o' Finance had been 1eon Colescu, real name 1eon Coler. 4nd
'rom their oint o' vie! they are right, because !ere (omanians 'aced !ith the e<act number o' the
Ce!ish oulation, they !ould realiDe they are con'ronted by a real national menace and !ould rise
u to de'end their 'atherland. in other !ords, in the 'ace o' statistical truth, the Cudaic o!er 'lic;ers
out, dies, 6t can live only by hiding truth, 'alsi'ying it by lies. :e believe that there are 'rom $ to $.F
million Ce!s in (omania. 6' there be but one million - as they claim - the (omanian eole !ould
'ace mortal danger. 8ecause it is not only the number er se that matters, the Euantity, but also the
Euality o' that number, articularly the ositions occuied by Ce!s in the 'unctional structure o' the
state and the li'e o' the nation in all its asects.
)ur land has been a land o' invasions. 8ut it has never throughout its long history ;no!n an invader
to reach such 'ormidable numbers as those o' the resent day Ce!. The invasions assed over usJ the
resent day invaders never leave. They settle do!n here on our land in more unheard - o' numbers
than ever be'ore and hold on li;e scabies to this land=s body and eole. :hen did this Ce!ish
invasion beginK )nly several thousand Ce!s !ere 'ound around -@%% in all o' 2oldavia. 6n -@$-,
there !ere -$% 'amilies in 8ucharest.
#uch late settlement on our land is due to the 'act that Ce!s have al!ays engaged in commerce, and
commerce demands 'reedom and security in !hich to develo.
These t!o conditions !ere lac;ing in (omaniaG on one hand the 'reedom to e<loit (omanian soil,
thus any rosect o' e<tended commerce, and on the other, stability, security. (omanian land !as
the most unsecure land in the !orld. The (omanian easant had no security o' home, cattle, his
labor or his cros 'rom year to year. )ur country !as ravaged by invasions and served as a theater
o' !ar 'or centuries, o'tentimes !ith the a'termath o' 'oreign domination and bloody tribute.
:hat !as Ce!ry to do on this landK Fight the Huns, Tartars, Tur;sK
The Ce!ish invasion began only -%% years ago. 4s a result o' the eace o' 4drianole in -@$.,
'reedom o' commerce !as granted and at the same time horiDons o' a more eace'ul li'e began to
aear. 6t !as then that their invasion began, increasing year by year over our (omanian heads,
esecially those o' the 2oldavians, draining us o' !ealth, destroying us morally and threatening us
!ith e<tinction. 6n -@?@ the 2oldavian merchants and industrialists began to comlain to 2ihail
#turDa, the ruler, demanding measures be ta;en against Ce!ish merchants and be dishonest
cometition racticed by them.
#ince then, the invasion has steadily increased. +6nvasion+ may not be the right term, 'or it
resuoses the idea o' violence, o' moral and hysical courage. +Ce!ish in'iltration+ is a more
suitable term, 'or it better encomasses the idea o' sly enetration, co!ardly and er'idious
enetration. For it is no small matter to steal the land and !ealth o' a eole, !ithout >usti'ying
through battle, through 'acing ris;s, through great sacri'ice, the accomlished conEuest, 1ittle by
little they too; over (omanian small commerce and industryJ then, by using the same 'raudulent
tactics, they attac;ed big commerce and big industry, thus acEuiring control over the to!ns in the
northern hal' o' the country. The attac; on the (omanian middle class !as conducted !ith that
recision met only in the case o' some redatory insects, !hich, to aralyDe the enemy, sting it in
the sine.
They could not have chosen a more suitable sot. #uccess'ully attac;ing the middle class meant
brea;ing the (omanian eole in t!o. 6t is the only class having a double contactG do!n, !ith the
easant class, being suerimosed on it and e<ercising over it authority by virtue o' its better
economic status and by educationJ u, !ith the governing class !hich it suorts on its shoulders.
4 success'ul attac; on the middle class, namely its destruction, brings in its !a;e as a 'atal
conseEuence, no additional e''ort being needed on the art o' the attac;erG
a" The collase o' the ruling class (This ruling class !ill end u collasing", b" The imossibility o'
its reconstitution, c" The con'usion and animaliDation, the vanEuishing and enslavement o' the
easant class. 6 6n the last analysis, the Cudaic attac; on the (omanian middle class urorts death.
The death o' the (omanian eole does not mean the death o' the last (omanian, as some imagine.
This death means li'e in slavery. The lo!ering to slave li'e o' several million (omanian easants,
!ho !ould !or; 'or Ce!ry. Here are the 'indings o' Pro'essor 9icolae 6orga regarding the number
o' Ce!s and their arrival in our arts. Pro'essor lorga in +The History o' Ce!s in our Princialities,+
a aer delivered be'ore the (omanian 4cademy on #etember -/, -.-/, e<osing this Euestion,
seci'ies, among other thingsG
+in 9eamt, several Ce!s settle on the lands o' the 2onastery bet!een -&0?--&00+ (. -@".
+6n 8otosani, no ruler=s document li;e that o' -&F& mentions Ce!s among the other inhabitants o'
the to!n+ (. -&".
+#ometimes a Ce! os u in #uceava as tavern-;eeer on church landJ others as small merchants
in )cna, Harlau, #iretiu, Galati, 8arlad (there !as a time !hen one could say that Christian
8arladians !ere engaged in commerce more than in any other occuation"+ (.-%"J +then in (oman
!here in -&?- only =2oldavians= and =4rmenians= !ere ;no!nJ in Targul Frumos !here in -&FF
=t!o taverns= and a Ce!ish one are mentioned as e<isting there+ (.-&--@".
6n 8ucovina about the time o' its anne<ation in -&&FG
+6n the regions o' Cernauti and Camulung, to !hich !ere anne<ed arts o' Hotin and #uceava-in
all these regions-be'ore the 4ustrian imerial domination there !ere only $%0 Ce!ish 'amilies.
6n -&&F, through over'lo! 'rom Galicia their number reached &@%-@%% 'amilies.
The country=s 'irst governor, Gen. *hDenberg, learned that they engage rimarily in tavern-;eeing,
!ith !ine, !his;ey, beer...
They are, says the general, =the most outright !ic;ed eole, inclined to laDiness, living, !ithout
much trouble, 'rom the s!eat o' Christian !or;ingmen=.+
4 commission oerating in -&@- sho!s thatG
+6n this country Ce!s are in the habit o' buying 'rom the easant the chic; in the egg be'orehand,
the honey in 'lo!er, the lamb in its mother=s !omb, 'or a ittance, and through this usury entirely
suc;ing the inhabitants dry, bringing them to overty, so that the easants thus burdened by
indebtness 'ind no recourse 'or the 'uture to save themselves but by 'leeing 'rom the country. :e
see the administration o' this country (2oldavia", then the boyars, articularly Constantin 2oruDi,
deserately de'ending themselves against them.+
+...4s the Aabals o''ered *nDenberg in !riting F,%%,% ieces o' gold annually to tolerate the old
state o' a''airs, corruting our (uler !as also tried, but he re>ected the 2)9*L rather than e<ose
his country to total destruction+ I, (.$%".
4nd later, around -@?%-?@, this is !hat Pro'essor 6orga tertninesG
+)ne could count these establishments o' e<loitation and deravation by the score, tavern by
tavern, !ith bottles o' otato !bis;ey and other oisons, all across 2oldavia, e<hausting a race 'or
the 'eeding o' the civiliDed vices o' the domineering class+ (. /?".
4nd Pro'essor 6orga !rites onG
+#till, the intervention by 'oreigners, 'ostered by Ce!ish elements in the country, did not cease. 6n
-@&@ they imosed conditions be'ore they !ould recogniDe (omania=s indeendence (!on !ith so
much sacri'ice o' (omanian blood" and heaed indignities on indeendence EuestionG Ho! much
do resent day Aahals ay the leaders o' (omaniaK
(omania !hich cannot but commit suicide by olitically yielding hal' o' itsel' to the o!er o' the
2oldavian Ce!s... 4nd as Aogalniceanu de'ended villages 'rom Ce!ish alcohol and usury, so 2r.
2aiorescu de'ends (omania=s dignity 'rom the insult o' granting civil rights to 'oreigners in the
country as a result o' the ressures o' their co-religionists abroad.+ (./.".
6 cite these e<amles as reorted by a great, recogniDed, and uncontested scienti'ic authority, to
clari'y the start o' Ce!ish settlements on (omanian soil.
There cannot be any eole in this !orld, be they only a tribe o' savages that, 'aced by a 'oreign
invasion, !ould not consider !ith rending ain the redicament o' its land. 4ll eoles o' the
!orld, 'rom history=s beginnings to this day have de'ended the soil o' their 'atherland. The history
o' all eoles, as ours, is relete !ith battles in de'ense o' its land. :ould it be an anomaly, a state
o' illness o' ours, the (omanian youth, that !e stand to be counted in the de'ense o' our menaced
landK )r an anomaly i' !e did not de'end it !hen !e see it endangeredK 6t !ould be an anomaly 'or
us not to de'end it, namely, not doing !hat all nations have done. Placing us in contradiction to the
entire !orld and our entire history !ould be an anomaly and a state o' illness.
:hy is it, 6 !onder, that all eoles have 'ought, 'ight and !ill al!ays 'ight 'or the de'ense o' their
landK 1and is a nation=s basis 'or e<istence. The nation has its roots li;e those o' a tree dee in the
country=s soil !hence it derives its nourishment and li'e. There is no eole that can live !ithout
land, as there is no tree !hich can live hanging in air. 4 nation !hich has no land o' its o!n cannot
live unless it settles on the land o' another nation - on its very body, saing its sustenance. There
e<ist God-given la!s !hich ordain the li'e o' eoles. )ne o' these la!s is the territorial la!. God
gave each eole a de'inite territory to live in, gro! in and on !hich to develo and create its o!n
The Ce!ish roblem in (omania, as else!here, consists o' the in'ringement by Ce!s o' this natural
la! o' the territory. They tresassed on our territory. They are the in'ractors and it is not !e, the
(omanian eole, !ho are called to bear the conseEuences o' their in'raction. *lementary logic tells
usG the in'ractor must bear the conseEuences o' the committed in'raction. :ill he have to su''erK
1et him su''erM 4ll in'ractors su''er. 9o logic in the !orld !ill tell me that 6 should die 'or the
in'raction committed by others.
Thus, the Ce!ish roblem is not born o' +racial hatred.+ 6t is born o' an in'raction committed by
Ce!s against the la!s and natural order in !hich all eoles o' the !orld live. The solution to the
Ce!ish roblemK Here it isG the re-entry o' in'ractors into the universal natural order and their
resecting natural legality. 8ut the la!s o' the land too, rohibit the Ce!ish invasion.
4rticle / o' the Constitution saysG +The territory o' (omania cannot be coloniDed by a oulation o'
'oreign origin.+
:hat does the 'act o' the t!o million Ce!s settling on (omanian territory mean, i' not coloniDationK
8ut this territory is the inalienable and inde'easible roerty o' the (omanian eole. 4nd as
someone !rote, not a'ter F%, not a'ter -%%, but even thousands o' years later !e !ill claim the right
over this land, as !e reconEuered the Transylvanian land 'ollo!ing -%%% years o' Hungarian
4ll eoles around us have come 'rom some!here else settling on the land on !hich they no! live.
History gives us recise dates regarding the arrival o' 8ulgarians, Tur;s, 2agyars, etc. )nly one
eole came 'rom no!hereG ours. :e !ere born in the mist o' time on this land together !ith the
oa;s and 'ir trees. :e are bound to it not only by the bread and e<istence it 'urnishes us as !e toil
on it, but also by all the bones o' our ancestors !ho slee in its ground. 4ll our arents are here. 4ll
our memories, all our !ar-li;e glory, all our history here, in this land lies buried.
Here are the ruins o' #armisegetuDa !ith the immortal Aing Decebal=s ashes, 'or !hoever ;no!s
ho! to die li;e Decebal, never dies. =Here rest the ruling 2usatins and the ruling 8asarabsJ here at
Podul 6nalt, (aDboeni, #uceava, 8aia, Hotin, #oroca, Tighina, Cetatea 4lba, Chilia, slee the
(omanians 'allen there in battles, nobles and easants, as numerous as the leaves and blades o'
4t Posada, Calugareni, on the )lt, >iu and.Cerna rivers, at TurdaJ in the mountains o' the unhay
and 'orgotten 2oti o' 5idra, all the !ay to Huedin and 4lba-6ulia (the torture lace o' Horia and his
brothers-in-arms", there are every!here testimonies o' battles and tombs o' heroes. 4ll over the
Carathians, 'rom the )ltenian mountains at Dragoslavele and at Predeal, 'rom )ituD to 5atra
Dornei, on ea;s and in valley bottoms, every!here (omanian blood 'lo!ed li;e rivers.
in the middle o' the night, in di''icult times 'or our eole, !e hear the call o' the (omanian soil
urging us to battle. 6 as; and 6 e<ect an ans!erG 8y !hat right do the Ce!s !ish to ta;e this land
'rom usK
)n !hat historical argument do they base their retensions and articularly the audacity !ith !hich
they de'y us (omanians, here in our o!n landK :e are bound to this land by millions o' tombs and
millions o' unseen threads that only our soul 'eels, and !oe to those !ho shall try to snatch us 'rom
8ut !ithin the breadth o' this (omanian land Ce!s did not settle >ust any!here, hahaDardly. They
laced themselves in to!ns, 'orming !ithin them real islands o' comact Ce!ish oulations. 4t
'irst it !as the cities and mar;et to!ns o' northern 2oidavia that !ere invaded and conEueredG
Cernauti, Hotin, #uceava, Dorohoi, 8otosani, #oroca, 8urdu>eni, 6tcani, 8riceni, #ecureni, etc.
8e'ore them the (omanian merchant and tradesman gradually disaeared - today one street,
tomorro! another, day a'ter tomorro! a section. 6n less than -%% years (omanian centers o' ancient
reno!n lost their (omanian character, ta;ing on the li;eneness o' real Ce!ish 'ortresses. The other
2oldavian to!ns too, 'ell Euic;lyG (oman, Piatra, Falticeni, 8acau, 5aslui, 8ariad, Husi, Tecuci,
GalatiJ and 6asi, the second caital o' 2oldavia-a'ter the 'irst one,and our ancient #uceava-!as
urely and simly turned into a dirty Ce!ish nest, !hich surrounds the oor glorious ruins o' #te'an
the Great=s 'ortress.
6n 6asi no!, one can !al; through !hole streets and sectors never meeting a (omanian, or seeing a
(omanian home or a (omanian store. Peole ass by 'amous churches, today in ruins and decayG.
the Church o' TalalariI built by the (omanian cobblers= guild, the Church o' CurelariI built by the
(omanian harness-ma;ers= guild. *verything is 'alling aart. 6n that large city o' 6asi, there is no
longer a (omanian cobbler or harness-ma;er.
The Church o' #t. 9icholas the Poor o' the old 2oldavian nobility has totally collasedJ and over
the tombs around it the Ce!ish eating laces discard even today their slo, garbage and re'use. The
Church in 2ain #Euare, !here one 'inds the greatest agglomeration o' eole-is closed, due to lac;
o' cburcbgoers. 4nd it is the Ce!ish oulation !hich constitutes that agglomeration o' eole no!.
)n 1ausneanu #t., CuDa 5oda=s alace !hich almost groans as i' in ain, has been trans'ormed
into a Ce!ish ban;, and in its 'ormer garden a Palestinian-style Ce!ish theater can be seen. The
'oreign invader tramles under'oot everything !e hold most sacred. )ur hearts groan in anguish.
:e children, our souls rent, as; ourselvesG ho! could there be (omanians !ho behave !ith so
much enmity to!ard their eoleK Ho! could there be so many traitorsK Ho! come they !ere not
lined u against the !all or burnt alive in the moment o' their betrayalK Ho! come everybody is
imassiveK Ho! come !e do nothingK These are roblems o' conscience that !eigh uon us, !hich
bother our souls, uset our lives. :e ;no! that in no !ay !ill !e 'ind our eace but in battles, in
su''ering or in graves. )ur silence covers us !ith co!ardice and every minute o' delay seems to ;ill
:e do not even mention the cities and mar;et to!ns o' 8essarabia !hich are oen sores on the
country=s e<hausted and sEueeDed body.
9or do !e even mention 2aramures !here (omanians, in a state o' slavery, daily die. There are no
!ords that can describe the great tragedy o' 2aramures. 8ut the 'ilness, sread li;e a cancerJ it
reached (amnicul-#arat, 8uDau,Ploesti and it enetrated the caital. 6n -F years 'ell 5acaresti, an
old (omanian EuarterJ Dudesti 'ell entirelyJ li;e!ise, the (omanian merchants on Calea Grivitei.
The 'amous merchants in the )bor Euarter die and are relaced by Ce!sJ Calea 5ictorieilI has
'allen. Today it has become in reality only a (omanian road o' +de'eatJ+ 'or three-'ourths o' the
roerties on Calea 5ictoriei are no! Ce!ish o!ned. 6n the last ten years the Ce!s sread !est!ard
u the Danube lain into )ltenia and entered 2ichael the 8rave=s caital city o' CraiovaJ they !ent
into (amnicul-5alcea, #everin, under the rotection o' the (omanian oliticians !ho, !ell aid,
retend there is no Ce!ish roblem. This betrayal by these oliticians o' their eole is so
'rightening that, i' they are still alive, the eole should gouge their eyes outJ i' they are dead, their
bones should be disinterred and burnt in ublic sEuares. Their children and grandchildren should be
rosecuted, their !ealth con'iscated and they should be stigmatiDed !ith the eithet o' +traitors=
ch'idren.+ The loss o' our (omanian to!ns has 'or us devastating conseEuences, 'or to!ns are the
economic cent,ers o' a nation. The entire richness o' the country is accumulated in them. #o that
!hoever controls the to!ns controls the means o' subsistence, the !ealth o' a nation. Could it be an
indi''erent matter to us (omanians as to !ho are the masters o' our national !ealthK )urselves or
the Ce!sK To no eole in the !orld could this be an indi''erent matter. 8ecause a oulation
reroduces and develos !ithin the means o' subsistence at its disosal, The 'e!er these means are,
the less !ill be the gro!th o' the oulation in Euestion and the 'e!er the chances 'or its
develoment, and vice versa. These truths regarding the la! o' oulation !ere studied by all
economists and 'ormulated by Pro'essor CuDa !ith uneEualled clarity. The assing o' (omanian
riches into the hands o' the Ce!s does not only mean the (omanians= economic deendence or the
olitical one-'or, !hoever has no economic 'reedom, has no olitical 'reedom-but it means moreG a
national menace that grinds do!n our very ability to gro! in oulation. To the e<tent that our
means o' subsistence vanish, to that e<tent !e (omanians !ill die o'' on our land, leaving our
laces in the hands o' the Ce!ish ou ation !hose number increases day by day both because o'
the invasion 'rom abroad and because o' seiDing our means o' subsistence, our riches.
I Plural 'or cobbler and harness-ma;er resectively. ;Tr0<
Then, secondly, the to!ns are the cultural centers o' a nationII. Here in to!ns one 'inds the
schools, libraries, theaters, lecture halls, all o' them serving the to!nseole. 4 Ce!ish 'amily can
easily suort 'ive or si< children in school, !hereas the (omanian easant, in some remote village
'ar 'rom to!n, can hardly manage to send one child to school to the end. 4nd in this case he is
comletely e<hausted o' strength and !ealth so that he endangers the !ell-being o' the other 'our or
'ive children at home. #o, !hoever controls the to!ns controls the ossibilities 'or arta;ing in the
culture. 8ut that is not all. 6t is through to!ns and schools that a nation 'ul'ills its cultural mission in
the !orld. Ho! is it ossible 'or the (omanians to 'ul'ill their cultural mission through Ce!ish
voices, ens, hearts and mindsK
Finally, to!ns are the olitical centers o' a nation, 9ations 'ollo! the lead o' the to!ns. :hoever
controls the to!ns, directly or indirectly has the olitical leadershi o' the country. :hat is le't o'
the country, outside o' the to!nsK 4 cro!d o' several million easants, lac;ing humane means o'
e<istence, drained and imoverished, cultureless, oisoned by drin;, led by the enriched Ce!s no!
become the masters o' (omanian to!ns, or by the (omanians (re'ects, mayors, olice o''icers,
gendarmes, cabinet ministers" !ho are administrators in name only because they are nothing but
suine e<ecutors o' Ce!ish lans. These o''icials are suorted, 'lattered, sho!ered !ith gi'ts, co-
oted in administrative councils, aid by the month by the >udalc economic o!er (Cudas !as aid
but once"J their lust 'or money is roused, they are urged on to lu<ury and vice, and !hen disobeying
Ce!ish directives and stances, are urely and simly thro!n out even though they be cabinet
ministers. Their ay and subsidies are cut, their thieveries brought to light and shady business deals
e<osed, imlicating them, in order to comromise them. This is !hat remains o',the (omanian
'atherland since !e lost our to!nsG a dishonest leader class, a eole o' easants !ithout 'reedom,
and all (omanian children countryless and 'utureless.
:hoever controls the to!ns controls the schools, and !hoever controls the schools today controls
the country tomorro!. Here are some -.$% statisticsG
The situation at the 7niversity o' Cernauti
#chool o' Philosohy.
#ummer #emester, (omaniansG -&?J Ce!s F&?.
#cbool o' 1a!.
#ummer #emester, according to denominationG
)rthodo<G $/& ((omanians and (uthenians"
CatholicsG .@
1utheransG $0
)ther (eligionsG /-
HebraicG F%0
Fro* #ituatia de*ografia a Ro*aniei ;The De*ographi #ituation of Ro*ania< by ?*0 8asiliu)
Clu@ p0 4.
I The 5ictory :ay, a 'ashionable shoing boulevard ;Tr0<
II #ee 4.C. CuDa, 4ararea 9ationala (+The 9ational De'ense+" 9o. /, 2ay -, -.$$.
6n 8essarabia
(ural *lementary #choolsG
8oysG &$,@@,. (omanians, -,.&? ethnically non-(omanian Christians, -,$@- Ce!s.
GirlsG $&,FFF (omanians, -,/%$ ethnically non-(omanian Christians, $,-?& Ce!s.
7rban *lementaly #choolsG
8oys. 0,/@F (omanians, $,?/F non-(omanians o' !hich -,/F- !ere Ce!s.
GirlsG F,F%- (omanians, $-,?/F non-(omanians o' !hich -,?.$ !ere Ce!s.
#econdary, and ro'essional schoolsG
-.F/F )rthodo<, 0,/%$ Hebraic,
Coeducational secondary schoolsG
0.% )rthodo<, -,/?- Hebraic.
().cit, . @?-F"
6n the )ld Aingdom
(omanians Ce!s
1ycce o' 8acau6 /0/ -.@
1ycee o' 8otosani $$. -$&
Girls 1ycee o' 8otosani -FF -&/
1ycee o' Dorohoi -&& -0&
1ycee o' Falticeni -F$ -%%
9ational 1ycee, 6asi $.$ $%-
4le<ander the Good Gymnasium, 6asi ./ $-F
#te'an the Great Gymnasium, 6asii .? -$%
1ycee o' (oman $F0 -F&
1ycee o' Piatra-9eamt /?/ -&.
Private #choolsG
8ucharest ??- &@-
6asi /&= -%@
Galati -,.%, -..
(%.cii. . @F-&"
I2oldavia and :allachia be'ore the uni'ication o' (omania in -.-@. (a"
The situation at the 7niversity o' 6asi
(omanians Ce!s
#chool o' 2edicine F?0 @/-
#chool o' Pharmacy .& $..
#chool o' 1etters /F - -%%
#chool o' #ciences &$$ /$-
#chool o' 1a! -,&?/ /&%
(%.cit. .@&-@"
The (omanian system o' education thus being destroyed by the large number o' Ce!s raises t!o
-. The roblem o' the (omanian leading class, because schools 'orm the leaders o' tomorro!, not
only the olitical ones, but all leaders in every domain o' activity.
$. The roblem o' national culture, because schools are the laboratory in !hich the culture o' a
eole is molded.
6n order to underscore the tragedy o' this (omanian school system over!helmed by Ce!s, 6
consider it articularly imortant to cite belo! the distressing 'indings o' one o' the most illustrious
edagogues o' our nation, Pro'essor 6on Gavanescul o' the 7niversity o' 6asiG
:e no longer !ish to see the sectacle o''ered by the 9ational 1ycee o' 6asi, !here the crushing
ma>ority o' students is comosed o' the Ce!ish element. The 'e! (omanian students 'eel li;e
strangersJ during recess they retreat, uneasy, into corners. They constitute the tolerated minority.
The ma>ority lives aart, tal; among themselves about their reoccuations, their games, societies,
2acaby, Hacoah, 2acoah, etc., o' their get-togethers and lectures, their sorts, !or; lans and
good times. 4nd !hen they are doubt'ul o' the discretion o' the (omanians, the Ce!ish students (a
ma>ority in school, though a minority in the country", !hiser among themselves or s!itch directly
to Liddish....
Pity the (omanian ro'essors 'aced !ith such student soulsM )ne involuntarily is reminded o' the
hen that hatched duc; eggs. 1oo; at her, ho! she stands cac;ling, scared, at the edge o' the ond,
ho! she deserately calls her duc;lings, her chic;s o' another secies !hich >umed into the !ater,
gliding o'' to the other shore !here she cannot 'ollo!. :hat school o' nationalism can you teach to
such an audienceK Can you tal;, i' you 'eel in yoursel' the 'lame o' atriotism, o' (omanian
asirations and idealsK Can you even oen your mouthK Lour >a!s loc;, your !ords 'reeDe on your
The great Aogalniceanu, in the 'ace o' such benches 'ull o' 'oreign students... could he have
ronounced his 'amous discourse introducing the history o' (omanians !hich he delivered on this
very sot, !here today the (omanian =9ational= 1ycee has turned into a Ce!ish =9ational= oneK
He !ould have lost the insiration that derives its 'orce 'rom the symathy o' the shining eyes 'ull
o' understanding and 'aith.
%0 Gavanesul+ I*perativul *o*entului istori+ ;,The I*perative of the 7istori -o*ent,< p0A30
4nd 'urtherG
+4nd to limit ourselves to but one asect o' the national li'e, !here did anyone ever see in *ngland,
France, 6taly a school at any level, in !hich the reonderant number o' students belongs to another
eole than the eole constituting the indigenous oulation o' the country and !hich 'ounded the
9ational #tate in EuestionK +Can anyone imagine, 'or instance, that at some school o' 1a! in some
*nglish university there might be F?& Ce!s versus $/? 8ritons, the same roortion o' Ce!s to
(omanians at the Cernauti #chool o' 1a! in -.$%K +)r that, at a school o' hilosohy in 6taly, there
could be F&? Ce!s versus -&? 6talians, the same roortion as that o' Ce!s to (omanians in
+4re these ratios normalK 4re they not inadmissible, inconcievable monstrosities o' ethnic biologyK
4re they not an idication o' criminal unconsciousness on the art o'
the (omanian eole=s resonsible leading classK+ (6. Gavanescul, o.cii,"
8ut !ho are the uils and students o' todayK The resent day students are the ro'essors, doctors,
engineers, la!yers, re'ects, congressmen, cabinet ministers o' tomorro!, in one !ord, the 'uture
leaders o' the eole in all domains o' activity. 6' resent day students are F%, 0%, &%R Ce!s,
tomorro! !e !ill logically have F%, 0%, &%R Ce!ish leaders 'or this (omanian eole. Can one still
raise the Euestion !hether a nation has the right to limit the number o' alien students in its
universitiesK Here is ho! this Euestion is ans!ered in the Harvard 7niversity. 8ulletin by 2orris
Gray, a graduate o' liarvard (-.%0" a'ter he studied the Ce!ish roblem there-as cited by Pro'essor
CuDa in +9umerus Clausus+ . --. 2orris Gray began by 'ormulating the roblem in rincile,
as;ingG +First o' all, !hat is the 'unction o' a universityK :hat are its dutiesK
+6' its duty is a duty to the individual, the admission into the university must be based 'ran;ly and
mani'estly, on the democratic rincileG any candidate must be admitted on the condition he ass
his entrance e<amination and ay the 'irst term o' tuition, 4nd this !ith no serious investigation o'
the candidate=s ersonality or his latent ossibilities o' rogress, his caability, or use'ulness to
himsel' or to others.
8ut, i' the university=s duty is a duty to!ard the nation, its attitude regarding student admissions
must naturally be based on a di''erent rincile.
6n my oinion, the duty o' a university is to 'orm men in the various domains o' human thought in
such 'ashion that art o' them at least can become leaders in their resective 'ields, thus serving the
Here then is a !ell-established rincile, adds Pro'essor CuDaG
+The duty o' universities is to!ard their nation, 'or !hich they must reare leaders in all 'ields and
these must be necessarily ethnically native. +For it is intolerable that a nation educate 'or itsel' alien
leaders in its universities.+
From the receding 'igures one can deduce the grave roblem o' the (omanian leading class o'
tomorro!. There remains a !ell-established truthG (omania ought to be led by (omanians. 6s there
anyone !ho claims that (omania ought to be led by Ce!sK
i' not, then one has to admit that (omanian student youth is right and that all camaigns, all
!rongs, all in'amies, all rovocations, all lots, all in>ustices that are heaed and are going to be
heaed uon this (omanian youth, 'ind their >usti'ication in the !ar !aged by Ce!ry 'or the
e<termination o' (omanians and o' their best 'ighters.
4 eole, considering this the gravest o' all roblems, is li;e a tree concerned !ith the roblem o'
its 'ruit. :hen it sees itsel' over!helmed by caterillars, it can no longer 'ul'ill its mission in this
!orld, cannot bear 'ruitJ then it !ould have to 'ace the saddest roblem, greater even than the
roblem o' li'e itsel', 'or, seeing its aim in li'e destroyed, it !ould be more ain'ul 'or it that !ere it
to be dead. The greatest ains are those o' useless e''orts, because they are the ains resulting 'rom
the 'right'ul consciousness o' the uselessness o' li'e.
6s it not 'rightening, that !e, the (omanian eole, no longer can roduce 'ruitK That !e do not
have a (omanian culture o' our o!n, o' our eole, o' our blood, to shine in the !orld side by side
!ith that o' other eolesK That !e be condemned today to resent ourselves be'ore the !orld !ith
roducts o' Ce!ish essenceK That today, at this moment, !hen the !orld e<ects that the (omanian
eole aear to sho! the 'ruit o' our national blood and genius, !e resent ourselves !ith an
in'ection o' Cudaic cultural caricatureK
:e loo; at this roblem !ith hearts constricted !ith anguish and there !ill be no (omanian, !ho,
seeing his entire history endangered, !ill not reach 'or his !eaons to de'end himsel'. 6 reroduce
here 'rom Pro'essor 6. Gavanescul=s +The 6merative o' the Historic 2oment,+ these immortal linesG
+The rincial concern o' the (omanian eole, >ust as imortant to its being as its hysical
reservation, is its a''irmation in the realm o' humanity=s ideal o' li'e - the creation o' a culture
seci'ically o' (omanian character.
6t is imossible that a (omanian culture evolve 'rom a school or an economic or olitical
organiDation o' alien character.+
+4n institution, as a 'unction o' national li'e, has a (omanian character only !hen the human 'actor
giving it birth is (omanian.+
Faced !ith this sad situation, 'aced by the large number o' invaders over!helming us, Pro'essor
Gavanescul, osing the Euestion,o' a national school and culture, as;s himsel' 'ull o' an<ietyG
+:here can (omanian souls see; re'ugeK :here can they escae the obsessing ain'ul imression
o' being e<iles in their o!n countryK +*<ceting the church, !here they enter to collect their
thoughts in Euiet, under the rotection o' the saving cross, their only re'uge is the school.
The school is the ideal nest in !hich the national genius gathers its rogeny to nurture it, to raise it,
to teach it ho! to 'ly, to sho! it the !ay to heights that only that national genius ;no!s and only it
is meant to reach. +The school is the lace o' re'uge !here the nation=s
heartstrings and the siritual organs o' the eole are tuned in order to intone a ne! symhony as
yet unheard in the !orld, the 'irst symhony o' its natural talents
redestined by God e<clusively to its being.
The school is the sanctuary !here the great mystery o' a eole=s li'e un'olds, !here the ethnic soul
distills in dros o' light its immortal essence so that it be molded into the ideal 'orm reordained to
it e<clusively by the !orld=s creative thought.
The melodic instruments o' other ethnic souls cannot harmoniously articiate in the symhony o'
our culture. 8y virtue o' their ma;e-u they ;no! only bo! to sound the note o' their eole.
:hat ;ind o' (omanian symhony could they roduceK
The essence o' national genius o' other ethnic souls cannot crystaliDe in a di''erent 'orm 'rom that
determined 'or them by the creator o' eoles. Ho! can one roduce a (omanian image 'rom the
Ce!ish, 2agyar, or German national essenceK+
(-. Gavanescul, +The 6merative o' the Historic 2oment,+ . 0?-@".
9ot only !ill the Ce!s be incaable o' creating (omanian culture, but they !ill 'alsi'y the one !e
have in order to serve it to us oisoned The (omanian school being thus macerated, !e are laced
in the osition o' renouncing our mission as a eole, o' renouncing the creation o' a (omanian
culture and o' erishing 'rom Ce!ish oison.
6n contrast to our colleagues 'rom the other universities, !e 6asian students ;ne! all these things
'rom the lectures o' Pro'essor CuDa, the !ritings o' Pro'essors Paulescu and Gavanescul, 'rom our
studies and reasearch done at the 4ssociation o' 1a! #tudents, and 'rom !hat !e sa! !ith our o!n
eyes and 'elt !ith our o!n souls. 4 roblem o' great conscience osed itsel' 'or us. *very day
brought us additional roo'. :e recogniDed the er'idiousness o' the Ce!ish ress, !e sa! its bad
'aith in all circumstances, !e sa! its incitations behind everything anti-(omanianJ !e sa! the !or;
o' 'lattery and elevation o' olitical 'igures, 'unctionaries, authorities, !riters, Christian riests,
!ho stooed to do the bidding o' Ce!ish interestsJ !e sa! the ridicule heaed uon those !ho
adoted a correct, digni'ied (omanian attitude, or those !ho dared denounce the Ce!ish erilJ !e
sa! the indecency !ith !hich !e !ere treated in our land, as i' they had been masters here 'or
thousands o' yearsJ
!e sa! !ith overgro!ing indignation the daring meddling o' these uninvited guests into the most
intimate roblems o' (omanian li'eG religion, culture, art, olitics, they see;ing to trace lines along
!hich the destiny o' the (omanian eole should move. Loung as 6 !as, almost a child, 6 !as long
troubled by these thoughts !hile searching 'or a solution.
The elements !hich imressed me most, that then determined me to 'ight and that com'orted and
strengthened me in times o' su''ering, !ereG
-. The consciousness o' mortal danger in !hich our eole and its 'uture 'ound itsel'.
$. 2y love 'or the land and the sorro! 'or every sacred and glorious lace, today ridiculed and
ro'aned by Ce!s.
/. The ity 'or the ashes o' those !ho had 'allen 'or their country.
?. The 'eeling o' revolt against the o''enses to, as !ell as the ridicule and tramling under'oot by
this alien enemy o' our dignity as human beings and as (omanians.
That is !hy, !hen on December -%, -.$$, 6 heard the great ne!sG the volcanic e<losion o' the
student movement, 6 decided to return home so that 6 too might 'ight side by side !ith my
comrades. 4 short time later, the train !as ta;ing me home. From Craco!, 6 sent a telegram to the
students in Cernauti, !ho !ere e<ecting me at the station. 6 stayed there t!o days. The university
!as closed. The students guarding it seemed li;e soldiers serving their country, their soul
enlightened by God. 9o trace o' ersonal interest clouded their beauti'ul and sacred action, The
cause 'or !hich they banded together and 'ought as one !ent much beyond themselves and their
constant rivations and needs.
6n Cemauti, the leading 'ighters !ereG Tudose Poescu, the son o' the old riest 'rom 2arcesti,
County o' Dambovita, a third year student in TheologyJ then, Danileanu, Pavelescu, Carsteanu, etc.
6 inEuired about the lan o' battle. 6t !as decided to declare a general stri;e until !e !on, namely,
until the government satis'actorily solved the oints raised in the motion o' December -%,
beginning !ith +numerus clausus.+ To me this lan seemed !rong.
6n my head another one began to 'ormG
a" The student movement ought to reach out to all the (omanian eole. 1imited no! to
universities, it should be e<tended into a (omanian national movement, because 'or one thing the
Ce!ish roblem is not limited to the universities but involves the !hole (omanian nation, and 'or
another, the universities by themselves cannot solve it.
b" This national movement must be incororated into an organiDation under a single command.
c" The aim o' this organiDation must be 'ighting to bring the national movement to o!er, !hich
!ill resolve both +numerus clausus+ and all other roblems, 'or no other rule by olitical arties
outside o' this movement !ill resolve the national roblem.
d" :ith these oints in mind, the students should organiDe a great national assembly o' (omanians
'rom all social strata, !hich !ould then signal the beginning o' the ne! organiDation.
c" 6n order to imlement this assembly, each university should rovide as many 'lags as there are
counties in each rovince, the cloth 'or each being then given by a student delegation there to a
;no!n nationalist !hom the delegation !ould consider the best Euali'ied erson 'or the >ob o'
gathering round him a grou o' to!n and country leaders. Then, uon receiving the telegram
announcing a !ee; ahead o' time the date and lace o' the rally, he !ould start 'or that lace !ith
the 'lag and all his men.
'" 1est the government try to revent the rally, all rearations should be made Euietly, ;eeing the
date un;no!n until the last minute.
6 outlined this lan to about F% 'ighters in one o' the dormitories. They considered it good. Then !e
all itched in money, bought the necessary cloth and right a!ay girl students started ma;ing 'lags
'or the counties o' 8ucovina.
6n 6asi 6 met all my 'ormer comrades. 6 e<osed my lan to them as !ell. Here too, the 'lags !ere
made the 'irst day, by girl students, 'or all counties in 2oldavia and 8essarabia.
6 could not 'ind Pro'essor CuDa. He had le't 'or 8ucharest together !ith Pro'essor #umuleanu and
my 'ather to attend a meeting in the caital.
The ne<t day 6 le't 'or 8ucharest. Here, 6 !ent to see Pro'essors CuDa and #umuleanu and my
'ather, !ho 'or over a Euarter o' a century bad been 'ighting together against the Ce!ish menace,
being over!helmed by ridicule, blo!s and even !ounds, and !ho today e<erienced the great
satis'action o' seeing the entire educated youth o' the country numbering over /%,%%% raising battle
banners 'or the 'aith they had served 'or a li'etime.
8ut in 8ucharest my thoughts !ere not received !ith the same enthusiasm.. First, because 6
encountered some oosition 'rom Pro'essor CuDa. Presenting my lan, roosing the creation o' a
national movement, headed by him as chie', in the rally to be held, he did not consider my lan
good because, said he. +:e do not need to organiDe, our movement is based on a 'ormidable mass
6 insisted, comaring a mass movement to an oil !ell, that, unconnected to a ieline, even !hen it
gushes, it comes to naught, because the oil sills all over. 6 le't, ho!ever, !ith no success but ne<t
day, Pro'essor #umuleanu and my 'ather convinced him.
8ut 6 !as soon con'ronted by a di''iculty 6 had not e<ected. 6t !as around the beginning o'
February. The great body o' students :as over'lo!ing !ith enthusiasmJ Though all its mess halls
!ere dosed do!n and the gates o' all dormitories loc;ed against us, being thus le't out to starve in
the middle o' the !inter, yet the students !ere enthusiastic, admirably rotected by the caital=s
(omanians, !ho the very ne<t day oened !ide the doors o' their homes, sheltering and 'eeding
over @,%%% student 'ighters. There !as, in this gesture, an aroval, an urge to the struggle, a
solidariDation, a com'ort 'or those being !ounded. 8ut 6 had no contact !ith this mass. 6 ;ne! no
one there. Through the student Fanica 4nastasescu, !ho !as the manager o' the revie! 4ararea
9ationala (+The 9ational De'ense+", 6 began to meet a 'e!. 6 had the imression that the leaders o'
the student movement in 8ucharest !ere not su''iciently oriented, 'or though elite elements
endo!ed !ith distinguished intellectual Eualities, a 'act veri'ied by the 'unctions they later occuied
in society, they 'ound themselves une<ectedly heading a movement to !hich u to then they had
given no thought. 6ri 'act, as there !ere many, each had a di''erent oinion. 4mong the valuable
elements o' the leadershi, 'igured in the 'ore'rontG Cretu, Danulescu, #imionescu, (aeanu,
(oventa, and others, The mass !as !arli;e, but art o' the leadershi thought it !ise to calm do!n
such high sirits. )n the other hand, both their insu''icient 'amiliarity !ith the Ce!ish Euestion, and
the inadeEuate contact !ith oliticians made at least some o' them try to some e<tent to re-osition
the movement onto a material lane, something that in my oinion !as inadmissible. For this !ould
have been as i' someone !ere to sayG
-. :e 'ight to ta;e our country bac; 'rom the Ce!s.
$. :e 'ight 'or !hite bread on our tables.
/. :e 'ight 'or t!o-course meals.
?. :e 'ight 'or a more com'ortable bed.
F. :e 'ight 'or eEuiment in our laboratories, 'or dissection instruments, etc.
0. :e 'ight 'or more dormitoriesJ so that in the end the authorities !ould tell us loudlyG
+#tudent demands have been satis'iedJ the government has recogniDed the iti'ul state o' students
lot, their great misery, etc. )ut o' the si< oints demanded 'ive !ere allo!edG dissection
instruments, laboratory eEuiment, t!o !hite loaves o' bread daily, t!o-coursemeals, three student
dormitories !ith com'ortable beds, etc.+
4s to the 'irst ointG saving the country 'rom Ce!ish bands, nothing !ould be said, on the rete<t
that the government conceded 'ive oints out o' si<. From the beginning o' the student movement
the entire Ce!ish ress sought to shi't it onto this material laneG that the ob>ective o' the movement
be =a loa' o' bread.=
Thus the real ob>ective-the Ce!-!ould escae unnoticed. 6n 'act, i' one. troubles, to re-read the
aers, one observes that (omanian, oliticians also osed the roblem in similar terms. students
must be given dormitories, better 'ood, etc. 4s 6 have said, art o' the student leadershi in
8ucharest !ere inclined to!ard this roensity. Had the students ta;en this course they !ould have
strayed 'rom their true mission. 2y oinion !as al!ays contrary to this oint o' vie!-against any
intrusion o' a material order into the 'ormulation o' student demands.
For, 6 !as saying, as 6 also say today, it !as not the immediate needs or material !ants that
imelled students to!ard. this great movement, but on the contrary it !as the abandonment o'
concern 'or such things, o' sel'ish interests, o' their o!n or 'amily su''eringsG it !as the 'orgetting
o' all these things on the art o' the (omanian students, the identi'ication o' their !hole being !ith
the !orries, needs and asirations o' their eole. 6t= !as this abnegation and only this, that lighted
the holy light in their eyes.
The student movement !as not one o' material demands. 6t raised itsel' above the needs o' a
generation, ent!ining itsel' !ith the suerior asirations o' the nation. )n the other hand, here in
8ucharest the idea redominated that the student movement ought to stay !ithin the university=s
con'ines, to remain an academic movement, not become a movement o' a olitical nature. 8ut this
oinion !as a totally incorrect one, 'or it coincided.!ith the design o' the Ce!s and olitical arties
!ho had the greatest interest in restricting this 'iery movement to the university so that there, by
one means or another, it could be e<tinguished.
)ur oinion !as not that !e had 'ormed a movement in order to agitate, but to gain a victory. )ur
student 'orces alone being insu''icient 'or that, !e needed to unite !ith all (omanians.
6n addition, the 8ucharest leaders oosed having Pro'essor CuDa roclaimed resident o' an
eventual organiDation, claiming he !as not good 'or such active leadershi. 6 insisted that !e must
suort him, such as he is.
Finally, those in 8ucharest held great reservations to!ard me. This ained me, 'or 6 !as coming to
them !ith !hat a man has most clean and most sacred in his heart, !ith the live desire to cooerate
in the best ossible manner, 'or our country, Perhas, not ;no!ing me, they !ere >usti'ied in having
For these reasons 6 encountered oosition in 8ucharest. That is !hy 6 began to !or; outside the
committee, and !e only made / or ? 'lags.
6 le't 'or Clu> together !ith 4le<andru Ghica, one o' 2rs. Constanta Ghica=s three sons, o' 6asi, !ho
!ere the ruler=s great-grandsons !ho throughout the student camaign acted admirably.
The resident o' the Clu> student center !as 4le<a, a moderate, good element. Fle received me !ith
the same arguments regarding both student orientation and roclaiming Pro'essor CuDa as resident
o' the ne! movement. The student mass !as staunch and 'ull o' enthusiasm. 6t !as then that 6 met
2ota, an agile, talented youth. He held the same oinions as 4le<a. 6 tried to convince him but
unsuccess'ully. 6 had a di''icult time. 6 ;ne! no one. Let, 6 'ound a 'e! students on my sideG
Corneliu Georgescu, student in PharmacyJ
6sac 2ocanu 'rom 1ettersJ Crasmaru, in 2edicineJ >ustin lliesu, etc.
:e made only one 'lag, then in Cat #iancu=s house, !ho 'rom the 'irst moment !ith great
enthusiam agreed to our lan o' action, !e too; an oath on this 'lag,
)nce returned to 6asi 6 had be'ore me t!o roads o' arallel activityG
-. 1aying the ground!or; 'or the rally 'or !hich 'lags !ere made in all universities.
$. Continuing the student movement and ;eeing the general stri;e going.
(egarding the 'irst oint, the biggest di''iculty !as not the lac; o' men or lac; o' organiDation, or
the government=s measures. This time, the greatest obstacle !as coming 'rom Pro'essor CuDa
himsel', !ho, though not disaroving it, sho!ed lac; o' enthusiasm.
Pro'essor CuDa !as not su''iciently convinced o' the necessity 'or organiDing, and did not believe at
all in the ossibility o' success 'or the ro>ected rally.
(egarding the second oint, 6 'aced serious di''iculties !ith the leaders in the 8ucharest and Clu>
centers, di''iculties !hich revented agreement on a single oint o' vie! to!ard a battle lan
around !hich er'ect unity o' this ne! !orld could be realiDed, raising u !ith all its united
strength in de'iance o' the enemy and all our ast errors.
9either the leadershi nor the body o' these student centersG
a" Ane! the Ce!ish roblem, articularly did not ;no! the Ce!J !ere not a!are o' the Cudaic
o!er, its !ay o' thin;ing and o' action. They began !aging !ar !ithout ;no!ing the adversary.
b" They believed the then 1iberal government, or eventually the one to succeed it, to !hich !e
!ould romise our suort, !ould satis'y our demands. )n this basis, they re'erred to engage in
dilomacy, believing that ultimately they !ould convince the oliticians o' the >ustice o' our cause.
6 believe there is nothing more distressing than discussing a roblem !ith men !ho are not even
'amiliar !ith its most elementary asects. (egarding this situation, 6 too; the 'ollo!ing stesG
-. That several good delegates o' the 6asi center regularly ta;e art in the meetings o' the central
committee in 8ucharest (The meetings o' this committee !ere regularly held t!o and three times a
!ee;. They began at . in the evening lasting to /, ?, F and even & o=cloc; in the morning, in
contradictory discussions. For many o' those articiating, the only recollections o' the student
movement !ere o' these meetings !ith their rethorical encounters !ithin the committee".
$. That at 8ucharest and Clu> a grou o' the best 'ighters 'rom the student body be 'ormed in order
to !or; indeendent o' the directives by their resective centers.
4t Clu> and 8ucharest, these grous !ere 'ormed very Euic;ly, in 8ucharest they !ere resent right
in the committee, !here the leadershi bumed into sti'' oosition at each meeting. 6n 8ucharest,
6braileanu, the delegate 'rom 6asi, !as o' real hel, 1i;e!ise, the 'irm attitude o' #imionescu, the
leader o' the medical students, had ;et the student body in the true sirit.
(egarding the arrangements 'or the assembly, according to ne!s received 'rom 6asi, the outloo;
!as as 'ollo!sG 6n only t!o !ee;s, over ?% 'lags had been issued in ?% counties, to trust!orthy
eole. 6t !as only natural that, a'ter t!o months o' student movement, o' general stri;e in all
universities, the soul o' (omanians !ould bubble and that they !ould be ready every!here to arise,
a!aiting but the !ord. The 'lags and the ne!s o' the rally came on time.
Pro'essor CuDa !anted to 'i< the date 'or the rally sometime in 2ay so that more eole !ould
come. 6 oined that the rally should be held as soon as ossible 'or the 'ollo!ing reasonsG
-. 4ll the eole, on their 'eet, rallying around the student movement, !ere e<ecting to hear a
command 'rom some!here, in order to 'orm a unit, to ;no! that a lan !as established !hich they
could 'ollo!.
$. 6 !as a'raid that Ce!ry and 2asonry, getting !ind o' the situation, might initiate a seudo-
nationalist organiDation in order to ta the eole and thus divert the movement onto a dead-end
6n any case, this !ould have created such con'usion in the minds o' the (omanians, that it !as not
at all to be contemlated.
/. 6 'elt it !as necessary to suort the 'ront line o' the student movement, 'or !aging !ar is not
easy, !ith blo!s coming 'rom all directionsG government, local authorities, arents, ro'essorsJ !ith
overty, hunger, cold. 4 mobiliDation o' the (omanian masses coming to their de'ense, sending
them a !ord o' encouragement, !ould invigorate the entire 'ront o' this movement.
?. Finally, because thousands o' students !ere inactive, not ;no!ing !hat to doJ they demonstrated
once, t!iceJ they held a meeting or t!o. 8ut it had been t!o months. These youth had to have
something to do. )nce the ne! organiDation !as born, the entire multitude that could not thin; o'
!hat to do ne<t, !ould be o''ered a !ide 'ield o' activity.
They could start !or;ing the very ne<t day, heading 'or villages to organiDe them and to !in them
over to the ne! 'aith.
MARCH 6, 1927
Pro'essor CuDa decided the rally should be held on #unday, 2arch ?, -.$/J the lace, 6asi.
He had invited me to dinner. There, the Euestion !as raised as to !hat name should be given the
ne! organiDation. Cat. 1e'ter saidG The 9ational De'ense Party, as in France. 6 thought it
aroriate. Pro'essor CuDa addedG +9ot arty, but league-=The 1eague o' Christian 9ational
De'ense.= 4nd so it !as called. Then 6 sent out telegrams to Cemauti, 8ucharest and Clu>,
containing the same messageG +:edding in 6asi on 2arch ?.+ Follo!ing this 6 busied mysel' !ith
arranging the smallest details o' rearation 'or the rally. The schedule !as determined by
Pro'essor CuDa in agreement !ith Pro'essor #umuleanu and my 'atherG at the Cathedral - rayerJ at
the 7niversity - homage to #imion 8amutiu and Gh. 2arDescuJ in the 8e>an Hall-ublic meeting.
Posters !ere rinted announcing the great national assembly. The ne!s o' a big (omanian
assembly in 6asi, having as its urose the 'ounding o' a 'ighting organiDation, sread li;e lightning
among the students o' the 'our universities and then among (omanians at large.
)n the evening o' 2arch the /rd 'ull trainloads began arriving, headed by leaders bringing !ith
them the cloth 'or 'lags. 8y morning, ?$ grous had arrived !ith ?$ 'lags. The cloth o' these 'lags
!as blac; - a sign o' mourningJ in the center a round !hite sot, signi'ying our hoes surrounded
by the dar;ness they !ill have to conEuerJ in the center o' the !hite, a s!asti;a, the symbol o' anti-
#emitic struggle throughout the !orldJ and all around the 'lag, a band o' the (omanian tricolor-red,
yello! and blue. Pro'essor CuDa had aroved !hile in 8ucharest the 'orm o' these 'lags. 9o! !e
a''i<ed them to oles, !raed them in ne!saers and all o' us le't 'or the Cathedral, !here the
religious service !as conducted be'ore a cro!d o' over -%,%%% eole.
4ll ?$ 'lags, at the moment !hen they !ere to be blessed, !ere un'urled be'ore the altar. )nce
blessed, they !ere to be ta;en throughout the !hole country, each to have a real 'ortress o'
(omanian souls rallying around it. These 'lags, sent into each county, !ould be coagulants to
gather together all those o' li;e thought and li;e 'eeling. :ith their solemn blessing, their
imressive symbolism and their lacement in each county, a great organiDational and oular
orientation roblem !as being resolved.
From the Cathedral, the thousands o' eole, banners un'urled, 'ormed a rocession through 7nion
#Euare, 1ausneanu and Carol #ts., headed 'or the 7niversity. There, in a gesture o' homage and
veneration, !reaths !ere laced 'or 2ihail Aogalniceanu, #imion 8arnutiu and Gheorghe
2arDescu, the last, de'ender o' the article & o' the Constitution o' -@&. and, ironically 'ather o' the
liberal minister George 2arDescu, de'ender o' the Ce!s.
There in the 7niversity=s amhitheater !as signed the 'ounding document o' +The 1eague o'
Christian 9ational De'ense.
That a'ternoon the meeting too; lace in 8e>an Hall, resided over by Gen. 6on Tarnoschi. 2any
eole !ho could not be accommodated in the hall stood in the street. Pro'essor CuDa !as
roclaimed resident o' the 1eague o' Christian 9ational De'ense !ith great enthusiasm. The
sea;ers !ereG Pro'essor CuDa, Pro'essor #umuleanu, Gen. Tarnoschi, my 'ather, each county
delegate and those o' the university centersG Tudose Poescu, Preliceanu, 4le<. 5entonic, Donca
2anea, 9ovitchi, #o'ron (obota. 4mong these, mysel'. 4t the end, 'ollo!ing the reading o' the
motion, Pro'essor CuDa, in conclusion, entrusted me !ith a mission, sayingG
+6 charge !ith the organiDation o' 1.4.9.C.I 'or the entire country under my direct leadershi, the
young la!yer C.Q. Codreanu.+
Then he named the county leaders. The rally ended in er'ect order and great enthusiasm.
I The (omanian abbreviation 'or +1eague o' Christian 9ational De'ense+ ;Tr0<
#mall anti-#emitic organiDations o' an economic and olitical character e<isted even be'ore -.%% as
!ell as a'ter. These !ere !ea; e''orts o' eole !ith 'oresight and love o' country, to oose the
ever-gro!ing Ce!ish invasion. 8ut the most serious anti-#emitic organiDation !as +The 9ationalist-
Democratic Party+ 'ounded on 4ril $/, -.-% under the leadershi o' Pro'essors 9. 6orga and 4.C.
CuDa. This arty had a !hole administrative rogram. 6ts article 9o. ?F gave the solution to the
Ce!ish roblemG
+The solution to the Ce!ish roblem must be accomlished through the elimination o' Ce!s, the
develoment o' the roductive o!ers o' (omanians, and the rotection o' their enterrises.+
Follo!ing the enumeration o' these oints, one reads this solemn statementG
+:e !ill ;ee, sread and de'end this rogram !ith all our stead'astness and o!er, considering
this our 'irst honor duty.+
4. C. CiiDa 9. 6drga
This organiDation gathered together all veteran 'ighters since -.%%. 4mong the rominent ones, one
countedG Pro'essor #umuleanu, Pro'essor 6on Qelea-Codreanu, 8utureanu in Dorohoi, Toni in
Galati, C.9. l'rim and then later #te'an Petrovici, C.C. Coroiu, and others.
6n -.-? all these !ere leading the movement that demanded (omania enter the !ar 'or
Transylvania=s liberationJ and in -.-0 most o' them !ere on the 'ront lines, brilliantly doing their
duty. *ver since -.-%---, the counties o' Dorohoi, under the leadershi o' la!yer 8utureanuJ 6asi,
under that o' Pro'essor CuDaJ and #uceava, under that o' my 'ather, became 'ortresses o' (omanian
8y -.-$ the current in these counties !as so o!er'ul that in the elections the administration could
not avoid a sound de'eat !ithout the use o' terror. )n that occasion my 'ather !as seriously
6mmediately a'ter the !ar !hen the easants returned home 'rom the 'ront resolutely desiring a ne!
li'e, the 'irst elections brought into the Parliament Pro'essor CuDa 'or 6asi and my 'ather 'or
#uceava. There they engaged in a 'ierce arliamentary 'ight alauded by the !hole country. The
'ight !as !aged against the eace that the Germans, !hose armies invaded our country, !ished to
imose uon us.
The echo o' these truly remar;able clashes gathered the hoes o' the country around the
9ationalist-Dernocratic Party, so that in the elections that 'ollo!ed, real 'ormidable victories !ere
registered. 6n #uceava the victory !as unaralleled. )ut o' seven deuty seats, the administration
too; one, the other grous none, and my 'ather=s list, si<. 6n Dorohoi and 6asi, almost the same. The
trains too; to!ard 8ucharest /? nationalist deuties. 8ut, un'ortunately 'or the (omanian eole,
this !hole troo coming u 'rom all corners o' the country ended u in a great de'eat.
This struc; li;e lightning over the heads o' (omanians. The Cudeo-masonic 'orces succeeded in
dividing the t!o arty chie's, Pro'essor 9icolae lorga 'rom 4.C. CuDa. 9icolae lorga did not oose
the treaty imosing on us the +minorities= clause+ declaring himsel' ready to sign it. Pro'essor CuDa,
on the oosite barricade, sho!s that this in'amous +minorities= clause+ reresents a de'iance o' all
the blood shed by (omanians, an imermissible meddling into our national a''airs, and a beginning
o' mis'ortune 'or us. 6n e''ect, the imosition !as laced uon us, to grant Ce!s olitical rights en
For some time, 9. 6orga had not been an anti-#emite. it !as clear that the brea; !as an irrearable
one. 4nd this un'ortunate (omanian nation, again became heartbro;en over its hoes 'or salvation.
The ma>ority o' the arty=s membershi and arliamentarians sided !ith Pro'essor 9icolac lorga,
believing that Pro'essor CuDa=s osition laced them 'arther a!ay 'rom any chances to gain o!er.
:ith Pro'essor CuDa stood only Pro'essor #umuleanu and my 'ather.
6n -.$/, during the student movement and under the imetus o' the !ave o' nationalism, +The
(omanian 9ational Fascia+ came into being under the leadershi o' 5i'or, 1unguiescu, 8aguiescu,
and in Clu>, +The (omanian 4ction+ led by Pro'essors Catuneanu, Ciortea, 6uliu Hategan, la!yer
*m. 5asiliu-Clu> and a grou o' students headed by 2ota.
The 'ormer ublished the !ee;ly +Fascism+, !ell !ritten and sirited. 8ut they did not ;no! the
Ce!ish roblem. The latter ublished the bimonthly +(omanian 4ction+ and later +(omanian
8rotherbood,+ also very !ell !ritten, but they limited themselves only to ublishing. They could
not initiate any action or create a sound organiDation.
During this time, the student 2ota translated 'rom French +The Protocols+ !hich !ere commented
uon by Pro'essor Catuncanu and *m. 5asiliu-Clu>, then ublished in boo;let 'orm, 4lso at about
that time *m. 5asiliu-Clu> ublished his !or; +The Demograhic #ituation o' (omania+ in !hich
he sho!ed statistically the terrible state o' (omanian to!ns.
These t!o organiDations had neither o!er o' action nor organiDation nor a doctrinal cometence
li;e that o' +The 1eague o' Christian 9ational De'ense+ lasting only till -.$F !hen they merged
!ith the latter.
4'ter the 'ounding o' +The 1eague o' Christian 9ational De'ense+ my activity !as to continue
along t!o linesG that o' the student movement as a searate unit organiDed by centers, having as an
immediate ob>ective its o!n battles in !hich it had been engaged 'or three months, and that o'
1.4.9.C. in !hich 6 !as given the 'unctiono' organiDer under Pro'essor CuDa.
)n the student side 6 !as to 'ight 'orG
a" 2aintaining the osture o' the general stri;e !hich involved the honor o' the students, Euite a
di''icult >ob considering the attac;s, blo!s, ressures, lures that 'lo!ed over the heads o' students
every!here. 6n addition, there !ere de'eatist students, artisans o' believers in de'eat, !ho had to
be chec;ed.
b" #ystematically using available student elements to recruit among all (omanian masses, thus
organiDing them into a single army. 1.4.9.C.
)n the 1.4.9.C. side !e had leaders and 'lags in some ?% counties. :e neededG
a" The comletion o' 'lags 'or the remaining counties.
b" 4s tightI contact as ossible !ith the resective leaders,
c" The immediate set-u o' recise guidelines in organiDational matte<t, so, 'ar. none<istent but
reEuested by county chie's !ho did not ;no! ho! to m,,med.
6n resumeG de'ensive on student linesJ o''ensive on 1.4.9.C. lines.
The large mass o' students acted, guided by their healthy, instinct o' our race and by the sirit o' the
dead. it 'ollo!ed its glorious ath overcoming many di''iculties.
:ith the 1eague the roblems !ere some!hat more serious. County chie's !ere as;ing 'or
clari'ications and guidelines 'or organiDing. Peole !ho !ere moved by this current had to be
strengthened in their 'aith, indoctrinated, 'ully in'ormed regarding the organiDing and the ob>ectives
they had to reach in their 'ight.
They had to be taught disciline and trust in their sueriors. :e !ere not then giving birth to a
movement but already had a 'ull-'ledged movement !hich had to be organiDed, discilined,
indoctrinated and led into battle.
:hen 6 !ent to Pro'essor CuDa !ith the letters and reEuests received, he !as disarmed by them, 'or
they introduced him to a strange ne! !orld. #hining li;e a sun, and unchallengeable on the heights
o' the theoretical !orld, !hen he !as brought do!n to earth on the battle'ield he became o!erless.
+:e have no need o' regulations. 1et them organiDe by themselves.+
+:e are not in barrac;s to need disciline+ - he o'ten times told us. Then 6 began to !rite u a
statute mysel', do!n to the last detail. 8ut realiDing this !as a tough >ob 'or my age, 6 too; it to my
'ather and !or;ing at it several days 6 e''ected the needed modi'ications in 'orm and substance. The
organiDing system !as simle, but di''erent 'rom that o' the olitical arties u to then. The
di''erence !as that, in addition to the olitical organiDation roer, based on county village
committees and members, 6 'ormed searately a youth cors organiDed by tens and hundreds. )ur
olitical organiDations u to then had nothing li;e these. 1ater, they too adoted them in the 'orm o'
1iberal Party Louth, 9ational-Peasant Party Louth, etc. :hen 6 resented the statute to Pro'essor
CuDa the matter too; on the character o' real !ar. He !ould not hear o' such a thing. Then an
embarrassing discussion ensued, 'or several hours, bet!een Pro'essor CuDa and my 'ather, !hich
literally 'roDe me. #usecting that it !ould ossibly lead to an un'ortunate con'lict, 6 regretted being
the cause o' this discussion. 2y 'ather, a violent and rough man, too; the statute and le't 'or the
rinter to have it ublished !ithout Pro'essor CuDa=s aroval.
8ut the latter, e<ercising more tact and calmer, as much as he !as adamant in certain matters, !as
>ust as malleable in cases li;e these, and ;ne! ho! to Euiet things. He called my 'ather bac;, telling
+4ll right, let us rint it, but give me a chance to loo; it over.+ He corrected it, rearranged it, added
to it a doctrinaire section aeals, mani'estoes, then sent it to the rinter. This then became +The
Good (omanian=s Guide+ and later that o' 1.4.9.C., the 'undamental boo; o' the 1eague until
-./F. 6 !as satis'ied that something good and absolutely necessary 'or the organiDation !as really
accomlished, but in my heart 6 !as telling mysel'G +Things are going to be tough i' !e need so
much discussion 'or such elementary Euestions. 6n an organiDation neither the lac; o'
comrehension in a chie' nor too much discussion are good.
6t !as rumored 'or a long time that the 1iberal Parliament !hich !as also the Constituent
4ssembly, thus having the mission o' re-!riting the Constitution, intended to modi'y 4rt. & in the
sense o' granting +citiDenshi and olitical rights to all Ce!s resent in (omania. 7 to no!, this
article o' the old Constitution rohibited the granting o' citiDenshi to 'oreigners and thus
constituted a real de'ense shield against the invasion and meddling o' the Ce!s in the administration
o' our o!n (omanian destiny. Giving this rivilege o' meddling in (omania=s ublic a''airs to as
high as t!o million Ce!s, and to the >ust-settled Ce! on our land, the right o' eEuality !ith the
(omanian !ho lived on this land 'or millenia, !as both an in>ustice crying to high heaven and a
great national menace that could not but !orry and ro'oundly sha;e every (omanian !ho loved
his country.
Con'ronted by this situation, Pro'essor CuDa had !ritten a series =o' immortal articles sho!ing the
menace threatening the 'uture o' this nation and the 1eague distributed etitions throughout the
country to be signed by (omanians, by !hich it !as demanded that 4rt. & o' the Constitution be
maintained as such. The etitions !ere 'illed !ith hundreds o' thousands o' signatures and
'or!arded to the Constituent 4ssembly.
6 thought it indicated that !e students, !hile this grave Euestion !as being deliberated, should go
'rom all centers to 8ucharest, !here together !ith the local students and the oulation !e !ould
demonstrate in order, to sto the act enslaving our 'uture. 6 le't 'or Cernauti, Clu>, and 8ucharest
#tudents acceted my roosition and began organiDing 'or the dearture. 6n order to indicate the
dearture= date it !as agreed 6 should send a casual telegram. 8ut the lan 'ailed. :e had e<ected
that the deliberations around this Euestion !ould last at least three days during !hich time !e could
reach 8ucharest. 8ut on 2arch $0 the deliberations lasted less than hal' an hour. The 1iberal
government, as !ell as the, 4ssembly-seemingly conscious o' the act o' great shame they !ere
about to commit, sought to cover it, assing it as unnoticeably as they could.
The ne<t day 'ollo!ing this great act o' national betrayal the so-called (omanian ress, as !ell as
the Ce!ish one, treated the in'amous act !ith silence. +Dimineata+ (+The 2orning+", +1utall (+The
Fight+", 4devarul (+The Truth+", daily rinted in bold 'ace the con'lict bet!een landlords and
renters in 8ucharest and in a corner several !ords by !hich they announced simly and
er'idiously. 4rt. & o' the old Constitution has been relaced by 4rt. -//.
The 1iberal Party and the in'amous 4ssembly o' -.$/ thus laid in the grave and sealed the
tombstone over the 'uture o' this eole, 9o curse o' our children, o' our mothers, o' our old 'ol;s,
o' all (omanians su''ering on this earth, no! and 'orever, !ill be adeEuate to unish these traitors
o' their nation. Thus in silence and in an atmoshere o' general co!ardice !as consummated this
great act o' national betrayal. )nly Pro'essor CuDa=s voice, the ersonality no! to!ering over the
entire (omanian nation, could be heardG
+(omanians, The 2arch $@, -.$/ Constitution must be abolished immediately. Protest against its
romulgation. Demand 'ree elections. )rganiDe, in order to insure your victory. 4 ne! Constitution
must guarantee the (omanian 9ation=s rights o' riority, as the dominant eole in the #tate.+
:hen 6 heard the ne!s in 6asi, 6 burst out crying. 4nd 6 told mysel'G +it cannot beM 4t least eole
ought to learn !e rotested. For, i' the eole on !hose nec; is laced such a yo;e does not rotest,
it is a eole o' imbeciles.+
Then 6 edited a mani'esto addressed to 6asians, calling all (omanians to a rotest meeting in the
university. The ne!s o' the Ce!s being granted civil rights sread li;e lightning. The to!n !as
)n governmental orders local authorities brought out the army, the gendarmes the oliceJ
rovocations arose 'ollo!ed by the interdiction o' movement. Then the lan !as changed =The
rally, instead o' being held at the university, too; lace at -? oints throughout the city. There is
!here the demonstrations and the clashes began that lasted all night.
1ocal authorities, the army and olice 'orces !ere comletely ba''led by the abrut change o' our
lans o' battle, o' our meeting lace and by running 'rom one end o' the city to another, as they
!ere in'ormed by their agents regarding demonstrations !hich eruted every hal' hour at oosite
oints. The grou under my command met at the toughest ointG Podul (osu (#ocola" and Tg.
Cucului !here the Ce!ish imertinence maintained that never !ill an anti-#emitic demonstrator set
'oot and get out alive. 9o (omanian lives there. Thousands o' Ce!s !o;e u and ran to and 'ro li;e
a nest o' !orms. :hen !e !ere greeted !ith 'ire, !e resonded !ith 'ire.
:e did our duty, toling everything that stood in our ath and sho!ing the Ce!s that 6asi,
2oldavia=s ancient caital !as still (omanian and that there, it is our arm !hich rules, !hich can
ermit or 'orbid, !hich holds eace or !ar, !hich unishes or 'orgives.
The ne<t day the cavalry 'rom 8ariad arrived in the city to hel the t!o local regiments, the olice,
gendarmerie and the Ce!s, and the 8ucharest aers came out in secial editions !ith headlines
such asG +6asi had lived a night and a day o' revolution.+
This is ho! much !e could do, merely childrenJ this much !e ;ne! ho! to do, and at the moment
the yo;e !as ut on our shoulders. :e did not accet it serenely, !ith a slave=s resignation, !ith
co!ardice. That much !e did, and too; the sacred oath 'or all o' our li'e to brea; this yo;e, no
matter ho! many battles and sacri'ices !ould be e<ected o' us.
6 !ent to the olice re'ecture the 'ollo!ing day to ta;e some 'ood to those arrested. There, 6ulian
#arbu !as >ust then being interrogated as he !as susected o' being the author o' the mani'esto.
#eeing that, 6 !ent be'ore the investigator and 6 saidG +#arbu is not the author o' the mani'esto, 6
4t the olice station 6 !as toldG +2r. Codreanu, you must go to the Court House accomanied by
the agent.+
+:hy !ith the agentK+ 6 relied bac;. +6 go alone.+ This !as the 'irst time that my !ord !as
doubted. 6 'elt o''ended. +9o, 6 do not go !ith the agent. He can, i' he !ishes, !al; 0% 'eet behind
me. 6 go alone. 2y !ord is !orth more than $% olice agents.+ 6 le't, !ith the agent !al;ing $% 'eet
behind me. 6 reached the Court House. The agent came along and too; me be'ore the 6nvestigating
>udge Catichi !ho told meG +Lou are under arrest and 6 must send you to the enitentiary.+
:hen 6 heard that, 6 sa! blac; be'ore my eyes. 4t that time, +arrested+ !as something degrading.
9o one among 6asians !as ever arrested and no one heard o' a nationalist student being arrested.
1et alone me, !ith a atriot=s astK 6 aroached his des; and told himG +Lour Honor, 6 do not
accet being arrested and nobody is going to ic; me u and ta;e me to the enitentiary.+
The oor man, in order to avoid 'urther discussion, ordered the agent to ta;e me to the enitentiary
and advised me against oosing it. Then he le't. The agent, tried to ta;e me. 6 told himG
+Go home, man, and leave me alone. Lou cannot ta;e me 'rom, here.+
Then other agents came in. 6 stayed there 'rom -- 4.2. Till @ in the evening. 4ll e''orts to ta;e me
out !ere 'ruitless.
6 !as thin;ingG
+6 am guilty o' no !rongdoing. 6 did my duty to my eole. 6' there is a guilty arty !ho ought to
be arrested, that arty is o' those !ho !ronged their eoleG the Parliament that accorded civil
rights to the Ce!s.+
Finally, all Court House emloyees !ent home one by one, do!n to the ushers. )nly the agents by
my side and mysel' !ere le't.
4round @ o=cloc; three o''icers arrived.
+2r. Co.dreanu, !e have orders to evacuate this Court House.+
+4ll right gentlemen, 6 !ill go out.+
:e descended the stairs and got out o' the building. To my surrise 6 sa! there a comany o'
gendarmes in semi-circle, rosecutors, >udges, olice.
4t that, 6 !al;ed ahead and sat do!n in the middle o' the courtyard. The authorities came to me and
+Lou must go to the enitentiary.+
+6 !ill not go.+
They li'ted me u, ut me into a vehicle and 6 !as transorted to the enitentiary, slo!ly, 'ollo!ed
by the gendarme comany on 'oot. 4t the last moment, as !e !ere going through the gate o' the
rison, our boys attemted to 'ree me, but the agents revolvers stoed them.
:as it a rotest against the la!sK 9o. 6t !as one against the yo;e o' in>ustice.
2y obstinate re'usal to let mysel' be arrested seemed to be 'or me a 'oreboding o' much su''ering
to come my !ay, once ta;ing the ath !hich led me inside the cold !alls o' risons. 6 !as ;et
there one !ee;, until the eve o' *aster. 2y 'irst days in risonM 2orally sea;ing 6 too; them very
hard, 'or 6 could not understand that someone could be arrested !hen he 'ights 'or his eole and by
order o' those 'ighting against the eole.
7on being released 6 !ent home. 2any (omanians came to meet me at the railroad stations
sho!ing symathy 'or me and encouraging me to carry on the 'ight, !hich is the eole=s 'ight,
!hich in the end !ill be !on.
The entire nation, in all its best elements, 'rom easant to intellectual, received !ith great ain the
sad ne!s o' the 4rt. & modi'icationJ but it could do nothing, 'or it !o;e u sold out and betrayed by
the leaders. 6 !onder !hat curse on our heads and !hat sins condemned us (omanians to have art
o' such scoundrelly leadersK
Here !e have 'ace to 'ace t!o historical moments in t!o di''erent (omanias, !ith t!o sets o'
eole and !ith the same roblemG The Constituent 4ssembly o' -@&. in #mall (omania, very
small, that had the courage to !ithstand *uroe=s ressure, and the Constituent 4ssembly o' -.$/,
in Greater (omania, emerged 'rom the sacri'ice o' our blood, !hich out o' venal servility, under the
ressures o' the same *uroe, does not hesitate to humiliate and endanger the li'e o' an entire
6n the ages that 'ollo!, the readers o' this boo; !ill encounter !ith some surrise a series o'
e<tracts 'rom the !or;s o' several innacles o' thought, atriotism and character o' our eole, !ho
in -@&. 'iercely 'ought 'or the right to li'e o' the (omanian eole, con'ronting !ith manliness the
threatening lightnings o' all *uroe, Though the inclusion o' these e<tract overta< and comlicate
the normal un'olding o' the resent volume, disobeying rules customarily 'ollo!ed in such matters,
6 include them not so much !ishing to use them as historical arguments, but to bring to light ane!
these earls o' reasoning and o' e<ression o' these great 'orebears, !hom the consiracy o' the
Cudeo-masonic )ccult
ersecuted, loc;ing them u under heavy seals and laEues o' 'orget'ulness, >ust because they
!rote, thought and 'ought li;e true giants o' (omanianism.
)ur student generation, >uming over 'i'ty years o' the abdication racticed by oliticians vis-a-vis
the Ce!ish eril, identi'ies itsel' !ith the same convictions, sentiments and character ossessed by
those o' -@&., and in the moment o' this sacred union bo!s its head in gratitude and reverence in
the shado! o' their greatness.
Consider the attitude our great Conta held in the Chamber in -@&..
Fi'ty years earlier the (omanian hilosoher demonstrated !ith unsha;eable scienti'ic arguments,
'ramed in a system o' imeccable logic, the soundness o' racial truths that must lie at the 'oundation
o' the national stateJ a theory adoted 'i'ty years later by the same 8erlin !hich had imosed on us
the granting o' civil rights to the Ce!s in -@&..
From this, one can see the 'railty o' the arguments o' those !ho attac; the, national movement as
being insired by the ne! German ideology, !hen in reality, a'ter so many years, it is 8erlin that
has ta;en u the line o' 5asile Conta, 2ihail *mineseu and the others.
:e, i' !e !ill not 'ight against the Ce!ish element, !ill erish as a nation.
6t is a recogniDed 'act, even by those attac;ing us today, that the 'irst condition 'or a #tate to e<ist
and roser, is that the citiDens o' that #tate be o' the same race, same blood, and this is easy to
understand. First, individuals o' li;e race usually marry only among themselves, 'or only thus can
they retain the unity o' raceJ then marriage creates the 'amily 'eelings !hich are the strongest and
the most lasting ties bet!een individualsJ and !hen !e consider that these 'amily ties sread out
until they ta;e in all the citiDens o' the #tate !e see that the latter are attracted to one another by a
general 'eeling o' love, by !hat is called racial symathy. 2oreover, bearing in mind that the same
blood 'lo!s through the veins o' all the members o' a eole, one understands that all these
members !ill have through heredity, about the same 'eelings, about the same tendencies, and even
about the same ideasJ so that in erilous times, on uniEue occasions, their hearts !ill beat as one,
their minds !ill adot one oinion, the action o' all !ill see; the same uroseJ in other !ords the
nation made u o' a single race !ill have only one center o' gravityJ and the #tate made u o' such
a nation, that and only that one !ill be in the best condition o' strength, durability and rogress. 6n
conseEuence, >ust as in the maintenance o' a secies, the 'irst reEuisite 'or the e<istence o' a #tate is
that its eole be o' li;e race, :ell, this is the truth on !hich the rincile o' nationalities is based,
on !hich so much is being said in the civiliDed !orld. This rincile o' nationalities, naturally,
re'ers only to race and not at all to !hat is called =the sub>ects o' the #tate regardless o' race 'or then
the rincile !ould have no alication !hatever.
:ell, this rincile is today so deely rooted in the conscience o' all eole, be they statesmen or
simle citiDens, that no!adays all #tates in the civiliDed !orld come into being or are reconstituted
only on this basis.
Then let the Ce!ish ublicists or the >e!-lovers no longer say that the basis o' the #tate is only a
common material interest o' its citiDens, because, on the contrary, !e see that it is e<actly this, our
century, that gave birth to the rincile o' nationalitiesJ that revails today more and more...
True, this does not revent 'oreigners 'rom acEuiring the citiDenshi o' a #tate, rovided they
assimilate into the dominant nationJ namely, to mi< totally so that ultimately the #tate remain o' the
same single blood. +These are the only scienti'ic rinciles o' naturaliDation. For naturaliDation to
be use'ul, rational and con'orming to scienti'ic criteria, it must be granted only to those 'oreigners
!ho assimilate or are inclined to do so by marriage to the indigenous. )ther!ise, one can easily
comrehend that granting citiDenshi to individuals !ho lac;, or cannot have, this inclination o'
assimilation into the blood o' the dominant race, !ould result in a country sub>ect to eretual
struggles bet!een oosite tendencies.
6 am not saying it is imossible 'or various races that !ould e<ist in some country to have
sometimes a common interest, that the hereditary tendencies o' one race be >ust as 'avored as those
o' another by the same circumstances. 4s long as this state o' a''airs lasted, both indigenous and
naturaliDed !ould certainly live eace'ully. 8ut circumstances change and !ith them the interest o'
the various races could also changeJ and i' not today, then tomorro!J i' not tomorro! then day a'ter
tomorro! the tendencies o' the naturaliDed !ill be in con'lict !ith those o' the natives, and then the
interest o' some !ill beat odds !ith that o' the others, and then the interests o' some could not be
satis'ied !ithout sacri'icing those o' the othersJ and then !e !ould have a 'ight 'or e<istence
bet!een t!o races, !ith 'ierce battles that could only be ended either by the total abolishment o' the
#tate, or !hen one o' the races is totally crushed so that again only one dominant race remain in the
#tate.... :ell, our national history and everyday e<erience have roved to us that 'rom among all
'oreigners !ho come to us, the Tur;s and articularly the Ce!s are the ones !ho never intermarry
!ith us, !hile other 'oreignersG (ussians, Gree;s, 6talians, Germans intermarry and 'use !ith us, i'
not on the 'irst then during the second or third generation, but 'inally there comes a time !hen there
is no distinction bet!een these 'oreigners and ourselves, either as regards blood or love o' country.
8ut it is not the same !ith the Ce!s....
+... 9o matter ho! this Euestion !ould be osed, or ho! it !ould be interreted, !e, i' !e !ill not
'ight against the Ce!ish element, !ill erish as a nation. +
(From the discourse against the revision o' the 4rt. o' the Constitution, delivered in the Chamber o'
Deuties, *<traordinary #ession, held on #etember ?, -@&. and ublished in the )''icial 2onitor
9o. $%- dated :ednesday, #etember -&, -@&., . F&FF-0"
:hile in the Chamber, 5asile Conta delivered the above-mentioned discourse, in the #enate, 5asile
4lecsandri, the oet o' the 7nion, e<ressed the 'eeling o' (omanians as 'ollo!s.
Today (omania comes to us holding in her hands her History 8oo; so that !e !rite in its ages
either the humiliation and the loss o' our eole or its dignity and deliverance...
Faced !ith this situation,unaralleled in the historical annals o' the !orld, !e must ;no! ho! to
li't our hearts and minds to the height o' our duty, !ithout assion, !ithout violence, but in Euiet
sirit, !ith enlightened atriotism and noble courage that is e<ected o' men called to decide the
'ate o' their country...
:hat is this ne! imasseK :hat is this ne! invasionK
:ho are the invadersK :here do they come 'romK :hat do they !antK 4nd !ho is the ne! 2oses
leading them to the ne! romised land, situated this titne on the ban;s o' the DanubeK
:hat are the invadersK They are an active, intelligent eole, never tiring in the 'ul'illment o' their
missionJ adets o' the blindest religious 'anaticismJ the most e<clusivist o' all the inhabitants o' the
earth, the most unassimilable !ith other eoles o' the !orld...
+:hat do they !ant 'rom usK
To become o!ners o' the land o' this eole, turning the old masters o' this country into slaves, as
are today the easants o' Galicia and art o' 8ucovina.
This country is beauti'ul and richJ it has big cities, radroads, advanced institutions and a eole
rather un'oreseeing as are all eole o' 1atin origin... :hat is easier than substituting themselves
'or the, inhabitants o' this country and thus turning all o' it into an 6sraelite roertyK
6' this is the lan o' the resent day invaders, as everything leads us to believe, it once again roves
the enterrising sirit o' the 6sraelite eole, and 'ar 'rom deserving blame, it is li;ely to attract the
laudits and admiration o' ractical men.
:e (omanians !ould deserve the blame, i' by our indi''erence or by the alication, o' some 'atal
and absurd humanitarian theories, !e, !ould ourselves be heling in the 'ul'ilment o' this lan. The
blame, !ould 'all uon our heads, i' 'ooled by these theories, understanding them inside-out, or
dominated by an imaginary 'right under the in'luence o' imaginary threats, !e !ould 'orget that the
(omanian 'atherland is a sacred storehouse entrusted to us by our arents to be transmitted !hole
and unstained to our children...
:hat then !ould the !hole country say, i' !e created 'or it such a situationK :hat !ould the
(omanians say !ho had >oyously 'ought 'or the indeendence o' the ancestral landK
)ur country !ould turn her eyes a!ay 'rom us in ain.
The (omanian !ould sayG 4s; no longer 'or my blood 'rom no! on, i' the blood that !as shed
serves nothing but the 'ragmentation o' my country and the demeaning o' national dignity.
For these considerations, !hen (omania comes be'ore us today holding her History 8oo; in her
band so that !e may inscribe on its ages our veto, 'or mysel' 6 tear out the age meant 'or the
inscrition to humiliate our country, and on the other age !rite !ith my heart, its dignity, its
(From the discourse against the revision o' 4rt. & o' the Constitution, delivered in (omania=s
#enate, *<traordinary #ession, meeting on )ctober -%, -@&. and ublished in the )''icial 2onitor
9o. $/%, Thursday --/$/, )ctober -@&., . 0FF$-@."
Here is the digni'ied attitude regarding the Ce!ish roblem and the ressures e<ercised 'rom abroad
ta;en by 2ihail Aogalniccanu, 2inister o' 6nternal 4''airs in -@0., titular head o' that same
ministry !hich today has become the lace 'rom !hich emanate the orders 'or torturing those o' us
!ho still 'ight to de'end our eoleG
+4ll those ossessing a live interest in their country have been reoccuied !ith stoing Ce!s 'rom
e<loiting the eole.
6n (omania the Ce!ish Euestion is not a religious one, but a national and at the same time an
economic one.
6n (omania, Ce!s not only constitute a di''erent religious communityJ they constitute in the 'ull
sense o' the !ord a nationality, 'oreign to (omanians by virtue o' origin, language, dress, customs,
and even sentiment.
6t is not a matter then, o' religious ersecution, 'or i' this !ere the case, the 6sraelites !ould 'ace
interdiction or restriction in the e<ercise o' their cult, !hich is not the case. Their synagogues !ould
not be allo!ed to rise 'reely near Christian churchesJ their religious instruction, the ublicity o'
their cult, li;e!ise !ould not be tolerated.
4ll those !ho visited the Princialities, in articular 2oldavia, !ere 'rightened by the sad asect,
not to say !orse than sad, revealed by the Polish 6sraelites oulating our to!ns. :hen they loo;ed
more closely into the commerce, industry, and this cro!d=s means o' livelihood, these travellers
became even more 'rightened, because they sa! that the Ce!s are consumers only, not roducers,
and that their largest, and 6 can say their only and rincial industry is the retailing o' alcohol...
6 evicted no Ce! 'rom his domicile on the simle basis that according to all the la!s o' the land the
6sraelites 'rom (omania have no right o' domicile in villages, as is also the case in #erbia.
6 restricted the 'uture rental o' taverns and nightclubs by Ce!s, esecially by those called Galicians
and Podolians. This measure !as>usti'ied onthe )rganic #tatute and on the la! voted by the
General 4ssembly, then sanctioned by Prince 2ihai #turDa, !hich no succeeding la! has to this
day abolished, but on the contrary, a la! all 2inisters o' internal 4''airs be'ore and a'ter the
convention, maintained and en'orced. Proo' o' this are the orders o' my redecessors, namelyG o'
Cune -& and $@, -@0- during 2inister Costa ForuJ o' February F, -@00 signed by Gen. FlorescuJ on
2arch - - and 4ril - -, -@00 issued to the (amnicul-#arat Pre'ecture by Prince Dimitrie Ghica,
etc., etc.
7nder these conditions, not one minister, not even ten succeeding one another in o''ice could do
other than mysel' and my redecessors did.
2inisters o' (omania, a country !ith a constitutional regime, !e cannot govern but according to
the !ill o' the eole.
:e are duty bound to ta;e into account the needs, !ishes, and to a certain degree even the
re>udices o' this nation...
This >usti'ies the great irritation on the art o' the (omanian oulace, originating out o' ro'ound
su''ering and o' a legitimate concern, 'or it isthe voice o' anation 'eeling threatened in ber very
nationboodJ and her economic interests. Foreigners can sti'le this voice, but it is imermissible to a
(omanian minister, o' any arty, not to listen to it.
That is !hy, not only today, but al!ays, in all times and under all administrations, all rulers, all
statesmen o' (omania, all those !bo ossess a live interest in their country, have been reoccuied
by the necessity o' stoing the e<loitation o' the (omanian eole by an alien eole, the Ce!s.+
(From the communication o' the 2inister o' 6nternal 4''airs 2ihail Aogainiceanu, addressed to the
2inister o' Foreign 4''airs, Cune -@0. regarding the Ce!ish Euestion. Published in The Collection
o' old and ne! legislation 'or (omania, romulgated u through -@&%, by loan 2. 8u>oreanu,
8ucharest -@&/, The ne! rinting ress o' (omanian !or;ers, Part F. Title =Disositions and
Circulars,= Chater B, .@-/-0."
+6' today, !hen they do not yet have 'ull civil rights or olitical ones, they have ta;en over all
commerce and all small industry in 2oldaviaJ i' today they have 'launted themselves 'right'ully
over (omanian lainsJ i' today they are nesting in the hearth o' the industrious )lteniansJ !hat !ill
it be li;e tomorro! !hen they !ill be granted eEual rights, !hen they !ill be able to call
themselves (omanians, !hen they !ill have inscribed into la!s the 'ormal right that this 'atherland
is theirs >ust as much as it is oursM+
(Comlete !or;s, The 6sraelite Suestion, . ?@., 6asi, the lonescu-Georgescu 8oo;store, -.-?.
Suoted by 4le< 9aum".
4nd on age ?@-G
+8y !hat labors or sacri'ices have they !on 'or themselves the right. to asire to eEuality !ith the
(omanian eoleK :as it they !ho 'ought the Tur;s, Tartars, Poles and HungariansK :as it they
!ho !ere unished !hen the old treaties !ere bro;enK :as it through their e''orts that the 'ame o'
this country sread, that this language !as disinterred 'rom the veilings o' the astK :as it through
one o' them that the (omanian eole !on its right to sunlightK+
+Do you not see that the Ai;ery in *ngland and France do not only demand citiDenshi rights in
(omania 'or their co-religionists, but rivileges, a suremacyJ do they !ant to establish an
aristocracy o' money, o' the Golden Cal'K
They demand that !hich !e cannot give !ere !e to die to the last man.
Does the Ai;ery in *ngland and France believe, 6 !onder, do you gentlemen believe !ith them, that
(omanians !ill !atch calmly !hile among them !ill settle the most sordid and 'ilthy, the most
vulgar o' aristocracies, the domination o' clo!ns, Ce!s, ru''ians o' 2ammonK
7nder !hat title and on !hat right could such an abominable domination be established be'ore the
atrium, be'ore the gates o' the t!entieth Century, !here all humanity, e<cet the sons o' erdition,
!ill come li;e a bride be'ore the divine GroomK
Dares the Ai;ery o' *ngland and France come out !ith the (ight o' 2an based on eEuality, and yet
have the audacity to retend rivileges and suremacy 'or themselvesK
4nd because they cannot invo;e this right, they dare as it struc; their 'ancy to coin the arado<
(omanian o' 6sraelite (ite - to ush their seci'ically Ce!ish 'urther audacity so 'ar as to threaten us
in the name o' *uroe=s monarchsK
:ith !hat then shall the Ce!s conEuer usK 8y their numbers, their 'orceK
For the good that !e !ish and !e have !ished them, in the name o' the regeneration o' eoles and
o' the Ce!s themselves in the land o' Palestine, !e ity them and advise them as a Christian !ould-
desirous 'or the salvation o' all humanity, through Christ=s !ounds, :ho 'rom the Cross 'orgave his
tormentors themselves-not to try anything o' this sort, or dare to even contemlate it, let alone lay
claim to something in our resent era o' agitation caused by #atan=s angels !ho temted themJ
they had better not dare something o' the ;ind, 'or God only ;no!s ho! 'ar (omanians may go in
their legitimate and most sacred o' all temestuous 'uries de'ending their
rights as a nation having an instinct o' reservationM+
(From The eEuilibrium bet!een antitheses or sirit and matter by -. Heliade (adulescu, 8ucharest,
ublished 'rom -@F. to -@0.J Part 6ll, entitled +The 6sraelites and the Ce!s,+ Chater B, . /@%-/".
Thus, t!o !ays o' Ce!ish behavior to!ard us are seci'ied in the TalmudG
+6' you are stronger than Christians, e<terminate them.+
+6' you are !ea;er than Christians, 'latter them...+
+8ut someone !ea;er than 6, in order to become some day stronger than 6, has 'irst to ass through
a middle stage in !hich he is eEual to me.+
+Do you no! understand, 6 !onder, !hat it means to grant so-called olitical rights to the Ce!sK+
(From +#tudies in >udaism. The Talmud as a Pro'ession o' Faith o' the 6sraelite Peole,+ by 8.P.
Ha>deu, Director o' the Historical 4rchives o' (omania, President o' the 2oral and Political
#ciences= section o' the (omanian 4thenee, 8ucharest. Printing House Theodor 5aidescu, 8ossel
House 9o. /?, -@00J . /%--."
+Ce!ry, one seventh o' our total oulation, is the saddest lerosy to !hich our !ea;ness, our lac;
o' 'oresight, and our venality condemned us.+
(From the letter to 1uascu sent 'rom )cna, dated Canuary -$, -@0., ublished in the volume
5erses, Prose, 1etters by C. 9egri !ith a study on his li'e and !ritings by *. Garleanu, +2inerva+
Publishers, / 4cademiei 8lvd., 8ucharest -.%., . - i0".
:e ermit ourselves to introduce in the same selection o' e<tracts the oinion o' the great historian
4.D. Benool, ro'essor at the 7niversity o' 6asiJ this in vie! o' the uncontestable authority o' the
scientist !ho had lived and seen !ith his o!n eyes the ain'ul reality o' his 'indingsG +6' a
(omanian decides to oen a store, no Ce! !ill cross his threshold. Thus he !ould be by-assed by a
large clientele, !hile (omanians are not averse to buying 'rom Ce!s. 6t is clear that even !ithout
rice-rigging the resistance o' the (omanian merchant and tradesman can be bro;en. +4 Ce! !ill
never ta;e a (omanian into his establishment i' the latter stands =to learn something therebyJ 'or
(omanians are received into Ce!ish homes only as servants or orters. This system o' e<clusiveness
ersists strongly. 6n the innumerable Ce!ish !or;shos and stores !hich cover 2oldavia 'rom one
end to the other, there is not a single Christian or (omanian arentice, - !or;er, 'oreman,
accountant, cashier, salesman, +Ce!s then, ractice against (omanians the most stringent economic
e<clusivism !hich they cannot renounce, 'or it is rescribed by their o!n religion.+
(From 1a Euestion israelite en (oumanie by 4.D. Benool, a study ublished in 1a renaissance
latine, rue 8oissy-d=4nglas $F, Paris, -.%$, . -&".
4'ter *aster the 'ight recommenced. )n the 1.4.9.C. 'ront, Pro'essor CuDa continued action via the
aers !hile the rest o' us busied ourselves organiDing. The series o' meetings in to!ns and villages
began. )n the student 'ront, the modi'ication o' 4rt. & o' the Constitution brought !ith it changes.
#tudent leaders in 8ucharest and Clu> !ho believed that a student movement !ould ultimately
ersuade the government to recogniDe the >ust demands o' the students, became bitterly
disaointed uon seeing that not only does the government not recogniDe any o' their demands but
that it grants the Ce!s olitical rights, so they more and more thought o' caitulating.
6n Clu>, the resident convo;ed a meeting in !hich he suggested the best thing to do !as to go bac;
to classes. The student mass re>ected his roosal, declaring that they !ere 'ighting to reserve their
honor, and that the 'ight should be 'ought to the very last limit o' resistance. The suorters o' this
thesis !ereG 6on 2ota, Corneliu Georgescu, 6sac 2ocanu, and all our grous.
4le<a resigned, and to relace him as resident o' the student center Petru 2aior, 6on 2ota !as
elected along !ith a ne! committee.
The government=s assault, to ma;e students resume their classes, 'ailed this time also, but the
leaders !ere sacri'icedG 6on 2ota and si< others !ere 'orever e<elled 'rom all universities 'or their
uncomromising attitude.
6n 8ucharest, a grou headed by #imionescu and Danulescu began to relace the leadershi that had
been becoming increasingly undecided and !ea;. Here too, the government 'ailed in its attemt to
oen classes a'ter *aster.
JUNE 1927
T!o more months o' heroic resistance, misery, and ressures have assed, !ith students e<hausted.
6n 8ucharest the 7niversity !as re-oened 'or e<ams, i' only 'or Ce!ish and renegade students. )n
oening day, the army !as osted in the university. #tudent clashes occurred out 'ront but !ere too
!ea;, to longer deter its oening. The government=s lan !as to oen the universities one by one,
leaving 6asi 'or the last, and resenting 6asi !ith the 'ait accomli o' three oerating universities. 4
!ee; later in Clu>, several days a'ter that in Cernauti, the universities oened !ith the army resent
under the same conditions as in 8ucharest. in another !ee; the di''icult hour o' 6asi !as to come. 6t
!as isolated by the government, alone, !ith its student 'orces considerably diminished.
)n the oening eve, ;no!ing tomorro! morning the army !ould enter the 7niversity, !e lanned
to occuy it ourselves during the night.
8e'ore dar;, 6 sent a trusted student !ho entered the lobby and ulled bac; the bolts o' t!o large
!indo!s in such a manner that this !ould go undetected, so that being ushed 'rom the outside
they !ould oen. 9ot yet sharing this lan !ith anyone, 6 convo;ed a . o=cloc; meeting o' -%%
students in the 8e>an Hall. 4t -% o=cloc; !e occuied the 7niversity. :e raised on its 'acade the
s!asti;a banner, a little later the (ector o' the 7niversity arrived, Pro'essor #in-donescu. He !as let
in. He tal;ed to us urging us to leave the 7niversity. :e relied e<laining to him our reasons.
#everal hours later he le't. :e organiDed ourselves 'or guard duty and stayed there the !hole night.
9e<t morning, the students arrived at the 7niversity in large numbers. 6nvigorated, they
unanimously resolved to continue the 'ight.
The Ce!ish aers !ere 'uriously attac;ing us. T!o days later, Clu>, in a 'ight, tried to reta;e their
7niversity 'rom the hands o' the gendarmes. 4'ter t!o more days 8ucharest and Cemauti 'ollo!ed
suit. These 'ights led to student risings again and to the closing ane! o' all universities. The
academic year ended. The (omanian youth had assed a uniEue e<am in resistance, character and
Honor to the student body !hich 'or its stead'astness, ta;ing so many blo!s, has given an e<amle
o' collective !ill yet unsurassed in the history o' the !orld=s universities. 9o country has ever
!itnessed students, united in a single soul and assuming unto themselves all resonsibility and all
ris;s, being able to maintain a general stri;e 'or one year in order to rove their 'aith, see;ing
through their demonstration to a!a;en the conscience o' an entire nation, 'aced by the gravest
roblem o' her e<istence.
This is a beauti'ul age, an heroic age !ritten by the su''ering o' this youth, in the boo; o' the
(omanian nation.
:hoever imagines that the Ce!s are some oor un'ortunates, arrived here hahaDardly, brought by
!inds, ushed by 'ate, etc., is mista;en. 4ll Ce!s over the entire !orld 'orm a great collectivity
bound together by blood and by the Talmudic religion. They are constituted into a very strict state,
having la!s, lans, and leaders ma;ing these lans. 4t the 'oundation, there is the Aabal. #o, !e do
not 'ace some isolated Ce!s but a constituted o!er, the Ce!ish community. 6n every city or mar;et
to!n !here a number o' Ce!s settle, the Aabal, (the Ce!ish community there" is immediately
'ormed. This Aahal has its o!n leaders, searate >udicial set-u, ta<es, etc. and holds the entire
Ce!ish oulation o' that locality tightly united around itsel'.
6t is here, in this tiny Aahal o' mar;et to!n or city, that all lans are madeG Ho! to !in over local
oliticians and authoritiesJ ho! to in'iltrate certain circles o' interest to them, such as magistrates,
o''icers, high o''icialsJ !hat lans to use to ta;e over such and such branch o' commerce 'rom the
hands o' a (omanianJ ho! to destroy a local anti-#emiteJ ho! to destroy an incorrutible
reresentative o' local authority !ho might oose Ce!ish interestsJ !hat lans to aly !hen,
sEueeDed beyond endurance, the oulace !ould revolt and erut into anti-#emitic movements, !e
shall not delve deeer into these lans here. in general, the 'ollo!ing methods are usedG
6. For !inning over local oliticiansG
-. Gi'tsJ
$. Personal 'avorsJ
/. Financing the olitical machine 'or roaganda, lea'let rinting, traveling e<enses, etc. 6' there
are several ban;ers in to!n or rich Ce!s, each is assigned to a seci'ic olitical arty.
66. For !inning over local authoritiesG
-. Corrution, bribery. 4 oliceman 'rom the smallest to!n in 2oldavia, in addition to the ay he
receives 'rom the state, gets monthly another salary or t!o. )nce he accets a bribe, he becomes the
Ce!s= slave and i' he does not 'ollo! orders, then they use on him the second !eaonG
$. 8lac;mail, i' he does not comly, his bribe-ta;ing is revealed.
/. The third !eaon is destruction. 6' they realiDe you cannot be s!ayed or sub>ected they !ill try to
destroy you searching !ell your !ea;nesses. 6' you drin;, they !ill see; an oortunity to
comromise you through alcoholJ i' you are a s;irt-chaser, they !ill send you a !oman !ho !ill
comromise you or destroy your 'amilyJ i' you are violent by nature, they !ill send your !ay
another violent man !ho !ill ;ill you or !hom you !ill ;ill and then go to risonJ
?. 6' you lac; all o' these de'ects, then they !ill emloy the lie, !hisered or rinted calumny, and
denounce you to your sueriors. 6n the mar;et to!ns and cities invaded by Ce!s, local authorities
are either in a state o' bribery, a state o' blac;mail, or in a state o' destruction.
666. 6n order to in'iltrate into various circles or around some highly laced eole, they useG
-. servilityJ
$. boards o' directorsJ
/. base ersonal 'avorsJ
?. 'lattery.
Thus, all oliticians are given Ce!ish secretaries, because they are handy at doing the shoing,
shining the shoes, roc;ing the babies, holding the brie'case, etc., !hile at the same time ca>oling
and insinuating themselves. 4 (omanian is not going to be as good 'or he is less re'ined, is not
er'idious, comes 'rom the lo!, and articularly because he !ants to be a 'aith'ul soldier, guarding
his honor, re'using to be a valet.
65. Plans to ruin a (omanian merchant.
-. Flan;ing the (omanian either !ith one or t!o Ce!ish merchants.
$. #elling merchandise belo! cost, the loss being made u by secial 'unds given by the Aahal.
This is ho! (omanian merchants re ruined one by one.
To these can be addedG
a" The commercial sueriority o' the Ce!, resulting 'rom a commercial ractice much older than
that o' the (omanian.
b" The Ce!=s sueriority cometing under the Aabal=s rotection. The (omanian en>oys no
rotection 'rom the (omanian state but only miseries imosed by the local authorities corruted by
the ne!s. The (omanian does not 'ight the ne<t door Ce! but the Aahal, and that is !hy one readily
understands that the individual !ill be rushed i' he 'ights the coalition, The (omanian has no one, a
arent state to raise him, advise and hel him. He is le't by himsel', to his 'ate, !hile 'aced by the
o!er'ul Ce!ish coaliton. 6t is easy to reeat the 'ormula o' all oliticians o' 2ihalache=s ategoryG
+1et the (omanian become a merchant.+
1et these (omanian oliticians sho! us a single (omanian merchant !ho !as sisted by the state, a
single school that !as meant to really educate merchants not ban; o''icials or cler;s. 1et them sho!
us only one institution built by them !hich heled !ith a small caital or guided c young graduate
o' a commercial school on the road to commerce.
6t !as not the (omanian !ho deserted the road to commerce, but these oliticians !ho deserted
their duty as leaders and councillors o' the nation.
The (omanian, abandoned by his leaders, !as le't alone to 'ace the organiDed Ce!ish coalition, the
'raudulent manoeuvres and the honest cometition, and he !as de'eated. 8ut the hour !ill come
!hen these leaders !ill have to account 'or their !rongdoing.
6 reeat once again, !e are not be'ore some oor individuals !ho !andered here hahaDardly, by
themselves, in Euest o' shelter.
:e 'ace a Cudaic #tate, an army that comes into our land to conEuer us. Ce!ish oulation
movements are e''ected against (omania according to a !ell established lan, the great Cudaic
council robably see;s to establish a ne! Palestine on a section o' land e<tending 'rom the 8altic
#ea do!n through arts o' Poland and CDechoslova;ia, then covering hal' o' (omania to the 8lac;
#ea, !hence they could easily establish contact by !ater !ith the other Palestine= :here is the
naive erson !ho can believe that the oulation movements o' Ce!ish masses occur unlannedK
They come according to lan, but lac; the courage to battle, to 'ace, ris;s, to shed their blood in
order to >usti'y, at least by these traits, some right to this land.
Ho! do !e, ;no! these lansK :e ;no! them 'or certain by dra!ing conclusions 'rom the enemy=s
movements. 4ny troo commander attentively 'ollo!ing the enemy=s action realiDes the lans he is
see;ing. 6t is an elementary matter. :as there a leader in all the !ars o' this !orld !ho ;ne! the
adversary=s lans because he sat in on their ma;ingK 9oM He ;ne! them er'ectly 'rom !hat the
enemy did.
6n order to brea; all o!er o' resistance o' the (omanian eole, the Ce!s !ill aly a truly uniEue
and diabolical lanG
-. They !ill try to brea; the siritual ties o' the (omanian to heaven, and to earth.
To brea; our ties !ith heaven they !ill engage in !idesread dissemination o' atheistic theories in
order to searate the (omanian eole or at least some o' the leaders 'rom GodJ searating them
'rom God and their dead they can destroy them, not by s!ord but by severing the roots o' their
siritual li'e.
To brea; our ties binding us to the land, the material source o' a nation=s e<istence, they !ill attac;
nationalism, labelling it +outmoded,+ and everything related to the idea o' 'atherland and soil, in
order to cut the love thread tying the (omanian eole to their 'urro!.
$. 6n order to succeed in this, they !ill endeavour to get control o' the ress.
/. They !ill ta;e advantage o' every oortunity to so! discord in the (omanian cam, sreading
misunderstandings, Euarrels, and i' ossible to slit it into 'actions 'ighting each other.
?. :ill see; to gain control o' most o' the means o' livelihood o' the (omanians.
F. They !ill systematically urge (omanians on to licentiousness, destroying their 'amilies and their
moral 'iber.
0. They !ill oison and daDe them !ith all ;inds o' drin;s and other oisons.
4nyone !ishing to conEuer and destroy a eole could do it by using this systemG
8rea;ing its ties !ith heaven and land, introducing 'ratricidal Euarrels and 'ights, romoting
immorality and licentiousness, by material ruin, hysical oisoning, drun;enness, 4ll these destroy
a nation more than being blasted by thousands o' cannon or bombed by thousands o' airlanes.
1et the (omanians loo; bac; a bit to see !hether against them this system has not been used !ith
recision and tenacity-truly a murderous system. 1et the (omanians oen their eyes to read the
ress 'or the last ?% years since it has been under Ce!ish control. 1et them re-read 4devarul (+The
Truth+", Dimineata (+The 2orning+", 1uta (+The Fight+", )inia (+The )inion+", 1umea (+The
:orld+", etc. and see i' 'rom each age this lan does not constantly emerge.
1et the (omanians oen their eyes to see the disunity in resent day (omanian ublic li'eJ let them
oen their eyes and see !ell. The Ce!s use these lans li;e oison gas in a !ar, to be used against
the enemy, not their o!n eole. They roagate atheism 'or (omanians but they themselves are
not atheistic, as they 'anatically hold to resecting their most minute religious recets. They !ant
to detach (omanians 'rom their love 'or the land, but they grab land. They rise u against the
national idea, but they remain chauvinistically loyal to their o!n nation.
:hoever believes that the 'orces o' Ce!ish o!er have no lans 'or the student movement is
mista;en, being so 'ar 'ooled in their e<ectations, Ce!s remained disoriented 'or a moment. They
tried to oose the students by manoeuvring the !or;ers in the communist movement, namely other
(omanians, but they !ere not success'ul, because on one hand these !or;ers !ere drained o'
strength and on the other they too, began to realiDe that !e 'ight and su''er 'or their rights and 'or
the (omanian nation. 2any o' them !ere, in their hearts, on our side.
The Ce!s, realiDing their 'ailure to ut the !or;ers across our ath, then set the government and all
the oliticians against the students.
8y !hat meansK
Political arties need money and loans 'rom abroadJ and !hen in o!er, votesJ 'avourable ress
!hen in oosition. Ce!s threatened to cut o'' 'inancing needed 'or election roaganda o' various
olitical artiesJ threatened !ith the cooeration o' Ce!ish international 'inance to rum do!n loans
to the governmentJ threatened to control a large mass o' votes through !hich, no! that they had
civil rights, they might decide victory or de'eat through the democratic systemJ they threatened to
maniulate the ress, !hich they control almost entirely and !ithout !hose suort a olitical arty
or government can be de'eated.
2oney, ress and votes determine li'e and death in a democracy. The Ce!s control all o' them and
through these the (omanian olitical arties turned into simle tools in the hands o' the Cudaic
#o that !e !ho had begun 'ighting the Ce!s 'ind ourselves all at once 'ighting the government,
olitical arties, local authorities, the army, !hile the Ce!s sit Euietly on the side.
+:hat !ill 'oreign countries say o' the (omanian anti-#emitic movement !hich ta;es us bac; to
barbarismK :hat !ill men o' science, civiliDation, sayK+
)ur oliticians !ill reeat to us at every ste this Ce!ish +argument,+ rinted daily in all the aers,
!hen 'inally, a'ter eight years, Germany, not!ithstanding all her civiliDation and culture, rises u
against Ce!ry and de'eats the hydra through 4dol' Hitler, that argument is droed. Then, they
bring 'orth anotherG +Lou are in Germany=s service, aid by the Germans to engage in anti-
#emitism. :here do you get the 'undsK+
4nd again (omanian oliticians-soulless, characterless, honorless-mimic the tune o' the Ce!ish
ressG +:hence the moneyK Lou are in Germany=s ay.+
6n -.-., -.$%, -.$-, the entire Ce!ish ress !as assaulting the (omanian state, unleashing disorder
every!here, urging violence against the regime, the 'orm o' government, the church, (omanian
order, the national idea, atriotism.
9o!, as i' by a miracle, the same ress, controlled by the same men, changed into a de'ender o' the
state=s order, o' la!sJ declares itsel' against violence. :hile !e becomeG +the country=s enemies
+e<tremists o' the right,+ +in the ay and service o' (omania=s enemies,+ etc. 4nd in the end !e !ill
hear also thisG that !e are 'inanced by the Ce!s.
6 !onder, !hen !ill that day come, !hen every (omanian !ill understand the lies and er'idious
argumentations o' the Ce!s and re>ect them as something o' #atanic originK 6 !onder, !hen !ill
that moment come in !hich they !ill comrehend the erversity o' this raceK
Here is ho! three (omanian university ro'essors, 4.C. CuDa, Paulescu, and #umuleanu !ere
treated in the 6sraelite Courier, o''icial organ o' the 7nion o' 9aturaliDed Ce!s o' 4ril $/, -.$$ in
the editorial titled +The Ghosts+G
+4 cliEue o' clo!ns and ublic o''enders got together to set u a band o' !rongdoers. 4nd to the
country=s shame among them one 'inds three ro'essors o' our universities.
+4nd these secimens, these belated ghosts !ant to revive anti-#emitism... and some retrograde
clo!ns !ill succeed in this, no!, !hen o''icial anti-#emitism is vanishing and the universal vote
!ill also inevitably bring along the democratiDation o' our ublic and social li'e. 9oM 6t is in vain
they !or;M These ghosts are not going to halt man;ind in its on!ard march, nor !ill it be necessary
to ierce their hearts !ith a shar oleJI
the ridiculousness o' their treachery !ill de'initively 'inish them...
+:e have reorted earlier the savage action originated by the so-called +9ational Christian 7nion+
(comosed o' some 'ive and one hal' silly characters" in order to 'i< them
once and 'or all in their in'amous osture, and call it to the attention o' Ce!s that there still are
!rongdoers around, against !hom they should de'end themselves.+
#o thenG cliEue o' clo!ns, ublic o''enders, band o' !rongdoers, secimens, belated ghosts,
treachery, savage action, in'amous osture-tbis is !bat Pro'essors CuDa, Paulescu, and #umuleanu,
teachers o' (omanianism, areJ and !hat their action to save the nation isM
:e have ta;en outrage a'ter outrage, ridicule a'ter ridicule, sla a'ter sla, until !e have come to
see ourselves in this 'rightening situationG Ce!s are considered as de'enders o' (omanianism,
sheltered 'rom any unleasantness, leading a li'e o' eace and lenty, !hile !e are considered
enemies o' our nation !ith our liberty and li'e endangered and hunted do!n li;e rabid dogs by all
the (omanian authorities.
6 !itnessed !ith my o!n eyes these times and lived through them, and 6 !as saddened to the deths
o' my soul. 6t is dread'ul to 'ight 'or years on end 'or your 'atherland, your heart as ure as, tears,
!hile enduring misery and hunger, then 'ind yoursel' suddenly declared an enemy o' your country,
ersecuted by your o!n ;ind, told that you right because you are in the ay o' 'oreigners, and see
the entire Ce!ry master over your land, assuming the role o' de'ender o' (omanianism and
careta;er o' the (omanian #tate, menaced by you, the youth o' the country.
9ight a'ter night !e !ere troubled by these thoughts, occasionally 'eeling disgusted and immensely
ashamed and !e !ere seiDed by sadness.
:ould it not be better 'or us, !e re'lected, to go out into the !orld, or !ould it not be more suitable
to see; vengeance !hereby all o' us !ould erishG both !e and the (omanian traitors as !ell as the
heads o' the Cudaic hydra.
: Poular suerstition, according to !hich o' in order to revent a ghost 'rom disturbing the eace o' the living, the
+head is disinterred and his heart is ierced !ith harm. ;Tr0<
IASI, AUGUST 22-2&, 192
6n a limited committee in 8ucharest, it !as decided a 'irst congress o' the leaders and delegates o'
the student movement be held 'ollo!ing one year o' struggle.
This congress !as to ta;e lace in Clu> on 4ugust $$-$F, -.$/. 2ota, the resident o' the Petru
2aior student center, !rote us that local authorities in'ormed him they !ere ordered to interdict this
congress. :e, the 6asians, relied to Clu> as !ell as to the other centers, that !e !ould ta;e on the
resonsibility 'or this congress to be held in 6asi, even i' the government !ished to 'orbid it. )ur
o''er !as acceted and !e 'ul'illed our duty o' ma;ing the arrangements 'or the Euartering o' the
?% ;no!n delegates. )n the morning o' $$ 4ugust !e !ent to the rail!ay station to meet the
delegation 'rom Clu> headed by 6on 2ota, then the one 'rom Cernauti headed by Tudose Poeseu
and Carsteanu, and the one 'rom 8ucharest led by 9aoleon Cretu, #imioneseu and (aeanu.
4t, -% o=cloc; !e headed in corore 'or the Cathedral to ray and have a (eEuiem celebrated in
memory o' student !ar dead, one o' !hom !as the 'ormer resident o' the student center, Cat.
#te'an Petrovici.
8ut to our great chagrin !e 'ound the gates o' the Cathedral chained shut and guarded by
gendarmes. 2eantime, old Pro'essor Gavanescul also arrived. Then, uncovering our heads !e
;neeled in the middle o' the street in 'ront o' the church !hich not even the in'idel Tur;s had closed
to those !anting to ray. 4s the riest #tiubei haened to come by, seeing us ;neeling, he
aroached us and read a 'e! rayers.
Then, bareheaded, in silence and very saddened, !e covered the distance to the 7niversity, !al;ing
do!n the middle o' the street, !ith stares 'rom the Ce!s being shot at us li;e arro!s 'rom their
door!ays and sho !indo!s.
The local authorities, 'lan;ed by numerous olice 'orces, e<ecting us on the 7niversity=s stes,
in'ormed us that the 2inistry o' 6nternational 4''airs 'orbade the congress. The rosecutor stoed
and !arned us to diserse. 6rritated, 6 reliedG
+2r. Prosecutor, 6 ;no! !e live in a country ruled by la!s. The Constitution guarantees us the right
to meet, and you, #ir, ;no! better than 6 that a 2inister cannot abrogate these rights guaranteed us
by the Constitution, conseEuently, in the name o' the la! that not !e, but you, disobey, !e call
uon you to ste aside.+
Hardened by the sacrilege committed an hour earlier !hen the church=s gates !ere chained and !e
!ere revented 'rom rayingJ being no! 'aced by a second un>ust and humiliating rovocation, at
o' being revented 'rom entering our o!n home, the 7niversityJ
siDing these measures constituted a braDen la!lessness, !e burned everything in our ath and, a'ter
some 'ighting, 'orcibly occuied the 7niversity.
The -/th (egiment, arriving a moment later, surrounded the university. :e barricaded ourselves in,
guarding all entrances, !hile outside each !indo! !e could see three soldiers osted, bayonets at e
The congress oened in the auditorium o' the #chool o' 1a! at -$ noon, under a heavy atmoshere
in this inausicious situation. The delegates, ale !ith indignation, muted by the sorro! o' !hat
haened at the Cathedral and here, 'elt throughout the deserted halls an air o' ro'ound sadness.
*verybody !as !orried about a ossible army assault on the 7niversity and o' the inevitable
:e delivered no discourses. The congress 'athomed the seriousness ill o' the situation and !as
arehensive o' grave reercussions.
6 !as chosen as resident 'or the 'irst day. :e began by denouncing the day=s events. #everal as;ed
'or the 'loor to rotest. Then !e began discussions regarding the movement.
:hat attitude do !e ta;e as the ne! school year oens. Do !e caitulateK Di''icultM 4 !hole year
o' struggle !ith no result. )n the contrary, shamed, humiliated, beaten. Do !e ;ee onK 4gain,
di''icultM #tudents are e<haustedJ they cannot carry on a second year o' battle.
Let, 2ota, Tudose Poescu, #imionescu and mysel', lead 'or continuing our 'ightJ lead 'or
sacri'ice, as nothing !ould come 'rom caitulation but shame and humiliation. 4nd it !as
imossible that out o' sacri'ice something better !ould not bear 'ruit 'or our nation.
8y @ o=cloc; it !as dar;. )utside in the to!n !e heard commotion and noise. Constantin Pancu, the
veteran 'ighter o' -.-., surrounded by the students, remained outside. 4 large number o'
to!nseole, gathered at Tu'ii Ca'e and carrying torches, tried to advance u the hill to!ard the
7niversity to bring us several sac;s o' bread.
:e all >umed to the !indo!s to loo; out. The demonstrators- bro;e the cordon at Tu'li Ca'e and
ran u the hill. 4 second cordon at Coroiu #t. !as also bro;en in a tough 'ight. :e heard outbursts
o' +Hurrah=s.+ 1i;e!ise, a third cordon !as overcome. :e got ready to ma;e an assault 'rom the
inside, to get out, but our eole on the outside could not brea; through the 'ourth cordon. )ne
could hear Pancu=s voice, his sac; o' bread at his 'eetG
+They are our children.+
:e !ere crying tears o' >oy. 6t is 'or this eole !e 'ight, and it !ould not let us do!n.
4t . o=cloc; negotiations began bet!een us and the authorities through 9aoleon Cretu. 4ll the
students !ere romised immediate 'reedom, rovided 6 be turned in to them. The students re'used.
4t about -- they sent !ord to us !e could leave in grous o' three, naturally intending to arehend
me as !e le't. :e acceted. *very minute a grou o' three le't. 4t the door they !ere closely
scrutiniDed by 'our commissars and agents. 6 Euic;ly too; o'' my national costume, gave it to a
comrade, and donned his clothes. 6 le't !ith #imionescu and a third student. 4s the door s!ung
oen 6 droed some coins out o' my oc;et. 4s they hit the avement, all commissars loo;ed
do!n!ard and as;edG
+:hat did you lose, gentlemenK+
:e, our heads also bent, loo;ing 'or the coins, ans!eredG
+#ome change.+
#imioneseu lingered behind tal;ing !ith them, searching 'or money by stri;ing matches, !hile 6
:e 'i<ed the continuation o' our congress 'or the second day outside o' to!n at the Cetatuia
2onastery in the greatest secrecy. 6 snea;ed u there disguised as a locomotive sto;er and 6 !as
luc;y enough to be unrecogniDed even by the delegates. 6on 2ota resided.
:ith our sentries laced in strategic ositions, !e could detect anyone=s aroach a mile a!ay. :e
!or;ed in Euiet and stayed there until late that day. Proositions !ere made, decisions ta;en. 6t !as
also at this meeting that December -% !as roclaimed a national holiday 'or the (omanian students.
)n the third day deliberations continued in a small 'orest on the Galata Hill. 8y a ma>ority it !as
decided to continue the stri;e. 4n action committee o' 'ive !as elected to direct the actions o' the
entire student movement in all universities. The committee members !ereG 6on 2ota in Clu>,
Tudose Poescu in Cernauti, 6lie Gameata in 6asi, #imioneseu in 8ucharest, and mysel'. 8y 'orming
this committee, the old student leadershi in 8ucharest, insu''iciently in'ormed and indecisive, 'ell
'or good. 6t continued in name but no longer led. For the 'irst time it !as o''icially decided to give
the movement a ne! orientationG on one hand, to 'ight the olitical arties, considered by us to be
estranged 'rom our nation, and on the other, to strengthen the 'aith in a ne! (omanian movement
!hich must be o''icially heled by the students to attain victory, +The 1eague o' Christian 9ational
The congress concluded its !or; on the 'ourth day in the house o' 2rs. Ghica on Carol #t. 6n the
evening everyone le't 'or his university and 6 le't 'or Camul-1ung to organiDe the 1.4.9.C.
congress in 8ucovina in !hich Pro'essor CuDa and all leaders o' the movement !ere to articiate.
6 had a hard time getting there, 'or an arrest !arrant had been issued 'or me.
4s 6 !as traveling 6 re>oiced over all the decisions made by the congress !hich !ere in the sirit o'
our vie!s, but esecially because !e gained 'or our side a manG 6on 2ota, the resident o', the
Petru 2aior center in Clu>.
The congress at Camul-1ung too; lace on 2onday, #etember -&,-.$/.
:e held it only a'ter a tough battle, because the government had 'orbidden it, and to en'orce its
edict sent in troos 'rom Cernauti under the command o' a colonel. #trong troo cordons !ere set
u at each entrance to the to!n.
:e concentrated all our 'orces at the !est entrance into to!n, 'rom #adova, Po>orata. There !e
bro;e cordons, than;s to the archers 'rom 5atra-Dornei and Candreni, giving us a !hole hour to get
the entire convoy o' several hundred !agons through.
The congress convened in the to!n=s churchyard. The sea;ers !ereG Pro'essor C,7Da, my 'ather,
Dr. Catalin, 1.4.9.C.=s resident 'or 8ucovina, Tudose PoescuJ then brothers )ctav and 5alerian
Danieleanu !ho enthusiastically had organiDed this imosing congress !ith the hel o' Dr. Catalin.
Those roud mountain easants !ith their long loc;s, dressed in !hite shirts and thic;-!oven coats,
uon hearing the sound o' the long mountain horn, gathered in their to!n, many in number and
stormy as never be'ore. They thought the hour had struc;, a!aited 'or centuries, 'or the (omanian
to tramle under'oot the hydra that has been suc;ing him dry and that he emerge to assume his
rights as master o' his country, his mountains, his rivers and his to!ns. They carried the burden o'
the !ar. Their sacri'ice o' blood on all 'ronts created Greater (omania. 8ut to their great chagrin
and disaointment Greater (omania did not meet their e<ectations.
8ecause Greater (omania re'used to brea; the chains o' Ce!ish enslavement that had been torturing
them 'or so long.
Greater (omania abandoned the mto 'urther Ce!ish e<loitation= and brought do!n uon their
heads the !hilashes o' oliticians !ho !ould send them into risons !hen they tried to reclaim
their stolen historical rights.
4n 'orests in 8ucovina, all those mountains laden !ith 'irst belonging to the )rthodo< Church,
!hich !as no! in'used !ith olitics, and estranged, !ere given to the Ce! 4nbaub 'or e<loitation
o' the 'ire!ood at the unheard-o' rice o' -% lei er cubic yard, !hile the (omanian easant had to
ay /.F% lei.
The mountains= 'orests 'all under the merciless Ce!ish a<e. Poverty and sorro! sreads over the
(omanian villages, mountains become barren roc;, !hile 4nhauh and his ;in carry constantly and
tirelessly their gold-laden co''ers over the border. The artner-in-crime o' the Ce! in e<loiting the
misery o' thousands o' easants, !as the (omanian olitician !ho gorged himsel' on his ortion o'
this 'abulous ro'it.
The rally delegated /% leading easants to go to 8ucharest under the leadershi o' Dr. Catalin and
5aler Danieleanu, see the Prime-2inister, and as; him to ta;e stes against the devastation o' their
mountains by revo;ing the 4nhauh-Church contract and, to thus sho! their love 'or and gratitude to
the young eole !ho had aroused them to battle, beg him to ut +humerus clausus+ in the schools,
Tudose Poescu and 6 !ere also chosen by the rally to accomany the /% easants to 8ucharest.
I The (omanian monetary unit. ;Tr0<
6 le't 'or 8ucharest ahead o' them in order to see to it that these easants !ho came to the caital o'
their country 'or the 'irst time !ere !ell received by the students. These easants !ere aroaching
8ucharest !ith such urity o' heart, !ith so much ain and so many e<ectations, to lead our
cause as !ell as theirs. The e<ense o' their tri !as disroortionately great comared to their
oor means.
7on their arrival in 8ucharest the students received them royally-these ;ings o' all times o' the
(omanian eole-and they got o'' the train in their sacred caital !ith eyes 'ull o' tears. 8ut behind
the rail!ay station there !aited Prosecutor (ascanu, olice commissars and cordons o' gendarmes
that revented their going through. The gendarmes and olice commissars !ere then ordered to
stri;e us. (i'le butts and stic;s rained blo!s uon the !hite heads o' the easants and on their
serene 'aces. The 'urious students then, lacing the old easants in the middle o' their grou,
charged, and. bro;e the 'irst cordon, hastening to!ard the Polytechnical #chool !here they bro;e
the second one, then a third, and escaed into 2atache 2acelaru #Euare, The easants !et. )ne o'
them, seiDed by uncontrollable indignation, tore his shirt. 9e<t day !e all !ent to Gogu
CantacuDino #t. to the 2inisterial residency to be received by the Prime-2inister.
:e !ere ut o'' till the ne<t dayJ 'inally, !e !ere told !e !ould be received on the third day. :e
came. :e entered a hall and !aited about an hour, Euietly, tal;ing in !hisers and !al;ing ti-toe.
The o''ice chie' sho!ed u.
+Gentlemen, go home, the Prime-2inister cannot receive you. He is entering the Council o'
+8ut !e came 'rom a'ar,+ !e tried to say. The door !as closed in our 'aces. 6 !as thin;ingG each
man sent -,%%% lei on his 'are alone. #hall !e go bac; home not accomlishing anythingK They
can stay in 8ucharest no longer. 6 grabbed the door !ith both hands and began to sha;e it !ith all,
my might,. shouting at the to o' my voiceG +1et us in or else 6=ll brea; do!n the door and enter
'orcibly.+ 6 ;ic;ed at the door !ith my 'oot. The easants raised a clamour and ut their shoulders
to the door. The door oened and about ten 'rightened individuals aeared, their hair on end, their
'aces yello!. 6 thin; they !ere ne!saermenG
+:hat is it you !ant, gentlemenK+ they as;ed.
+Tell the Prime-2inister i' he does not let us in !e=ll brea; everything here and 'orce our !ay in.+
#everal minutes later the doors !ere oened !ide be'ore us and !e entered. :e climbed a 'light o'
stairs. There in a hall, standing, tall and straight as a ole, stood 6on 8ratianuJ behind him, 2inisters
4ngelescu, Florescu, Constantinescu, 5intila 8ratianu, and others.
+:hat do you !ant, good menK+ he as;ed.
The t!o o' us, young students, !ere still 'ull o' indignation and !e !ould have li;ed to aear
'iercer, thus imarting the true note o' the grou=s state o' sirit, but the easants having trod !ith
their country shoes on marble stairs and lush carets, so'tened u.
+Lour Highness, #ir Prime-2inister, !e ;iss your hands and ;ee ourselves resect'ully at your
'eet. :hat do !e !antK :e !ant >ustice, 'or the Ce!s have invaded us. They ta;e out our timber by
the hundreds o' train 'latcars !hile it rains in our homes through lea;s in the roo', 'or !e even lac;
shingles !ith !hich to cover them. :e cannot ;ee our children in schools any longer. The Ce!s
also 'illed our schools, and our children !ill become their hired hands.+
Then other easants so;e. 6on 8ratianu listened, made no mention o' our ruc;us in the
antechamber, and 'inally, a'ter the easants addedG +:e also as; 'or the university students, our
children, that numerus clausus be imlemented as they have reEuested,+ he resondedG
+Go home and have atience because 6 !ill have the 'orest Euestion loo;ed intoJ as regards numerus
clausus, it cannot be done.
#ho! me but one single #tate in *uroe that introduced. This measure and 6 too, !ill introduce it.+=
8ut *uroe !ould !a;e u only ten years later and introduce numerus clausus thus recogniDing our
>ust cause. Ho!ever, 6onel 8ratianu !ould not live long enough to ;ee his romise, and his
successors !ould be only lo!-level servants o' Cudaism !ho !ould raise their 'ists to stri;e us and
;ill us on order o' their alien masters.
:e all le't, holding no hoe. 9othing is going to be done. 4s an immediate conseEuence o' the
audience, several hours later Dr. Catalin, !ho headed the delegation, and 5aler Danieleanu !ere
arrested. 4 grou o' students that evening staged a hostile demonstration be'ore the house o' the
2inister o' the 6nterior. The student 5ladimir Frimu !as arrested and incarcerated in the 5acaresti
rison. The rest o' us then le't 'or Camul-1ung.
2ota also came to Camul-1ung to >oin me in, going to Petru (ares=sI hermitage on the (arau
2ountain-the mountain 6 articularly love. 4s !e climbed it, 2ota shared !ith me his inner
+#tudents can no longer carry on ne<t 'all, and rather than all o' us acceting shame'ul caitulation
'ollo!ing a year o' struggle, it !ould be better to urge them to resume classes and !e, !ho have led
them, end the movement nobly by sacri'icing ourselves and ta;ing do!n !ith us all those !e 'ind
most guilty o' having betrayed the (omanian interests.+
+1et us rocure handguns and 'ire on them, giving a terri'ying e<amle to be long remembered
throughout (omanian history. :hat !ill become o' us a'ter that, !hether !e shall die or !hether
!e shall send the rest o' our days in rison, !ould no longer matter.+
6 agreed that the 'inal act o' our 'ight be, at the rice o' our do!n'all, an act o' unishment 'or the
ygmies !ho, deserting the osts o' great resonsibility they !ere holding, humiliated and, e<osed
the (omanian nation to untold dangers.
:e 'elt in that moment bubbling in our veins the blood !hich demanded vengeance 'or all the
in>ustices and the long chain o' humiliations to !hich our eole had been sub>ected.
#hortly a'ter this, there gathered at 2r. 8utnaru=s home on -$ #aveseu #t. 6on 2ota, Corneliu
Georgescu and 5ernichescu 'rorri Clu>J llie Gameata, (adu 2ironovici, 1eonida 8andac and
mysel' 'rom 6asiJ and Tudose Poeseu 'rom Cernauti. The 'irst roblem !e had to 'ace !as to
decide !ho !ere the rincial guilty artiesJ !ho !ere most resonsible 'or the state o' misery
!hich seiDed the !hole countryG (omanians or Ce!sK :e unanimously agreed that the 'irst and
greatest culrits !ere the treacherous (omanians !ho 'or >udas=s silver ieces betrayed their eole.
The Ce!s are our enemies and as such they hate, oison, and e<terminate us. (omanian leaders !ho
cross into their cam are !orse than enemiesG they are traitors. The 'irst and 'iercest unishmment
ought to 'all 'irst on the traitor, second on the enemy. 6' 6 had but one bullet and 6 !ere 'aced by
both an enemy and a traitor, 6 !ould let the traitor have it. :e agreed on the names o' several
individuals !ho had betrayed their country, namely, si< cabinet 2inisters, George 2arDescu
heading the list. 4t last, the hour !as stri;ing 'or those scoundrels !ho never imagined they !ould
have to account 'or their deeds in a country in !hich they considered themselves the absolute
masters over a eole incaable o' any reaction-the hour in !hich they !ould have to ans!er !ith
their lives. This time the 9ation !as sending its avengers through the invisible ties o' the soul.
Then !e too; u the second categoryG the Ce!s. :hich ones should !e choose 'rom the t!o
millionK :e ondered, discussed and 'inally concluded that the real chie's o' the Cudaic attac; on
(omania are the rabbis, all rabbis in all mar;et to!ns and cities.
They lead the entire Ce!ish mass to attac; and !herever a (omanian 'alls, he does not 'all by
chance. He 'alls because he !as mar;ed by a rabbi. 8ehind every olitician !ho sold out, there is
the brains o' a rabbi !ho laid the ground!or; and ordered the Aahal or the Ce!ish ban;er to close
the deal and ay him o''. 8ehind every Ce!ish ne!saer to insire slander, lies, instigation, there
is a rabbi. 8ut there are only a 'e! o' us so !e chose only +the big cats+ in 8ucharest. Had !e had
the numerical strength !e !ould have ta;en absolutely all o' them.
Then !e ic;ed the ban;ers.. 4ristide and 2auritiu 8lan; !ho corruted all arties and all
(omanian oliticians by utting them on boards o' directors and sho!ering them !ith moneyJ
8ercovici, !ho 'inanced the 1iberal Party (8lan; too; charge in articular o' the 9ational-Peasant
Party, but he 'elt caable o' buying the 1iberals too".
Then !e loo;ed over the Ce!s o' the ress. The most insolent ones, the oisoners, o' soulsG
I (uler o' 2oldavia, -F$&--F/@J -F?---F?0. ;Tr0<
(osenthal, Filderman, Honiginann (Fagure", directors o' the aers Dimineata (+The 2orning+",
4devarul (+The Truth+", 1uta (+The Fight+", all these, the enemies o' (omanianism.
:e le't 'or 8ucharest in grous, saying to 6asi good-bye 'orever. 6 le't a letter 'or the students in
!hich 6 e<lained the >usti'ication 'or our gesture, bade them 'are!ell, and urged them to go bac; to
classes, but 'ully to ;ee the 'aith till 'inal victory. :e all !rote to our arents and comrades-in-
6n 8ucharest !e met again at Danulescu=s house. :e had ;no!n him 'or some time no!, and he
had made a good imression on us. He !as not included in this team, but he gladly ut us u. :e
le't his lace that evening at @ o=cloc; to go to Dragos at ?- -/th-o'-#etember #t. !here !e !ere
to clari'y details and determine !hen our action should begin. :e !ere hardly gathered together
!hen a ale Dragos came into the room, sayingG
+8rothers, the olice have surrounded the house.+
This !as on the evening o' )ctober @, -.$/, at about . o=cloc;-a moment o' con'usion in !hich !e
had no time to even tal;. :e >ust directed our searching loo;s to one another.
Then 6 steed out into the 'oyer !hence 6 could see the 'igure o' Gen. 9icoleanu and his
commissars !ho !ere 'orcing the door, The ne<t second the door gave !ay and the house !as 'illed
by commissars. Gen. 9icoleanu shoutedG
+Hands uM+
8ut !e had no time, as !e !ere each grabbed by t!o commissars and laced in lineG mysel' in the
right 'lan;, then 2ota, Corneliu Georgescu, Tudose Poescu, (adu 2ironovici, 5ernichescu,
Dragos. +Turn over your revolversM+
+:e do not have any+ !e ans!ered. )nly 2ota had a 8ro!ning 0./F and 5ernichescu.
Then they too; us out o' the house one at a time, each !ith his arms gried by t!o commissars
and ut us individually into !aiting cars.
8ehind us in the house Dragos=s old mother !as crying. The cars started. :here !ere they ta;ing
us, !e !onderedK :e did not utter one !ord. :e as;ed no Euestions o' those !ho held us risoner,
!ho, themselves, also ;et silent. 4'ter riding through a 'e! streets !e reached Police
HeadEuarters. They had us get out and go into a room !here they searched our oc;ets, They too;
a!ay everything !e had on us, including collar and tie. This 'ris;ing, this striing o' our collars,
this treatment as i' !e !ere ic;oc;ets !as most humiliating. 8ut !e !ere only at the beginning
o' this road o' humiliation. :ith 'aces to the !all, not allo!ed to turn our heads, and =;et in this
osition 'or some time, !e !ere thin;ingG +Free men several hours earlier, roud and determined to
brea; the chains o' our eole, loo; !hat !e have become-some oor, o!erless un'ortunates
sti''ly 'acing a !all by orders o',some miserable olice agents, 'ris;ed li;e robbers, stried o' our
ersonal e''ects.+
6t !as !ith this humiliation that our great su''ering began, !hich little, by little !ould rend our
hearts. 6 thin; there is no greater su''ering 'or a 'ighter !ho lives in dignity and honor, than being
disarmed, then humiliated. Death is al!ays s!eeter than this.
9e<t !e !ere ta;en to a room and seated 'ive yards aart on benches, !ith the agents at our side,
being 'orbidden to loo; at one another. :e sat there li;e that 'or hours until !e !ere called 'or
interrogation. #harers in these long, burdensome hours !ere, besides mysel', 2ota, Tudose
Poescu, (adu 2ironovici, Corneliu Georgescu, 5ernichescu, and Dragos. 4'ter a !hile, one by
one, !e !ere called to be Euestioned, in a large room !ith the rosecutor, the investigating >udge,
Gen. 9icoleanu and some government reresentatives there, 2y turn came to!ards morning. There
they laced be'ore me some o' my letters and t!o bas;ets containing all our revolvers that !ere
hidden in a suosedly Euite sa'e lace. 6 could not 'igure out ho! they got there. 6 could
understand !e !ere caught but !ho told !here the handguns !ere hiddenK
2y Euestioning began. 6 had no idea !hat the others,had declared and !e had no revious
understanding among ourselves as to !hat to declare, 'or !e had not dreamed !e !ould 'ind
ourselves in such a redicament. That is !hy 6 !eighed the situation and too; the decision 6
considered best.
4 minute at the crossroads. :hen the 'irst Euestion !as ut to me, though three minutes had
elased since coming into the room, 6 had not yet siDed u the situation enough to ta;e a decision. 6
'elt over!helmed by !eariness and !as ro'oundly sha;en. 4nd !hen 6 !as as;ed to rely, 6 saidG
+GentlemenM Please grant me a minute o' re'lection be'ore 6 rely.+
The Euestion !as - to deny or not to denyK That minute 6 strained all the o!ers o' my mind and
soul and decided to deny nothing. To tell the truth. 4nd not timidly or remorse'ully, but
+Les, these handguns are ours. :e !anted to shoot !ith them the ministers, rabbis, and the big
Ce!ish ban;ers.+
They as;ed me 'or their names.
:hen 6 started giving them their names beginning !ith 4le<andru Constantinescu and ending !ith
the Ce!s 8lan;, Filderman, 8ercovici, Honigmann, all those resent stared goggle-eyed more and
more, terri'ied. From this 6 susected that the comrades, Euestioned be'ore me had denied
+#o !hy ;ill themK+
+The 'ormer because they betrayed their country. The latter as enemies and corruters.+
+4nd do you not regret it no!K+
+9o, !e regret nothing... Though !e have 'allen it does not matter.. behind us there are tens o'
thousands !ho thin; li;e!iseM+
#aying this, 6 'elt 'reed 'rom the boulder o' humility under !hich 6 !ould have 'urther sun;, had 6
denied everything. 9o! 6 !as standing on my 'aith that brought me here, roudly 'acing both my
'ate and those !ho seemed to hold the right o' li'e or death over me. Had 6 denied everything, 6
!ould have had to stay on the de'ensive against the accusation lodged against me, begging
indulgence, gaining the good !ill o' my inEuisitors. 4t the trial to 'ollo!, and on the basis o'
!ritten roo' in their ossession, !e !ould have had to e<erience a ain'ul and shame'ul test
denying our o!n !riting and our o!n belie's, denying the truth, !hich !ent counter to our
conscience and the honor o' our movement. (eresentatives o' a great student movement, should
!e lac; the courage o' ta;ing resonsibility 'or our deeds and 'aithK
6n this case, the country and our comrades on the outside !ould not have learned our intentions,
!hereas the only 'ruit o' our su''ering - no matter ho! long it might be - !as e<actly that the
country be enlightened so it could at least ;no! its enemies better.
Then they demanded that 6 ut these declarations do!n on aer in my o!n hand!riting. 6 did so.
6n the end 6 addedG +The date had not been decided uon, They caught us !hile discussing this. 6
roosed to move in one or t!o !ee;s.+ 4t !hich the interrogators stoed me insisting more and
more that 6 not ut do!n these articulars.
6t !as only later that 6 realiDed their reasons 'or this insistence - because my last hrase ble! the
>uridical value o' the entire accusation, being our de'ence oint, 'or a consiracy demands 'our
-. 4n association o' individuals !ith one aim, in mind.
$. The designation o' victims.
/. The acEuisition o' !eaons.
?. 4 date established 'or the action.
8ut since !e had not yet decided uon a date 'or utting the lan into action, !e !ere still in the
discussion hase. The 'i<ing o' the date !as o' caital imortance, 'or in t!o !ee;s !e could have
gotten ill, the victims could have died, the government could have 'allen or given in, etc. )ur entire
>uridical de'ence rested on this oint.
Follo!ing my testimony, agents led me into a cellar !here 6 !as laced in a cell alone. The door
!as adloc;ed on the outside. 6 guessed my comrades !ere occuying the ad>oining cells. 6 beat on
the !all !ith my 'ist as;ing !ho else !as there. 6 received an ans!erG
+2ota.+ 6 then lay do!n on the boards to got some slee 'or 6 !as dead tired, but not having a
heavy coat 6 trembled 'rom the cold. Then lice began biting me. They s!armed over me by the
thousands. 6 turned the boards on the other side, the lice came on to, 6 reeated this oeration
several times until 6 thought it must be daylight.
6 heard a noise at the door. 6t !as oened, and those o' the others, and !e !ere all ta;en outJ then
laced in cars, each accomanied by t!o gendarmes and t!o commissars. The cars then le't one
a'ter the other. 4nd the same Euestion crossed our minds.. +:here toK+
:e assed through several un'amiliar streets on !hich the curious assers-by stared at us. :e le't
the caital behind and the cars stoed in 'ront o' some large gates above !hich !as !ritten +The
5acaresti Prison.+
:e got out o' the cars, 'lan;ed by soldiers !ith bayonets, saced ten yards aart. 4 crea;ing o'
loc;s and chains !as heard and the big gates !ere oened. )ne by one !e crossed ourselves and
steing inside, !ere led ustairs to the rison o''ices !here our arrest !arrants !ere handed to us.
:e realiDed !e !ere arrested 'or consiracy against #tate #ecurity, !ith 'orced labour as the
seci'ied unishment.
:e !ere then ta;en to another yard in the middle o' !hich rose a tall church. 4ll around there !ere
!alls and along them cells. 6 !as ut into a cell !ay bac;, one yard !ide, t!o dee, then it !as
loc;ed on the outside, There !as only one lan;-bed inside, and near the door, a small iron-grilled
!indo!. 6 !ondered !here my comrades !ere. Then 6 laid my head on the boards and 'ell aslee. 6
!o;e u a'ter t!o hours, sha;ing. 6t !as cold and no sun=s ray enetrated into the cell. DaDedly 6
loo;ed around me and could hardly believe !here 6 !as. 6 loo;ed !ell and sa! the misery o' the
cell. 6 told mysel'G +Di''icult situation.+ 4 !ave o' ain ried my heart. 8ut 6 consoled mysel'G +6t
is 'or our Peole.+
Then 6 began gymnastic movements !ith my arms, to !arm mysel' u. 4t about -- o=cloc; 6 heard
'ootstes. 4 guard oened the door. 6 loo;ed at him. Perhas 6 had met him at some time, 6 hoed.
8ut he !as a stranger, and a surly man. He loo;ed at me !ith mean eyes. He gave me a loa' o'
bread and a dish o' borsch. 6 as;ed himG
+2ister Guard, might you haen to have a cigaretteK+
+9oM 6 do notM+
He loc;ed me u again and le't. 6 bro;e the blac; bread and s!allo!ed a 'e! soon'uls o' borsch.
Then 6 laced them do!n on the cement 'loor and began to collect my thoughts. 6 could not
comrehend ho! they discovered us. Could it be that one o' us !as careless enough to sea; about
our ro>ect to someoneK Did someone betray usK Ho! come they 'ound our revolversK
4gain 6 heard 'ootstes. 6 loo;ed through the !indo!, 4 riest and several men !ere nearing my
cell. They saidG
+:ell gentlemen, is it ossible that you, educated youth, could do such a thingK+
+6' it is ossible 'or this (omanian eole to erish invaded by Ce!ry and by being over!helmed by
the sell-out, licentiousness and ridicule o' its leaders, then !hat !e did is ossible too.+
+8ut you have so many legal meansM+
+:e have gone by !ay o' all the legal aths till this time. 6' >ust one had been oened to us, it may
he !e !ould not have landed in these cells.+
+4nd no!, is it goodK Lou !ill have to su''er 'or your deedsM+
+Perhas 'rom our su''ering something better !ill emerge 'or this eole+
They le't.
4t about ? o=cloc;, a guard came bringing me a !orn-out blan;et and a large sac; 'ull o' stra! in
lieu o' a mattress. 6 evetied-u the sac; as !ell 6 could. Then 6 ate a little more bread and lay do!n.
6 !as meditating on the discussion 6 had had !ith the riest and 6 !as thin;ingG +4 eole never
gained anything out o' the artying and easy living o' its sons. 6t !as al!ays the su''ering that
resulted in good gains 'or it.+
6 succeeded in 'inding a urose 'or our su''ering and at the same time some moral suort 'or
these sad hours. Then 6 got u, ;nelt and rayedG
+1ordM :e ta;e uon ourselves all the sins o' this nation. (eceive this our su''ering no!. #ee that a
better day 'or this eole be 'orthcoming through this su''ering.+
Then 6 !as thin;ing about my mother and those at home !ho may have heard o' my 'ate and might
be thin;ing o' me. 6 rayed 'or them and 6 lay do!n to slee.
4lthough 6 !as dressed and covered !ith the blan;et, 6 !as cold, and 6 slet oorly on that stra!
mattress. 6 !as a!a;ened at @ o=cloc; !hen a guard oened the door and as;ed me i' 6 !anted to go
out 'or several minutes. 6 got out and did some gymnastics to !arm u.
The ro! o' cells o' !hich mine !as one !as some!hat higher than the rest, so 6 could see the entire
courtyard. 4ll at once 6 sa! someone !earing national dress !al;ing among the inmates. 6t !as my
'ather. 8ut 6 could not believe it. :hat !as he doing hereK :as he also arrestedK 6 made a 'e! signs
and he sa! me. The guard stoed meG
+2isterM Lou are not allo!ed to signal.+
+He is my 'ather,+ 6 ans!ered.
+That may be, but you are not allo!ed to signal+
6 loo;ed at him and saidG
+Comrade, leave us alone in God=s care !ith the su''ering He gave usJ don=t you add more to it.+
4nd 6 !ent bac; into my cell.
4'ter lunch they too; me out again. They 'lan;ed me bet!een bayonets and led me out o' the
rison, !here, on the road, all o' us !ere laced in a single 'ile at -% yards aart, each bet!een t!o
bayonets. 2y 'ather !as leading the column bet!een t!o soldiers, bayonets at the ready. There
!ere some ne! arresteesJ Traian 8reaDu 'rom Clu>, 1eonida 8andac 'rom 6asi, and Danulescu. :e
!ere not ermitted to turn our heads or to signal one another. For >ust a second 6 got a glimse o'
the sun;en 'aces o' my oor comrades-in-su''ering. :hat gna!ed at my heart !as the in>ustice to
!hich my 'ather !as being sub>ected. He !as guilty o' nothing. 4 li'etime 'ighter 'or this nation, a
ro'essor in secondary schools, a ma>or, 'ormer battalion commander on the 'ront line all during the
!ar, several times a member o' Parliament, and not an obscure one at that, he !as no! araded on
the streets o' 8ucharest bet!een bayonets. :e le't thus in a column trudging to!ard the Tribunal.
(omanians loo;ed at us !ith indi''erence. 8ut !hen !e reached the Ce!ish Euarter, all the Ce!s
came out to doors and !indo!s. #ome thre! at us outrageous loo;s and laughedJ others
commented loudly, others sat.
:e bent our heads and !al;ed thus, the !hole !ay, our hearts 'ull o' ain.
4t the Tribunal our arrest !arrants !ere con'irmed. :e !ere de'ended by the attorney Paul lliescu,
!ho !as the 'irst la!yer to o''er to lead our case, :e !ere then sent bac; in the same 'ormation=,
on the same route. :e could see on ne!sstands the headlines o' Dimineata (+The 2orning+" and
other Ce!ish aers, +#tudent Consiracy. The 4rrest o' the Plotters.+ 4nd again 6 got to my cell.
For t!o !ee;s 6 stayed there in the cold, !ith no 'urther ;no!ledge o' the others or any ne!s 'rom

4'ter t!o !ee;s seeming li;e t!o centuries, !e !ere ta;en out o' our cells and laced in heated
rooms, in threes. :e !ere ermitted to coo; and eat together.
:hen !e sa! each other again it !as li;e a true holiday. 6 !as to share a room !ith Dragos and
Danulescu. 2eantime, Garneata, the resident o' the 4ssociation o' Christian #tudents turned
himsel' in so that our number gre! to -/. 2y 'ather, 'ree o' any guiltJ 2ota, Garneata, Tudose
Poescu, Corneliu Georgescu, (adu 2ironovici, 1eonida 8andac, 5ernichescu, Traian 8reaDu and
mysel', charged !ith consiracyJ Dragos and Danulescu, detained 'or having sheltered us. 6n
addition to these, there !as 5ladimir Frimu, !ho had been arrested !hen !e demonstrated in 'ront
o' the 2inister o' 6nterior=s home. :e obtained a rimus stove on !hich !e coo;ed the groceries
sent 'rom the outside by relatives and 'riends. The regular rison 'ood !as something 'right'ul, and
the misery in !hich the inmates lived, indescribable.
2y 'ather got ermission 'rom the rison administration 'or us to go each morning at & o=cloc; into
the church in the courtyard to ray. :e all ;nelt be'ore the altar saying the +)ur Father+ and
Tudose Poescu sang Prea #'anta 9ascatoare de DumneDeu (+2ost 8lessed 5irgin 2ary+".
There, !e 'ound solace 'or our sad rison li'e, and hoe 'or tomorro!. *ach o' us set u a !or;
schedule 'or himsel'. 2ota busied himsel' !ith matters related to the 'orthcoming trialJ Danulescu
studied 'or his e<ams in medicine. 6 !as !or;ing on lans 'or the organiDing o' the youth in the
national struggle.. organiDing the student centers, the youth in villages and the students in secondary
schools. 6 !or;ed this out do!n to the smallest detail, till Christmas time, so that i' !e got out o'
rison !e could ut it into racticeJ i' not, !e decided to 'ind someone on the outside to imlement
This !as to be done !ithin the 'rame!or; o' the 1eague !hich !as to be the olitical arm, !hile
our section !ould be 'or educating the youth and 'or 'ighting.
)n 9ovember @, the 'east o' #aints 4rchangels 2ichael and Gabriel, !e !ere discussing the
ossible name 'or this youth organiDation. 6 saidG +1et it be =2ichael the 4rchangel=.+
2y 'ather saidG +There is in the church, on the le't hand door o' the altar, an icon o' #t. 2ichael.+
+1et us go see itM+ 2ota, Garneata, Corneliu Georgescu, (adu 2ironovici, Tudose and 6 !ent to
loo; at it and !e !ere truly amaDed. The icon aeared to us o' unsurassed beauty. 6 !as never,
attracted by the beauty o' any icon. 8ut no!, 6 'elt bound to this one !ith all my soul and 6 had the
'eeling the 4rchangel !as alive. #ince then, 6 have come to love that icon. 4ny time !e 'ound the
church oen, !e entered and rayed be'ore that icon. )ur hearts !ere 'illed !ith eace and >oy. The
torture o' our tris to the Tribunal !as resumed. )n 'oot, bet!een bayonets, through mud, !ith our
!orn-out shoes and our 'eet !et. #ome Ce!ish croo;s !ho de'rauded the #tate o' several hundred
million lei !ere driven to the Tribunal in cars, !hile !e !al;ed. 2any times our tris !ere made
unnecessarily, only to harass us. 6 !as called to the Tribunal $F times, to be interrogated by the
investigating >udge only t!ice. :e changed no art o' our early deositions.
)ne thought reoccuied us constantlyG +:ho betrayed usK+
9ight a'ter night !e sought to solve this enigma. :e reached the stage !here !e !ere susicious o'
one another. )ne morning 6 !ent to church to ray be'ore the icon to reveal to us the traitor. That
evening as !e sat do!n to dinner 6 so;e to my comradesG
+6 am comelled to bring you sad ne!s. The betrayer has been identi'ied. He is in our midst sitting
at the table !ith us.+ *veryone !as loo;ing at everybody else. 2ota and 6 'ollo!ed everyone=s 'ace
hoing 'or an indication. 6 ut my hand into my breast oc;et sayingG
+9o! 6 !ill sho! you the roo'.+
4t that moment 5ernicheseu stood u, hesitated 'or an instant, gave 8andae the ;ey to the 'ood bo<
and saidG
+6 am leaving.+
:e !ere uDDled by his dearture, but resumed our discussion regarding the roo' 6 re'used to
roduce, 'or 6 had none. :hen !e le't the table, !e 'ound 5ernichescu alone. He addressed 7#,
+Codreanu susects me.+
6 told him 6 susected no oneJ thus !e !ere reconciled.
:ee;s and !ee;s assed and our rison li'e !as dragging on. :e mar;ed in encil on the !all
every assing day. 1i'e in rison !as di''icult, e<hausting 'or the man !ho !as born 'ree, !ho
lived in dignity. 6t !as horrible to 'eel in chains, !ithin high un'riendly !alls, 'ar 'rom your loved
ones o' !hom you hear nothing. 4nd not even here can you move around much, 'or three 'ourths o'
the time !e !ere ;et loc;ed in our cells. *very evening the sinister noise o' bolts being dra!n at
your door lunged one into a mood o' sadness. The enemies o' this nation !ere 'ree outside,
en>oying resect and the good li'e, !hile !e, in addition to moral indignities, o'ten times !ent to
bed hungry and shivering 'rom the cold the !hole night on lan;-beds and stra!. 8ut 'inally,
>oyous days came our !ay. 4'ter t!o months o' imrisonment !e received the ne!s that the order
'or my 'ather=s and Danulescu=s release had been received. For us, indeed, great >oy. :e heled
them ac; and shortly they !ere ta;en a!ay. :e !atched as they le't until they assed through
the 'irst gate. 6 as;ed my 'ather to tell mother and the others not to !orry at all.
4nyone=s liberation is an occasion o' great >oy 'or those le't behind.. *verybody is glad. Perhas, by
one=s liberation, each gro!s stronger in the hoe o' obtaining his o!n 'reedom. 4'ter a short !hile,
Dragos, 8andac, 8reaDu and 5ernichescu le't, having been ta;en out o' the case as !ere my 'ather
and Danulescu.
)nly si< o' us !ere le't and charged !ith +consiracy against #tate security.+ #everal days later
Dragos sent the ne!s that it !as 5ernichescu !ho betrayed usJ he also made coies o' the latter=s
testimony !hich !as on 'ile. :e received this ne!s !ith hearts 'ull o' bitterness. )urnation had
al!ays had her share o' traitors.
6n all the universities, students returned to classes. 6t seemed there !as a moment o' disorientation.
For t!o months they had been living under the terror o' the Ce!ish ress !hich incessantly
e<aggerated the gravity o' our attemt at revenge and its +disastrous+ conseEuences 'or the country.
6t shouted that !e had lost the con'idence o' the +civiliDed !orldJ+ that !e !ere a 8al;an state.
They constantly as;edG +:hat !ill 8erlin sayK+ +5iennaK+, +ParisK+ 4nd so, trans'ormed into the
de'enders o' the +ermanent interest o' the #tate,+ Ce!s daily urged the country=s leaders to ta;e
radical measures against the national movement !hich must be suressed +!ith the utmost
4 year earlier, !hen 2a< Goldstein lanted the bomb in the #enate building and the olice !ere
rounding u communist Ce!s, the same ress !as yellingG
+4 state cannot maintain itsel' against oular !ill by the use o' violence. :here is the
ConstitutionK :here are the la!sK :here are the constitutionally guaranteed 'reedomsK :hat are
'oreign countries going to say !hen a state ta;es such restrictive stesK 4 state cannot survive
through arrests, risons, bayonets, terror. For this violence the state uses !ill be returned by the
multitude or isolated individuals. Force !ill be ans!ered by 'orce. Terror, !ith terror. 4nd they !ill
not be guilty, but the #tate that rovo;ed them.+
4nd no!, !ith a shamelessness !hich only the blind'olded 'ail to see, the same ress !roteG +6t is
not enough that these terrorists be arrested. They must be condemned in such a manner as to ma;e
them an e<amle. *ven this is not enoughG all those !ho roagate such anti-#emitic =ideas= !hich
cause so much damage to our country, ought to be arrested. This anti-#emitic !eed ought to be
ulled out, root and all. 4nd this Euestion must be dealt !ith mercilessly and !ithout clemency.+
To this torrent o' hostility, the national ress oosed a 'ierce resistance. 6n addition to 7niversul
(+The 7niverse+" !hich al!ays e<ressed a correct attitude regarding the mani'estations o' national
conscience, the nationalist movement had the suort o' the 'ollo!ing ne!saers. Cuvantul
#tudentesc (+The #tudent 5oice+" ut out by the 8ucharest students, !hich only recently came
under the editorshi o' our inde'atigable comrades !ho !ere 'reeG #imionescu, (aeanu, Fanica
4nastasescu, Danulescu, and others !hose names escae me. Dacia 9oua (+9e! Dacia+", organ o'
the students in Clu>, directed by #uiaga, 2ocanu, 6ustin lliesu, the oet and author o' +The #tudents
Cuvantul 6asului (+The :ord o' 6asi+", organ o' the 6asi students. Desteata-te (omane (+4!a;e,
Le (omanian+", organ o' the Cernauti students, recently moved to Camul-1ung, directed by Dr.
Catalin and Danieleanu. 4ararea 9ationala (+The 9ational De'ense+", o''icial organ o' the
1.4.9.C., 8ucharest, !ith the unsurassed articles o' Pro'essor Paulescu, 'rom !hich !e reroduce
the 'ollo!ing linesG
+...The same constraint through cold, hunger and terror, success'ully used by 8olshevi; Ce!s, !as
used on the students.+
+:ho could ever imagine that the time !ould come !hen our children, the 'lo!er o' the (omanian
nation, !ould be comelled to celebrate the holiday o' the uni'ication o' all (omanians loc;ed u in
the cellars o' some rison or chased into the cold, !ithout shelter, !ithout 'oodK+
+Probably you did not realiDe that you !ere !aging !ar against the entire (omanian nation.+
7nirea (+The 7nion+", organ o' the 1.4.9.C., 6asi, directed by Pro'essor CuDa, containing articles
o' immortal logic. 9ationalistul (+The 9ationalist+", oular organ o' the 1eague in 6asi. 1ibertatea
(+Freedom+", oular ne!saer in )rastie, belonging to Father 2ota !ho revealed our gesture in
its true light, being thus the 'irst to unhesitatingly cut the curtain o' silence that surrounded us those
very 'irst moments.
The student body understood our sacri'ice. That is !hy the student movement rallied more and
more around these !alls o' the 5acaresti rison in !hich each student center had its imrisoned
Peasants, too, began sho!ing concern in our lot. They sent us money, had masses said 'or us in
churches, articularly in 8ucovina=s mountains and Transylvania !here 1ibertatea (+Freedom+"
Here is a small e<amleG
9C21")$2# S$2+!)$!,0 N%8 :, Y!"' II, M"'0& 6, 1926;

4mong the gi'ts o' money received by the students loc;ed u in 5acaresti rison 'rom the easants
'rom all regions, there is one more brilliant and more recious than all the others, 6t is that sent by
the 2oti o' the 4useni 2ountains. #craing the bottom o' their leather belt oc;ets or a corner o'
their ;erchie's, they gathered their $, / or F lei to send do!n their valleys, on aths trod by lancu,
their de'ender o' old, and sent them along !ith their hearts, over the long, long !ay to 5acaresti
across the mountains, !here they had heard their sons !ere imrisoned 'or !anting to save them
'rom !ant and in>ustice, 'rom overty and chagrin. These contributions !ere sent 'rom the oorest
corner o' our country, o' !hich the song says !ith so much bitterness and sorro!, =Gold lies in our
mountains= core !hile !e beg 'rom door to door.= +The most recious gi't !as sent to the students in
5acarestiG a hand'ul o' change and a 'ragment o' a beggar=s soul =hungry and na;ed, !ithout
lodging,= a soul that hides beneath a rag, its greatest treasure, moral health, that ine<haustible source
o' strength 'rom !hich in times o' great tribulation srings the salvation o' the eoleM
The 2oti thin; o' the studentsM Their soul begins to understand, to stir, to 'orge a ne! ideal. This is
the best and most eloEuent signM 1isten to some o' their names, 'rom the to!n o' (isca, near 8aia
de CrisG +9icolae )rea, $ leiJ 9icolae Florea, / lei,. 9. Haragus, 4ron Grecu, Tigan 4dam, 4.
Hentiu, 9. 8ulg, 6on 4sileu, 4l. 5lad, 9. 8orDa, 9. 1eucian, 4ntonie Florea, 4. 1eucian, each F
leiJ 9. Ciscut, 4. (iscuta, 6on 4ncu, #aliu Faur, each -%J 9. Florea, riest and 9. (usu, each -F leiJ
9. 8aia, notary ublic and Dutu (iscuta, each $% lei. Total $-% lei.+
The easants !ill soon understand and !ill come to our side !ith their strong and long-enduring
soul, in the e<ectation o' the hour o' Custice.
Christmas holiday is here. There in the 5acaresti rison !e thought constantly o' our 'amilies bac;
home and esecially during the long sleeless nights !ere relentlessly !orried. :hen !ill our side
!in, !e !onderedK :hen !ill !e get out o' hereK 6' !e are sentenced to -%--F years !ill !e be
able to !eather the imrisonment or !ill our su''ering and !orries sa our health day by day till !e
:e 'loated in the un;no!n. This state o' uncertainty consumed us. :e should have li;ed to have
the trial date set once and 'or all in order to ;no! sooner the 'ate a!aiting us.
The su''ering and common 'ate !e had in store bound us together more and more, and discussions
over the innumerable Euestions raised led us to the same conclusion, little by little shaing a
uni'orm attern o' thin;ing.,The smallest Euestions regarding the national movement reoccuied
us 'or hours and days. There is !here !e learned to thin; deely and ursue a roblem in all its
rami'ications, do!n to the 'inest detail. :e resumed the study o' the Ce!ish roblem and its causes,
its chances 'or solution. :e established organiDation and action lans. 4'ter a !hile, discussions
!ere 'inished and !e assed on to la!s, to indisutable truths and a<ioms.
:e !atched (omanians on the outside o' our grou groingly delving into our national roblem
and giving birth either to a ne!saer or a arody o' an organiDation. :e could see they !ere
reaching 'alse conclusions in matters o' doctrine, !ere uncertain in matters o' organiDation, and
totally lac;ed original ideas in matters o' action. :e realiDed then ever better as a result o' more
ro'ound re'lection, thatG
-. The Ce!ish roblem is no utoia, but a grave li'e and death roblem 'or the (omanian nation, the
country=s leaders groued by olitical arties becoming more and more li;e toys in the hands o' the
Cudaic maniulators.
$. This resent olitical system through its concet o' li'e, its immorality, and its democratic set-u
'rom !hich it srings, constitutes a real curse 'allen uon the (omanian eole.
/. The (omanian eole !ill not be able to solve the Ce!ish roblem unless it 'irst solves the
roblem o' its olitical arties. The 'irst aim to be reached by the (omanian eole on its !ay to
tole the Cudaic o!er that oresses and strangles it, !ill have to be the toling o' this olitical
system. 4 country has only the Ce!s and the leaders it deserves. >ust as mosEuitoes can settle and
thrive only in s!ams, li;e!ise the 'ormer can only thrive in the s!ams o' our (omanian sins. 6n
other !ords, in order to !in over them !e !ill have 'irst to e<tirate our o!n de'ects. The roblem
is even deeer than Pro'essor CuDa had sho!n it to us to be. The mission o' this 'ight had been
entrusted to the (omanian youth !hich, i' it !ants to ta;e u the challenge o' this historical
mission, i' it !ants to go on living, to continue having a country, must reare and gather all its
'orces to carry on the 'ight and !in. :e decided that !hen !e should get out o' rison, by God=s
hel, !e not art !ays, but stay united to dedicate our lives to this one aim.
8ut be'ore busying ourselves !ith our eole=s de'ects, !e began by loo;ing at our o!n sins. :e
held long meetings in !hich each o' us told the de'ects he observed in the rest. 4nd !e
endeavoured to correct them. This !as a delicate matter, 'or so is man madeG he does not ta;e
lightly the critiEue o' his o!n de'ects. *ach believes or !ants to sho! he is er'ect. 8ut !e sayG
'irst !e should ;no! and correct our sins and then !e shall see !hether !e have the right or not to
engage in imroving uon others.
This is ho! the holidays assed and then the !inter. #ring arrived. :e ;ne! as yet nothing
regarding our 'uture 'ate. )nly that a great oular current in our 'avor !as born on the outside
suorting our cause in site o' all deserate endeavors o' the Ce!ish ress to stem it. This current
!as steadily gro!ing among students, to!nseole and easants, uni'ormly strong in Transylvania,
8essarabia, 8ucovina and the )ld Aingdom. 9o!, !e !ere receiving letters o' suort and
encouragement 'rom all arts.
#ring 'inally brought us a great >oy. Trial !as set 'or 2arch $. be'ore the 4ssiDes= Court o' 6l'ov.
:e began to get ready. 8ut !hat ;ind o' rearation could !e ma;eK :e admitted everything. :e
said all !e had to say. 1a!yers !ho signed u to de'end us came to visit us. They called to our
attention the gravity o' our osition in vie! o' our testimony, suggesting !e change, it as :ell as
our !hole attitudeJ that it !ould be more rudent to deny. :e categorically re'used and as;ed them
to de'end us !ithin the 'rame!or; o' our testimony, that !e did not intend to alter it the least bit, no
matter !hat might be the outcome o' the trial.
6' by any chance !e should be acEuitted, ho! could !e do !ithout the icon be'ore !hich !e rayed
each morningK :e searched among all the inmates till !e 'ound a ainter. :e as;ed him to ma;e
us a coy, and in three !ee;s time he made an e<act relica, si< 'eet high, and a small one 'or me to
carry on my erson, and a third o' medium siDe 'or my mother. 2ota also had one made 'or his
Then !e 'igured that on the basis o' our testimony !e !ould most certainly receive at least 'ive
years, 4nd !e ;nelt be'ore the iconG
+1ord 4lmightyM :e consider these 'ive years lost to ourselves. 6' !e are acEuitted !e ledge to
consecrate them to the cause o' our nation.+
:e decided that .- o' us !ould move to 6asi in case !e !ere acEuitted, there to establish our center
o' activities. From there, 'ollo!ing the lans !e had readied, !e !ould begin organiDing the
country=s entire youth, beginning !ith high school boys and girls and even younger studentsJ those
in the normal schools, trade schools, seminaries, commercial schools, and 'inally, youth in the
villages. 4'ter that, the university centers !ould be revamed. 4ll these young eole, !e hoed,
!ould gro! in the sirit o' the 'aith that animated us, so that as young adults they !ould enter the
olitical arena, !here the 'ate o' our struggle !as to be determined, and, being 'urther augmented
by ne! graduates year a'ter year, !ould become li;e !aves o' assault endlessly coming on.
The olitical system has in'ected our national li'e. )rganiDation o' the youth is needed, as is also
emhasis on the necessity 'or their 'urther sel'-education, to rotect and searate them 'rom the
in'ection o' the olitical system. To ermit the in'ection o' the (omanian youth to continue means
annihilation 'or us, and a de'initive victory 'or 6srael.
2oreover, our organiDing o' this youth !ill ta;e care o' the very roblem o' our olitical system,
!hich by lac; o' young recruits !ill starve to death, The slogan o' the entire younger generation
must beG
9o youth must ever enter the gate o' a olitical artyJ be !ho does so is a traitor to bis generation
and bis nation. For in e''ect, by his resence, name, money, !or;, he strengthens the o!er o' the
oliticians. #uch a one is a traitor, >ust as he is a traitor !ho leaves the side o' his brothers and goes
over into the cam o' their enemy. Though he may not shoot bac; !ith a !eaon, i' he only carries
!ater 'or those !ho do shoot, he is an accomlice to the ;illing o' those 'alling among his betrayed
comrades, conseEuently a traitor to his cause.
The theory urging us to all >oin olitical arties in order to imrove them-i' !e retend they are
bad-is 'alse and er'idious. 4s it has been 'rom the beginning o' the !orld, day and night
uninterrutedly, it is only s!eet !ater that has 'lo!ed into the 8lac; #ea 'rom thousands o' rivers,
this never resulting in s!eetening the sea=s salty !ater but rather the oositeG li;e!ise !ith us,
entering the cessool o' olitical arties, not only !ill !e not better them, they !ill corrut us.
These !ere the thoughts and resolutions uermost in our minds to imlement !hen !e !ould have
been acEuitted. )ur organiDational set-u !as ready. )ur lan o' action established do!n to the
minutest detail. *verybody=s art !as set. The ne!saer that !as to be ut out !as to be named
Generatia 9oua (+The 9e! Generation+" and our organiDation as a !hole !as to be named
4rchangelul 2ihail (+The 4rchangel 2ichael+". 4ll our 'lags !ould have to carry the image o' #t.
2ichael the 4rchangel 'rom the church in 5acaresti rison.
This organiDation, as !e sa! it, o' the entire youth generation, !as to be the youth section o' the
olitical organiDation 1.4,9.C. having as its aim the education o' this youth.
For us, this rogram, conceived !ithin the 5acaresti rison !alls, !as a beginning o'=a ne! li'e. it
reresented something comlete in insiration, organiDation and lan o' action, di''erent 'rom
anything else !e had thought o' earlier. 6t !as the beginning o' a ne! !orld, a 'oundation on !hich
!e could build 'or years to come.
7on leaving the rison !e !ere to go to all university centers and share !ith the students our
decisions, sho!ing them that street demonstrations and clashes no longer have a raison d=etre in
vie! o' our ne! lan. :e !ould still cling to our ast e<ressions, not denying them as ours, !ould
not be ashamed o' them. 8ut their time is gone. :e must all engage no! into a great organiDing
tas; that !ill bring us victory.
:e sa! 2ota ensive. He !as constantly telling us that once out !e !ould not be able to ma;e any
head!ay unless !e unished the betrayer. 6t had al!ays been betrayal that saed the nation=s
strength, but !e (omanians had never turned our !eaons on the traitorsJ that is !hy treason too;
root and traitors multilied in all !al;s o' li'eJ that is !hy (omanian ublic li'e !as nothing no!
but a ermanent betrayal o' the eole. 6' !e did not solve this roblem o' treason, our !or; !ould
be comromised. :e !ere very e<cited the night be'ore our trial began. 4t last our 'ate !as to be
decided. 6n the morning !e !ere ta;en to the o''ice 'or our 'amilies to see us. Corneliu Georgescu=s
arents !ere there 'rom Poiana #ibiului. #hortly, 5ernichescu came in. 2ota too; him by the arm
as i' he !anted to tell him something and both !ent into a nearby room. #everal minutes later !e
heard seven gun shots and shouts. :e steed out into the hall. 2ota had shot 5emichescu to
unish him 'or his betrayal.
6 >umed to 2ota=s side to de'end him, 'or he !as surrounded by olice o''icers , and 'unctionaries
threatening him, :hen the commotion subsided !e !ere immediately ta;en a!ay and ut in
searate cells. Through little !indo!s !e could see 5ernichescu carried out o' the in'irmary on a
stretcher on the !ay to a hosital. 6n our cells !e all began !histling +Christian #tudents o' Greater
(omania,+ our 'ighting hymn, to accomany him thus till he disaeared through the rison gates.
T!o hours later the 6nvestigating Cudge Paadool arrived. He had us brought ustairs one by one
to aear be'ore him. :e all made common cause !ith 2ota.
The ne<t day, 'ollo!ing a night sent sleeing on cement 'loors, !e !ere ta;en to the Tribunal. )ur
situation !as no! very grave, yet !e, in the basement o' the Court House, sang our 'ighting songs
the !hole time.
The trial !as to begin at one o=cloc;. #ince -% o=cloc; thousands o' students and citiDens had been
gathering around the Tribunal. 4t around noon all the caital=s regiments had been called u to
control the cro!ds.
4t one o=cloc; !e !ere led into the Court o' 4ssiDes. Presiding !as 2r. Davidoglu and rosecutor
!as 2r. (acoviccanu. )n the de'ense bench sat Pro'essor Paulescu, Paul lliescu, 9elu 6onescu,
Teodorescu, Donca 2anea, Tache Policrat, 9aum, etc. 4'ter the >urors !ere dra!n, the de'initive
!rit !as read amid great silence. :e listened. :e realiDed that our 'ate !as being decided. Then it
came our turn to sea;. The interrogation began. :e admitted everything !ith the e<cetion o'
having reached a 'inal decision. :e did not determine the date, but !e sho!ed the,motives ushing
us into this action. :e sho!ed the menace o' the Ce!ish roblem and accused the oliticians o'
corruting and betraying the nation. 6n site o' many interrutions by the residing o''icer, !e
continued our testimony to the end. There 'ollo!ed a severe and o'ten times un>ust and insinuating
indictment delivered by the rosecutor. :e 'elt the balance tiing in his 'avour. 8ut the
rosecution=s success !as short-lived. Pro'essor Paulescu read his declaration in the church-li;e
silence imosed by his great restige and saintly 'igure, 6t !as a short declaration, but 'or the
rosecutor !ho seemed to embarrassedly sin; into his easy chair, a devastating one.
4 recess !as ta;enJ it !as no! @ o=cloc; in the evening. )utside, the cro!d !aited in increasing
numbers. 9elu 6onescu, Tache Policrat and others, and at the end, Paul lliescu, so;e brilliantly. 6t
!as F o=cloc; in the morning by this time. The rosecutor, through a ne! indictment, tried to regain
his osition and !in over the Court. )ur la!yers ans!ered him. 4t 0 o=cloc; !e had our last !ord.
Then !e !ere ta;en out. The >urors began their deliberation. :e !aited over hal' an hour that
seemed to us hal' a year. 4 little a'ter!ards !e heard +Hurrah=s.+ 4n o''icer brought us the ne!sG
+Lou are acEuittedM+
:e !ere then ta;en bac; into the courtroom !here the acEuittal verdict !as read to us. )utside,
eole !ere still !aiting. 7on learning !e !ere acEuitted they bro;e into +Hurrah=s+ and singing.
:e !ere loaded in a car !hich too; us through un'amiliar streets bac; to 5acaresti 'or the
comletion o' customary discharge 'ormalities. :e gathered u our belongings and icons, ready to
leave that grave !ith its long nights o' turmoil and its su''erings. 8ut oor 2ota had to stay on, !ho
;ne! 'or ho! long, to su''er hence'orth all alone. :e too; leave o' him. :e embraced him, tears in
our eyes and arted 'rom him in ro'ound ain. :e le't to be 'reeJ he entered his cell ane!, in
solitary. )h, ho! many more !ee;s he !ould have to lie there alone on that cementM
4s soon as !e !ere out, the 'irst thing !e did !as to go to Danuleseu and Dragos to as;
'orgiveness o' their 'amilies 'or the trouble !e caused them and to than; them 'or their concern 'or
us during our imrisonment.
Then !e le't 'or our homes !here our mothers and the !hole 'amily e<ected us, re>oicing !ith
eyes 'ull o' tears.
4t 6asi 6 !as imatiently e<ected by the younger comrades. 6 no longer 'ound any o' my
classmates thereJ since last 'all they had all scattered to their home to!ns. 6 too; my icon to #t.
#iridon Church !here 6 laced it !ithin the altar. )ne a'ter another 6 met all my 'riends and !e
re>oiced to see each other again. 8ut our >oy did not last long, 'or, as 6 !as romenading on
1ausneanu #t. !ith my t!o sisters and about ten students, the olice >umed on us out o' the blue
s;y, stri;ing us over the head !ith their rubber clubs and hitting us !ith their ri'le butts.
Provo;ed in this manner and struc; 'or no reason in the 6asi in !hich !e had seen so many battlesK
6n the 6asi in !hich !e beat Cudeo-Communism at the 7niversity in -.-., -.$%, and -.$$K 6n the
6asi in !hich !e ut in their lace and ;et at bay 'or years the over!helming Ce!ry and its ressK
#truc; in my o!n houseK
Then 6 turned to deliver a rioste. 6ndignation seemed to give me the strength o' a lion and 6 !ould
have been able to ta;e on the !hole olice 'orce, 8ut my student 'riends grabbed hold o' me, some
my arms, some my legs. 'ield thus, 6 received several additional blo!s !ith ri'le butts. Passers-by
began booing the olice and shouting. 6 le't 'or home de>ected, 'urious at those !ho held me. 8ut
they !ere telling me.
+They have orders to rovo;e you, i' you retaliate, to shoot and get rid o' you.+
6n the a'ternoon, together !ith Garneata and (adu 2ironovici, 6 !ent to a student dormitory !here
in a large room !ere gathered the student leaders. They told us ho! 'or the si< months during
!hich !e did not see each other they had 'ought, and ho! much they had ta;enJ ho! they !ent
bac; to classes and ho! they handled the situation so as not to be humiliatedJ ho! on 9ovember lst,
on oening day, a religious service !as held in the auditorium be'ore all the students and ro'essors
and !hat student 1aDarescu said on that occasionG +:e !ill go bac;, to classes, but not right a!ay.
First !e !ill address a memorandum to our ro'essors and the 7niversity #enate, e<ecting a
satis'actory rely.+
Then he related to us ho! this memorandum !as resented and ho! university ro'essors headed
by 8acaloglu, the Pro-rector, granted the greatest art o' the memorandum=s oints. )n 9ovember
0, the students resumed classes. The ro'essors ;ne! ho! to avoid an un>ust humiliation o' the
students !ho 'ought a !hole year 'or their belie's.
They !ent on telling us ho! 2arDescu., the 6nterior 2inister, brought his o!n man in as Police
Pre'ect, giving him 'ree rein to crush the student movement and national movement in 6asiJ ho! this
man, !ith the hel o' his entire olice 'orce, engaged in this !or;.
8ecause the students !ent bac; to classes and Euiet !as re-established, and at a loss as to ho! to
!in his laurels and get aid, he began to rovo;e them.
They 'urther related to us ho! on December -%, the girl students headed 'or the Cathedral !ere met
by into<icated olice !ho beat them !ith their rubber truncheons, grabbed them by the hair-right in
vie! o' the ro'essors-and dragged them through mud on the streetJ ho!, one by one, the students
!ere beatenJ ho! on December -% the student Gheorghe 2anoliu, the choir conductor, !as beaten
on his an;les !ith stic;s, then arrestedJ ho! he, ;et by the olice in a state o' great misery,
contracted >aundice and died in the hosital.
The students in 6asi !ent through tough times in those si< months.
:e, in our turn, told them o' our tribulations, reminding them that it !as our duty to get 2ota out
o' rison. in the end !e gave them an account o' our lans 'or the 'uture.
Ho! !e must organiDe our entire generation, raise it and educate it in an heroic siritJ ho! !e
!ould have to isolate the olitical system so that no youth !ould ever enter its ran;s, and ho! it
could be de'eated and the 1.4.9.C. !ith Pro'essor CuDa could get inJ ho! only through a
nationalist government, the e<ression o' our (omanian conscience, 'orce and health, could the
Ce!ish roblem be solved, by ta;ing legal measures to rotect the (omanian element and utting
bra;es on the Ce!ish invasion. Ho! our generation has the great and sacred mission to revive this
conscience, this 'orce and this vitality. That !e, the +5acarestians,+ have decided that all o' us are
to come to 6asi and establish here the center o' this action !hich !e !ould lace under the
rotection o' #t. 2ichael the 4rchangel. )ur comrades listened and received our lans 'or the
'uture !ith much >oy. 4'ter the meeting !e aid visits to Pro'essors CuDa, Gavanescul, #umuleanu,
etc. sharing our thoughts !ith them as !ell.
MAY 1926 - MAY 1925
)ur meetings, in vie! o' the lan !e !ere trying to 'ollo!, !ere held !ith di''iculty because !e
did not have a meeting lace o' our o!n. 4ll o' us being oor, !e could not a''ord the rent 'or at
least t!o rooms in order to commence organiDing the youth. :e met in a !ooden barrac;s le't since
the !ar in 2rs. Ghica=s yard. )ne day !e decided to build ourselves ahome o' several rooms.
8utho! should !e go about itK )n 2ay 0, -.$? 6 gathered some 0% youngsters, university and high
school students (the members o' the 'irst 8rotherhood o' the CrossI 'ounded in 6asi". 4nd this is
ho! 6 tal;ed to themG +Dear comrades, ho! long are !e going to s!eat it out by holding our
meetings in this barrac;sK 7 to no!, (omanian students had the right to meet in their o!n
university buildings. 8ut !e !ere chased out.
7ntil yesterday !e had the right to meet in our donnitories. :e !ere chased out o' here too. Today
!e meet in run-do!n barrac;s in !hich !e get rained on. 6n all cities, students receive hel in their
noble ursuits. Here, there is no one to hel us, because the oulation around us is comosed o'
enemy Ce!ish cro!ds and o' oliticians devoid o' 'eeling. )ur (omanians are ushed out to the
erihery o' to!ns !here they live in blac; misery. :e are alone. The o!er to carve 'or ourselves
another destiny, no! as tomorro!, !e !ill 'ind only in ourselves. :e must get used to this idea,
that bet!een God and us, there is no one to hel us.
+That is !hy there is no other solution but to build !ith our o!n hands the home !e need. Granted
none o' us has built houses or made bric;s. 6 can understand that !e need in the 'irst lace the
courage to brea; do!n the mentality in !hich !e have gro!n u, the mentality that ma;es the
young intellectual !ho, the second day a'ter becoming a student, is ashamed to carry a ac;age on
the street. :e need the courage and the !ill to start 'rom scratch, the mill to uroot obstacles and
overcome di''iculties.+
)limiu 1ascar, a small building contractor !ith a big heart, !ho o!ned a house in 7ngheni on the
Pruth river, encouraged me in my idea, telling usG
+Gentlemen, 6 suggest you come ma;e the bric;s in 7ngheni, !here 6 have a lot 6 !ill let you
have. 6 also lace my house at your disosal.+
:e acceted his roosition. 8ut !e had no money to ay our 'are to 7ngheni. :e needed about
/%% lei 'or about $% ersons. This money too !as given us by )limiu 1ascar.
I The +8rotherhoods o' the Cross+ are the +nests+ in !hich +brothers o' the cross= + young men in
high schools are groued. #ee also the chater +The First 8eginnings o' )rganiDation+ in the section
+The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel+ .$??J see also 'ootnote on .$?@. ;Tr0<
M"< =,1926
)n 2ay @ !e le't 'or 7ngheni, some by train, some on 'oot. There !ere $0 o' us. :e had nothingG
neither shovels nor any ;ind o' tool, nor money, nor 'ood. 1ascar, !ho !as e<ecting us, too; us in.
+:elcome gentlemenM The mar;et to!n 7ngheni is 'ull o' Ce!s, li;e a hive. Perhas, seeing you,
they !ill act less imertinently. :e Christians, only a hand'ul, are terroriDed by them.+ Finally !e
'ormed some delegations to go to the homes o' Christians, trying to borro! shovels, sades, and
other needed tools. 9e<t day !e !ent to the lot o' land on the shore o' the Pruth river. The local
riest said a rayer 'or us. :e !or;ed 'or over a !ee; to get do!n to the good soil, 'or it !as our
bad luc; that 'or about so years to!nseole had dumed their trash there, 'orming in some sots a
layer si< 'eet thic;. Heled by several ro'essional bric;ma;ers, among !hom 6 lovingly remember
old Chirosca, !e began !or;ing the clay and ma;ing bric;s. :e !ere divided into teams o' 'ive,
each ma;ing F%% bric;s daily, thus attaining a total o' /%%% er day. 1ater, !hen our numbers gre!,
!e made even more, !or;ing 'rom ? o=cloc; in the morning till the evening. The big roblem !as
'ood. 4t 'irst it !as the 7ngheni eole !ho heled usJ later groceries !ere sent to us also 'rom
6asi. )ur old ro'essors, CuDa and #umuleanu, loo;ed some!hat distrust'ully uon our endeavor.
They 'ound it childish, thin;ing !e !ould not be success'ul. 4 !hile later though, they began to
areciate our e''orts and even heled us.
:hen Corneliu Georgescu le't the 7niversity in Clu> !here he had comleted a year o' harmacy,
and came to 6asi, in common aggreement !ith the others, !e turned over to the bric;yard the
-&,%%% lei donated to us !hile !e !ere imrisoned at 5acaresti, and !hich he had ;et 'or us, Let,
as the 'eeding roblem !as serious, 2rs. Ghica lent us a t!o acre garden lot, !hich !as lanted
by other student teams, to gro! the vegetables needed at 7ngheni. )ur !or; !as no! in t!o
laces, one grou o' the students !or;ing at 7ngheni, another at 6asi in the garden, interchanging
every three or 'our days. )ur 'irst !or; cam had the e''ect o' generating a revolution in the
thin;ing o' the day. *verybody 'rom all around-easants, !or;ingmen, and no less intellectuals
came to !atch us, 'ull o' curiosity. These eole had been used to seeing the students romenading,
elegantly dressed, on 1ausneanu #t. or singing songs o' >oy around tables in beer halls in their 'ree
hours. 9o! they sa! them !or;ing clay !ith their 'eet, muddy u to the !aistJ carrying river !ater
in ails 'rom the Pruth riverJ bending over the shovel in the heat o' the sun. These 'ol; !ere
!itnessing the crumbling o' an u-to-then dominating concet, i.e., that it is shame'ul 'or an
intellectual to !or; !ith his hands, articularly at heavy labor, 'ormerly allotted to slaves or
desicable classes. The 'irst ones understanding the cam=s value, 'rom this oint o' vie!, !ere
recisely the members o' the humble classes. Peasants and !or;ers, socially searated 'rom the
other categories, shy, because their labor !as not areciated, sho!ed their delight on their 'aces,
seeing in this at the very 'irst glance a sign o' areciation o' their e<hausting labor and one o'
esteem 'or them. They 'elt honored and erhas envisaged in the 'uture better days 'or themselves
and their children.
That is !hy, out o' the little they ossessed, they brought us daily, gladly, 'ood.
#tudent li'e assed Euietly. There !ere no longer street demonstrations and incidents. :e !or;ed
'ull o' >oy, hoes, thin;ing !e !ould soon haveG our o!n home,
)ne day my 'ather !ent to 6asi and 6 met him there. 4t about -% o=cloc; in the evening 6 !as
headed bac; to my lace, 4t 7nion #Euare 6 heard some commotion at a restaurant and 6 stoed to
see !hat !as going on. T!o students, the brothers Tutoveanu 'rom 8arlad !ere having an
altercation !ith Pro'essor Constantinescu-6asi. The Pre'ect o' olice arrived on the scene,
handcu''ed the students and too; them a!ay to!ard olice headEuarters, beating them. 6, saying
nothing, >ust !atched this scene sorro!'ully. Then 6 noticed that Commissar Clos accomanied by
/ or ? olice o''icers !as coming to!ard me. T!o aces 'rom me he shoutedG
+:hat are you doing on the street at this hour, you good-'or-nothingK+
8e!ildered, 6 >ust loo;ed at him. 8ecause he had ;no!n me 'or so many years, 6 could not imagine
that he could ever address me li;e that. 6 thought he too; me 'or somebody else. 8ut 6 'elt mysel'
grabbed by the nec; and shoved bac;. Then againG
+Lou stare at me, yetK 5agabond... croo;M+
6 said nothing, but 6 stood my ground loo;ing at them. Then under blo! a'ter blo!, ushed by the
'our olicemen, 6 !as +!al;ed+ more than /% yards to the corner at #mimov. Here, 6 tied my hat,
saluted them and saidG
+6 than; you, gentlemen.+
Deely hurt, crushed by grie' and shame, 6 !ent home to send that night in torment. it !as 'or the
second time in my li'e that 6 !as struc;, both times !ithin the month. 6 controlled mysel'. 8ut you,
oressors in the entire !orld, do not count on the o!er o' one=s sel' control. He !ho controls
himsel', one day !ill e<lode terri'yingly. The 'ollo!ing day 6 told my 'ather !hat be'ell me.
+1eave him in eace+ he said. +Do not do anything. T!o slas on the 'ace o' such a erson, >ust
dirties your alms. The time o' his >ustice !ill come, rest assured. They are robably ordered to
rovo;e you. 8ut you must control yoursel' and try not to go out alone any more.+
6 acceted his advice, 8ut it seems that a man !ho !as beaten and did not retaliate is no longer a
man. He 'eels ashamed, dishonored. 6 carried this dishonor li;e a big boulder on my heart. 8ut
!orse !as yet to come several days later.
The garden !as all saded. :e came 'rom 7ngheni to ut in tomatoes. 4t F o=cloc; on the morning
o' 2ay / -, F% students !ere ready to start !or;. :hile still in 'ormation, as !e 'inished the roll
call 6 noticed several soldiers at the bac; o' the garden. Then, over $%% o' them burst into the yard
loading their !eaons. They surrounded us. 6 told the boysG
+*verybody stay ut. Do not react.+
4t the same moment, 6 sa! li;e a blac; cloud a grou o' about ?% men around the gate, running in
ste, revolvers at the ready, shouting and s!earing. 6t !as 2anciu the Pre'ect and his olice. They
!ere beside us in no time. T!o commissars and the chie' o' olice laced three revolver barrels
against my 'orehead. They loo;ed at me !ith bloodshot eyes, cursing. 2anciu shoutedG
+Tie his hands behind his bac;M+
He struc; me. T!o others lunged at me, ulled out my belt and tightly tied my hands behind !ith it.
Then a blo! 'rom behind hit me on my right >a!. 4nother, 5asiliu 5oinea, came near and
!hisered in my earG
+8e'ore evening !e=ll ;ill youM Lou !ill not live to chase out the Ce!sM+
He cursed and ;ic;ed meJ then blo!s rained uon my 'ace and some sat into my 'ace. )ur entire
'ront, bloc;ed no! bet!een ri'les and revolvers, stood immobiliDed !atching, helless to come, to
my aid.
2rs. Ghica came do!nstairs, demandingG
+:hat is the meaning o' this, 2ister Pre'ectK+
4nd he reliedG
+6=ll arrest you tooM+
#ome!hat on the side 6 sotted Prosecutor 8uDea, !itnessing the scene. (evolvers in hand, those in
custody !ere then searched. :hoever moved !as struc; and thro!n to the ground. 4'ter that,
'lan;ed by eight gendarmes !ith 'i<ed bayonets, they laced me -% yards out 'rontJ the others !ere
li;e!ise 'lan;ed by $%% gendarmes. 4nd they marched us o''. 6 !as ahead, hands tied behind my
bac;, my 'ace sat uon, 'ollo!ed by the others. :e !ere escorted thus all along Carol #t., be'ore
the 7niversity, on 1ausneanu #t., 7nion #Euare, on CuDa-5oda, to the Police Pre'ecture.
The Pre'ect and his olicemen !al;ed on the side!al;s rubbing their hands. The Ce!s, >ubilating in
'ront o' their stores resect'ully greeted them. 6, saddened, could hardly see in 'ront o' my eyes, 6
'elt that 'rom no! on everything is 'inished. #everal high school
students assing by me stoed and tied their cas to me. They !ere immediately arehended,
manhandled and ut !ith the rest o' 7#. 4'ter being araded li;e this better than a mile through the
midddle o' to!n be'ore the Ce!ish oulation, in this state o' utter humiliation, !e !ere ta;en into
the Police Pre'ecture. They thre! me tied as 6 !as, into a 'ilthy hovelJ the others !ere ;et in the
)ne by one the young risoners !ere ta;en ustairs into the Pre'eet=s o''ice 'or interrogation. The
Pre'ect sat at his des; and the other interrogators, over /% o' them, !ere on chairs around him.
+:hat did Codreanu tell youK+ he demanded.
+He did not tell us anything, 2ister Pre'ect+ ans!ered the student or young high school boy.
+Lou are going to declare no! everything he told youM+
The shoes o' the individual being interrogated !ere ta;en o'' and his an;les chained together. 4
!eaon !as introduced bet!een these and he !as li'ted uside do!n, the !eaon being held on
their shoulders by t!o soldiers. 2anciu, his coat o'', began beating the soles o' the victim=s 'eet
!ith an o< sine!. Poor children, hung heads do!n, thus beaten on their 'eet, unable to suort the
ain, began to scream. (ealiDing they 'aced these henchmen-commissars !ho !ere sneering !ith
gusto at the 'rightening tableau - in !hich the (omanian nation=s children !ere being tortured by
some enemy-aid scoundrels - 'ar 'rom any heart that could !ee 'or them and intervene on their
behal', they cried outG
Then the Commissar 5asiliu had their heads lo!ered into ails o' !ater so that their cries o' ain
and desair could not be heard outside. :hen 'inally, the ain became unbearable and they 'elt their
bodies could no longer ta;e it, they shouted they !ould admit everything. The Pre'ect !ent to his
des; in the e<ectation o' their con'ession and the victims, their legs 'reed, loo;ed around daDed.
Then they burst out crying, 'alling to their ;nees be'ore the Pre'ectG
+Forgive us, #ir, but !e do not ;no! !hat to declare.+
+9oK Lou do notK Get him u againM+ he ordered his commissars and gendarmes.
4nd each oor child, his heart 'roDen, !atched as the rearations 'or his agony recommenced.
4gain li'ted uside do!n on the !eaon, again beaten on the 'eet. 4gain they 'elt one by one the
Pre'ect=s blo!s 'alling on their 'eet. Their 'eet became bloody, ebony-blac;, s!ollen so that they
could not ut their shoes bac; on. 4mong those thus tortured !ereG the son o' the resent
rosecutor o' 6l'ov County, DimitriuJ the son o' 2a>. 4mbroDie, his eardrum bro;en and !ho in
later li'e became a commissar at the same olice re'ecture.
8eaten in this manner, they !ere then carried into a searate, secret room. 4t around . o=cloc; 6 !as
called. 2y hands still tied and numbed, t!o gendarmes escorted me into the Pre'ect=s o''ice. There,
he sat behind a des; and around him sat the more than /% men, commissars, commissar-aides, and
agents. 6 loo;ed into their eyes. 2aybe among them 6 might 'ind one comassionate heart. 8ut 6
'ound nothing but general satis'actionJ
They !ere all smilingG 8oteD, the Chie' o' #ecurity, Dimitriu, the Director o' the Pre'ecture,
Commissar 5asiliu, Clos and the rest. The Pre'ect too; a sheet o' aer. :rote do!n my name,
+:hat e<actly is your nameK+
+6 am Corneliu Codreanu, candidate 'or a >uridic doctorate and attorney in the same bar as you.+
+Put him do!nM+
Three individuals, servile scoundrels, lunged at me and ;noc;ed me do!n in 'ront o' his des;.
+Ta;e o'' his shoesM+
They too; them o'', one man 'or each shoe.
+Put chains on himM+
They chained my 'eet.
6 told themG
+2ister Pre'ect, you are no! the stronger, master over li'e and deathJ but tomorro! !hen 6 shall
leave here, 6 !ill ta;e revenge uon both you and him !ho cursed me.+
4t this moment 6 heard some noise and voices in the hall.
Pro'essor CuDa !as arriving !ith Pro'essor #umuleanu and arents o' the childrenG Col. 9ade>de,
2a>. Dumitriu, 8utnariu, 2a>. 4mbroDie and others, accomanied by the rosecutor and medical
e<aminer, Pro'essor 8ogdan.
The Pre'ect and the others >umed o'' their chairs and !ent out into the hall.
6 heard the Pre'ect saying.
+:hat do you !ant hereK 6 as; you to get outM+
Then Pro'essor CuDa=s voiceG
+:ho do you thin; you are thro!ing outK :e came to see you so that you !ould thro! us outK :e
have come accomanied by the rosecutor as comlainants against you.+
+Gendarmes, thro! them outM+ ordered the Pre'ect.
Pro'essor #umuleanu osted himsel' at the door o' the room in !hich !ere loc;ed the victims and
+2ister Prosecutor, !e !ill not leave here until this room is oened 'or us.+
#everal commissars.
+There is no one in this room. 6t is emty.
Pro'essor #umuleanuG
+1et this room be oened no!M+
7on the rosecutor=s intervention the room !as oened and si< youngsters !ere heled out by
their arents and brought into the Pre'ect=s o''ice. The medical e<aminer, Pro'essor 8ogdan,
e<amined all o' them, issuing medical certi'icates. #everal hours later all those
in the yard !ere 'reed. 6 !as ;et in 'or t!o more days a'ter !hich 6 !as sent to the e<amining
He let me go. 6 told himG
+Lour Honor, i' 6 am not given >ustice, 6 am going to get it mysel'.+
6 !ent home. Pro'essor CuDa !ith 1iviu #adoveanu came there to see me.
+:e heard that you said you !anted to ta;e the la! into your o!n hands. Do not do anything o' the
sort. :e !ill reort this to the 2inistry o' the 6nterior demanding an investigation. 6t is imossible
that !e shall not receive satis'action.+
6 !as morally crushed. 4ll my lans collased. 6 le't to 'ate both the bric;yard and the garden and 6
boarded the 'irst train to Camul-1ung in 8ucovina, !here, on the green aths, 6 slo!ly climbed u
the mountain, carrying on my soul burdens and the humiliation o' yesterday as !ell as the uDDling
torments regarding the 'uture. 6t seemed 6 had no 'riend in the !orld e<cet the mountain-the (arau,
!ith its hermitage. :hen 6 !as about ?F%% 'eet u, 6 stoed.
6 loo;ed over mountains and hills 'or hundreds o' miles, but no vie! be'ore my eyes could relace
the icture o' in'amy and humiliation to !hich 6 had been e<osed together !ith my comradesJ 6
could still hear their sobbing, and it hurt. 6t !as getting dar;. 9ot one living soul around. only trees
!ith vultures shrie;ing around the barren cli''s. 6 only had !ith me my heavy coat and a loa' o'
bread. 6 ate some bread and dran; some !ater sringing 'rom among the roc;s. 6 gathered ieces o'
!ood to ma;e mysel' a shelter, a hut. Here in this habitation 6 lived 'or a month and a hal'. The
little 'ood 6 needed !as brought to me by sheherds 'rom old man Piticaru=s shee'old. 6 !as
brooding and ashamed to go do!n among eole. 6 !ondered, !hat sins may 6 have committed that
God sent this mis'ortune uon my head right no! !hen 6 !as ready to launch such a grand and
beauti'ul lanK 6 !rote 2otaG
+6 do not ;no! !hat ails meJ it seems 6 am not mysel'M Good 'ortune abandoned me. 2is'ortune has
been 'ollo!ing me 'or some time, ste by steJ in anything 6 start, 6 'ail. 4nd !hen 'ortune no
longer serves you in battle, all those around you begin to
desert you. Lou bring them together at the cost o' /% victories and one de'eat is enough 'or them to
leave you.+
2y soul !as ravaged by doubts. 6 !as at a crossroad. :e !ere 'ighting 'or the good o' the country
and !ere treated li;e enemies o' the eole. :e !ere mercilessly hit by the government, olice,
gendarmes, army.
#hould !e also use 'orceK They are the #tateJ by tens o' thousands, by hundreds o' thousands. :e,
a hand'ul o' youngsters, e<hausted in body by hardshis, hunger, cold, rison, :hat 'orce do !e
reresent to e<ect at least a small chance o' victoryK :ere !e to try !e !ould be crushed. 4nd in
the end, the country, daDed by the Ce!ish ress, !ould say !e !ere some madmen. 9ot to use 'orce
and violence as they doK They rovo;e, torture your men, scatter them and ;ill you. #hall !e ermit
ourselves to be ;illedK 8ut at our age !e have not yet !ritten anything do!n and it !ould not even
be ;no!n !hy they ;illed us, better 'or all o' us to leave the country. To leave and to curseJ to
!ander throughout the !hole !orld. 8etter 'or us to beg in country a'ter country than be so
humiliated to the utmost here in our o!n land.
)r descend 'rom this mountain !eaon in hand and do >ustice, that 6 may do a!ay !ith the beast
bloc;ing the road and sti'ling the li'e o' our nation. 8ut !hat about our lans a'ter!ardsK 6 !ill die
in my endeavor or die in risonJ 'or 6 cannot bear a rison regimen. 6 love liberty. 6' 6 do not have it,
6 die. 8ut !hat about 2otaK For such a move means both my martyrdom and 2ota=s, !hose
chances 'or acEuittal !ill vanish comletely. )ur entire grou !ill be crushed. 4ll our !ell-meant
thoughts, all our lans 'or organiDing !ill have been in vain-'or all !ould have ended here.
For si< !ee;s, there on to o' the mountain, 6 !as tormented by these thoughts, 'ailing to 'ind a
solution. 7nder the !eight o' my !orries and anguish, my chest began hurting and 6 'elt my o!ers
6 had been an imetuous man !ho never gave in to anyone. 6 !as sure o' mysel' and con'ident in
my o!ers. :herever 6 !ent, 6 !on.
This time, resent di''iculties bent meM 6 descended 'rom the mountain. 6 le't everything to 'ateJ 6
could not 'ind any solutions. 8ut 'rom then on 6 carried on mysel' a revolver !hich 6 intended to
use at the 'irst, slightest rovocationJ nobody !as to budge me 'rom that resolve. 6 !ent to the
bric;yard. There, Grigore Ghica, le't in charge o' the !or;, e<emlarily had met his resonsibility.
The number o' bric;s in storage increased considerably. T!o ne! ovens, each o' ?%,%%% bric;
caacity, !ere built. This !as around Culy -Fth. The boys received me a''ectionately. 9othing
unusual haened in the yard.
6n 6asi though, 6 'ound changes. Police commissars !ho earlier hardly had shoes on their 'eet, !ere
no! ne!ly out'itted 'rom to to bottom by the Ce!s !ho 'elt li;e absolute masters. The Police
Pre'ecture had an automobile at their disosal given by the Ce!s.
They e<hibited an imertinence !e had not encountered since -.-. during the communist
movements !hen they imagined themselves to be on the eve o' revolution and !hen every little
Ce!, in 6asi or over the Pruth, assumed the airs o' a eole=s commissar.
The Cudeo-1iberal o!er had heard o' our grou, o' our vo! ta;en at 5acaresti, realiDing that
around this bloc the students !ould rally as one. 9othing 'rightens Ce!s more than a er'ect unity
in othersG the unity o' 'eeling in a movement, in a eole. That is !hy they !ill al!ays be 'or
+democracy+ !hich has but one advantage, and that one 'or the nation=s enemy. For democracy !ill
brea; u the unity and the sirit o' a eole, !hich, 'aced !ith the er'ect unity and solidarity o'
>udaism in (omania and the rest o' the entire !orld, once divided into democratic arties, thus
'ragmented, !ill be de'eated.
This !as also true o' the student movementJ as !e had no er'ect unity, Ce!s 'ound 'actions or
leaders !hom they could convince, masonic-'ashion, namely, suggesting to them all sorts o' ideas
!hich had no other urose but that o' brea;ing u our unity.
)r, as our grou this time resented an unsha;eable oneness !ith ossibilities o' rallying around
itsel' the entire student movement, !e !ere con'ronted !ith an interminable series o' lies and
intrigues care'ully !oven, aiming to slit 2ota a!ay 'rom me, and the others 'rom one another.
Ce!s 'ound among students !ea; elements !ho could be used as un!itting tools. Pretending that
they !ere sharing great secrets !ith them, Ce!s launched intrigues !hich caught on even among
students arents, some o' !hom becoming the 'iercest advocates 'or brea;ing the ties o' their sons
!ith this grou.
Ho! !ere !e able to resistK )nly through the 'oresight o' our lans made it 5acaresti. :e realiDed
'rom the very 'irst moment that this classic attac; used by 2asonry and Cudaism !ould be aimed at
us. :e !ere ready. #o that, the moment it started, !e resisted even
our closest relatives, 4s soon as !e detected an intriguer at !or;, !e got together and in'ormed the
!hole grou.
6 no! give here advice to all organiDations, calling their attention to this system, commonly used
every!here. 6n order to arry the attac;G
-. 9ever believe a tendentious in'ormation, no matter !here it comes 'rom.
$. 6mmediately reort the intrigue attemt to the grou in Euestion, to the involved ersons and the
leaders. 6n this !ay the attac; could be reulsed.
)n 4ugust -%, -.$?, at the 7ngheni bric;yard, surrounded by my comrades and my arents, !as
celebrated my betrothal to 2iss *lena 6linoiu, the daughter o' 2r. Constantin 6linoiu, a train
conductor, He !as a man o' great goodness and great tenderness o' soul. 4'ter that 6 moved into
their home !here 6 !as received !ith oen arms, even though they had a 'amily o' 'ive children.
This 'amily !as to me a constant suort in the 'ight 6 !as !aging. Their care 'or me and their love
sustained me. )n #etember -/, 6 !ent home to Husi !here 6 celebrated in my arents= home my
birthday and nameday. 6 had >ust turned $F.
The trial o' 2ota and o' the student 1eonida 5lad !ho rocured the revolver, !as set 'or
#etember $0, -.$?. 5lad turned himsel' in several days a'ter the shooting, and !as ;et in rison
!ith 2ota all the time.
6 le't 'or 8ucharest !here deliberations oened be'ore the Court o' 4ssiDes. 2ota energetically
de'ended his thesis that treason must be unished. Public oinion, 'ed u !ith traitors, 'ollo!ed the
un'olding o' the trial !ith lively interest and enthusiasm. 6t sa! in 2ota=s gesture a beginning o'
action against traitors and roo' o' moral health. His deed has burst li;e a light on the dar; side o'
(omanian li'e !here century a'ter century 'ighters 'or the good o' the eole had been 'elled
through treason.
4ll the students at a>l universities held huge demonstrations 'or his acEuittal. 4round the Tribunal
in 8ucharest, again, thousands o' eole !ere massed !ho !anted a ne! li'e 'or their country=and
demanded 2ota=s 'reedom.
4t daybrea;, oular >ustice brought a verdict o' acEuittal !hich !as enthusiastically received
throughout the !hole country. 2ota, a'ter seeing his arents, le't Clu> 'or 6asi !here he settled
do!n, in accordance !ith our vo!.
The humiliation and dishonor to !hich !e !ere sub>ected during the la!lessness o' 2ay /-st had
crushed us morallyJ it became an oen !ound that deeened more and more, consuming our li'e
and seemingly dra!ing us closer to the grave.
The humiliation you 'eel !hen both you and yours are dishonored, gives you a 'eeling o' ro'ound
ain, ma;ing you shun eole, ashamed to be seen. it !ould seem you 'eel this !orld desises you,
laughing in your 'ace because you are incaable o' de'ending your honorJ that you endanger society
roer, letting it be believed through your co!ardice that an oressor can, ununished, dishonor it
and hurt it according to his !hims.
These ains gre! roortionately as our endeavors to obtain legal redress !ere re>ected !ith a
cynicism that led us to deseration. 5ictims !ho sued 'or legal satis'action ris;ed being beaten
again by the olice, this time !ithin the very !alls o' the raetorium o' >ustice and even be'ore the
>udges. 6n the end, ho!ever, it !as the comlainants !ho !ere condemned. :hat haened on 2ay
/-st did not remain !ithout its reercussions. 6 reroduce 'rom ne!saers the echo this event had
in (omanian society along !ith attemts at getting satis'action 'or the outrage.
7niversul (+The 7niverse+" on Cune @, -.$? rints under the titleG
:e imagine 2r. 2anciu, the re'ect o' the 6asi olice, as being li;e one o' the most notorious
olicemen o' the last century, e<emli'ied by violence and brutality, 2r. Pre'ect 2anciu, though a
olicemen o' only a year=s e<erience in a university to!n li;e 6asi, inaugurated his system o'
anachronistic olice violence last year at the congress o' university ro'essors. He !as able to sto
a congress o' university teachers because that is !hat his olice imulses dictated to him.
The rotests that 'ollo!ed, against the indignities heaed uon this most distinguished grou o'
intellectuals, remained 'ruitless, 'or 2r. Pre'ect o' the 6asi olice had olitically-bac;ed suort 'or
doing !hat he did.
4nd since then 2r. 2anciu has assiduously continued his olice methods !hich he articularly
e<hibited these ast days, !hen he beat, he beat thirstily, he Dealously struc;, he maliciously bled
the students, then ordered his subalterns to imitate him !ith the same brutal Deal.
9o matter !hat the students o' 6asi had done, had they even been assassins, they should not have
been beaten.
First, an investigation should have been made, the ublic rosecutor=s o''ice should have been
in'ormed, they should have been arrested, ossibly ut in chains, but not beaten to a ul.
2r. Pre'ect 2anciu is certainly obliged in the course o' his duties also to aly certain regulations
regarding =the rotection o' animals.= :e even believe he en'orces them.
+6n other !ords he sees to it that horses are not beaten, that igs are not tortured.
4nd yet 2r. 2anciu !ho as a student must have studied enal la! and must have read something
o' the enal literature that erhas !as recommended to him by our distinguished enalist 2r.
6ulian Teodoreanu himsel', a man !ho has been reaching the abolition o' brutal sanctions in
risons, ersonally beat the students, tortured them, covered them !ith blood.
8ut, !hat i' the beaten students are not guilty o' any o' the absurdities o' !hich they are accusedK
Then !hatK #hould he in turn be thrashedK
Certainly a >udicial investigation is needed.
8ut a sanction is also needed to ma;e it imossible 'or 2r. 2anciu to strengthen his muscles on the
heads o' students.+
8. Cecroide
The aer continues on Cune ., -.$?G
They !ere Provo;ed by the Police, Tortured 'or no reason, 4 8rutal Police Pre'ect. 2anciu 2ust
be Fired.
:e !rote in an earlier issue on the banditry committed by 2r. 2anciu, the Police Pre'ect o' 6asi,
against the students.
Today !e shall reroduce several assages 'rom the memorandum the students 'or!arded to the
2inistry o' the 6nterior.
The #tudent 8uilders 6n the memorandum they sayG
=:e Christian students o' 6asi 7niversity too; a decision a month ago to build through our o!n
labor a cultural home....=
T&! P'%1%0"$*%), %5 $&! P%#*0! P'!5!0$
=Hardly gathered, !e 'ound ourselves surrounded by a gendarme comany and the entire olice
aaratus headed by Pre'ect 2anciu.
:hile all o' us stood very Euiet, their !eaons e<tended, they lunged at us, started s!earing and
struc; us in the most barbarous ossible manner. :e !ere searched, as they thought they !ould
'ind !eaons on us, but nothing !as 'ound on any o' us. During the search they tried to ut into the
oc;ets o' our colleague Corneliu Qelea Codreanu, a revolver and some aers, !hich he rotested.
8ecause o' this he !as beaten by the Policeman 2anciu, 6nsector Clos, Commissar 5asiliu and,
together !ith the rest o' the agents, he !as tied as i' he !ere the !orst o' thieves. The same thing
haened to a large number o' those o' us !ho !ere there. :e !ere arrested, surrounded by
military cordons, ta;en to the Police Pre'ecture.=
E1!) $&! C&*#+'!) %) $&! S$'!!$ -!'! B!"$!)
=:e met on our !ay several students o' various high schools !ho !ere going to!ard the sorts ar;
to ractice the oina ((omanian baseball - Tr0", as they !ere directed by their rincials to do. 4ll o'
them !ere arrested and ta;en along !ith us to olice headEuarters, naturally a'ter they !ere beaten
by Policeman 2anciu himsel' and the other olicemen, 'or everybody to !atch. They too, !ere
;et at olice headEuarters the !hole day. #ome o' us !ere beaten till !e 'ainted,then !ere 'reedJ
others gave declarations under duress !hile some !ere 'reed !ith no declarations being ta;en=.+
4nd in conclusion 7niversul addedG +The above-mentioned deeds cannot go ununished.
The Pre'ect o' olice 2anciu, roved to be an agent rovocateur and guilty o' torturing students
and high scbool boys in 6asi, must receive the unishment 'or such la!lessness.
4mong others, 7niversul o' Cune -%, -.$? rintsG
+... Transorted to the olice dungeons, these students !ere sub>ected to the most terri'ying tortures.
+#ome o' them !ere hung head do!n, beaten on the soles o' their 'eet !ith the o< sine!. The
student Corneliu Codreanu !as bound, then slaed and tortured by the olice re'ect himsel'. His
health !as sha;en.+
+The other arrested students sho! serious body lesions.+
+Three hundred students have reorted the above-mentioned 'acts to the general rosecutor
demanding that the medical e<aminer loo; into the condition o' their tortured colleagues.+
6n the secial issue o' the ne!saer 7nirea (+The 7nion+" o' Cune -, -.$?, Pro'essor 4. C. CuDa
ublished a >udicious article 'rom !hich 6 e<tractG
+8ut in the 'ace o' these constant brutalities and innumerable abuses, groundless-esecially
committed so that they !ould !orry the (omanian students through
terror-t!o Euestions strongly ose themselvesG
+:hat does the government that ;ees such a oliceman at the head o' such a city as 6asi !antK
+:hat does the oliceman himsel' !antK+
+Do they !ant thoughtless reactions to be roduced, as a result o' this continuous 'rustration !hich
seems to be rovo;ed dailyK+
+This rovocation is the more undigni'ied and the more irritating because at the same time
oliceman 2anciu 'reEuents the meetings o' the Ce!ish association =2acabi= and ostentatiously
leads these sort-minded 2acabees in e<cursions, behind their !hite and blue 'lag.
+4nd one sees him daily lounging in his car-not the one be traveled in the other day to Ciurea-but in
the ne! car that it seems !as bought 'or him by the 6asi 6sraelite community through a ublic
subscrition, the same Aahal !hich encourages him in the ress and at every oortunity in his
attitude against the Christian students.
+Protesting !ith utmost indignation against this action o' continuous rovocation, !e demand that
the suerior authorities intervene in order to ut an end to an undigni'ied and dangerous state o'
a''airs, that neither 6asi nor Christian students can tolerate any longer.+
4.C. CuDa
Cune /rd and Fth
The 'ollo!ing telegrams !ere sentG
+:ishing to meet in order to rotest the la!lessness o' Policeman 2anciu against our students and
children !ho !ere daily beaten and insulted, !e !ere revented by olice and gendarmes even
though the rosecutor authoriDed our meeting.
+:e resect'ully submit to Lour 2a>esty our comlaint and as; to be rotected.+ (There 'ollo!
-$%% names".
+)ur children ic;ed o'' the streets, savagely maltreated by olice Pre'ect 2anciu. :e demand
immediate investigation 'ollo!ed by severe sanctions.
+Hurt in our arental 'eelings, losing all atience, !e e<ect >ustice !ithout delay.+
ss. 2a>. -. Dumitriu, 2a>. 4mbroDie, D. 8utnaru, *lena )lanescu, Cat. )arDa, Gheorghiu, etc.
First year, 9o. $, 9ovember -F, -.$?
4ctiunea (omaneasca in its 9ov. -F, -.$? issue ublished over the signature o' the reno!ned
!riter Dr. 6on 6strateG
+4n imressive meeting o' ublic rotest !as held on Cune @, -.$? in the 8e>an Hall, under the
honor residency o' Gen, Tamoschi. 2anciu=s conduct !as branded byG 7niversity Pro'essor 4.C.
CuDa, student Grigorescu reresenting Christian students, cra'tsman 4rtur (us, metallurgist C.
Pancu, 7niversity Pro'essor C. #umuleanu 'rom the #chool o' 2edicine !ho gave an imressive
descrition o' !hat he sa! at the olice stationG bro;en eardrums, s!ollen cars, bloody eyes, bro;en
arms and legs bruised by the o< sine!s o' 2anciu=s savages. He declared that, had he had a son so
tortured by the barbarian heading the olice 'orce, =he !ould not have hesitated 'or an instant to
blo! the rascal=s brains out.+
+Then so;e 2a>. -. Dumitriu !ho concluded by sayingG =6 trust the country=s >ustice !ill give us
satis'action. 6' not 6 s!ear here be'ore you and 6 shall ;no! ho! to resect my oath-that 6 !ill ta;e
>ustice into my o!n bands.+
+4ttorney 8acaloglu also so;e, then cra'tsman Cristea, attorney 9elu 6onescu and Pro'essor 6on
Qelea Codreanu. 4t the end a rotest motion !as voted uon in !hich the 2inistry o' >ustice !as
as;ed 'or satis'action on the one hand, and the government !as as;ed to 'ire 2anciu on the other.+
6n Tara 9oastra (+)ur Country+" 9o. $? on Cune -F, -.$? the !ell ;no!n !riter 4l.). Teodoreanu
ublished an article 'rom !hich !e reroduce the last assagesG
+Custice, called uon to sea; u, declares all the =arrested students= innocent and decides that they
must be 'reed immediately.
The student Qelea Codreanu is ;et under arrest desite this, ut on trial by Policeman 2anciu !ho
is a la!yer besides, 'or consiracy.
The most elementary la! manuals and common sense tell us that in marriage, duel or consiracy,
one erson alone cannot 'igure.
6n order to lace such a label on a erson as above, one !ho issues it must be in a articular state o'
inebriation !hich !ould ma;e him see at least double.
6n other !ords, one cannot tal; !ith him.
8ut, in the name o' the entire slandered (omanian oulation, 'rom !hich !e gladly e<clude, !ith
no loss to anyone, its timid reresentatives in Parliament and the ress, !e as; o' the government
!hether it considers it best to leave the (inevitable" unishment o' 2anciu u to his victims, or
more oortune to revent it.
Forti'ied by the decisive !ord o' >ustice !e do not hesitate to label =the consiracy= o' 6asi as a
treacherous 'rame-u...+
4.). Teodoreanu
4s a result o' the numerous rotests stemming 'rom this event, the 4dministrative 6nsector 5araru
!as sent out to investigate the case. Here is the memorandum 'or!arded to him by 2a>. 4mbroDieG
2r. 6nsector,
De'initely !ishing to establish the !hole truth as to our telegrahic reort on the torture o' our
sons, the 2inister o' the 6nterior has sent you to investigateJ as !e believe you !ish to give 'ull
e<osure to this case, !e have ut together this memorandum containing a narration o' the 'acts.
The event haened as 'ollo!sG 6t !as ;no!n in 6asi both by school rincials and by the students=
arents, that students !ere ma;ing bric;s in 7ngheni to build a home o' their o!n in 6asi, and that
they !or;ed a garden laced at their disosal by 2rs. Ghica on Carol #t. #ome o' the students and
high school boys met once a !ee; under the leadershi o' the student Corneliu Q. Codreanu, !hen
!or; assignments !ere made, namelyG ?% students !ere sent to 7ngheni to ma;e bric;s, and $%-$F
high school boys !ere sent to !ater the vegetable garden.
The olice re'ect !as a!are o' thisJ but he 'igured he might as !ell concoct something
sensational, li;e a consiracy,= articularly !hen ne!saers in 6asi are ractically o!ned by him
and conseEuently !ould 'all in !ith his game. #aid and done. )n 2ay /-, -.$?, bet!een ?G/% and
F o=cloc; in the morning, !hen he ;ne! some 0F students had come to !or; in 2rs. Ghica=s yard,
his entire olice 'orce and many armed troos made a sudden charge against them because o' the
gravity o' the contrived =consiracy.= The human mind re'uses to comrehend !hat haened !hen
students and high school boys !ere surrounded li;e ordinary criminals and !ere barbarously struc;
on the sot by agents, the military, and even by Policeman 2anciu himsel'.
4 hal' hour later, all o' them, headed by Corrieliu Qelea Codreanu and under heavy escort, !ere
headed do!n the main street to!ard olice headEuartersJ on their !ay they met another grou o'
high school students !ho by order o' their ro'essors !ere going to Coou to lay 6oina. These,
because they ermitted themselves the lu<ury o' greeting those in chains, !ere immediately
arrested, beaten and ta;en to olice Euarters, as accomlices o' the 'ormer.
4rrived there, the re'ect, not bothering to in'orm the ublic rosecutor=s o''ice o' the gravity o' the
situation, began a =sui generis= interrogation all by himsel'J namely, he beat, manhandled and
tortured these students and high school boys to 'orce 'rom them declarations that they !ere a art o'
the consiracy, to ma;e them tell !hat they ;ne!. 8ut !hat !ere they to tell, !hen they ;ne!
nothing o' the sortK 4lmost all o' them !ere beaten, but the most seriously hurt !ereG
-. 2y son, CeDar 4mbroDie, senior at the Pedagogic #eminary, !ho !as ersonally !hied by the
re'ect over the head !ith an o< sine!, and in the end, because he did not roduce the e<ected
ans!er, !as given a blo! o' the 'ist on the le't ear, !hich bro;e his eardrum.
$. High school student Dumitriu #rinti, 2a>. Durnitriu=s sonJ his 'eet !ere chained together and he
!as turned uside do!n being hung on a ri'le held by #gt. Co>ocaru and Cl. Teodoroiu. He !as
beaten on his 'eet !ith the o< sine! by the re'ect ersonally till he assed out.
/. High school boy Gh. Gurguta had his hands and 'eet tied. Then he !as laced on the 'loor 'ace
do!n and beaten !ith the o< sine!, and in order to sti'le his screams, a an o' !ater !as laced
under his 'ace and an agent Posted there ushed his 'ace do!n in to the !ater !hen he screamed
During all this torture, t!o gendarme o''icers !ere also resentG Cat. 5elciu and 1ieut. Tomida,
!hose soldierly dignity, !e hoe, !ill not revent them 'rom revealing the truth, since it !as not
digni'ied o' them to !itness such treatmentJ to use troos in the torturing as !ell as using a military
!eaon as a tool o' torture, !hen it is !ell ;no!n !hat its use ought to be.
4ccording to !hat students and high school boys related, !hile Policeman 2anciu !as engaged in
such oerations, Prosecutors Culianu and 8uDea assed through his o''ice. 6 believe they !ill tell
the truth.
The beatings and tortures stoed altogether only later, !hen First-Prosecutor Catichi came to
olice headEuarters, as demanded by a committee comosed o'J Pro'essors CuDa and #umuleanu,
attorney 8acaloglu, Col. 9ade>de and 2edical *<aminer 8ogdan !ho e<amined the children and
legally established, there in the olice re'ecture, the !ounds enumerated in the medical certi'icates
attached to this reort.+
4s you can see, 2r. 6nsector, !e have 'ollo!ed legal rocedures u to today, namely.
-. :e had as;ed the 'irst-rosecutor and the medical e<aminer to come to the re'ecture 'or them to
veri'y the !ounds o' the students. $. :e brought suit against the torturers be'ore the Court o'
District --.
/. :e in'ormed the ublic rosecutor=s o''ice, !here the medical e<aminer=s reort !as also sent,
the case being re'erred to investigating 2agistrate lesanu.
?. 4s o''icers and men o' honor !e could have demanded 'rom 2r. 2anciu satis'action by means
o' !eaons, but he had disEuali'ied himsel' !hen he re'used meeting Cat. Ciulei in a duel.
Honestly, this is the truth.
:e beg you to be good enough to consider that, among the o''ended arents, t!o o' us are high
ran;ing o''icers !ho, 'or having roceeded legally, are e<osed 'or no one has yet given us
satis'action to this day. )ur belie' is that the 2inister o' the in terior !ill give us comlete
satis'action, bringing Pre'ect 2anciu be'ore the bar o' >ustice 'or his misdeeds, and !ill intervene to
the 2inistry o' :ar 'or 2anciu, though a reserve in'erior o''icer, ;no!ingly tortured the children
o' his suerior comrades.
2a>, (ss" 4mbroDie
The result o' the investigation !as as 'ollo!sG
-. Pre'ect 2anciu !as decorated !ith #teaua (omaniei ((omania=s #tar" !ith the ran; o'
$. 4ll olice commissars !ho tortured us, !ere romoted.
/. *ncouraged by these measures, the olice unleashed 'urther ersecution against us, this time
e<tending it over the !hole o' 2oldavia, 4ny commissar, to increase his sources o' revenue 'rom
the Ce!s or to get romoted, grabbed a student by the throat, beat him to a ul in the street or at
olice headEuarters having to ans!er to nobody 'or his deeds.
This being the situation, on )ctober $/, -.$? 6 resented mysel' at the Court House o' District --
o' 6asi as a la!yer, together !ith my colleague Dumbrava, to reresent the student ComarDan !ho
!as tortured by 2anciu.
The re'ect sho!ed u !ith the !hole sta'' and there, in 'ull court session, be'ore the la!yers and
the residing >udge #iri doneanu, thre! himsel' at us.
7nder these circumstances, ris;ing everything, about to be crushed by the t!enty armed olicemen,
6 ulled out my handgun and 'ired.
6 aimed at !hoever came closest.
The 'irst to 'all !as 2anciu. The second, 6nsector ClosJ the third, a man much less guilty,
Commissa< Husanu.
The rest vanished.
6n no time at all, in 'ront o' the Court House, several thousand
: Reserve #ublieutenant -aniu "as in the %(th Regi*ent of the -ountain Infantry+ but during
*obili2ation he shir5ed his duties in the repair shops of the /rd Ar*y Corps0
Ce!s had gathered, their hands high in the air, their 'ingers li;e talons croo;ed in hatred, !aiting 'or
my dearture in order to ri me aart.
Holding the gun in my right hand, in !hich 6 still had 'ive rounds, 6 grabbed 5ictor Climescu, a
la!yer in 6asi, by the arm, as;ing him to accomany me to the Tribunal.
:e steed out and !al;ed thus through the ho!ling mob o' Ce!s !hich had the common sense,
uon seeing the handgun, to ste aside.
6 !as caught by the gendarmes on the !ay, searated 'rom 2r. Climescu and ta;en into the Police
Pre'ecture. Here the commissars >umed on me to disarm me o' the gun-t =he only 'riend 6 had in
the midst o' this mis'ortune. 6 gathered all my strength resisting them 'or about 'ive minutes. 6n the
end 6 !as overo!ered. They then chained my !rists behind my bac; and laced me bet!een 'our
soldiers !ith bayonets at the ready.
4'ter a !hile they too; me out o' that o''ice and 'ar bac; in the courtyard, lacing me in 'ront o' a
tall 'ence. The gendarmes retreated leaving me there alone. 6 susected they !anted to shoot me. 6
stood there several hours till late in the evening, !aiting to be shot. Ho!ever, this !aiting did not
hase me. The ne!s o' this tragic vengeance sread !ith truly lightning seed. :hen it reached
student dormitories it caused a real outburst.
From all mess halls and dormitories students started running do!n the streets to!ard 7nion #Euare.
There they demonstrated at length, singing, then they tried to head 'or the Police Pre'ecture. 8ut the
army, by no! on the scene, succeeded in stoing them. Though chained, 6 !as glad to hear their
singing 'or that meant they had been 'reed o' their tyrant.
1ate in the day 6 !as ta;en ustairs into the same o''ice o' torture, !here lesanu, the investigation
>udge, no! sat behind the des;, the same man to !hom 6 comlained 'our months earlier,
demanding >ustice. He interrogated me summarily a'ter !hich he issued the !arrant 'or my arrest.
6 !as then thro!n into a addy-!agon and transorted to Galata rison u on the hill above 6asi
near the monastery built by Petre lse=hioul, 2BP-T o' There, 6 !as ut into a room !ith ten other
risoners, !here my chains !ere ta;en o''. 2y cellmates gave me a cu o' tea. Then 6 lay do!n to
slee. 9e<t day 6 !as laced in solitary in a room !ith cement 'loor, one bed o' boards, no blan;et
or illo!J the door then !as adloc;ed. The room had t!o !indo!s !hose anes !ere
!hite!ashed on the outside. 6 could see nothing. )ne !all !as so dam that !ater ran do!n it. The
'irst day in that room, a guard-old 2atei-brought me a loa' o' blac; bread. He oened the door a
crac;, thrust his hand in !ith the loa', 'or he !as not ermitted to enter. 6 !as not at all hungry. 4t
night 6 stretched out on the boards and covered mysel' !ith the coat. 6 had nothing to ut under my
head. 6 shivered.
They too; me out in the morning 'or t!o minutes, then 6 !as loc;ed u again. 4 student, 2iluta
Poovici !ho !as also under arrest, !as able to get near my !indo! during the day, !ie the ane
clean about the siDe o' a 'inger ti so 6 could see outside. Then he !al;ed a!ay and !hen about 0%
'eet a!ay care'ully signaled to me !ith his 'ingers. 6 understood he !as using the 2orse code. Thus
6 learned that all 5acarestians !ere re-arrestedG 2ota, Garneata, Tudose Poescu, (adu 2iromovici
save Corneliu Georgescu !hom they could not arehend. They too !ere brought to the same
rison and ut together in one room. 6 learned that my 'ather !as also brought there. The second
night !as much !orse. 6 !as very cold and 6 could not doDe o'' at all. 4lmost the !hole night 6
aced the cell.
6n the morning, again, 6 !as ta;en out 'or t!o minutes, then loc;ed bac; inJ old 2atei gave me
another loa' o' bread. 4t noon 6 !as handcu''ed, ut into a addy-!agon and ta;en to the Tribunal
'or the con'irmation o' my arrest !arrant. Follo!ing this 'ormality, 6 !as brought bac; to Galata
into the same dar; room. )utside, the !eather !as getting !orse. :ith no heat, 6 !as beginning to
shiver. 6 tried to get some slee on the boards but 6 !1s able to doDe o'' only 'or about hal' an hour
at a time, 'or my bones ached. 8ecause o' the cold coming u 'rom the cement 'loor my ;idneys
began to ache, (ealiDing 6 !as losing my strength, 6 aealed to my !ill and to gymnastics.
Throughout the night, every hour on the hour, 6 got u to e<ercise 'or ten minutes obstinately
endeavoring to ;ee my strength.
The 'ollo!ing day 6 'elt ill. 2y strength !as visibly !aning desite my determination and !ill
o!er. The night that 'ollo!ed, the cold !as even greater and my !ill no longer 'unctionedJ 6 'elt
bro;en, 6 sa! blac; be'ore my eyes and 6 collased. 4s long as my !ill lasted 6 had not !orried.
8ut no! 6 realiDed 6 !as in bad shae. 6 !as sha;ing all over and could not sto. Ho! di''icult !ere
those seemingly endless nightsM
The rosecutor came in the ne<t day to see me. 6 tried to hide the shae 6 !as in.
+Ho! are things hereK+
+5ery good, #ir.+
+Have you got nothing to reortK+
+9o, nothing.+
6t !as thirteen days that 6 sent li;e thisJ then they made a little 'ire 'or me. They gave me bed
linen, blan;ets and some matting that !as hung on the !alls. 6 !as ermitted to be outdoors one
hour each day. )ne day 6 got a glimse o' 2ota and Tudose dee in the bac; o' the yard and 6
signaled to them. 6t !as then that 6 learned that my 'ather had been 'reedJ li;e!ise 1iviu
#adoveanu, 6on #ava and another student !ho had been arrested.
The ne<t day 'ollo!ing the events at Targul-Cucului, Cuvantul 6asului (+The :ord o' 6asi+" o' )ct.
$&, -.$? ublished an article signed by 9elu lonescu, la!yer, 'ormer resident o' the 4ssociationo'
1a! #tudents, 'rom !hich 6 EuoteG
+Comments made by the Ce!ish liberal ress concerning the death o' C. 2anciu, are slanted and in
bad 'aithJ they start !ith a gross 'alsi'ication o' 'acts - 'acts !hich !ere only the inevitable
conseEuence o' a regime o' abuses and in>ustice - in order to turn into a hero, at any rice, the man
!ho !as but an instrument, and to hea the blame on some imagined 'ascistic anti-#emitic
The students !ere 'orcibly revented 'rom entering the Cathedral to rayJ !ere revented 'rom
eating in common in a restaurantJ !ere brutaliDed and revented 'rom !al;ing the streetsJ !ere
revented 'rom bolding meetings in their o!n university and at their association=s o''icesJ !ere
revented'rom !or;ing their o!n garden 'or their o!n useJ !ere beaten on the street, in olice
cellars and in ublic sEuares by the entire olice 'orce, 'rom the lo!liest co all the !ay u to the
one !ho !as but yesterday the olice re'ect o' this city.
#tudents, sho!ing a sel'-mastery !orthy o' admiration and a trust in >ustice that honors them,
initiated a series o' suits against Pre'ect 2anciu and bis subalterns, 'or severe cruelty, abuse o'
o!er and individual liberty.
This gesture o' the students !as not understood. 4nd regret'ully !e must say that Custice did not
meet the e<ectations that an entire generation, animated by the urest sentiment o' legality and
order, laced in it.
=rbe coed #ilvia Teodorescu, ;ic;ed in the bac; by 2anciu in broad daylight on Dec. --, -.$/ on
Carol #t. in 'ront o' Col. 5elsa=s house - a 'act stated and attested to in having numerous
eye!itnesses - not only did not succeed in having 2anciu convicted be'ore the Court o' 7rban
District 6, but sbe as lainti'' ended u convicted o' slander, 'or at the trial it !as learned that during
the ;ic;ing she addressed to 2anciu the !ordsG =this is savagery.=
)n the evening o' Dec. -?, -.$/, the la! student, 1e'ter, 'rom Galati, as he !as entering Hotel
8e>an !here he resided, !as !ith no reason surrounded by a band o' olicemen and gendarmes
!ho, together !ith 2anciu and by his orders, beat bim !ith bludgeons, canes, ri'le, butts, ;ic;s and
'ists, till be 'ell to the ground unconcious, 'ollo!ing !hich he !as dragged into a side street,
dumed and le't there !ithout any assistance.
Though 1e'ter sued, 2anciu !as e<onerated, not having to bring any !itnesses to his de'ense.
8ut !hat is one to say o' the barbarity and savagery o' last summer, eretrated on the students
!or;ing in the garden o' the Ghica residenceKM
T!enty 'ive students, beaten on the soles o' their 'eet li;e thieves 'or a 'ull day, a 'act that !as
veri'ied by the 'irst rosecutor and by the athologist, 'or an imaginary consiracy so insigni'icant
that it did not even !arrant an investigation.
4nd not only this but !hen, uon the students= demands 'or an administrative investigation, one !as
conducted last summer by 2r. 5araru, he !as ro'oundly shoc;ed by the abuses he himsel'
con'irmed. Ho!ever, 5araru=s reort to the aroriate 2inistry resulted in 2anciu being decorated
!ith #teaua (omaniei ((omania=s #tar".
This then is the man !ho diedJ one sea;s only !ell o' the dead, but this does not revent us 'rom
telling the truth.
2anciu susended meetingsJ 2anciu stoed those !anting to enter the CathedralJ 2anciu beat
students on the streets, at the olice and in ublic sEuaresJ insulted those !ho comlained and
threatened their de'enders. 2anciu, rotected by cordons o' olice o''icers and gendarmes, beat -
!ith the bestiality o' one ossessed T the students, tied and 'oot, !bo could thro! bac; at them
through the rain o' sittle and blo!s o' his demented subalterns, only loo;s o' contemt and
temorary resignation.
8ehold the man o' duty and behold the ;ind o' order this man !as disensingM
The ublic oinion is on Corneliu Codreanu=s side. 6t li;es his manly gesture and, areciating the
suerior motive o' this gesture !arning a regime and serving an idea, absolves him o' the
customary incrimination 'or such a deed, >usti'ying him comletely and in 'act, ublic oinion
aroves o' him.
Personally, 6 salute Corneliu Codreanu=s heroic gesture, !ho once again remains intransigent in
matters o' honor and determined !hen dignity is involved.+
#everal days later, the ne!saer 7nirea (+The 7nion+" in )ct. -.$?, ublished Pro'essor CuDa=s
+For a 'ull year no! the olice o' 6asi have e<erienced a real tragedy, !hose last act is ;no!n by
all. Due to the 'atal evolution o' events the 'ollo!ing victims 'ellG
Pre'ect 2anciu, 6nsector Clos, #ub-commissar Husanu, and no less, the doctoral candidate
Corneliu Qelea Codreanu.
Pre'ect 2anciu diedJ #ub-commissar Husanu 'ights deathJ 6nsector Clos sustained a dee !oundJ
Corneliu Qelea Codreanu lingers in >ail.
:hat is this tragedy that 'ells so many victimsK 6n !hat manner can !e sea; o' the 'atal evolution
o' these eventsK :ho are the guilty artiesK
2anciu !as 2r, 2arDescus olice re'ect in 6asi. 6t !as in this caacity alone that he !as brought
here and !as maintained till the end-all the e<cesses o' !hich he !as guilty not!ithstanding. :hich
ma;es it abundantly clear that his actions !ere aroved. The abundant roo' that he !as aroved,
that he !or;ed according to a reestablished lan at the direct insiration o' 2r. G.G. 2arDescu
!ho suorted him, are the distinctions accorded him-his =merits= in o''ice and the romotion o' his
The 'atal system insired by 2anciu !as the terroriDation o' christian studentsG to give the Ce!s
satis'action and to rove that =order= can be maintained =by energetic means=.
The un'ortunate 2anciu, !ho had no secial talents, ut the 'atal system into oeration !ith an
unusual brutality even !hen it came to university ro'essorsG commencing his career on the
occasion o' the general meeting o' the 4ssociation o' 7niversity Pro'essors o' (omania, held in 6asi
on #et. $/-$F, -.$/ under the residency o' our eminent colleague Pro'essor 6. Gavanescul.
Pre'ect 2anciu insulted the universities, brutaliDed and arrested innocent students, tbus comelling
their ro'essors to rotest and see; satis'action.
The 'our university commission made u o' Pro'essors Dr. HurmuDescu, 8ucharestJ Dr.
#umuleanu, 6asiJ 2. #te'anescu, Clu>J and Haeman, Cernauti, edited right there in the meeting the
'ollo!ing telegram signed by Pro'essor Gavanescul, !hich !as then sent toG
-. The President o' the Council o' 2inistersJ
$. The 2inister o' 6nternal 4''airsJ
/. The 2inister o' Public 6nstruction
The General 4ssociation o' 7niversity Pro'essors o' (omania, in its oening meeting, condemns
the harassing inter'erence o' the 6asi olice, and in total agreement !ith its resident, demands 'rom
suerior authorities customary investigation and comlete satis'action.
President o' the 4ssociation (ss" 1. Gavanescul
The same commission edited and sent the mayor o' 6asi the 'ollo!ing te<tG
+2r. 2ayor,
The General 4ssociation o' 7niversity Pro'essors, in their oening meeting, in conseEuence o' the
harassing measures ta;en against our convention by 2r. Pre'ect o' the 6asi olice, regrets to in'orm
you that under the circumstances they cannot ta;e art in the banEuet given by the City Hall, hereby
than;ing you 'or your good intentions.+
President o' the 4ssociation (ss" 1 Gavanescul
+Having received an imerative mandate to terroriDe students, 2anciu oerated in con'ormity !ith
its aims and according to the established lan-treading on the ath o'
'atalism. :e !ill brie'ly enumerate the events as they occurredG
-. The introduction o' olice and army into the university on Dec. -%, -.$/.
)n the occasion o' the student demonstrations !hich 'ollo!ed, the student G. 2anoliu !as beaten
by the olice so severely that he !as ta;en H6 !ith >aundice and died several days later.
$. 8rutalities at the rail!ay station. )h the occasion o' the arrival o' Pro'essor 6on Qelea Codreanu
in 6asi, a'ter he !as released 'rom rison, Pre'ect 2anciu, totally un>usti'iedly, thre! himsel', the
olice and the army uon the citiDens and students !ho came to the deot to receive him,
brutaliDing them and chasing them a!ay as i' they !ere male'actors.
/. Prince Carol=s visit. on the occasion o' this visit 2anciu had staged other scandalous abuses
!hich comelled the students to comlain to His (oyal Highness.
?. The scandal at the #idoli Theater, 7on arrival in 6asi o' the (omanian retired oera artists, they
!ere met by the students !ho staged 'or them a demonstration o' symathy. This absolutely
eace'ul demonstration !as reason enough 'or Pre'ect 2anciu to cause another scandal. He
manhandled the students and scattered them !ith odious brutality.
F. The Carol #t. consiracy. Than;s to the courtesy o' 2rs. Constanta Ghica, the students lanted
vegetables in her garden o''ered 'or that urose, in order to suort themselves. )n 2ay /-, this
year, as students !ere gathered to commence !or;, Pre'ect 2anciu !ith his !hole sta'' and the
gendarmes !ith bayonets 'i<ed, aeared and arrested all students resent. Corneliu Qelea
Codreanu had his hands tied behind his bac; !ith his o!n belt, and !as led thus throughout the
to!n together !ith the other $F students and high school boys to!ard olice headEuarters !here
they !ere cruelly beaten.
Corneliu Qelea Codrednu, a reserve o''icer, doctoral la! candidate, !as slaed over the 'ace and
coarsely insulted !ith the most degrading vulgarities.
The high school student 4mbroDie, son o' the veteran 2a>. 4mbroDie, !as slaed so hard that his
eardrum bro;e, a 'act veri'ied by the medical certi'icate signed by athologist Dr. Gh. 8ogdan.
The other students and high school boys had their 'eet soles lashed by a bull!hi a'ter being
susended, heads do!n. Their heads !ere lo!ered into ails o' !ater to sto their shouts. The
arents o' the children so tortured areG 2a>or 4mbroDie, Dimitriu, 8utnaru, etc. !ho 'or!arded to
the 2inistry o' internal 4''airs a etition against Pre'ect 2anciu, and then sued him. 8ut 2anciu
continued to e<hibit a revolting attitude even be'ore the >udge.
9ot only !as Pre'ect 2anciu retained in his ost but he !as re!arded 'or his attitude and
encouraged to ursue his 'atal system 'urther, the Ce!ish ress eulogiDed him daily, roclaiming
him a savior o' la! and order and a suerior being.
The government, having at 6asi as its reresentative G.G. 2arDescu, instead o' acceting the
'indings o' 6nsector 5araru, inned on 2anciu=s chest #teaua (omaniei ((omania=s #tar" and
romoted the ersonnel he had used to commit his la!lessness. For instance, Commissar Clos, one
o' the guiltiest, !as romoted to olice insector.
The Deartment o' Custice, headed by the same G.G. 2arDescu, 2anciu=s suorter, in lieu o'
energetically and romtly steing in against the eretrated abuses, condemned the victims.
The Ce!s o' 6asi, !ell-leased, resented 2anciu !ith the gi't o' an automobile, !hich he acceted,
scandaliDing all (omanians and inducing greater resentment articularly among the students !ho
could see 2anciu=s de'iant insolence as he roudly drove the Ce!s= car through to!n.
7held in his osition, suorted and encouraged in this manner, Pre'ect 2anciu, by his imulsive
temerament, lac;ing any sel'-control, imagined that he reached a innacle o' glory by the
alication o' his system.
6t is this seEuence o' events that brought Pre'ect 2anciu to the last act o' this tragedy.
Corneliu Qelea Codreanu acted in legitimate de'ense.
The resonsibility o' Pre'ect 2anciu=s death rests 'irst o' all !ith him !ho laced 2anciu at the
head o' the olice deartment and suorted him, namely the 2inister o' >ustice, G. G. 2arDescu.
The resonsibility rests !ith the Ce!ish ress and all those !ho urged him on and encouraged him,
congratulating him 'or alying his 'atal system.+
4bout ten days be'ore Christmas, 2ota, Garneata, Tudose and (adu 2ironovici !ho had been
arrested si<ty days earlier, innocent o' any !rongdoing, !ent on a hunger and thirst stri;e. They
either our 'reedom, or death. *ndeavors on the art o' various authorities to tal; to them 'ailed, 'or
they barricaded themselves in their cell ermitting no one to enter.
These youth have long since become an image o' the entire (omanian studentryJ a symbol. :hen
ne!s o' their stri;e !as heard, students and everybody else understood the gravity o' their act in
vie! o' their !ell ;no!n strength o' resolution. #hould these youth die !ithin the !alls o' GalataK
6n 6asi and Clu>, sirits became so agitated that a mass vengeance !ould have ensued on those the
multitudes !ould have considered to be resonsible. 9ot only students, but also old 'ol;s !ell
established in society !ere loudly demandingG +6' these children all die there, !e !ill start
The government began to 'athom that it !as 'acing a general determination and tensionJ that this
nation began to sho! ber !ill and dignity, 2y 'ather issued in 6asi a mani'esto 'rom !hich 6
reroduce the 'ollo!ing assageG
+(omanian 8rothers,
The studentsG 6on -. 2ota, llie Garneata, Tudose Poescu and (adu 2ironovici, detained 'or t!o
months in the Galata rison, declared Tuesday at - P.2. a hunger and thirst stri;e.
They have ta;en this di''icult ste because they are comletely innocent, because besides being
innocent they !ere imrisoned at 5acaresti and because they came to realiDe that certain oliticians
!ish to gradually ruin their health and li'e through imrisonment.
These young heroes, the choicest 'lo!er o' the country=s 'uture, !ere endo!ed by God among other
Eualities, !ith !ills o' steel. ConseEuently, their determination to die o' bunger and tbirst-in order
to rotest the in>ustice !hose victims they are and the enslavement o' our 9ation by Ce!s through
the aid o' certain oliticians is not a >o;e, but a grave decision.+
(omanian 8rothers,
:ill !e !ait to see, $ or / days 'rom no!, the 'our co''ins holding the bodies o' these heroes, being
borne do!n the streetK
)ld and young ali;e, thin;, one does not sea; o' the corses o' the 'our students, but o' the death
o' our children, o' all o' us.
The duty o' all o' us it is, to ta;e Euic; measures o' eace'ul and legal rotest, but energetic and
determined, against this government, and tbus revent this iniEuity, to sto the assassination o' our
4t Christmas, 'ollo!ing eleven days o' hunger and thirst stri;e, they !ere 'reed. 8ut they !ere so
emaciated that they !ere ta;en out o' the rison on stretchers directly to the hosital, #ome had le't
a eriod o' imrisonment only several months rior to this last detention, 2ota only one month
earlier having 'inished an uninterruted one year, so that their strength !as saed.
The conseEuences o' this stri;e are even today 'elt by some o' them, ten years later, !hile oor
Tudose too; them !ith him into the grave.
6n the same dam and dar; cell, sitting on the hard edge o' my bed, arms crossed over my chest,
head bent under the !eight o' my thoughts, time asses slo!ly, minute a'ter minute.
Ho! terri'ying solitude isM
:ith regrets 6 remember the versesG
+Gaudeamus igitur +>uvenes dum sumus.+
1et us there'ore re>oice, !hile !e are youngM 5erses that have !armed, cheered, cro!ned !ith the
cro!n o' >oy the youth o' all student generations. To be >oy'ul, to have a good time is a right o'
youth, be'ore that age comes !hen man=s li'e is !eighed do!n by hardshis and !orries, ever
increasing, ever greater. 6 !as not granted this right. 6 had no time 'or en>oyment. #tudent li'e,
during !hich everybody en>oys himsel' and sings, 'or me had ended. 6 did not even realiDe !hen it
had assed. )ver my youth had come !orries, di''iculties and blo!s too soon, and all these tore it
to ieces. :hatever is le't o' it is 'urther obliterated by these gloomy cold !alls. 9o! they derive
me even o' the sun. #o many !ee;s have assed since 6 linger in this dar;ness and 6 can en>oy the
sun only 'or an hour a day.
2y ;nees are constantly 'roDen. 6 'eel the coldness o' the cement 'loor creeing u through my
bones. The hours ass slo!lyJ very slo!ly. 6 ta;e a 'e! bites at noon and in the evening. 6 cannot
eat more. 8ut it is articularly at night that the real torment commencesJ it is about $ or / in the
morning !hen 6 'all aslee. )utside is stormy !eather. Here, on to o' the hill, the !ind is stronger.
The sno! is ushed by the !ind through the crac;s in the door until it covers a 'ourth o' the cell
area. 8y morning 6 al!ays 'ind a layer Euite thic;. The heavy Euiet o' the night is interruted only
by the hooting o!ls that live in the church to!ers and 'rom time to time by the voices o' the guards
!ho shout as loud as they can.
+9umber oneM )AM 9umber t!oM )AM+
6 !as ondering, !ondering, !orrying, yet unable to clear the uDDleG 4 monthK T!o monthsK 4
yearK Ho! muchK 4 li'etimeK The rest o' my li'eK
Les, my arrest !arrant threatened 'or me 'orced labor 'or li'e. :ill trial be heldK CertainlyJ but it is
going to be a di''icult trial. For there are three 'orces that are coalesced against meG
The government, !hich is going to try to ma;e an e<amle o' my unishment, articularly in vie!
o' the 'act that this is the 'irst time in (omania !hen anyone has 'aced, gun in hand, the oressor
!ho tramled under'oot his dignity, o''ended his honor and ried o'' his 'lesh in the name o' the
rincile o' the o!er o' state authority. The Ce!ish o!er !ithin (omania !hich !ould do
anything to ;ee me in its clutches. The Ce!ish o!er 'rom abroad, !ith its money, its loans, its
ressures. 4ll o' these three 'orces are interested in reventing my ever leaving here. 4gainst them
are oised the students and the (omanian nationalist movement. :hich !ill !inK 6 realiDe that my
trial is more a test o' 'orces. 9o matter ho! right 6 !as, i' enemy 'orces !ere only a little bit
stronger than our cam, they !ould not hesitate 'or one moment to destroy me. 6t has been so many
years since they !aited to catch me, 'or 6 laced mysel' across all their lans. They !ill e<ercise all
e''orts so 6 !ill not be able to escae them. 4t home, my mother, having heard so much terri'ying
ne!s year in and year out, her home raided at night by rosecutors and searched by brutal
commissars, !as receiving blo! a'ter blo!.
(e'lecting uon my li'e coming to such a sad 'ate, she sent me the 4;athist o' 5irgin 2ary, urging
me to read it at midnight 'or ?$ consecutive nights. 6 had done so, and it seemed that as 6 neared my
goal, our side !as gaining strength !hile the enemy retreated and the dangers subsided.
6 !as in'ormed, in Canuary that the trial had been ab o''icio moved to Focsani. Focsani, at that time,
!as the biggest liberal stronghold in the country. Three cabinet members hailed 'rom that to!nG
Gen. 5aitoianu, 9.9. #aveanu and Chirculescu. 6t !as the only to!n in the !hole country !here
the nationalist n ovement did not catch on. )ur endeavors to accomlish something had 'ailed.
There, !e had no one, e<cet 2rs. Tita Pavelescu, a veteran atriot !ith her aer #antinela (+The
#entinel+" !hich reached but to the !ind.
The students in 6asi, uon learning about this trans'er, became very !orried.
9umerous grous, uon each train=s dearture, !aited in the rail!ay stations around 6asi to
accomany me to Focsani, 'or it !as rumored that my escort !ould try to shoot me on the occasion
o' this trans'er under the rete<t that 6 tried to escae. #ome t!o !ee;s later, 8oteD, the Chie' o'
#ecurity, came !ith several agents, ut me into a car !hich !as escorted by a second car. :e drove
out o' 6asi through the Pacurari barrier to the Cucuteni deot. There, 6 'ound a grou o' students and
on the train that ulled in there !as another grou. 8ut 6 could not tal; to any o' them. :hile the
olice got me into the risoners= railcar, they demonstrated in my suort. :e traveled almost the
!hole night. 6 aroached Focsani certain o' my condemnation. 1ocal olice and the rison !arden
!ere e<ecting me at the station. 6 !as immediately !his;ed a!ay and incarcerated. 4t 'irst the
regimen !as stricter than at 6asi. Gavrilescu, the county re'ect, !ho seemed to be a mean man =
!ithout any >usti'ication-'or no re'ect has the right to inter'ere in the rison=s regimen-!anted to
imose uon me a severe regimen. He even came into my cell !here !e had an altogether not too
leasant discussion. The miracle, that neither 6 nor articularly those !ho brought me to Focsani
e<ected, !as that three days a'ter my arrival, the entire oulace, irresective o' olitical arty and
in site o' all endeavors on the art o' the authorities to turn it against me, sontaneously came over
to my side.
1iberal oliticians !ere abandoned not only by their o!n suorters but by their 'amilies as !ell.
For e<amle, the Chirculescu high school girls sent me 'ood and se!ed 'or me, together !ith other
girls, a regional national shirt. 6 even heard they re'used to sit at the table 'or meals !ith their 'ather.
6t !as then that 6 met Gen. Dr. 2acridescu, the most venerable 'igure in FocsaniJ Hristache
#olomon, a moderately rich roerty o!ner, but a man o' great moral authority to !hom even his
enemies tied the hatJ 2r. Georgica 9iculescuJ Col.= 8leDu, !ho through his little daughter,
Fluturas sent me 'oodJ 5asilache, #te'an and 9icusor GraurJ the )lteanu, Ciudin, 2ontanu, #on,
2a>. Cristool, Caras, Gurita #te'aniu, 9icolau, Tudoroncescu 'amilies, and others. 4ll these, and
many others, 'rom !hom 6 received their more than aternal care. Let my health !as not in good
shae. 2y ;idneys, chest and ;nees ached.
Trial date !as set 'or 2arch -?, -.$F. :ith that in mind, thousands o' 'lyers began to be rinted in
all university centers as !ell as in other to!ns, 6n Clu>, Cat. 8eleuta rinted, and distributed
throughout the !hole country, tens o' thousands o' such 'lyers. His home, oen day and night to
nationalist 'ighters, !as changed into a veritable headEuarters. 6n )rastie, at Father 2ota=s rinting
sho, scores o' thousands o' oular oetry brochures and hundreds o' thousands o' 'lyers !ere
rinted. 4lso here my comrades had some o' my letters !ritten by me in the 5acaresti rison
rinted as a brochure titledG 1etters o' an imrisoned student.
The government came out !ith contrary sub>ect matter to be sread near and 'ar. 8ut they had no
e''ect !hatsoever, 'or the !ave o' national 'eeling gre! imosingly and irresistibly. T!o days
be'ore the trial !as to begin, hundreds o' eole and students 'rom throughout the country began
arriving at Focsani. From 6asi alone over three hundred came, ta;ing u a !hole train. 6 !as
transorted by the authorities in a carriage to the 9ational Theater !here the trial !as to ta;e lace.
8ut this !as ordered ostoned, though the >ury !as dra!n. They too; me bac; to the rison. 8ut
outside, the un>usti'ied ostonement o' the trial roduced a general indignation that Euic;ly
changed into an enormous street demonstration that lasted throughout the a'ternoon and late into the
The e''orts o' the army to Euell the sirited cro!d got no!here. The demonstration !as directed
against the Ce!s and the government. Ce!s then realiDed that all their ressures in the case !ould
bac;'ire. This demonstration !as over!helmingly imortant 'or the outcome o' my trial. 6t ut
Ce!ry out o' the 'ight, because they realiDed that my being sentenced could have disastrous
reercussions against them. 4lthough Ce!ry did not beat a total retreat, it lessened its ressure on
the authorities. 2ean!hile 6 received the suggestions to etition to be 'reed and assurances that 6
!ould be 'reed, but 6 re'used to do it.
*aster arrived. 6 celebrated the (esurrection alone in my cell. :hen the bells o' all the churches in
to!n began ealing, 6 ;nelt and rayed 'or my 'iancee and mysel', 'or my mother and mine at
home, 'or the souls o' the dead and those 'ighting outside-that God may bless them, 'orti'y them
and grant them victory over all enemies.
4t about t!o o=cloc; one night 6 !o;e u as someone tried to oen the adloc;. Prison o''icials
came to 'etch me, 'or une<ectedly my trial !as trans'erred by the government=s intervention to
Turnul-#everin at the other end o' (omania.
6 hastily gathered my 'e! belongingsJ then, surrounded by guards, 6 !as laced in a lorry !hich
too; us to the edge o' to!n near a rail line. #hortly therea'ter a train stoed and 6 !as ut into the
8lac; 2aria railcar.
#o 6 !as leaving this to!n o' Focsani !hich at the oortune moment bravely 'aced the tremendous
ressures o' o''icialdom, and !hose citiDens bro;e their arty ties, or sometimes 'amily ties, to
aear in a suerb and itnregnable unanimity o' sentiment.
4s 6 traveled 6 !as !ondering !hat ;ind o' eole 6 should 'ind in Tumul-#everinK 6 had never
been there, 6 ;ne! no one in that to!n. :herever the train stoed, 6 heard eole tal;ing,
laughing, descending or boarding the train, but 6 !as unable to see anything, 'or the car 6 !as in had
no !indo!s. it !as only one inch o' !all that searated me 'rom the rest o' the !orld, 'rom
'reedom. Perhas among those !ho crossed the trac;s out there in those rail!ay stations there !ere
many !ho either ;ne! me or !ere my 'riends.
8ut they !ere una!are 6 !as inside that car. *verybody is headed some!here. )nly 6 !as una!are
o' !here 6 !as headed. 4ll !al; lightly and gaily !hile 6 carry on my soul, heavier than a
millstone, the burden o' this immense un;no!n that a!aits me. #hall 6 be sentenced 'or li'eK For
lessK #hall 6 ever leave the ugly and blac; !alls o' rison or shall it be my 'ate to die thereK 6 realiDe
'ull !ell that my trial is not a matter o' >ustice, it is a Euestion o' 'orceJ !hichever o' these t!o
'orces is the stronger !ill !in - :ill our nationalistic current be stronger or the Cudeo-governmental
ressureK 8ut, it cannot be li;e thisM :hoever is right shall be stronger and conseEuently !ill
inevitably !in. 4nd as the train ;et rolling 6 'elt my ain more oignantly. 2y heart !as
seemingly attached to every stone in 2oldavia and as 6 !as leaving everything 'urther and 'urther
behind me 6 'elt as i' bits o' it !ere gradually being chied o''.
4ll day 6 traveled li;e this, loc;ed alone in a >ail car. :e reached 8alota 6 believe, to!ard evening.
4 gendarme o''icer accomanied by agents came in and as;ed me to ste out. They led me behind
the station !here !e got in a car and drove o''. They seemed to be very good men, trying to stri;e
u a conversation !ith me, to crac; a >o;e. 8ut 6, borne do!n by other thoughts and needs, !as not
inclined to converse. 6 ans!ered them !ith good !ill, but brie'ly. :e entered Turnul-#everin.
Driving along several streets 6 e<erienced real >oy in my heart, and delight, 'or my eyes again sa!
eole !al;ing the streets. 4t the rison gate !e stoed. )nce again, the adloc;ed gates oened,
to again close behind me.
The !arden and ersonnel received me li;e an honored guest. The good room they assigned to me
had a !ooden 'loor, not a cement one as earlier ones. Here too, detainees aroached me as they
had in the other risons, !ith a''ectionJ and 6 heled them later in their unending material and moral
9e<t day 6 steed out into the courtyard. From there 6 could see out in the street. 4round noon 6
noticed massed be'ore the rison gates over $%% small children bet!een 0 and & years o' age, !ho
uon seeing me ass by began !aving their tiny hands at me, some using hand;erchie's, some cas.
They !ere school children !ho heard 6 had come to Turnul-#everin and !as there in rison. Those
children !ere to be there daily 'rom then on to sho! me their symathy. They !aited 'or me to
ass, to !ave their tiny hands.
4t the Tribunal, President 5arlam, a man o' great goodness, treated me very courteously. 1ess so
Prosecutor Constantineseu o' !hom it !as rumored he too; it uon himsel' that together !ith
Pre'ect 2arius 5orvoreanu he !ould obtain my conviction, but 6 did not believe it. They !ere at
'irst rather severe, behind !hich 6 detected some meanness. 8ut little by little they !ere so'tened u
by the !ave o' ublic oinion, by the enthusiasm emanating 'rom small children to old 'ol;s, 4t
that time everybody !as 'eeling (omanian and sa! in our 'ight a sacred struggle 'or the 'uture o'
this country. They !ere a!are o' my mis'ortunes and sa! in my gesture a gesture o' revolt 'or
human dignity, a gesture that any 'ree man !ould have made.
These eole, descendants o' lancu >ianu and Cat. Tudor 5ladimirescu, !hose istols had been
brandished in the de'ense o' the nation=s honor against the humiliation o' centuries, understood
readily !hat haened at 6asi. 9o argument could budge them. 6t !as in vain that the rosecutor
and the re'ect shouted, 6 !as surrounded by the a''ection and care o' all the 'amilies in to!n, even
o' those !ho layed an o''icial role, li;e that o' 2ayor Corneliu (adulescu 'or !hom 6 develoed a
great admirationJ but esecially !as 6 surrounded, as no!here else, by the children=s love and
understanding 'or my tribulations. They !ere the 'irst ones to demonstrate on my behal' in Turnul-
#everin. 6 remember !ith tenderness ho! small tots 'rom the suburbs, !ho hardly ;ne! ho! to
!al;, seeing the bigger ones regularly gathering in 'ront o' the rison in large numbers, !aving
their hands, daily began to come also. 6 !atched them assemble 'rom all arts, at a given time, as to
a rogram they had to ut on. 4ll o' them !ere Euiet and !ell behaved. They did not lay or sing.
They >ust !atched, !aiting to see me ass by an oening so they could !ave at meJ then they le't
'or home. They understood that there is something sad in this rison and their common sense told
them there !as nothing to laugh about here. )ne day the gendarmes started chasing them a!ay. The
'ollo!ing day 6 no longer sa! them. #entinels !ere osted to sto them 'rom coming.
=6=he date o' the trial !as set 'or 2ay $%th. The Tribunal=s resident received -.,/%% signatures o'
la!yers !ishing to de'end me, 'rom all over the country. T!o days be'ore the trial, trainloads o'
students began to arrive. >ust as at Focsani the students 'rom 6asi came /%% strong. 1i;e!ise the
students 'rom 8ucharest, Clu>, Cernauti, came in large numbers. 4mong those !ho came, there !as
a Focsani delegation headed by the 'ormer >ury 'oreman on 2arch -?, 2ihail Caras !ho no!
signed u as de'ender reresenting the >ury 'rom Focsani. Prosecution !itnesses also arrivedG the
olicemen o' 6asi. The roceedings began in the 9ational Theater, Counselor 5ariam residing. 8y
my side, on the bench o' the accused !ereG 2ota, Tudose Poescu, Garneata, Corneliu Georgescu,
(adu 2ironovici. )n the de'ense bench satG Pro'essor CuDa, Pro'essor Gavanescul, Paul 6liescu,
Pro'essor #umuleanu, *m. 5asiliu-Clu>, 9icusor Graur, the entire Turnul-#everin bar, etc.
The theater !as 'ull to caacity, and around it outside, over -%,%%% eole !ere !aiting.
The >urors !ere ic;ed. The 'ollo!ing !ere dra!nG 9. Palea, G.9, Grigorescu, C. Caluda, 6.
Preoteasa, G.9. Grecescu, D.-. 8ora, 5.8. >u>escu, C. 5argatu, C. #urdulescu, 4dol' Petayn, P. -.
Qaharia, G.9. 8oiangiu, 6. 2unteanu and G.9. 6sas. They too; the oath and gravely sat in their
laces. The indictment !as read. The interrogation 'ollo!ed. 6 told things as they had haened.
The other 'ive relied to their Euestioning li;e!ise, telling the truth, namely that they !ere not at all
involved in the case being >udged. The rosecution !itnesses !ere one Ce! and the olicemen 'rom
6asi. During the roceedings they denied everything. 9othing !as true. 4ll beatings, all torturing
ure inventions. They even denied the medical certi'icates issued by Pro'essor 8ogdan, the
athologist. Their attitude, considering they too; an oath uon the cross to tell the truth and only the
truth, rovo;ed the indignation o' the entire courtroom.
)ne o' the !itnesses, Commissar 5asiliu #anchiu, !hom 6 no! sa! metamorhosed into the most
tenderhearted being, sa! nothing, did nothing. #tanding u, !ith the residing >udge=s ermission, 6
as;ed him loudly 'ull o' indignationG
+4re you not the one !ho struc; me in the 'ace !ith your 'ist, in 2rs. Ghica=s gardenK+
+6 am not.+
+4re you not the one !ho died the students= heads into ails o' !ater !hile they, hung head
do!n, had the soles o' their 'eet !hiedK+
+6 !as not there at the time. 6 !as do!nto!n.+
)n his 'ace, in all his gestures, by his !hole behavior, one could see he !as lyingJ though he s!ore
on the cross, he lied. The entire cro!d in the theater !as seething !ith indignation. #uddenly, as i'
the collective 'ury o' the cro!d !illed it, a man in the audience >umed u, li'ted the commissar u
in his arms and bodily carried him out. 6t !as 2r. Tilica 6oanid. :e heard him shout as he ushed
the commissar do!n the bac; stesG +Get out o' here, scoundrel, 'or !e do not guarantee your li'eM+
(eturning, he told the other commissars 'rom 6asiG +:ith your o!n hands you have savagely
tortured these children. Had you done something li;e this here in Turnul-#everin eole !ould have
slaughtered you. Lour resence in this to!n stains itJ leave on the 'irst train, other!ise mis'ortune
!ill be'all you.+
4s a matter o' 'act this gesture !as !elcome, 'or eole !ere uset. 6t rela<ed the !hole tense
atmoshere. The torturers !ere humiliated, and no! as they !al;ed, they greeted eole by bo!ing
to the ground, begging 'or the minutest sign o' attention 'rom the most humble carrier o' the tricolor
band. +4s i' !e are not good (omaniansM :hat !ere !e to doK :e received orders.+
+9oM #coundrelsM Lou had not the heart o' a arent, nor the heart o' a (omanian. Lou had no honor,
nor resect 'or the la!. Lou say you had ordersK 9oM Lou had traitors= hearts.+ This is ho! eole
told them o'' on the streets.
Then 'or about t!o days 'ollo!ed deositions o' de'ense !itnesses among !hom !as the elderly
Pro'essor 6on Gavanescul o' the 7niversity o' 6asi, himsel' manhandled by Pre'ect 2anciu at the
Congress o' the 7niversity Pro'essors over !hich he residedJ also o''icers o' the 2ilitary 1ycee
and #chool o' 6n'antry, my 'ormer sueriors and teachers, Then victims and arents testi'ied, re-
enacting be'ore the >udges, and almost in tears, the ain'ul scenes o' humiliation to !hich they had
been sub>ected. The civilian observer !as 2r. Costa-Foru, the head o' a masonic lodge in the
De'ense la!yers so;e in the 'ollo!ing seEuence. Paul lliescu, Tache Policrat, 5aler (oman, 5aler
Po, #andu 8acaloglu, *m. 5asiliu-Clu>, Cananau, Donca 2anea, 2itulescu, 5irgil 9eta, 9eagu
9egrilesti, Henrietta Gavrilescu, Pro'essor Dr. #umuleanu, Pro'essor 6on Gavanescul, and Pro'essor
4.C. CuDa. 8rie' statements !ere then given by 2ihail Caras, Col. 5asileseu 1ascar, the old riest
Dumitrescu 'rom 8ucharest, Col. CatuneanuJ by 6on #ava, Dr. 6strate, 6. (ob, Dragos, 6on 8lanaru,
and Camenita, reresenting the students o' 6asi, Clu>, Cernauti, 8ucharest, Falciu County, and
Turnul-#everin resectivelyJ 9avy Cat. 2anolescu, 4le<andru 5entonic 'or the Christian
merchants o' 6asiJ then Costica 7ngureanu, Petru 5asiliu, Grecea, Cat. Peteu-Ploesti, !ar invalid,
and 2. 9egru-Chisinau. 6t !as 6 !ho too; the 'loor last. 6 saidG
+Gentlemen o' the >ury. *verything !e have 'ought 'or !as out o' 'aith and love 'or our country and
the (omanian eole. :e assume the obligation to 'ight to the end. This is my last !ord.+
This !as in the si<th day o' my trial, 2ay $0, -.$F. 4ll si< o' us !ere ta;en to a room, there to
a!ait the verdict. :e !ere not overly e<cited, but some!hat, >ust the same. #everal minutes later
!e heard thunderous alause, shouting and hurrahs, coming 'rom the large hall. :e had no time to
re'lect uon this 'or the doors oened and the cro!d too; us into the meeting hall. :hen !e
aeared, carried on their shoulders, everybody stood in acclaim and 'luttered their hand;erchie's.
Presiding Cudge 5arlam too, !as seiDed by the !ave o' enthusiasm he could not resist. The >urors
!ere all at their laces, this time !earing tricolor lael ribbons !ith s!asti;as.
4s soon as the verdict o' acEuittal !as read to us, 6 !as carried on shoulders outside !here there
!ere over ten thousand eole assembled. They all 'ell into a column carrying us on their shoulders
along the streets !hile eole on the side!al;s sho!ered us !ith 'lo!ers. :hen !e reached 2r.
Tilica loanid=s home 6 addressed the eole 'rom his balcony in a 'e! !ords e<ressing my gratitute
to the (omanians o' Tumul-#everin 'or the great love they sho!ed me during the trial.
4'ter 6 than;ed several 'amilies in Turnul-#everin by visiting them, 'or the manner they adoted
to!ard me, 6 boarded the ne<t day a secial train 'or 6asi. The secial train !as not 'or me, but 'or
the over /%% 6asians !ho came to the trial, to !hich !ere hoo;ed u the cars o' the Focsanians,
8arladians and 5asluians. Thousands o' eole came to the station to see us o'' and decorate our
train !ith 'lo!ers.
The train le't. 8ehind, the multitude 'luttered hand;erchie's e<ressing its love and !ish to
continue the 'ight by +hurrahs+ that made the air reverberate. From my !indo! 6 !as !atching that
large cro!d o' eole, none o' !hom 6 had ;no!n be'ore, but that no! arted 'rom us !ith tears in
their eyes as i' they had ;no!n us 'or years. 6n!ardly 6 rayed, than;ing the 1ord 'or the victory He
gave 7#.
6t !as only no!, as 6 assed 'rom car to car, that 6 could see again my comrades 'rom 6asi, tal;ing
to each and re>oicing together that God made us victorious, saving us 'rom the threat 'rom !hich all
our enemies thought 6 !ould not be able to escae.
6n one comartment 6 encountered Pro'essor CuDa, and Pro'essor and 2rs. #umuleanu. They !ere
contented, being surrounded by our love.
4ll the comartments !ere beauti'ully bedec;ed !ith 'lo!ers and greenery. 4nd at the 'irst sto out
o' Tumul-#everin a ne! mountain o' 'lo!ers !as brought-to our great surrise-by easants !ith
their riests, by teachers !ith their school children, all o' them dressed in national costumes.
There !ere many eole in each rail!ay station a!aiting the arrival o' the train. These !ere not
li;e the cold, o''icial recetions. 6t !as neither duty, nor 'ear, nor sel'-interest that brought those
eole out. 6 sa! old 'ol;s at the edges o' some cro!ds !ho cried.
:onder !hyK They ;ne! no one on the train. 6t seemed that an un;no!n 'orce comelled them to
come, mysteriously !hisering to themG
+Go to the deot, 'or among all the trains that ass by, there is one that goes on the line o'
(omanian destiny. 4ll the rest run 'or the interests o' those riding them, save this one that runs on
the eole=s course, 'or the eole.+ Cro!ds sometimes establish contact !ith the soul o' the
eole. 4 moment o' vision. 2ultitudes see the nation, !ith its dead and all its astJ 'eel all its
glorious moments as !ell as those o' de'eat. They can 'eel the 'uture seething. This touch !ith the
!hole immortal and collective soul o' the nation is 'everish, 'ull o' trembling. :hen this haens,
cro!ds cry. This erhas is the national mystiEue that some criticiDe because they do not ;no!
!hat it is and !hich others cannot de'ine because they cannot e<erience it.
6' Christian mystiEue aiming at ecstasy is man=s contact !ith God, through a +>um 'rom human
nature into the divine one+ (CrainicI", national mystiEue is nothing more than man=s contact, or that
o' the multitude, !ith the soul o' their eole, through a >um outside o' ersonal reoccuations
into the eternal li'e o' the eole. 9ot intellectually, 'or this could be done by any historian, but
liDdng, !ith their souls.
:hen the train, all dec;ed out !ith 'lags and greenery, stoed at Craiova, the station=s lat'orm
!as cro!ded by more than -%,%%% eole. :e !ere carried on shoulders behind the deot !here !e
!ere !elcomed by one o' the to!nsmen. Pro'essor CuDa so;e. 4nd mysel', brie'ly.
:e !ere received li;e that at all the stations, large and small, but esecially in the to!ns o' Piatra-
)lt, #latina and Pitesti. Though there !ere no nationalist organiDations in most o' these to!ns along
the rail!ay, and no one ut out any 'lyers to call out eole to the stations, the lat'orms !ere all
'ull o' thousands o' eole to greet 7#.
6t !as about @ o=cloc; in the evening !hen !e arrived in 8ucharest. 4gain, 6 !as li'ted u,
triumhantly carried on shoulders through the station to the 'ront, !here the !hole sEuare !as a sea
o heads that e<tended along Grivita :ay, !ay beyond the Polytechnical #chool. There must have
been over F%,%%% eole, sho!ing an enthusiasm that could not be damened by anything.
Pro'essor CuDa addressed them. Then as a matter o' 'act throughout the entire country there
revailed such a o!er'ul atriotic current that it could have led 1.4.9.C. into o!er. 8ut these
roitious, tactical, olitically great moments, !hich this movement !ould never see again, !ere
not seiDed uon.
Pro'essor CuDa did not ;no! ho! to ta;e advantage o' a great tactical oortunity !hich is so
rarely encountered by olitical movements.
in the eyes o' 4ny ob>ective observer 'amiliar !ith olitical clashes, 1.4.9.C.=s 'ate !as sealed at
that moment.
:e le't. 4ll night eole met us at stos. There !ere over -,%%% in Focsani at / o=cloc; in the
morning !ho had been !aiting since ? o=cloc; the revious a'ternoon. They !anted us to sto there
'or one day. 8ut !e ;et on going. 4 delegation made u o' Hristache #olomon, 4ristotel
Gheorghiu, Georgica 9iculescu and others, boarded the train. They told meG
+#ince !e did not have the good 'ortune to host your trial in our to!n, you must have your !edding
in Focsani. )n Cune -?, early in the morning, you must be in Focsani. *verything !ill be ta;en care
o'.+ The delegation le't the train at 2arasesti a'ter 6 romised that 6=d be in Focsani as lanned. :e
arrived at 6asi in the morning, e<ceedingly tired. #tudents and to!nseole !ere at the station, They
carried us on their shoulders through the city to the university. There !e !ere met by cordons o'
gendarmes. The cro!d bro;e through and entered the university ta;ing us into the amhitheater.
There, Pro'essor CuDa so;e, a'ter !hich eole disersed eace'ully. *verybody !ent to his
borne. 6 revisited the little house on Flo!ers #t. that 6 had le't eight months earlier. 9e<t day 6 le't
'or Husi, !here my mother !as e<ecting me, crying in the door!ay.
#everal days later, at the City Hall, my civil marriage !as er'ormed.
: 9ichi'or Crainic (-@@.--.&$", (omanian >ournalist, theologian, hilosoher. ;Tr0<
JUNE 1925 - JUNE 1926
4ccomanied by my mother, 'ather, brothers and sisters, the bride and in-la!s, 6 le't on Cune -/th
'or Focsani. There, !e !ere guests in Gen. 2acridescu=s home. :e !ere in'ormed that evening by
the !edding=s organiDation committee !hich aid us a visit, that everything !as ready and that
already over /%,%%% eole had arrived 'rom other to!ns !ho !ere all Euartered, !ith more coming
that nightJ that all inhabitants o' Focsani received these guests !ith >oy and haily ut them u.
4 horse !as brought to me the ne<t morning according to our old oular tradition-as called 'or in
the rogram-and a'ter 6 rode by the bride=s house, 6 led a column to the Crang (Grove" outside o'
to!n. )n both sides o' the road there !ere eole, children in the trees even. Follo!ing behind me
!ere the god-arents riding in ornate carriages. Pro'essor CuDa and Gen. 2acridescu, Hrisache
#olomon, Col. Cambureanu, Tudoroncescu, Georgica 9iculesc, 2a>. 8agulescu, and others. The
bride=s !agon came ne<t, dra!n by si< o<en and bedec;ed !ith 'lo!ers, 'ollo!ed by the !agons o
the guests. in all, there !ere a total o' $,/%% !agons, carriages and cars all embelished !ith 'lo!ers
and the eole dressed in national costumes. 6 reached the Crang, better than 'our miles 'rom
Focsani, and the tail end o' the column had not yet le't Focsani. The !edding ceremony too; lace
on a lat'orm, esecially built 'or that urose. There !ere bet!een @%,%%% to -%%,%%% eole
resent. 4'ter the religious ceremony !e danced the hora and other national dances, and the
celebration continued !ith a banEuet on the grass. The inhabitants o' Focsani brought rovisions 'or
themselves and also 'or the out-o' to!n guests.
The entire 'estivity !ith the great dislay o' national costumes, bedec;ed !agons, !ith its dancing
and enthusiasm, !as 'ilmed. #everal !ee;s later it !as sho!n in movie houses in 8ucharest, but
only t!ice, because the 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs con'iscated the 'ilm and the one coy, and
burned them.
The celebration ended to!ard evening in a general 'eeling o' brotherhood and animation. Together
!ith my !i'e and a 'e! comrades 6 le't 'or 8aile Herculane that night, !here !e sent t!o !ee;s
!ith a 'amily o' old 'riends, the #. 2artalog=s.
2ota, on his art, !ent to 6asi to commence digging the 'oundation o' the Christian Cultural Home
on the lot donated by engineer Grigore 8e>an.
)n 4ugust -% at Ciorasti near Focsani 6 stood as god'ather at the batism o' -%% babies !ho !ere
born that month in the county o' Putna and vicinity. The batism !as to ta;e lace in Focsani. 8ut
the government in order to revent it decreed a state o' siege there. 4'ter overcoming many
obstacles !e retreated to Ciorasti !here !e succeeded in er'orming the batism o' the in'ants
under the shado! o' bayonets.
6 returned to 6asi to !or; by the side o' my comrades to build our Home. :e ursued the old lan
o' building as !ell as that o' organiDing the youth, !hich had been interruted by 'ate 'or nearly
one !hole year.
Donations began to come in. The 2oruDDi 'amily o' Dorohoi contributed -%%,%%% leiJ Gen.
CantacuDino donated three 'reight cars o' cementJ the (omanians in 4merica, through the aer
1ibertatea (+1iberty+" contributed over ?%%,%%% lei. Peasants 'rom the remotest villages in
Transylvania, 8ucovina, 8essarabia sent in some 'rom their meager means to the +House in 6asi,+ as
they a''ectionately called it.
4ll these contributions !ere ouring in by virtue o' the symathy our movement en>oyed at that
time in all social strata. Pictures sho!ing ho! students and coeds !ere building their o!n home
stirred esecially a great enthusiasm, This !as something totally ne!, !hich had not been seen
be'ore either in our country or abroad. This activity /generated so much symathy in 6asi, that !hen
o''ice !or; le't !or; at the end o' the day, they came to the building site, to); o'' their coats and
grabbed the shovel, ic;a<e or the cement !heelbarro!. #tudents 'rom Clu>, 8essarabia and
8ucovina, 8ucharest, met there at this ;ind o' !or;. 8rotherhoods o' the Cross had by no! been
organiDed in many cities under 2ota=s suervision so that young high school students !ere coming
there 'rom all over to !or;, returning home educated in our sirit.
T!o years o' student struggle, o' agitation and su''ering, common to all the youth o' (omania, had
brought about a great miracleG a re-establishment o' the nation=s siritual unity !hich had been
threatened by the incaacity o' the old generation to 'use and become one !ith the great national
comr'iunity. 9o! the youth, gathered 'rom all arts o' the country, !as consolidating and
sancti'ying this unity o' soul through its common e''orts, in the school o' !or;, 'or our country.
This current no! throughout the !hole country !as 'ormidable. 6 do not believe that a oular
current as un numous as this had yet e<isted in the country many times be'ore. The league !as not
doing !ell, 'or lac; o' organiDation, lac; o' a lan o' action. There e<isted, in addition, as a result o'
this great current, the threat that some comromising and dangerous elements might in'iltrate the
movement. 4 movement never dies under the blo!s o' the enemy !ithout, but because o' the
enemies !ithin, li;e any human organism. 9ormally, only about one human being in a million dies
o' e<ternal causes (run over by a train or a car, shot to death, dro!ning, etc."J man succumbs to
internal to<ins, he dies oisoned.
4s it !as, in the !a;e o' the 5acaresti, Focsani and Turnul-#everin trials, anyone !ho !ished
could >oin our ran;s. #ome >oined to engage in s!indlingG collecting subscritions, sales o'
brochures, loans, etc. and no matter !here these characters aeared they invariably comromised
the movementJ others, !ho >oined as olitical climbers, began 'ighting and telling on each other,
each vying 'or the leadershi osition or 'or a seat in Parliament, etc. )thers !ere o' good 'aith but
lac;ed disciline, re'using to obey orders 'rom their sueriorsJ these eole interminably haggled
over each directive, each acting on his o!n. )thers, again having >oined our ran;s in good 'aith,
!ere simly incaable o' integrating themselves into our sirit.
There are many very good individuals ossessed o' such a moral structure that they >ust cannot
merge into an organiDation li;e ours and there'ore endanger its very e<istence 'rom the inside.
#ome are intriguers by birthJ !hatever they >oin, they destroy by tale-bearing.
Certain others have a 'i<ed ideaJ they honestly believe they have 'ound the ;ey to all solutions,
see;ing to convince you o' their !orth. )thers are ill, a''licted !ith the malady o' >ournalism. They
!ish, at any rice, to be ne!saer directors or to see their name rinted at the end o' some article.
There are others !ho act in such a !ay that no matter !here they go they succeed in comromising
the !hole 'ight and in eroding the trust the organiDation en>oyed there. Finally, there are some !ho
are seci'ically aid to engage in intrigue, in esionage, and !ill comromise any noble endeavor
o' the nationalist movement. Ho! much care, ho! much circumsection, then, must be e<ercised
by the head o' a movement !ith resect to those !anting to come under his leadershiM Ho! much
he must do to educate them and ho! much untiring suervision he must e<ercise over themM
:ithout these recautions a movement is irremediably comromised, (egret'ully, Pro'essor CuDa
!as totally una!are o' these imeratives. His slogan !asG +6n the 1eague anyone can come in, but
only he !ho is able stays in.+
4nd this attitude !as to bring a real disaster. 6n 'act several months later the 1eague became a
cauldron o' intrigues, a real hell.
2y belie' at that time, !hich 6 still hold today, !as that an organiDation must not ermit +!hoever
!ishes+ to come in, but only !hoever +deserves to >oin,+ and allo! to remain in it only those - and
only 'or as long as they are - correct, hard !or;ing, discilined and 'aith'ul.
6' signs o' gangrene such as those mentioned above aear to be evident in an organiDation, they
must be immediately isolated, then e<tirated most energetically. 6' not, the in'ection sreads li;e a
cancer throughout the entire organism o' the movement, and the cause is lost. 6ts mission and 'uture
being comromisedJ it !ill either die, or drag out its days bet!een li'e and death, incaable o'
accomlishing anything. )ur e''orts to move Pro'essor CuDa to remedy this situation 'ailed,
because, on the one hand he !as totally una!are o' these elementary rinciles o' leading a
movement, and on the other because the intrigues succeeded in isolating us, too, 'rom him, and
conseEuently began to aralyDe any in'luence !e might have had uon him.
:e, the 5acarestians, realiDing this, and seeing the deserate assaults, the !aves o' intrigue
battering us, aimed at slitting us 'rom Pro'essor CuDa, !ent to his home, again s!earing allegiance
to him and as;ing him to trust us that !e !ould do everything in our o!er to redress the state o'
a''airs !ithin the movement. )ur attemt roved 'utile, 'or he noticed that !e sa! things in an
entirely di''erent light both !ith resect to organiDation and to a lan o' action, and even !ith
resect to the 'undamental doctrine o' our movement. :e started 'rom the idea o' man=s moral
!ortb, not as a numerical, electoral or democratic digit. 8ut he !as convinced that !e maintained
such an idea because !e !ere the victims o' some intriguers.
:ho !as resonsible 'or this state o' a''airsK The leader o' course. #uch a movement has to have a
great leader, not a bril>ant doctrinaire !ho remains oblivious to the !aves o' the movement do!n
belo!J an imosing leader, to dominate and control the movement.
9ot everybody can 'ill this 'unction. 4 ro'essional is needed, a man ossessing inborn Eualities, a
connoisseur not only o' rinciles o' organiDation, but also o' develoment and 'ighting. it is not
enough to be a reno!ned university ro'essor to be in command o' such a movement. Here is
needed a good helmsman, an accomlished s;ier to lead us over the !aves, a man to ;no! the
la! and to be 'amiliar !ith the secret o' such leadershiJ !ho !ould ;no! the !inds and the deths
o' the sea, !ho should be 'amiliar !ith dangerous ree's, !ho 'inally !ould hold the helm !ith a
'irm hand.
6t is not enough that a man roving that Transylvania belongs to the (omanians is entitled there'ore
to assume command o' the troos setting out to conEuer itJ >ust as the 'act that he can theoretically
demonstrate the e<istence o' a Ce!ish eril is not su''icient 'or him to be entitled to ta;e command
o' a oular olitical movement that rooses to solve this roblem. There are t!o levels o' activity
here, totally di''ering, levels demanding atitudes and Euali'ications that are totally oosite in the
involved individuals.
:e can imagine the 'irst level u high at -,%%% yards, The domain o' theory, the abstract 'ield o'
la!s. There, the theoretician engages in researching truth and its theoretical 'ormulation. He begins
at the bottom 'rom concrete realities, 'rom the ground u climbing to 'ormulate la!s there in his
creative domain.
The other level is do!n on the earth. Here, the man !ho is endo!ed !ith leadershi Eualities
engages in the art o' imosing truth by the lay o' 'orces. He reaches 'or the heights in order to be
in harmony !ith the la!s, but his lace o' accomlishment is do!n here on the battle'ield, in the
area o' strategy and tactics.
The 'ormer creates ideals, delineates ob>ectivesJ the latter realiDes, 'ul'ils them.
8y virtue o' the natural rincile o' the division o' labor, the e<cetions in !hich the Eualities o'
these t!o 'unctions are 'ound in a single individual are e<tremely rare.
Pro'essor CuDa is above all else a theoretician. )n the theoretical lane he shines li;e the sun. His
!or; is the 'ollo!ingG
a" (esearch and 'ormulation o' the truth o' the la! o' nationality.
b" Discovery and er'ect indenti'ication o' the enemy o' nationality. the Ce!.
c" Postulating solutions to the Ce!ish roblem.
That is allM Ho!ever, this is a colossal accomlishment. For, though all scienti'ic evidence is on his
side, all men o' science are against him, stri;ing at him 'rom all directions and trying to tole his
'indings. 8ut he resists. This 'irst level does not reEuire the use o' men, o' human 'orcesJ on the
contrary, the man on the 'irst lane shuns eole. 8ut the second lane demands 'irst o' all, eole.
>ust any eoleK Certainly notM 8ut eole !hom the leader must change into human 'orces.
That meansG
-. Ano!ing ho! to organiDe them according to certain rigid rinciles.
$. Giving them a technical and heroic education in order to augment their o!er, n!nely to change
men into human o!er.
/. 1eading these 'orces, no! organiDed and educated, onto the strategic and tactical 'ield o' battle to
'ight other human 'orces, or nature itsel' in order to attain a use'ul aim.
6' the doctrinaire is e<ected to master the science o' researching and'ormulating truth, the leader o'
a olitical movement is e<ected to master the science and the art o' organiDation, education and
leadershi o' men, Pro'essor CuDa, e<celling and unsurassed on the 'irst lane, !hen brought
do!n on the ractical one sho!ed himsel' ignorant, a!;!ard, naive as a child, incaable either o'
organiDing or o' technically and heroically educating his 'ollo!ers, incaable, in other !ords, o'
leading human 'orces.
4 man !ho is illustrious on the theoretical lane !ill never be able to score a victory on the second
lane. He !ill be vanEuished or, at best, he !ill be content !ith small successes obtained 'or him by
those around him.
:hich are the characteristic siritual traits that the leader o' a olitical movement must ossessK 6n
my oinion they areG
-. 4n inner o!er o' attraction, There are no indeendent, 'ree eole in the !orld. >ust as in the
solar system each star 'ollo!s its o!n orbit on !hich it turns around a greater o!er o' attraction,
li;e!ise eole, articularly in the 'ield o' olitical action, gravitate around some attracting
ersonalities. 6t is the same in the realm o' thought. )n the outside remain those !ho neither !ant
to sho! an interest nor to thin;.
4 leader must have such a o!er o' attraction. #ome have it over ten eole, being thus leaders 'or
them onlyJ others over a !hole village, a countyJ others over an entire rovince, countryJ and some
even outside the boundaries o' a single country. The individual=s caacity to lead is limited by the
e<tent o' his inner o!er o' attraction. 6t is sort o' a magnetic 'orce !hich i' not ossessed by a
man, renders him incaable o' leading.
$. Caacity 'or love. 4 leader must love all his comrades-in-arms. His love must enetrate to the
edges o' a movement=s community.
/. Ano!ledge and sense o' organiDing. Peole attracted !ithin the orbit o' a movement must be
?. Ano!ledge o' eole. :hile organiDing, one must ta;e into account the rincile o' the division
o' labor, using each in his lace, according to his atitudes and re'using to accet anyone lac;ing
F. The o!er to educate and to insire heroism.
0. 2astering the la!s o' leadershi. :hen a chie' has an organiDed and educated troo, he must
;no! ho! to lead it into the olitical battle'ield to comete !ith the other 'orces.
&. 4 sense o' timing. 4 chie' must have a secial sense to indicate to him !hen to !age a battle. 4n
inner intuition must tell himG 9o!M This minute, neither later nor sooner.
@. Courage. :hen a leader hears that inner command he must have the courage to dra! out his
.. The conscience o' >ust and moral ob>ectives to be ursued by honest means, 6n addition to all the
virtues o' a soldier that a leader must ossess, sirit o' sacri'ice, resistance, devotion, etc., he must
be animated by a sirit o' high morality, 'or there is no lasting victory i' it is not based on >ustice
and legality.
6n 'act Pro'essor CuDa !as not resonsible 'or the chaotic situation in !hich the 1eague 'loundered.
:hen he oosed our e''orts to organiDe, he had, 6 believe, the clear conscience o' his theoretical
cometence and o' his lac; o' o!er,on the olitical lane. 6t !as !e !ho !ere resonsible and
esecially mysel', 'or !e 'orced him against his !ill to engage in an action in !hich he !as !ea;.
4s a matter o' 'act he had been absent 'rom all imortant events that too; lace during those t!o
years o' struggle. 4ll the 'ights that had sha;en the !hole country and roused the (omanian
masses, had been initiated !ithout the hel o' Pro'essor CuDa. 6n each o' them he !as o' great hel,
certainly, but al!ays to!ard the end the initiative did not belong to him.
6 had erredJ and as there is no mista;e that does not soon turn against those !ho committed it, my
mista;e too, !ill rum on us as on the movement. 4nd this !ill haen !hen Pro'essor CuDa,
incaable o' understanding us, !ill be !or;ing alone, !ithout our suort.
This year !as a di''icult one 'or him too. 4'ter /% years o' dedication at the 7niversity o' 6asi, the
government committed the unheard o' ineEuity o' deosing him 'rom his chair, !hen, at the
summary investigation that !as made he !as accused o' instigating the students, Pro'essor CuDa
+6 am an instigator o' the national energies.+
4 li'etime o' 'ighting and o' illustrious teaching in the service o' the (omanian nation !as ended
by such a re!ard on the art o' the eole led by the Cudeo-oliticians.
To this lo! blo! !as added also the 'act that being alone on the street he !as rovo;ed and struc;
in the 'ace by a >e!=s 'ist. :hen such outrageous daring became ;no!n, students !ent into all ubs,
and struc; in the same manner every Ce! they met. )n the occasion o' that demonstration, ten
students !ere arrested, 2ota and lulian #arbu included, !ho !ere sentenced to one month in >ail.
They served it in Galata. 7rDiceanu, a student, too; several shots at the individual susected o'
being the moral instigator o' the insulting act o' violence.
)n #et. $/, -.$F !e laid the cornerstone o' our student home. The !alls !ere about three 'eet u
!hen, considering that 6 had given to our nationalist movement all that 6 could at my age, 6 thought
it oortune to go abroad again in order to comlete my education, the more so as my health !as
not in very good shae as a result o' the di''icult trials 6 had gone through, 6 !as rodded to!ards
this decision also by the 'act that 6 'elt some!hat isolated in my oinions regarding the 1eague=s
organiDation and lans o' combat. 6 !as telling mysel'. +6t is ossible that 6 am !rong and it !ould
be better 'or me not to hinder the develoment o' a oint o' vie! that might, a'ter all, rove to be a
good one,+ esecially in vie! o' the 'act that lately the 1eague had acEuired ne! strength (-" by
uniting !ith +(omanian 4ction,+ led by Pro'essor Catuneanu, !hich brought to our side such
eminent intellectuals 'rom Transylvania as 5aler Po and Father Titus 2alaiJ and ($" by >oining
'orces !ith +The 9ational Fascia,+ a smaller but healthy organiDation. Hoe'ully, the innocent
shortcomings o' the 1ea;ue=s leadershi !ould no! be remedied by the resence o' so many elite
men, among !hich one could countG our la!yer Paul lliescu 'rom 8ucharest !ith a notable
'ollo!ing o' intellectualsJ Gen. 2acridescu, heading another elite grou 'rom FocsaniJ the
distinguished ro'essor o' sociology 'rom the 7niversity o' Cernauti, an old nationalist, Traian
8raileanuJ and the illustrious ro'essor o' edagogy 6on Gavanescul 'rom the 7niversity o' 6asi,
!ho u to no! had not >oined our movement though he too had been reaching the national idea 'or
a li'etime 'rom his chair o' edagogy.
9o! !ith us also !as the erudite ro'essor o' hysiology 9icolae Paulescu at the 7niversity o'
8ucharest, connoisseur !ithout eEual o' Cudeo-masonic maniulations, !ho illumined the national
movement in the caital.
To these ersonalities !ho honored our movement and imarted to it an unsurassed restige !as
added the recious aid o' 1ibertatea (+1iberty+", the most !idely read and areciated (omanian
oular ne!saer, edited by Father 2ota.
2y comrade 2ota-Father 2ota=s son-!ho !as e<elled 'rom the 7niversity o' Clu>, only a
sohomore, had decided to go abroad along !ith me to 'inish his la! studies.
:e both agreed to go to France to one o' the smaller to!ns. :e chose Grenoble. 6 had 0%,%%% lei
'rom the sales o' my amhlet 1etters o' an imrisoned student, and 'rom !edding resentsJ 2ota
had hel 'rom home, monthly.
4'ter saying goodbye to our 'amilies at home, !e aid our resects to Pro'essor CuDa and to our
comrades. Then !e !ent u (arau 2ountain to the hermitage to ray, and began our tri. 2y !i'e
and 6 le't 'irst. 2ota 'ollo!ed t!o !ee;s later. 4'ter a long >ourney through CDechoslova;ia =and
Germany 'ollo!ed by several days= stay in 8erlin and >ena, !e entered France and stoed at
#trasburg. :hat surrised me e<ceedingly !as the 'act that this city, contrary to all my
e<ectations, had changed into a real !ass= nest o' Ce!ish in'ection. #teing o'' the train 6
e<ected to see eole o' the Gallic race that !ith its uneEualled bravery had mar;ed history=s
6nstead, 6 sa! the Ce! !ith his aEuiline nose, thirsty 'or ro'it, !ho ulled me by the sleeve to enter
either his store or his restaurant, the ma>ority o' restaurants around the rail!ay station being run by
them. 6n the France o' the assimilated Ce! everything !as ;osher. :e entered restaurant a'ter
restaurant in order to 'ind a Christian one, but in each !e sa! the sign in LiddishG +Aosher 'ood.+
Finally !e 'ound a French restaurant, !here !e ate. :e 'ound no di''erence bet!een the Targul-
Cucului Ce!s and those o' #trasburgJ the same 'igure, the same manners and >argonJ the same
#atanic eyes in !hich one read and discovered under the olite loo;, the avidity to >i one.
)ne more night o' traveling and !e arrived at Grenoble in the morning. :hat !onders oened to
our eyesM :hat sceneryM 4 city situated 'or ages o' time at the 'oot o' the 4ls. 4 huge roc;
advanced to!ard the center o' the city as i' to cut it in t!o. Gray, rugged and bold, it dominated the
houses, !hich, though many-storied, seemed li;e little ant-hills by contrast. Further a!ay, but also
near the city, there !as another mountain 'ull o' old 'orti'ications, trenches and araets, that had
been trans'ormed into one immense 'ortress. Far a!ay in the bac;ground, above all these, !hite as
honor, the sno! shone !inter and summer over the imosing massive 4ls.
4!ed by !hat !e sa!, and !al;ing as through an enchanted castle in some tale, 6 !as telling
mysel'G +This is the city o' bravery.+ 4nd sure enough, as 6 continued to !al;, 6 !as certain 6 !as
right, 'or stoing be'ore a statue 6 read. +8ayard, chevalier sans eur etsans reroche.+ 8ayard !as
a great eic !arrior in the 'i'teenth century, !ho, a'ter a li'etime o' battles, !as mortally !ounded
and lay dying, holding his s!ord !hose handle no! !as trans'ormed into a cross 'rom !hich the
brave old man !as receiving in the hour o' his
death, the last benediction. :e rented a room in old Grenoble. There is also a ne!, modern
Grenoble. 8ut !e li;ed the old section better. 2ota arrived a little later. :e registered at the
university. He, 'or his bachelor o' la! degreeJ 6, as a candidate 'or the doctoral degree
in economy. 6 began auditing 'reshman and sohomore courses, but 6 understood absolutely
nothing. These !ere the 'irst lessons. 6 could ma;e out only isolated !ords, Ho!ever, doggedly
continuing to audit these courses, to!ards Christmas, 6 began to understand the lectures Euite !ell.
There !ere only eight doctoral candidates and
that is !hy these classes develoed a 'amiliar character o' close bond bet!een student and
ro'essor. The ro'essors, e<tremely conscientious, did only teaching, not olitic;ing too.
2eals 'or all three o' us !ere reared by my !i'e. )n holidays 6 began to ma;e small e<cursions
around the city. 6 !as imressed by castle ruins and old to!ers. :onder !ho lived in these o' oldK
They must have been 'orgotten by everyone. 1et me go ay them a visit. 6 entered such ruins and
stood there 'or hours in undisturbed Euiet, tal;ing !ith the dead. 6 visited a little old church on the
edge o' to!n dating bac; to the 'ourth century, #t. 1a!rence Church, and tomy astonishment 6 sa!
on its blue tinted ceiling more than 'i'ty s!asti;as. 6n the city, on the Pre'ecture 8uilding, the
Palace o' >ustice and other institutions, one could see the masonic star, the symbol o' the absolute
control o' this Ce!ish hydra over France, That is !hy 6 retreated into the Euarter o' old Grenoble,
!here the churches !ith their crosses !ere dar;ened by age and 'orget'ulness. 6 turned my bac; on
modern movie houses, theaters and ca'es, 'inding en>oyment among ruins !here 6 susected 8ayard
may have lived. 6 san; mysel' into the ast !here, to my great hainess, 6 lived in the historic
France, in Christian France, in nationalist France, not in the Cudeo-masonic, atheistic and
cosmoolitan France but in that o' 8ayardM 9ot in 1eon 8lum=s FranceM The sEuare +2arche des
uces+ as Frenchmen called it, !as 'ull o' Ce!s, !hich accounted 'or her name. 6n 'act the
university too !as over!helmed by them. There !ere F% Ce!ish students 'rom (omania alone
studying here, in addition to the 'ive (omanians,
6 also visited the ancient monastery, +Grande Chartreuse,+ !hose -,%%% mon;s !ere chased out by
the atheistic government. )n various icons 6 could still see the mar;s o' the stones thro!n by the
mob during the French (evolution (-&@.", !hen they mutilated the
image o' God.
6t !as not too long be'ore material !orries came over us. 2y money !as getting lo! and 6 did not
e<ect any 'rom bac; home. 6n site o' all the severe economiDing, !e could not manage on !hat
2ota alone received. :e sent many hours thin;ing ho! !e could
earn some money !ithout disruting the schedules o' our course !or;. (ealiDing that needle!or; is
areciated and !ell aid in France, !e decided to learn 'rom my !i'e embroidering and then try to
sell these (omanian embroideries. :e learned this trade in the course o' several !ee;s. :e
embroidered in our 'ree time, had our roducts e<hibited in a store !indo! and, adding the little !e
thus earned to !hat 2ota received 'rom home, !e managed to live very modestly.
MAY 1926
4round *astertime, letters and ne!saers 'rom bac; home that !e regularly received brought
ne!s o' the 'all o' the 1iberals 'rom o!er and the advent o' Gen. 4verescu. The ne! general
elections !ere to ta;e lace around the middle o' 2ay. For the 1eague this !as the oortunity to
engage 'or the 'irst time in a great battle. 6 !as telling mysel'G
+6 must go home to ta;e art in this 'ight. 4nd then come bac; to my studies.+
6 !rote to Pro'essor CuDa, as;ing him 'or 'are money, (eceiving no rely 6 then !rote to 2r.
Hristache #olomon in Focsani. He sent me -%,%%% lei out o' !hich 6 le't a ortion !ith my !i'e.
:ith the rest 6 le't 'or home.
6 arrived in 8ucharest around the beginning o' 2ay during the 'ull electoral camaign. 6 !ent
immediately to Pro'essor CuDa !ho did not aear very glad to see me there, telling me there !as
no need 'or me to come 'or the movement could do !ell, even !ithout me.
This hurt me a bit but 6 did not get angry. There is no room in a olitical organiDation 'or a member
!ho gets angry 'or being admonished by the leader. The admonishing may or may not be >usti'ied,
yet one should never get angry, this is the rincile that must guide a man in any organiDation.
Then 6 le't 'or the county o' Dorohoi to assist Pro'essor #umuleanu. From there 6 !ent on into other
counties, Camul-1ung, 6asi, 8raila, etc. 2ean!hile, as a result o' a letter 6 received 'rom Pro'essor
Paulescu and at the 'urther insistence o' Gen. 2acridescu, 6 decided to run mysel' in Focsani. There
6 !as, in the most disgusting and by me un!anted redicamentG to go out begging 'or votes 'or
mysel'. :hereK 4mong the cro!ds, !ho, right at the time !hen they ought to have been insired
by the most sacred sentiments-'or one dealt !ith his country and its 'uture-is daDed by the
abundantly-o''ered drin;s by electoral agents, and is ossessed by the assions unleashed by the
evil sirit o' the oliticians. 6n these moments, over the serene and clean li'e into villages there
descend the 'loodtides o' olitical corrution. This hell sreads throughout the !hole country and
'rom it emerges the ne<t leadershi o' the country 'or one, t!o, three or 'our years.
6t is 'rom this hea o' utre'action that democracy-+holy=, democracy-roduces the leadershi o' a
6 arrived at Focsani !hich had been under a state o' siege ever since the Ciorasti batisms. in order
to be able to go on the camaign trail, one had to have a ass 'or 'ree assage, issued by the
garrison commander, !hich 6 reEuested and received. 4round -% o=cloc; in the morning,
accomanied by 2r. Hristache #olomon and others, !e le't in t!o cars. 8ut F%% yards outside o'
to!n !e ran into a barricade o' t!o !agons laced across the road, !ith nearby, several gendarmes.
:e stoed, The gendarmes came to us and told us !e !ere not allo!ed to ass. 6 roduced the
general=s order and sho!ed it to them. They read it and then saidG
+*ven so, you cannot ass.+
6 ordered my comanions to oen the road. Follo!ing a brie' scu''le, the road !as assable. The
cars started moving slo!ly. The gendarmes, several yards behind us, ;nelt, aimed and began 'iring.
6 saidG
+Aee moving, they are shooting in the air.+
)ne bullet hit a 'enderJ another, close to us. :e continued driving. 8ut t!o bullets stoed us, one
unctured the gas tan;, the second a tire. :e could not continue driving. :e got out and !al;ed
bac;. 4gain, !e !ent to the general !ho had issued issued our 'ree
assage ermit, and reorted !hat haened, Gen. 2acrisdescu also being resent. He reliedG
+Lou are 'ree to travel. 6 ordered no one to sto you. Perhas it !as the administrative authorities.+
From there !e !ent to the Pre'ecture together !ith Gen. 2acridescu. The county re'ect !as
9itulescu, a surly and rough man. 5ery calm, !e entered his o''ice. Gen. 2acridescu related the
events. 8ut the re'ect, 'rom the very 'irst moment treated us in a very uncivil manner. He began to
deliver an interminable seech 'rom his lo'ty osition.
+Gentlemen, the suerior interests o' the #tate demand...+
+There are la!s in this countryJ !e are !ithin the la!s. :e have the right...+
*n. 2acridescu tries to e<lain. 8ut the re'ect continuedG
+The count demands in these di''icult times...+
Gen. 2acridescu tried again to e<lain. The re'ect authoritativelyG
+The !ill o' the country is...+
+1isten here, 2r. Pre'ect,+ 6 bro;e in, Euite uset. +6 see that you do not !ish to understand
reasonable tal;. Tomorro! morning, 6 shall leave on the camaign trail and i' the gendarmes 'ire on
us again, 6 !ill come bac; here into your o''ice and 6=ll 'ire on you.+
4nd !ithout !aiting 'or a rely, 6 turned around, leaving the others behind. #everal hours later 6
!as summoned to the Council o' :ar. 6 !ent. 4 royal commissarI interrogated me. 6 declared in
!riting e<actly !hat haened. They arrested me. 4nd 6 saidG
+:ell gentlemen, you do nothing to those !ho actually 'ired at me yet 6, !ho only said 6 !ould 'ire,
you arrestM+
#o, there 6 !as again, in an incarceration room o' a regiment=s barrac;s. Three days later 6 !as
called in by the general. 4n o''icer led me into his o''ice.
+2r. Codreanu, you must leave the to!n o' Focsani.+
+#ir, 6 am a candidate here.Lour ordering me to leave is against the la!. Certainly, 6 shall not
oose this measure because 6 cannot do so, but 6 as; that you give me this order in !riting.+
+6 cannot ut it in !riting.+
+Then 6 shall leave 'or 8ucharest to comlain about this treatment.+
The general let me go 'ree as;ing 'or my !ord o' honor that 6 !ould leave on the 'irst train out.
4nd 6 did leave 'or 8ucharest on the 'irst train.
9e<t day 6 resented mysel' to 2r. )ctavian Goga, the 2inister o' 6nternal 4''airs, !ho received
me !ell. 6 related to him !hathaened to me and demanded >ustice. He romised me he !ould
send out an administrative insector to investigate the case and as;ed me to come see him again the
'ollo!ing day. 6 came. He ut me o'' till the ne<t day. 8ut, as time !as running out and the
election day !as dra!ing near, on the 'ourth day 6 le't.
4gain 6 too; a 'ree assage ermit 'rom the general and again !e started out driving. There !ere
only t!o days le't be'ore elections. :e reached the 'irst village !here there !ere a 'e! villagers
gathered together as on the eve o' any election, but they seemed 'rightened by the revailing
general terror. The gendarmes sho!ed uG
+Lou are ermitted to tal; to these eole, but only 'or one minute. This is our orderM+
6 so;e 'or one minute and then !e !ent on. 6t !as the same in all the other villages only 'or a
minute in each. Pity >ustice and legality in this countryM )ne is given the rivilege o' voting, one is
called uon to e<ercise this rivilegeJ i' you don=t sho! u to vote, you are 'ined and i' you do sho!
u to vote, you are beaten. (omanian oliticians, be they liberals, suorters o' 4verescu, national-
easants, are only a band o' tyrants !ho behind slogans
: Ar*y offier "ho in Ro*anian nfflitary @ustie fulfdls the role of an investigating @udge or
proseutor in the Counil of $ar0 ;Tr0<
li;eG +1egality,+ +Freedom,+ +The rights o' man,+ shamelessly and 'earlessly tramle under'oot a
!hole country !ith all its la!s, all its 'reedoms, and all its rights. :hat ossible recourse is le't us,
6 !onder, 'or the 'utureK
)n election day our delegates !ere beaten, covered !ith blood and other!ise revented 'rom
getting to olling lacesJ !hole villages could not get near olling stations. The resultG 6 lost,
though in the to!n o' Focsani 6 !on over all the olitical arties.
+9o matter,+ 6 told mysel'. +Had 6 !on, it !ould have disruted my lans 'or continuing my
studies.+ T!o days later 6 learned to my great >oy the election result nation!ide. The 1eague totaled
-$%,%%% votes and sent into Parliament ten deutiesG Pro'essors CuDa and Gavanescul 'rom 6asiJ
Pro'essor #umuleanu 'rom DorohoiJ my 'ather 'rom (adautiJ Paul lliescu 'rom Camul-1ungJ
Pro'essor Calan 'rom #uceavaJ Dr. Haralamb 5asiliu 'rom 8otosaniJ 5aler Po 'rom #atu-2areJ
engineer 2isu Florescu 'rom Piatra-9eatntJ and luniu 1ecca 'rom 8acau. Truly an elite cors o'
men had been elected !ho honored the
nationalist movement, men !hom eole loo;ed uon !ith a boundless love and lively hoes.
Those -$%,%%% votes reresented the best and urest in the (omanian nation. 5oters overcame all
threats, all enticements, all obstacles in order to reach the voting booths. 8ut those !ho could not
reach them !ere very numerous-more than those !ho made it. There !ere at least another -$%,%%%
votes that had either been stoed or stolen 'rom the ballot bo<.
6 !ent bac; to France, satis'ied !ith the results but constantly haunted by the 'ollo!ing EuestionG
Ho! could !e !in i' all administrations conducted elections in such a manner, using corrution,
the't and the state=s 'orce against oular !illK
4rrived in France, 6 !as too late to ta;e my e<ams in the Cune session. 6 !as 'aced !ith a grave
roblem. 2ota !ould have to return home to 'ul'ill his military service in the 'all. Ho! !ere !e
going to ma;e a living !hen 'rom our embroidery !or; !e could rovide hardly enough 'or one
individual, let alone 'or t!o souls... 6 tried to 'ind some !or; in the city, anything at all. 6mossible.
Then 6 thought erhas out in the country, near to!n, 6 might be able to secure something. Together
!ith 2ota 6 !ent in several directions in search o' !or;J but in the evening !e came bac;
unsuccess'ul. )ne day !e too; the tram to 7riage-les-8ains some si< miles 'rom Grenoble (There,
streetcars run not only in the cities but outside as 'ar as -$ miles in all directions, 'or there is
abundant electrical energy generated by the !ater'alls in the mountains".
From 7riage !e 'ollo!ed some aths u the mountain. 4'ter about a hal' hour !e got to #aint
2artin, Euite a large village !ith a !ell-aved road through it, !ell cared-'or stone houses, several
stores and a beauti'ul tall church. 8ut !e assed on. 4'ter another hour o' !al;ing, climbing
constantly in heat that made us s!eat, !e arrived in a small hamlet, Pinet-d=7riage.
:e !ere at an altitude o' aro<imately $,0%%-$,&%% 'eet. 4bove us the 4ls o''ered our eyes an
admirable rosect as they !ere covered !ith sno!. it seemed that the sno! started but a 'e! miles
'rom !here !e !ere. )n our le't, to!ard the Chateau de 5iDille a beauti'ul valley stretched outJ
to!ard Grenoble to our right, another oneJ and along the valley the aved road meandering do!n
shone li;e the !ater o' a river bathed in the sun.
)n the 'ields !e could see the eole !or;ing. :e !ere !ondering ho! there, on the sloe o' the
mountain, but a 'e! miles 'rom eretual sno!s, !heat could gro! as tall as a manJ or oats and
barley, as !ell as all ;inds o' vegetables. Probably because o' the milder climate and a roc;-'ree
soil. 6n 'act their soil !as o' lo! 'ertility, even oor. 8ut 'armers continually used manure or
4s !e sa! them !or;ing their 'ields !e !ere 'aced !ith the same roblem as in the other villagesG
ho! could !e get into conversation !ith them to tell them !e !ere loo;ing 'or !or;. :e assed
them by not daring to tal; to them. Further u there !ere some more houses, 'ive or si<. :e !ent
there. :e got to the last one. 8eyond it, no other human habitation aeared bet!een us and the
massive 8eldona, e<cet 'or tourist cabins. 9earby an old man !as mo!ing. :e had to sea; to
him. :e greeted him and began tal;ing. He realiDed !e !ere 'oreigners, conseEuently as;ed us
!hat !e !ere. :e told him !e !ere (omanians, that !e li;ed it here very much and !e !anted to
rent a room to send several months in the clean air. The old man !as boast'ul, and robably
thin;ing he 'ound somebody 'rom !hom he could learn many things, as;ed us to come and >oin
him and sit at the outside table on !hich he laced a bottle o' blac;, astringent !ine and three
glasses !hich he 'illed. Then he began Euestioning us, 'ollo!ing our ans!ers !ith great curiosityG
+#o you say you are (omaniansK+
+Les, (omanians, (omanians 'rom (omania.+
+6s (omania 'ar 'rom hereK+
+4lmost $,%%% miles.+
+4re there also easants in your country as there are hereK+
+There are many, Pere Tru;,+ 'or this !as his name.
+Does there also gro! there hay-grassK 4re there o<en thereK
Co!sK HorsesK+
Finally !e ans!ered all his Euestions, thus ma;ing 'riends !ith him Euic;ly.
8ut !e did not tell him anything o' !hat ailed us, because the old man realiDed that !e !ere
educated eole, +gentlemen,+ and he !ould have lost all his illusions had !e told him !e !ere
loo;ing 'or !or;.
:e only as;ed him i' he ;ne! o' a room 'or rent some!here. He gave us an address and insisted
!e tell the landlord that it !as he, Pere Tru;, !ho sent us.
4s !e le't, !e e<ressed our than;s and romised that !e !ould come bac; to hel !ith his
mo!ing. :e 'ound the address he gave us several houses do!n the sloe, 6t !as the house o' 2.
Chenevas Paul, a ensioner about &% years old, !ell dressed, a 'ormer noncommissioned o''icer,
no! retired. He !as roud to be the only ensioner in the village. He o!ned t!o houses side by
side !hich he used all 'or himsel', 'or he !as alone. 4ll o' his relatives had died. He rented to us
his smaller house comrising t!o rooms belo!, one large and one small, and another room above
(all houses there had a second story". 6n the do!nstairs room there !as a stove to coo; onJ
6n the one ustairs, simly 'urnished, there !as a bed. 4ll this conveyed the asect o' emtiness. 6t
!as aarent that 'or a long time no one had lived in it. :e agreed on ?%% 'rancs till Christmas (that
!as 'or si< months". 6n Grenoble !e !ere aying -F% 'rancs a month. :e aid in advance 'or three
months and said !e !ould move in in a 'e! days. Then !e !ent bac; to the city in good sirits. 6
'elt that no!, having 'ul'illed my residence course !or; reEuired in the doctoral rogram, 6 !ould
study 'or the e<ams here, and !ould go do!n into Grenoble only to ta;e them.
#everal days later !e !ere climbing the same aths, belongings on our bac;s, my !i'e, 2ota and 6,
to our ne! Euarters. 4t last, !e settled do!n. 2ota too; leave o' us and le't 'or (omania. :e
stayed behind !ith only a 'e! 'rancs in our oc;ets. 4 dire situationM Ho! !ere !e going to eatK
9e<t morning, rather deressed, 6 !ent to Pere Tru;. 6 heled !ith the mo!ing and hay loading all
day. He as;ed me to eat !ith him both at noon and at suertime. Had 6 been able to ta;e something
to my !i'e also it !ould have been er'ect, but 6 returned emty-handed, 6 !ent again the 'ollo!ing
morning. This time he had someone to !or; 'or him, a short man !ith red, un;emt hair, shiny
restless eyes in !hich 6 could not divine any trace o' goodnessJ he seemed to be a mean man. His
name !as Corbela. Probably Corbelle in the literary and o''icial language. 8ut the easants o' the
region sea; all +atois,+ namely a easant dialect that di''ers much 'rom the o''icial language both
in ronunciation and in the structure o' !ords. This di''erence is so great that a city Frenchman can
not understand a country Frenchman !ho sea;s +atois.+ 8ut the latter ;no! also the o''icial
The three o' us !ere invited by a house!i'e, the old man=s !oman, to eat at her lace at noon. #he
!as an old !oman >ust li;e old !omen bac; home. 6n France easants do not eat an onion !ith a
mound o' commeal rnush at noon as do our easantsJ as a rule they have a vegetable dish, a meat
course, then cheeseJ and regularly a glass o' !ine. 6 than;ed them 'or having invited me to arta;e
o' their meal but said 6 !ould not eat. Considering that 6 'elt embarrassed, they insisted. Then 6 told
them that being Friday 6 'asted till evening. This !as an old habit !ith me !hich 'or three years
ever since 6 !as imrisoned 'or the 'irst time in 5acaresti rison 6 had 'aith'ully ;et. :hen
Corbela heard 6 !as 'asting, he as;ed me gru''lyG
+8ut !hy do you 'astK+
+8ecause 6 believe in God.+
+Ho! do you ;no! there is a GodK Did you see Cesus ChristK+ continued he.
+9o, 6 did not see Him, but this is ho! 6 amJ 6 do not believe you telling me He does not e<ist,
!hile 6 believe the innumerable martyrs !ho, !hen si;ed on the cross, cried outG =Lou may ;ill us,
but !e sa! Him=.+
+4h, the riestsM The charlatansM 6 crush them under my heel, ushing and turning it into the ground,
li;e 6 !ould crush a !oria+
#eeing him so aroused 6 bro;e o'' the discussion.
That evening 6 le't 'or home !ith a bas;et'ul o' otatoes and a iece o' bacon the old man gave me.
6 !or;ed li;e!ise that #aturday. )n #unday 6 !ent to church. There !ere many eole, robably
the entire village. 6n a side e!, close to the altar, solemn as a saint, stood a man !ho resembled
Corbela. 6 too; another loo;. He 'ollo!ed the riest very closely. 4t a certain moment he
aroached the riest and very humbly assisted him. 6t !as he, CorbelaM Cantor, sacristan and bell-
1ater as 6 made 'riends !ith the villagers 6 told them about my encounter !ith Corbela, all o' us
en>oying a good laugh.
+:e too, have our 'ools among us+ 6 !as told. +They listen to imortant eole !ho hate the
Church. 8ut !e, the French easants, believe in God as !e have learned 'rom our arents.+
The riest, a man o' vast culture, a doctor in hilosohy and theology, !as living in great misery,
receiving no salary 'rom the atheistic state !hich ersecuted riests as enemies. The latter live only
on hel received 'rom the 'e! villagers. The 'ollo!ing !ee; 6 !or;ed 'or someone else, harvesting
otatoes, !ho gave me a larger Euantity o' otatoes, the basis o' our e<istence 'or some time. 6
moved on to another easant to hel !ith sheaving !heat and threshing. 6n each village, eole o!n
a threshing machine in common !hich is used in turn by all. Lields are rich and beauti'ul as gold.
*very villager subscribes to some agricultural !ee;ly !hich is 'ull o' advice 'or 'arming in general,
vegetable gardening, raising cattle, aiculture, etc. They read these eriodicals very attentively,
cover to cover, trying as in a great contest to aly that advice as best they can and ma;e use o'
most o' it. Their stables are cared 'or as !ell as their homes. Cattle are !ell rotected 'rom cold and
hunger, are brushed daily. That is !hy they loo; !ell, can be !or;ed hard and roduce much.
FreEuently 6 sa! a iece o' cardboard in their stables on !hich 6 readG +1ove the animals, our
artners in laborM+
4'ter about a month the villagers began to get used to me. 6 !as ;no!n as +le roumain+ (The
(omanian". They heard 6 !as a doctoral student and !e had tal;s in the evening. They !ere
interested in Euestions o' hilosohy, olitics, international relations, and in olitical economics,
articularly in the sub>ects o' ricing, la! o' suly and demand and other la!s determining rices,
as !ell as causes o' rice 'luctuation and the right time 'or mar;eting their roducts. Peasants o' the
$F-?% years age grou !ere !ell oriented in these toics and one could discuss !ith them even
higher EuestionsJ they understood them er'ectly.
4'ter a !hile 6 began studying 'or my e<ams. 2ota had ta;en his e<ams in Cune success'ully. 6
!or;ed days, and evenings and at night 6 studied as much as 6 could. 6n this 'irst year 6 too; 'our
sub>ectsG olitical economy, the history o' economic doctrines, industrial legislation, and 'inancial
legislation. 8ut in about t!o months 6 !as beginning to lose my strength. )ur nourishment roved
inadeEuate. 1ately !e had been on a diet o' boiled otatoes almost e<clusively. *very t!o or three
days a Euart o' mil;, and meat but once !ee;ly, occasionally cheese. This !as all 6 could earn by
!or;ing. 8ut !orse than me !as my !i'e, !ho became anemic. 6 too; my e<ams in )ctober, 6
'lun;ed them, though in the main sub>ect matter, olitical economy, 6 obtained the highest grade
and in the other sub>ects, assing mar;s. 6n 'inancial legislation 6 got a nine only, the assing grade
'or doctorate being ten. For the moment 6 !as disoriented. 6 had never been a shining element !hen
it came to studying, but u to no! 6 had never 'lun;ed an e<am as 6 !as considered among the
average students. This !as a serious blo! in vie! o' our di''icult economic redicament. The
di''iculty !as that 6 could ta;e my e<ams ane! only three months later, and then, in all the sub>ects.
6 became stubborn and resolved to start all over. Farm !or; in the 'ields had ended. The ground
!as sno! covered. The only !or; available !as cutting 'ire!ood in the 'orest. 2y ayment 'or
!or; there !as a !agonload o' !ood.
8ut !e began getting 'inancial hel 'rom bac; home 'rom Father 2ota !ho obtained a loan in my
:e sent the !inter months and Christmas holidays amongst the easants, mainly !ith the
8elmain-David 'amily. 6 registered 'or my e<ams again in the February session 'or my 'irst year o'
the doctorate and assed them all. 6 began studying immediately 'or those o' the second yearG
administrative la!, the hilosohy o' la!, the history o' French la!, and the civic international la!.
6n the sring, 6 rented a atch o' garden !hich 6 began to !or; on my o!n. 8ut in 2ay -.$& 6
received a deserate letter 'rom 2ota and others 'rom Focsani as !ell, and 'rom students, as;ing
me to come bac; home right a!ay because the 1eague had bro;en into t!o. 2ota and Hristache
#olomon also sent me money 'or the tri. 8ut 6 had another month be'ore the e<ams. 6 sa! the Dean
o' the Faculty in'orming him o' the emergency demanding my return to (omania and reEuesting
ermission to ta;e my e<ams ahead o' the regular session. 2y etition !as aroved. )n 2ay -0 6
too; and assed my e<ams. )n 2ay -@ 6 le't 'or (omania a'ter ta;ing leave o' the inhabitants o'
Pinet among !hom !e had lived nearly a year. :hen !e le't, some o' them, the old ones, cried.
)thers accomanied me to the Grenoble station.
6 came to France !ith the !orry that 6 !ould 'ind an immoral, corrut and decayed eole, such as
it !as reorted o'ten times throughout the !orld. 8ut 6 reached the conclusion that the French
eole, !hether easant or to!nsman, is a eole o' a severe morality. The immoralities belong to
soiled 'oreigners, the rich o' all nationalities attracted by Paris and other large cities. The leading
class, in my oinion, is ho!ever irremediably comromised, thin;ing, living and acting under the
in'luence, and e<clusively under the in'luence., o' Cudeo-2asonry and its ban;ers. Cudeo-2asonry
uses Paris as its !orld headEuarters (1ondon, !ith the #cottish (ite is but a subsidiary". This
leading class has lost contact !ith French history and the French nation. That is !hy as 6 le't France
6 !as ma;ing a big di''erentiation bet!een the French eole and the French masonic state. For the
French eole 6 carried in my heart not only love but also the 'aith-that !ill never be sha;en in its
resurrection and victory over the hydra that lagues it, dar;ening its reasoning, suc;ing its
strength and comromising both its honor and its 'uture.
6 arrived in 8ucharest. 6t !as a disaster. The 1eague had bro;en into t!o. The hoes o' =this nation
!ere crumbling. 4 !hole eole !ho strained to gather u its e<hausted strength in a di''icult
moment o' history, and 'ought the greatest eril ever to threaten its e<istence, !as 'alling no! to the
ground, all its hoes shattered. #uch a disaster, to the valiant hearts o' thousands o' 'ighters, all o'
them seeing in a moment all their ast sacri'ices and all their hoes crashing do!n, insired a
'eeling o' ro'ound ain even in those !ho stood outside our movement, 6 had never be'ore seen
more !idesread sorro!. 4ll those !aves o' enthusiasm 'rom #everin to Focsani, 'rom Camul-
1ung to Clu>, !ere no! changed into !aves o' grie' and desair.
6 !ent to the Parliament to see Pro'essor CuDa. To my great astonishment, in the midst o' general
grie' he !as the only >oy'ul man. This man !as Pro'essor CuDa. 6 give here, !ith the greatest
ossible accuracy, our conversation. +:elcome bac; dear Corneliu+ he said, advancing to!ard me,
arm outstretched. +Lou are a good 'ello!. Cust ;ee on minding your business as you have done so
'ar, and everything is going to be >ust 'ine.+
+#ir, 6 am deressed to the bottom o' my being by the mis'ortune that be'ell us.+
+8ut no mis'ortune too; lace. The 1eague is stronger than ever. 1oo;, 6 returned 'rom 8raila
yesterday, 6t !as something 'antastic. 6 !as received there !ith bands, drums, unending hurrahs.
Lou=ll see the country=s atmoshere. Lou do not ;no! !hat it is li;e. The entire country is !ith us.+
:e said a 'e! more !ords and then le't.
Dumb'ounded, 6 !onderedG +Could a leader, seeing his troo rent by grie', divided into t!o and
ossessed by desair, en>oy a er'ect disosition and good humorK 9ot realiDe the disaster boiling
under himK 8ut erhas he does realiDe itM 6' so, ho!, then, is it ossible 'or him to be re>oicingK+
The arliamentary and e<tra-arliamentary activity o' the 1eague=s ten deuties during their term,
le't Euite a bit to be desired. :ere they !ea; menK Decidedly notl :ere they o' bad 'aithK
Decidedly notl They !ere o' absolute good 'aith but they had small de'iciencies, either as to
;no!ledge o' the Ce!ish roblem because they !ere the ne!er 1eague members, or because they
!ere a little cumbersome and slo! in action and in hitting the trail, being the older ones. 8ut such
de'iciencies are inherent in all men gathered into an organiDation and they must be lovingly and
tact'ully corrected by the leader. Then, !hat !ere the real causes 'or this state o' a''airsK
6n my oinion they !ereG
-. The lac; o' coordination o' their arliamentary and e<tra-arliamentary activity.
$. The lac; o' siritual unity, a unity absolutely indisensable to such an organiDation that is
surrounded on all sides by enemies !ho try to ta;e advantage o' any internal dissension.
8ut these t!o dra!bac;s are basically the result o' the true causeG
the lac; o' leadershi, the leader=s errors. 4 leader must constantly e<ound his vie!s to all the
'ighters around him, in order to reach a unity o' thin;ing o' his 'ollo!ingJ to elaborate a lan o'
actionJ to direct the action o' his menJ to be a ermanent servant o' the movement=s unity, trying by
his love, observations, rerimands, to smooth out misunderstandings and inherent discord !ithin the
organiDationJ to be a constant e<amle to his 'ollo!ers o' 'ul'illing one=s dutyJ to handle matters
!ith >ustice, =resecting the norms o' leadershi ta;en uon himsel' and on the basis o' !hich he
assembled his suorters.
8ut Pro'essor CuDa has done none o' these. He did not educate his men. He did not even consult
!ith them. +1et us have a consultation, #ir,+ reEuested some o' them, +so that !e can ;no! the
attitude !e should ta;e, and ho! !e should resent ourselves, in Parliament.+
+:e need hold no consultation because !e are not a olitical arty.
He never issued any directive to anyone. )ne can 'ind valuable tomes, scores o' amhlets !ritten
by Pro'essor CuDa, hundreds o' articles. 8ut 6 dare anyone to bring me ten circulars, or organiDing
or action orders given to the most troubled olitical organiDation 'rom 2arch ?, -.$/, its 'ounding,
to 2ay $%, -.$&, the moment o' its abolition.
)ne !ill not 'ind ten, nor 'ive, not even three. Pro'essor CuDa had urged others, but himsel' !as not
one to sur his 'ollo!ers to actionJ he unished others but !hen he did so, he
caused a real disaster because he did not handle the matter !isely. 2eantime, certainly, in vie! o'
the situation thus resented, some o' the deuties sensing that things !ere not running as they
should, e<ressed their dissatis'action. They sa! that gradually the
movement !as heading to!ard ruin esecially because, in addition to lac; o' directives ='rom time
to time, certain outbursts by Pro'essor CuDa in Parliament had a devastating and disconcerting
e''ect uon the entire movement. For instance, !hen, immediately 'ollo!ing the oening o'
Parliament, one o' the 1eague=s deuties rotested against the state o' siege imosed at Focsani and
the unheard o' abuses, Pro'essor CuDa stood u commanding the government 'or having done so,
even saying he !ould have done the same thing, because eole !ere agitated on account o' the
Ce!s. 4nother time, discussing the (oyal message to Parliament, ans!ering members o' the
9ational Peasant Party (in 'act they !ere in the oosition at the time", he declaredG +The Peole=s
Party could become a governing 'actor through a system o' rotation !ith the 1iberal Party i' Gen.
4vereseu !ould adot the doctrine o' the 1eague o' Christian 9ational De'ense.+
#uch statements - thro!n 'rom the eminence o' the arlimentary tribune >ust !hen thousands o'
men, beaten, tortured and !ronged, !ere an<iously a!aiting, as a !ea; succor 'or their su''ering, a
!ord condemning the government !hose victims they !ere - disseminated instead an atmoshere
o' general discouragement.
6n the 'ollo!ing 6 Euote the )''icial 2onitor regarding a assage 'rom the discourse >ust mentionedG
+There are then at the resent time in the service o' the state, t!o mature arties, arties o' order, o'
the resent day order, governmental arties, !hich comlement each other and !hich assurae the
normal lay o' constitutional mechanismG the Peole=s Party and the 1iberal Party.
+They both stand on solid 'oundations, relying on roduction interests !hich, though di''ering, are
nevertheless general, real and ermanent and assure their e<istence and the e''icacy o' their action.
The ne! !or; o' olitical and constitutional organiDation o' the country is their !or; in !hich they
collaborated, each to the e<tent o' the resonsibility and role they layed as governing or
oosition. The Peole=s Party !ill continue this !or; by all the imrovements that sincere ractice
and good 'aith shall indicate as necessary 'or the 'urther consolidation o' the state and the total
uni'ication o' the country.
+The 1iberal Party is the e<onent o' (omanian bourgeosie interests, o' 'inancial, commercial and
industrial legitimate interests, indisensable 'or the country=s !ell-being.
+The Peole=s Party, called to er'ect the economic organiDation o' the state, basing it on real
'oundations, reoccuied by everyone=s needs !ithin the suerior interests o' the country, relies
articularly on the over-all, real and ermanent interests o' agricultural roduction, !hich is a
reonderant 'actor o' our economic li'e.
+The Peole=s Party, !hich has the deeest and most e<tensive roots throughout the country, !ithin
social harmony.... !ants to give the loughmen, masters o' their soil, the role they deserve in the
state=s economy in accordance !ith their labor and their numbers.+
()''icial 2onitor, Culy /%, -.$0, . /.F".
This attitude on the art o' the leader o' a national movement is unconscionable. To resent such an
eulogy o' the olitical arties !hich the nationalist movement denounces as a calamity 'allen over
(omania and against !hich it has 'ought !ith grievous sacri'ices in order to create a ne! 'ate 'or
this country, di''ering 'rom the one meant 'or it by the arties= oliticians, is the same as sentencing
to death your o!n movement.
To sing the raises o' a rotational system reresented by the 1iberal and 4verescan arties,
denounced by you 'or a li'etime as enemies o' the eole, means to remove any chance 'or victory
o' the national movement you have led, at the same time roving that you yoursel' do not ut any
'aith in it. :hat !ould eole say o' the commandant o' heroic troos !ho 'ight, ma;e sureme
sacri'ices, believe in their victory, live and are ready to die 'or it, i' he during a discourse in the
course o' the 'ight in 'ront o' thousands o' !ounded soldiers, !ould eulogiDe enemy troos and
'orecast their victoryK
:hat !ould haen to the oor troo !hich instead o' hearing a !ord o' encouragement o' its
hoes in victory, !ould hear its o!n commanding o''icer sea; o' the !onder'ul victorious
rosects o' the enemyK
:hat !ould haenK The troo !ould scatter demoraliDed. 4nd this is e<actly !hat did haen.
2any 'ighters on the 'ront o' the national movement had le't in desair. )!ing to this strange
attitude, the 1eague=s deuties began sho!ing their unhainess. They !ere !rong, 6 thin;. They
had no right to e<ress their dissatis'action e<cet to the resident and !ithin the limited circle o'
the leadershi. 8ut they !ent out o' bounds. 7nder such conditions each !ord hahaDardly uttered
means an additional mis'ortune over the one caused by the movement=s resident himsel'.
Gradually, the mista;es o' one grou and then another had led to coolness in their relations. 7ntil
one day, !ith no su''icient reason, !ith no advance consideration, tbus !ithout resecting the
norms and la!s o' the organiDation, deuty Paul 6liescu !as e<elled 'rom the 1eague o' Christian
9ational De'ense, 4nd !hat is more, President CuDa in'ormed none o' the arliamentarians o' his
decision but urely and simly announced 'rom his restigious osition the dismissal, demanding
that the deuty be simultaneously thro!n out o' Parliament and his seat in Camul-1ung declared
vacant. This struc; li;e a bolt o' lightning over the heads o' the oor deuties o' the 1eague, T!o
days later, Pro'essor #umuleanu, !ho in the meantime had hurried in 'rom 6asi, resented a
communication to the Chamber o' Deuties signed also by the other deuties, 6on Qelea-Codreanu,
5aler Po, Dr. liaralamb 5asiliu, and Pro'essor Carlan, in !hich they stated that Pro'essor CuDa=s
declaration !as certainly remature, because the 1eague=s statutes stiulate that e<clusions are
ronounced by the committee, !hich in this case !as totally in the dar;. 6t did not ;no! o' any
guilt on the art o' this man, yet it did not as; that he not be e<elled, but only that he 'irst be
>udged so he could de'end himsel'J it demanded in other !ords that the 1eague=s by-la!sbe
resectedJ that the la! !hich all vo!ed to resect, be obeyed.
4t the same time Pro'essor CuDa !as aroached !ith this same reEuest.
The result o' these interventionsG
4ll signatories !ere e<elled 'rom the 1eague, Pro'essor #umuleanu and my 'ather included, some
o' them having higher merits o' labor and sacri'ice in the 'ormation o' the 1eague than Pro'essor
CuDa, Pro'essor #umuleanu being himsel' the 1eague=s 5ice-President. 4ll these, li;e!ise !ere
e<elled !ithout being >udgedJ !ithout being told a thingJ !ithout being aroached. 6n my oinion
the rocedure used by Pro'essor CuDa in his caacity o' resident o' the organiDation - !hose duty
it !as to e<ercise the greatest concern 'or the !ell-being o' the organiDation and the greatest care in
any ste that might endanger its e<istence - !as 'undamentally erroneous. 6n 'act it !as not only
un>ust , but totally uncalled 'or, articularly considering the individuals involved !ho reresented
the very grou !ho !ere leading the 1eague. They !ere the creators o' this organiDation. The
measure !as unreasoned, 'or Pro'essor CuDa did not 'oresee its conseEuences 'or the movement.
4 secial issue o' 4ararea 9ationala (+The 9ational De'ense+", ut out immediately 'ollo!ing
their e<ulsion, stated that these men, !ith Pro'essor #umuleanu and my 'ather heading the list, had
sold out to the Ce!s, thus sreading this insinuation throughout the
country. Pro'essor #umuleanu, Pro'essor CuDa=s constant 'riend 'or a Euarter o' a century, a man o'
e<emlary correctitude, !as horribly and unconscionably attac;ed in this secial issue at the
direction and under the advice o' 2r. CuDa. Fle !al;ed the streets over!helmed !ith grie', having
been accused o' treason. Then he ublished a amhlet in rely titledG +The Treachery o' #ome
Friends.+ His rioste !as only one conseEuence o' the errors committed by Pro'essor CuDa. 6n this
case Pro'essor CuDa, in my oinion, had been not only un>ust but !as more than un>ust. Those !ho
!ere e<elled, on their art, erred by rinting 'lyers containing eEually un>ust attac;s, but their error
'ollo!ed in the !a;e o' Pro'essor CuDa=s. 4ll these attac;s and counter-attac;s !ere un'olding to
the great desair o' (omanian 'ighters and the great satis'action o' and ridicule by Ce!ry. 6t !as at
this stage that 6 got bac; 'rom France. The Euestion as to !hether the arliamentarians e<elled
'rom the 1eague should be ermitted to serve out their terms !as being debated in Parliament.
6 as; mysel' even no!G +6 !onder !hether, !hen Pro'essor CuDa too; those stes, he !as not the
victim o' some suggestions or intrigues, or did he ersuade himsel' that this !as the right thing to
#everal days later, several members o' the 1eague !ho !ere etri'ied by Pro'essor CuDa=s measures
demanded their annulment and resect 'or statutes. This resulted in elimination o' this grou,
among !hom !ereG Gen. 2acridescu, Pro'essor Traian 8raileanu, llristache #olomon, Pro'essor
Catuneanu, etc .4t large, the rumor !as systematically sread that all e<ellees sold out to the Ce!s.
4mong the active agents disseminating those rumors !ere Col. 9ecuicea and 1iviu #adoveanu, the
right and le't hand resectively o' Pro'essor CuDa.
Those e<elled then 'ormed themselves into the #tatutory 1eague o' Christian 9ational De'ense,
thus indicating that they stood !ithin the 1eague=s statutes. 4t this time Pro'essor Cuia called 'or a
great national assembly in 6asi, in the 8e>an Hall to !hich about -,%%%
eole came. They rati'ied the e<ulsions on the 'alse basis that the members e<elled had sold out
to the Ce!s. 6 shall sto here, leaving out observations on !hat !as rinted either by one side or the
other, considering that as much as 6 have ut do!n on aer should be enough 'or understanding
the situation o' the movement at that time. 6 !ould only li;e to add that time (nine years have
assed since" roved Pro'essor CuDa to have erred, because neither Pro'essor #umuleanu, so
grievously hurt in his honor, nor my 'ather !ho received nearly mortal blo!s 'rom the Cudaic o!er
- !hich Pro'essor CuDa cannot boast o' having su''ered - nor Gen. 2acridescu, Pro'essor
Gavanescul, Pro'essor Traian 8raileanu, Pro'essor Catuneanu, Dr. 5asiliu, Pro'essor Carlan, Father
2ota, etc. - none o' these had sold out to the Ce!s. Lears later, a'ter this disaster had devastated the
1eague, Pro'essor CuDa came to his old 'riend, Pro'essor #umuleanu, !hom he had struc; do!n so
cruelly, and saidG
+Dear #umuleanu, 6 have nothing against you. 1et us ma;e eaceM+
8ut Pro'essor #umuleanu turned a!ay and as he le't, saidG +6t is too late.+
9ot because Pro'essor #umuleanu did not !ant to 'orgive the cruel blo! he had received, but
because do!n there one sa! the ashes o' a movement and o' (omanian hoes.
:hen 6 arrived 'rom France in the midsi o' this disaster that descended on the national movement, 6
intended to salvage !hat yet could be saved. 6 hastily convo;ed in 6asi the 5acaresti grou and art
o' the leaders o' student youth 'rom the 'our university centers.
6 hoed to localiDe the slit, by 'orming a youth blocJ to revent this atmoshere o' hate that !as
dissiating the ran;s o' the older generation 'rom enveloing the youth. 4s it !as only natural 6
!anted to base this bloc 'irst o' all uon the a!areness that disunity and hate among us meant death
'or the national movement. )nce this bloc !as 'ormed, 6 !anted to direct our e''orts to!ard the
burning ran;s o' the veterans, to aly determined ressures in order to re-establish the unity, save
the situation. 8ut my lan 'ell through. The youth !as already enveloed by the consuming 'lames
o' hatred so that in 6asi in site o' all ties e<isting bet!een the youth and mysel', my roosition
had 'ound no resonse in their hearts.
The student leadershi in 6asi could at that time have given the signal o' a saving initiative, but
un'ortunately a series o' !ea; elements had assumed control o' it, their ne lgative tendencies
recluding the accetance o' my roosals.
it !as only the 5acaresti grou, out o' all the youth, that suorted my oint o' vie!, to !hich 6
must add a 'e! 6asian students, about -% or -$, veterans among them being 6on 8lanaru, 6on #ava,
6on 8ordeianu, 5ictor #ilaghi and the others, ne!comers, a grou o' Transylvanians headed by 6on
8anca, *mil *remeiu, 2isu Crisan. These !ere all that rallied around us out o' all the youth o' the
6 ursued my lan.
:e all le't 'or 8ucharest to see both sides. :e !ent 'irst to see the +#tatutories,+ as;ing them to
ma;e any sacri'ice needed in order to re-establish the movement=s unity. 4'ter several hours o'
discussion they agreed conditionally, being even disosed to ma;e sacri'ices, but insisting that
statutes be resected in the 'uture. 4'ter that !e !ent to see Pro'essor CuDa. 8ut he, 'ollo!ing our
leading and argumentation, re'used. 6t is better 'or me not to reveal the discussion !e had on that
:e le't. Desondency too; over our souls. 4ll that had been built, all the movement=s brightness o'
yesterday did not come as a gi't o' 'ortune. *verything gre! out o' 'ighting ste by ste, 'oot by
'oot. :e had carried the burden o' our grave decisions, 'aced innumerable erils, ris;s, hysical and
moral su''ering =#ome more heart-rending than others. :e had given the health o' our bodies, the
blood o' our heartsJ !e had 'ought and sacri'iced day in and day out. 9o!, all seemed turned into
Faced by the situation mentioned above, 6 decided to go !ith neither side, not meaning to resign
mysel', but to organiDe the youth, assuming this resonsibility according to my soul and brains and
to continue the 'ight, not to caitulate. 6n the midst o' these troubles and times at the crossroads 6
remembered the icon that rotected us in the 5acaresti rison.
:e decided to close our ran;s and to ursue the 'ight under the rotection o' the same sacred icon.
:ith this in mind, !e brought it to our Home in 6asi 'rom the altar o' the #t. #iridon Church !here
it had been laced three years reviously.
The 5acaresti grou agreed immediately to my lans. #everal days later 6 convo;ed in 6asi in my
room on $% Florilor #t. 'or Friday, Cune $?, -.$&, the 5acaresti grou and the 'e! students still
!ith 7#.
#everal minutes be'ore the meeting !as to begin 6 entered in a register the 'ollo!ing order o' the
+Today, Friday, Cune $?th, -.$& (The 'east o' #t. Cohn the 8atist", at -% o=cloc; in the evening, is
'ounded under my leadershi, =The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel. 1et anyone !ho believes
!ithout reservation, >oin our ran;s. 1et him !ho has doubts remain on the sidelines. 6 hereby
nominate (adu 2ironovici as leader o' the guard o' the icon.+
Corneliu Qelea Codreanu
This 'irst meeting lasted one minute, only long enough 'or me to read the above order. 4'ter this,
those resent le't in order to onder !hether they 'elt su''iciently determined and courageous to
>oin an organiDation li;e this, !ithout a rogram other than the e<amle o' my li'e as a atriot u to
then and that o' my rison comrades. *ven to the 5acaresti grou 6 had given time 'or re'lection
and search o' their conscience 'or them to be sure !hether they had any doubts or reservations,
because once enrolled they had to unhesitatingly ;ee on going 'or the rest o' their lives.
Pur intimate 'eelings 'rom !hich the 1egion !as born !ere theseG
it did not interest us !hether !e !ould triumh or be conEuered, or !hether !e !ould die. )ur
urose !as di''erentG to advance united. 2oving 'or!ard in a united 'ront, !ith the hel o' God
and the (omanian eole=s >ustice, no matter !hat destiny a!aited us - that o' being vanEuished or
that o' death - it !ould be a blessed one and it !ould bear 'ruit 'or our eole. Pro'essor 9icolae
6orga once saidG +There are de'eats and deaths !hich can a!a;en a nation to li'e, >ust as there are
triumhs o' the ;ind !hich can ut a nation to slee.+
During the same night, and entered into the same register, !e edited a letter to Pro'essor CuDa and
one to Pro'essor #umuleanu. 4t -% o=cloc; the ne<t morning all the 5acarestians got together and
!ent to the house o' Pro'essor CuDa, / Codrescu #t.
4'ter so many years o' battles and di''icult trials !e !ere no! going to see him to ta;e our
'are!ell, and to as; him to release us 'rom the vo!s !e too;. Pro'essor CuDa received us in the
same room in !hich he had stood 'or me $@ years earlier at my batism. He !as standing behind
his des;J !e in 'ront. 6 read him the 'ollo!ing letterG
:e are coming to you 'or the last time to say goodbye and to as; you to release us 'rom all the
vo!s !e too;. +:e can no longer 'ollo! you on the road you have ta;en 'or !e no longer believe
in it. To march by your side !ithout 'aith is imossible, because it !as 'aith that nourished our
enthusiasm in battle. +8egging you to release us 'rom our vo!s !e remain to 'ight alone in the best
!ay our brains and hearts can guide us. Pro'essor CuDa then so;e to us in the 'ollo!ing mannerG
+2y dear 'riends, 6 release you 'rom your vo!s and advise you that, steing into li'e on your o!n,
do not ma;e mista;es. 8ecause, articularly in olitics, mista;es are very costly. Lou have as an
e<amle the olitical errors o' Petre Car !hich had 'atal conseEuences 'or him.
)n my art 6 !ish you the best in li'e.+
Then he shoo; hands !ith all o' us and !e le't. :e thought that it !as correct on our art to
roceed thus and that this !as the honorable !ay our dignity as 'ighters obliged us to
From there !e !ent to Pro'essor #umuleanu on #aulescu #t. reading to him the other letter !ritten
aro<imately in the same terms, in !hich !e in'ormed him and his +#tatutories+ that !e could not
go along !ith them either and that !e !ould carve 'or ourselves 'rom no! on our o!n ath.
1eaving him !e 'elt in our hearts ho! very much alone !e !ere,
alone as in a desert, and !e !ere going to build our road in li'e through our o!n o!ers.
:e gathered even closer to the icon. The more di''iculties that might assail us and the more our
comatriots= blo!s might be sho!ered heavily on our heads, the more !e !ould see; the rotection
o' #t. 2ichael the 4rchangel and the shado! o' his s!ord. He !as no longer 'or us an image on an
icon, but very much alive. There at the icon, !e too; turns ;eeing !atch, night and day, candle
:hen !e gathered together in the room at our Home, the 'ive o' us lus some ten 'reshman and
sohomore students, and !hen !e !anted to !rite several letters announcing our decision to 2r.
Hristache #olomon and others, only then did !e realiDe ho! oor !e !ere, 'or all o' us ut together
lac;ed even the money 'or enveloes
and ostage. 7 to then, any time !e needed money !e !ent to the older veterans and as;ed them
'or it, 8ut no! !e had no one to turn to. To launch a olitical organiDation totally ennilessM 6t !as
both a di''icult thing to do and a daring one, 6n this century in !hich matter is all o!er'ul, in
!hich no one starts anything ho!ever small !ithout 'irst as;ing himsel' +ho! much money do 6
haveK+ God !anted to rove that in the legionary struggle and victory, matter layed no role.
Through our daring gesture !e turned our bac;s on a mentality that dominated everything. :e
;illed in ourselves a !orld in order to raise another, high as the s;y. The absolute rule o' matter !as
overthro!n so it could be relaced by the rule o' the sirit, o' moral values.
:e !ere not denying and !ill never deny the e<istence, 'unction and necessity o' matter in the
!orld, but did deny and 'orever !ill deny the right o' its absolute domination. 6n other !ords, !e
!ere stri;ing a blo! at a mentality !hich laced the golden cal' in the center and as the main
urose in li'e. :e realiDed that, !ere !e to go on this road o' reversed relationshi o' values
bet!een sirit and matter, !e !ould have e<hausted in us all courage, strength, 'aith and hoes.
During those 'irst beginnings !e 'ound the only moral
strength in the unsha;en 'aith alone, that lacing ourselves in li'e=s original harmony, matter=s
subordination to the sirit, !e could subdue the adversities and be victorious over the satanic 'orces
coalesced !ith the urose o' destroying us.
4nother characteristic o' our beginning, in addition to this lac; o' money, !as the lac; o' a
:e had no rogram at all. 4nd this 'act !ill no doubt raise a big Euestion mar;. :hoever heard o' a
olitical organiDation lac;ing a rogram !hich stemmed 'rom reason, 'rom somebody=s brains or
those o' several eoleK
6t !as not those o' us !ho tbougbt ali;e that banded together, but those o' us !ho 'elt ali;e. 9ot
those among us !ho reasoned in the same !ay, but those !ho had the same moral-emotional-
siritual construction.
This !as a signal that the statue o' another Goddess-(eason-!as to be smashedJ that !hich
man;ind raised against God, !e-not intending to thro! a!ay or desise-should ut in her roer
lace, in the service o' God and o' li'e=s meaning. i' then !e had neither money nor a rogram, !e
had, instead, God in our souls and He insired us !ith the invincible o!er o' 'aith.
)ur birth !as greeted !ith a hurricane o' hate and ridicule. The t!o cams o' the 1eague-CuDists
and #tatutories-bro;e relations !ith us. 4ll students in 6asi le't us and the attac;s o' the CuDistsI u
to no! directed at the #tatutories !ere 'rom no! on to be aimed at us, iercing li;e arro!s into our
hearts. :e !ould not be hurt by the arro!s= !ounds but !e !ere going to be terri'ied by !hat !e
!ere to discover in eole. 8rie'ly, !e !ould be re!arded and honored !ith the !eightiest insults
'or everything !e had done be'ore, and su''er blo! a'ter blo!. :e !ould not only 'eel the hate but
!ould see lac; o' character and incorrectitude o' soul in all their na;edness. #oon !e !ould
become +e<loiters o' the national idea+ 'or our ersonal bene'it. :e !ould not have believed that
those !ho
ounded their breasts !ith their 'ists a year earlier, claiming re!ards 'or their retended su''ering,
!ould no! have the courage to thro! into our 'aces the accusation >ust mentioned. #oon eole
!ould learn that !e had .... .. sold out to the Ce!s+ and even articles 'ull o' insults !ere going to be
!ritten and there !ould be easants !ho
!ould believe it and men !ho !ould turn their bac;s on us. 7n>ustlyM 6nsults the enemies never
dared use against us be'ore, out o' 'ear, !ere coming no! at us 'rom our 'riends, 'earlessly and
!ithout shame.
6' it be true that !e !ho had gone through such su''ering and !hose bodies had endured so much
abuse, !ould be caable o' such an in'amy, namely to sell ourselves as a grou to the enemy, then
there !ould be nothing le't anymore to do but set dynamite to this eole and blo! it u, 4 eole
!hich had given birth and had raised in its bosom such children deserves to live no longer.
8ut i' it be not true, those !ho invent such lies and disseminate them are scoundrels !ho drain
a!ay the trust o' their nation in its o!n 'uture and destiny. For such as these, no unishment 'rom
their country is great enough.
:hat con'idence could this eole have in victory and the 'uture i' in the midst o' the tough 'ight it
is !aging it hears that !e, its children, raised in its arms, in !hom it laced its most sacred hoes,
betrayed itK
6 leave those days only in the memory o' those o' us !ho lived them. To them, my comrades o' that
time, !itnesses o' those hours, 6 saidG
+Do not be a'raid o' these ygmies, 'or !hoever has such souls, cannot ever !in. Lou !ill see them
some day 'all on their ;nees at your 'eet. Do not 'orgive them. 8ecause they are not going to do it
out o' remorse 'or the committed transgression, but out o' treachery. 4nd no!, even i' hell !ith all
its unclean ghosts should con'ront us, unmoved in our 'irm stand, !e !ill vanEuish it.+
7 to that time 6 had ;no!n the beast in man. 9o! 6 sa! the scoundrel in man. Guard yourselves
and the children o' today and tomorro! o' the (omanian eole and o' any other eole in the
!orld o' this 'rightening lagueG treachery. 4ll the intelligence, all the learning, all talents, all
education !ill be o' no avail to us i' !e are going to be treacherous.
Teach your children not to use treachery either against a 'riend or against their greatest 'oe. 9ot
only !ill they not !in, but they !ill be more than de'eated, they !ill be crushed. 9or should they
use treachery against the treacherous erson and his treacherous !ays 'or i' they should !in, only
the ersons change. Treachery !ill remain unchanged. The treachery o' the victor !ill be
substituted 'or that o' the de'eated. 6n essence, the same treachery !ill rule the !orld.
I Pro'essor CuDa=s arty members ;Tr0<
The dar;ness o' treachery in the !orld cannot be relaced by another dar;ness but only by the light
brought by the soul o' the brave, 'ull o' character and honor.
4nd yet, at the very beginning o' this barrage o' hatred and treachery, came to us as to a re'uge
giving them hoeG Hristache #olomon, that man o' great honor and conscience, engineer Clime,
engineer 8lanaru, attorney 2ille 1e'ter, 4ndrei C. 6onescu, 4le<andru 5entonic, Dumitru l'rim,
Cosachescu, 6on 8utnaru, 6lierodeacon 6sihic 4ntohic, etc.
4ll these distinguished and veteran 'ighters in the 1eague no! gave me the imression o' some
shi-!rec;ed souls, !hose shi san; in the middle o' the sea, and they landed tired and troubled on
our small island on !hich they could 'ind inner eace and con'idence in
the 'uture.
Gen. 2acridescu told usG
+Though 6 am old, 6 !ill go !ith you and 6 !ill hel you, only on one conditionG that you not sha;e
the hands o' these eole !ho lac; honor, 'or i' you did this it !ould disgust me no end and 6
!ould lose all my hoes in you.+
Pro'essor 6on Gavanescul began to sho! an interest in us and in !hat !e !ere doing.
Four lines mar;ed our small initial li'eG
-. Faithin God. 4ll o' us believed in God. 9one o' us !as an atheist. The more !e !ere alone and
surrounded, the more our reoccuations !ere directed to God and to!ard contact !ith our o!n
dead and those o' the nation. This gave us an invincible strength
and a bright serenity in the 'ace o' all blo!s.
$. Trust in our mission, 9o one could be resented the smallest reason 'or our ossible victory. :e
!ere so 'e! in number, so young, so oor, so hated and detested by everyone, that all arguments
not based on 'act, leaded against any chances o' success. 4nd yet !e
!ent ahead than;s only to . the con'idence in our urose, an unlimited trust in our mission and in
the destiny o' our country,
/. )ur mutual love. #ome o' us had ;no!n one another 'or some time, having 'ormed close
'riendshis, but others !ere youngsters, 'reshmen or sohomores in college, !hom !e had never
met. From the very 'irst days an ambience o' a''ection bet!een us all !as established as i' !e !ere
o' the same 'amily and had ;no!n each other since childhood.
The need 'or an inner eEuilibrium !as obvious in order to be able to resist. )ur common a''ection
had to be o' the same intensity and 'orce to match the !ave o' hatred 'rom outside. )ur li'e in this
nest !as not cold, o''icial li'e, !ith distance bet!een chie' and soldier, !ith theatrics, rhetorical
statements and assumed airs o' leadershi. )ur nest !as !arm. (elations bet!een us !ere
absolutely casual. )ne did not come in as into a cold barrac;s but as into his o!n house, among his
o!n 'amily. 4nd one did not come here >ust to ta;e orders, but one 'ound here a ray o' love, an
hour o' siritual Euiet, a !ord o' encouragement, relie', hel in mis'ortune or need. The legionary
!as not as;ed so much 'or disciline, in the sense o' barrac;s disciline-as 'or roriety, 'aith,
devotion and Deal 'or !or;.
?. The song. Probably, because !e had not started out on the, road o' reason by setting u
rograms, contradictory discussions, hilosohical argumentations, lectures, our only ossibility o'
e<ressing our inner 'eelings !as through singing. :e sang those songs in !hich our 'eelings 'ound
satis'action. +There, High 7 on a 8lac; (oc;+ #te'an the Great=s song, the melody o' !hich, it !as
said, had remained unchanged 'rom his time to this, 'rom generation to generation. 6t is said that at
the sound o' this melody #te'an the Great triumhantly entered his 'ort at #uceava F%% years ago.
:hen !e !ere singing it !e 'elt alive !ith those times o' (omanian greatness and gloryJ !e san;
F%% years bac; into history and lived there 'or a 'e! moments in touch !ith #te'an the Great and
!ith his soldiers and archers. +1i;e a Globe o' Gold,+ the song o' 2ichael the 8raveJ 4vram
6ancu=s songJ +1et the 8ugle #ound 4gain,+ the march o' the 2ilitary #chool o' 6n'antry in -.-&J
+4rise (omanians+ !ritten by 6ustin 6liesu and 6strate, !hich !e roclaimed as the 1egion=s hymn.
To be able to sing, one has to be in a certain state o' sirit, an inner harmony. 4 erson bent on
robbing somebody cannot sing, nor can one !ho is about to commit some other !rongJ nor he
!hose soul is consumed by envy and hate o' his comradeJ nor he !hose soul is devoid o' 'aith.
That is !hy you, legionaries o' today and tomorro!, anytime you 'eel the need to orient yourselves
in the legionary sirit, must return to these 'our lines o' our beginning !hich constitute the basis o'
our movement. The song !ill be a guide to you. 6' you are not going to be able to sing you must
;no! that a sic;ness gna!s at the deth o' your siritual being or that li'e has 'illed your innocent
soul !ith sinsJ and i' you cannot rid yourselves o' these sins, you ought to ste aside, leaving your
lace to those !ho can sing. Pursuing our li'e on the above mentioned lines !e set out to act 'rom
the 'irst days. 6 designated leaders, !ho received and gave orders.
:e did not start out by engaging in some sectacular actions. 4s !e !ere 'aced by some roblem,
!e set out to solve it. )ur 'irst action !as 'i<ing the room in our Home in !hich the icon o' #t
2ichael the 4rchangel !as ;et. :e !hite!ashed it, !e scrubbed the 'loor, The legionary girls
began se!ing curtains. Then legionaries !rote do!n several ma<ims 6 collected either 'rom the
Gosels or 'rom other !ritings. They embelished our !alls. Here are some o' themG
+God carries us on His victorious chariot.+
+:hoever !ins.... 6 shall be his God.+
+He !ho does not have a s!ord, let him sell his cloa; and buy one.+
+Fight bravely 'or 'aith.+
+4void carnal leasures, 'or they ;ill the soul.+
+8e vigdant.+
+Do not destroy the hero that is in you.+
+8rothers in 'ortune... as in mis'ortune.+
+:hoever ;no!s ho! to die, !ill never be a slave.+
+6 a!ait the resurrection o' my Fatherland and the destruction o' the hordes o' traitors,+ etc.
6n a !ee;=s time our headEuarters !as set u.
)ur second action !as o' a di''erent natureG it ertained to,!hat our attitude should be to!ard
outside attac;s. :e decided not to resond to themJ !hich !as e<tremely di''icult 'or us all, )ur
moral being !as being ried aart. 8ut this !as the time o' heroic endurance. 4nother actionG no
one is to try to convince anybody to become a legionary. The customary sleeve-ulling and 'ishing
'or members al!ays disleased me. The system !as and has remained contrary, even to this day, to
the legionary sirit. :e shall state our oint o' vie!, simly. :hoever !anted to >oin, !ould come.
4nd !ill >oin, i' he is acceted.
8ut !ho !as comingK Peole o' the same siritual essence as ours. 2anyK 5ery 'e!. 6n 6asi, one
year later, there !ere only t!o or three more than the 'irst day. 6n the rest o' the country ho!ever,
there !ere more !ho !ere >oining as they learned about our e<istence.
4ll those aroaching us !ere characteriDed by t!o distinct lines clearly visibleG
-. 4 great correctitude o' soul.
$. The lac; o' ersonal interest. 4mong us, one could ro'it by no bene'its. 9o romising rosects
oened u. Here everybody had only to give-soul, !ealth, li'e, caacity 'or love, and trust.
*ven i' one !ho !as an incorrect individual or !as motivated by some interest >oined, he could not
remain !ith us, 'or he could not 'ind here a roitious setting. He !ould automatically leave, a
month, a year, t!o or three, retreating, deserting or betraying.
This nest o' youth !as the 'irst beginning o' legionary li'e, the 'irst cornerstone. 6t had to be laid on
solid ground. That is !hy !e did not sayG +1et us go out to conEuer (omaniaM
Go through villages and shoutG =4 ne! olitical organiDation has >ust been 'ormed, come ye all and
sign uM= :e had !ritten u no ne! olitical lat'orm in addition to the ten e<isting ones in the
country - all o' them +er'ect+ in the eyes o' their authors and suorters-and !e did not send out
legionaries to !ave a rogram around in villages calling eole to adhere to it in order to save the
6n this oint o' - vie!, again, !e di''ered 'undamentally 'rom all the other olitical organiDations,
the CuDists included. 4ll o' these believed that the country !as dying because o' lac; o' good
rogramsJ conseEuently they ut together a er'ectly >elled rogram !ith !hich they started out to
assemble suorters. That is !hy everybody as;sG +:hat is your rogramK+
This country is dying o' lac; o' men, not o' lac; o' rogramsJ at least this is our oinion. That, in
other !ords, it is not rograms that !e must have, but men, ne! men, For such as eole are today,
'ormed by oliticians and in'ected by the Cudaic in'luence, they !ill comromise the most brilliant
olitical rograms.
This ;ind o' man !bo is alive today in (omanian olitics !e earlier met in history. 9ations died
under bis rule and states collased.
The greatest !rong done to us by Ce!s and the olitical system, the greatest national danger to
!hich they e<osed us, is neither the grabbing o' the (omanian soil and subsoil, nor even the tragic
annihilation o' the (omanian middle class, nor the great number o' Ce!s in our schools,
ro'essions, etc. and not even the in'luence they e<ercise over our olitical li'e-though each o' these
in itsel' is a mortal danger 'or our eole. The greatest national eril is the 'act that they have
de'ormed, dis'igured our Daco-(omanic racial structure, giving birth to this tye o' man, creating
this human re'use, this moral 'ailure.. the olitician !ho has nothing in common !ith the nobility o'
our race any moreJ !ho dishonors and ;ills us, 6' this secies o' man continues to =lead this country,
the (omanian eole !ill close its eyes 'orever and (omania !ill collase, in site o' all the
brilliant rograms !ith !hich the +tric;ery+ o' this degenerate creature is able to daDDle the eyes o'
the un'ortunate multitudes. From among all the ests brought to us by the Ce!ish invasion, this is
the most 'rightening oneM
4ll eoles !ith !hom !e (omanians came in contact and 'ought, 'rom the barbarian invasions till
today, have attac;ed us on a hysical, economic or olitical level, leaving untouched our moral and
siritual atrimony, our conscience, 'rom !hich sooner or later srang 'orth our victory, the
brea;ing o' the 'oreign yo;e-even !hen they came uon us in large numbers and too; all our riches,
even !hen they ruled us olitically.
9o!, 'or the 'irst time in our history, (omanians 'ace a eole !hich attac; us not !ith the s!ord
but !ith the !eaons that are seci'ic to the Cudaic race, !ith !hich they stri;e and aralyDe 'irst
the moral instinct o' eoles, then systematically sread all sorts o' moral sic;ness, thus to destroy
any ossibilities o' reacting. That is !hy our eole 'eel disarmed and de'eated. 4s a conseEuence
o' seeing this state o' a''airs, the cornerstone on !hich the 1egion stands is man, not the olitical
rogramJ man=s re'orm, not that o' the olitical rograms. +The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel+
!ill be, in other !ords, more a scbool and an army than a olitical arty. 6n these critical times, the
(omanian nation has no need o' a great olitician as many !rongly believe, but o' a great educator
and leader !ho can de'eat the o!ers o' evil and crush the cliEue o' evil-doers. 8ut in order to do
this he !ill 'irst have to overcome the evil !ithin himsel' and !ithin his men. From this legionary
school a ne! man !ill have to emerge, a man !ith heroic EualitiesJ a giant o' our history to do
battle and !in over all the enemies o' our Fatherland, his battle and victory having to e<tend even
beyond the material !orld into the realm o' invisible enemies, the o!ers o' evil. *verything that
our mind can imagine more beauti'ul sirituallyJ everything the roudest that our race can roduce,
greater, more >ust, more o!er'ul, !iser, urer, more diligent and more heroic, this is !hat the
legionary school must give usM in !hom all the ossibilities o' human grandeur that are
imlanted by God in the blood o' our eole be develoed to the ma<imum.
This hero, the roduct o' legionary education, !ill also ;no! ho! to elaborate rogramsJ !ill also
;no! ho! to solve the Ce!ish roblemJ !ill also ;no! ho! to organiDe the state !ellJ !ill also
;no! ho! to convince the other (omaniansJ and i' not, he !ill ;no! bo! to !in, 'or that is !hy he
is a hero. This hero, this legionary o' bravery, labor and >ustice, !ith the o!ers God imlanted in
his soul, !ill lead our Fatherland on the road o' its glory.
4 ne! olitical arty, be it even a CuDist one, at best can give us a ne! government and a ne!
administrationJ a legionary school ho!ever, can give this country a great tye o' (omanian. 6t can
roduce something great !e never had be'ore, !hich could brea; in t!o our !hole history, to lay
'oundations 'or the beginning o' a di''erent (omanian history to !hich this eole is entitled. For
our eole by virtue o' its m'llenary su''ering and su''erance, by virtue o' its urity and gallantry o'
soul, has been erhas the only eole in the !orld !hich, in all its history, never committed the sin
o' invading and sub>ugating other nations.
:e shall create an atmoshere, a moral medium in !hich the heroic man can be born and can gro!.
This medium must be isolated 'rom the rest o' the !orld by the highest ossible siritual
'orti'ications. it must be de'ended 'rom all the dangerous !inds o' co!ardice, corrution,
licentiousness, and o' all the assions !hich entomb nations and murder individuals. )nce the
legionary !ill have develoed in such a milieu, i.e. in the nestI, !or; cam, in the legionary
organiDation and 'amily, he shall be sent into the !orldG to live, in order to learn ho! to be correctJ
to 'ight, in order to learn to be brave and strongJ to !or;, in order to be ddigent and love all those
!ho !or;J to su''er, in order to steel himsel'., to sacri'ice, in order to get accustomed to
overcoming his sel'ish interests, serving his Fatherland.
9o matter !here he goes he !ill create a ne! milieu o' an identical nature. He !ill be an e<amleJ
!ill turn others into legionaries. 4nd eole, in search o' better days, !ill 'ollo! him. The ne!ly
arrived !ill have to live by and resect the same norms o' legionary li'e.4ll o' them together, in the
same army, !ill ma;e a 'orce !hich !ill 'ight and !ill !in. This is !hat +The 1egion o' 2ichael
the 4rchangel+ is to be.
6n !hat 'ollo!s 6 resent the general asect o' our ublic li'e in the midst o' !hich and against
!hich +The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel+ !as >ust 'orming. The 4verescu government had
'allen about a month be'ore. )n Culy &, -.$& the 1iberals came to o!er. They staged ne! elections
and, as usual, the government had the ma>ority. 9evertheless, the administration had to overcome,
by any means, the great oular current suorting the 9ational-Peasant Party. The oor masses o'
the (omanian eole ran 'rom arty to arty, 'rom romise to romise, attaching their sincerest
hoes-!ith their centuries-long con'idence-to each arty in turn, but ending u cheated and
de>ected, all hoes shattered. 4nd this !ill continue to be so, until they 'inally understand some day
that they had 'allen into the hands o' robber gangs set on ro'it and loot. There !ere three large
arties, 1iberal, 4verescan, and 9ational-Peasant and several smaller ones. Fundamentally there
!as no distinction bet!een them other than di''erences o' 'orm and ersonal interests-the same
thing in di''erent shaes. They did not even have the >usti'ication o' di''ering oinions.
Their only real motivation !as the religion o' ersonal interest, !ith any desideratum and suerior
interests o' the country le't out. That is !hy the sectacle o' olitical 'ights !as disgusting. The
chase a'ter money, ersonal situations, !ealth and leasures, loot, gave these 'ights an asect o'
merciless hostility. Political arties aeared as real organiDed bands that hated and 'ought each
other 'or the booty.
)nly the struggle 'or the Fatherland or 'or an ideal that surasses ersonal interests, egoism or lust,
is calm, decent, noble, !ithout blind unleashing o' assions. )ne can ut enthusiasm into it, but not
base and blind assion.
The hatred and baseness involved in these 'ights is su''icient roo' that they !ere not !aged in the
realm o' lo'ty and sacred ideals or based on rinciles, but in the sorry deth o' the most shameless
ersonal interests.
The olitician=s !orld un'olds in lu<ury and scandalous artying, in the most disgusting immorality,
riding on the bac; o' an increasingly demoraliDed country. :ho is to devote any attention to its
These oliticians, !ith their 'amilies and their agents, need money, 'or artying and entertaining
their olitical clientele, 'or urchasing votes and human consciences. )ne by one, they, in bands,
descend uon the country to desoil ber. This, in the last analysis, is !hat their governing amounts
to. They drain dry the budgets o' the state, the re'ectures, the city halls. They attach themselves
li;e tic;s to the boards o' directors o' all enterrises 'rom !hich they !ill receive, !ithout e''ort,
salaries in the millions 'rom the s!eat and blood o' the e<hausted !or;er. They are included in the
councils o' the Ce!ish ban;ers 'rom !hom they collect honoraria o' more millions as the rice 'or
betraying their country.
They originate scandalous business deals !hich stun their countrymen. Corrution sreads in ublic
li'e li;e a lague, 'rom the most humble servant u to cabinet ministers. They sell themselves to any
and allJ anyone !ith money can buy o'' these monsters and through them the !hole country. That is
!hy, !hen the sEueeDed country can no longer give them money, they yield u to consortia o' alien
ban;ers, one by one, the riches o' our land, and thus give a!ay our national indeendence. 4 real
lethora o' men o' business sreads over the !hole o' (omania, !ho do not !or; or roduce
anything, but suc; the sa o' the country.
#uch are the e<loits o' the oliticians. 2isery, demoraliDation and desair sread among the lo!er
level. #cores o' thousands o' children die, mo!ed do!n by illness and hunger, !ea;ening thus the
eole=s o!er o' resistance in the 'ight it !ages against the organiDed Ce!ish eole !hich is
suorted by the alienated oliticians and de'ended by the entire state aaratus. The 'e! honest
oliticians, several score erhas, maybe even arty leaders, are not able to do anything any more.
They are li;e some oor uets in the hand o' the Ce!ish ress, o' the Ce!ish or 'oreign ban;ers
and o' their o!n 'ello! oliticians.
This mess, this demoraliDation, this in'ection, is sustained ste by ste by the !hole halan< o'
Ce!s, interested in our destruction, in order to relace us in this country and thus steal our riches
comletely. Through their ress, !hich usured the role o' our (omanian ress, through hundreds
o' 'ilthy sheets, through an immoral and atheistic literature, through movie houses and theaters
!hich sread licentiousness, through ban;s, the Ce!s have become masters o' our country.
:ho could oose themK Today, !hen they are the romoters o' disaster and their
the signal o' our national death, !ho shall con'ront themK
The national movement lies rostrate on the ground. 6n these last elections the 1eague came out
&%,%%% votes less, totalling less than F%,%%%, less than t!o ercent nation-!ide, From the ten
arliamentarians it had yesterday, today it has none. There must come a day !hen the legionary !ill
;no! ho! to 'ace this monster and ho! to tac;le him in a li'e or death battle. He, alone.
)ur small number, comared to the giant 'orce o' this all-o!er'ul might, made us o'tentimes ose
Euestions such as these to ourselvesG :bat i' !e !ill be outla!edK 6' these hydrae realiDe !hat !e
lan, they !ill raise be'ore us every ossible obstacle and !ill try to crush 7#. Their eyes are 'i<ed
uon us. They can rovo;e us. They did it once to us, !hen Euietly and eace'ully !e started !or;
at 7ngheniJ then they too; us to the brin; o' the abyss !ish all our lans. :hat are !e,going to do
i' they rovo;e usK #hall !e again ull out our istols and 'ire so that our bones may rot in risons
and our lans may 'ailK Faced !ith glimses o' such ersectives, the idea o' retreating into the
mountains srouted in our minds-there, !here ,the (omanian acceted 'ighting all the enemy
hordes. The mountain has been close to us 'or a long time, to our li'e. 6t ;no!s us. (ather than
letting our bodies dry u and our blood dry out in our veins in the blea; and ugly risons, better to
end our li'e dying to the last man u in the mountains 'or our 'aith. :e re>ect thus the humiliation
o' 'inding ourselves again in chains. :e !ill attac; 'rom there, by incursions do!n into all the
Ce!ish !as nests.
I 8asic unit o' the legionary organiDation. ;Tr0<
7 above, !e !ill de'end the li'e o' the trees and the mountains 'rom 'urther devastation.
Do!n belo!, !e !ill sread death and mercy.
:e !ill be sent 'or to be caught and ;illed. :e !ill escae, hideJ !e !ill 'ight bac;J and in the end,
certainly, !e !ill be do!ned. For there. !ill be but 'e! o' us, sought by (omanian battalions and
regiments. Then !e !ill receive death. The blood o' all o' us !ill 'lo!.
This moment !ill be our biggest discourse addressed to the (omanian eole, and the last one.
6 called 2ota, Garneata, Corneliu Georgescu and (adu 2ironovici and shared !ith them these
thoughts o' mine. :e had to thin; both about good and bad days ahead, :e had to have solutions
and be reared 'or anything. 9othing ought to surrise us. :e !ill 'ollo! the ath o' the country
la!s, not rovo;ing anyone, avoiding all rovocations, no ans!ering any rovocation. 8ut !hen
!e are no longer able to su''er, or !hen insurmountable obstacles are laced be'ore us, our road
must be to!ard the mountains.
6t is not advisable to try a rebellion o' the masses, 'or in this day they !ould be decimated by
cannon and this !ould result in sreading only mis'ortune and sorro!. )n the contrary !e must
!or; alone, in limited numbers and only on our o!n resonsibility.
They all agreed.
+6t cannot be+ they said, +that our blood, the blood o' t!enty youth, !ould not redeem the sins o'
this nation. 6t cannot be that this sacri'ice o' ours !ill not be understood by (omanians, that it
!ould not ma;e their souls and consciences tremble and that this !ill not constitute a starting oint,
a oint o' resurrection 'or (omanians.+
our death, in this 'ashion, could eventually bring this eole more good than all the 'rustated
endeavors o' our li'etime. 9or !ill the oliticians !ho !ill ;ill us go ununished.
There are others among our ran;s !ho !ill avenge us. 9ot being able to !in !hile alive, !e !ill
!in dying. 4'ter that, !e lived !ith the thought and determination o' dying. :e had the sure
solution 'or victory, come !hat might. it gave us eace o' mind and strength. it !ill ma;e us smile
in the 'ace o' any enemy and any attemt to destroy us.
:e !ere born on Cune $?, -.$&. #everal days later !e occuied our headEuarters. 9o! !e 'elt !e
should have our o!n ublication in order to enlarge our 'ield o' in'luence, 'ormulate in it the norms
o' our li'e and through it direct the movement. :hat should !e call itK +The 9e! Generation+ !as
suggestedJ 6 did not li;e it. 6t sounded li;e a de'initionJ it distinguished us 'rom another generation,
!hich !ill not do. +The 4ncestral 1and,+ 1et this be its name. This title ;ees us tied to our
country=s earth in !hich our ancestors restJ the land !hich must be de'ended. it lunges us dee into
unde'ined realmsJ it !ill be more than a name, it !ill be a constant call to battle, the aeal to
bravery, the stirring u o' the !arli;e Eualities o' our race. 2oreover, in addition to those Eualities
mentioned several ages bac;, this title underscores another structural trait o' the legionary=s soulG
bravery, !ithout !hich a man is incomlete. For i' a man is only >ust, correct, devoted, 'aith'ul,
diligent, etc. but lac;s heroic Eualities !hich !ould enable him to 'ight unscruulous, dishonest and
incorrect enemies, he !ould erish at their hands. Here !e !ere no! !ith the a<is o' our movement
already 'i<edJ one end rooted in the earth o' our Fatherland, the other in the heavensG +The
4ncestral 1and+ and 2ichael the 4rchangel. 8ut a aer costs money o' !hich !e had none. :hat
are !e going to doK :e decided to !rite Father 2ota as;ing him to rint it 'or us on credit, in the
old rinting sho o' 1ibertatea (+The 1iberty+" in )rastie. He accetedJ he !ould rint our aer
and !e !ould ay him 'rom subscritions and sales. +The 4ncestral 1and+ 9o. - !as ublished on
4ugust -,-.$& in a magaDine 'ormat as a bimonthly, having in the center o' the cover the icon o' #t.
2ichael the 4rchangel. )n the icon=s le't !ere reroduced the 'ollo!ing !ords 'rom #t. 2ichael
the 4rchangel=s icon in the Church o' the Coronation= in 4lba-6uliaG
+To!ards the unclean hearts !ho come into the most ure House o' the 1ord, 6 mercilessly oint
my s!ord.+
4nd on its right a stanDa 'rom Cosbuc=s oem +Decebal to his PeoleG+
+Though !e !ere descended 'rom the Gods, !e still o!e the debt o' death :hether one dies young
or a stooed old man is >ust the same, but it is not the same to die a lion or a dog in chainsM+
7nderneath, the ma o' (omania !hich sho!ed in dar;ened sots the e<tent o' the Ce!ish invasion.
The leading article, entitled +The 4ncestral 1and+ delves into the situation o' the national
movement 'ollo!ing the con'lict !ithin the 1eague and endeavors to e<lain our osition. 6t ends
!ith the entreaty. +Face to the enemyM+ 6t is signed by Corneliu Q. Codreanu, 6on 2ota, llie
Garneata, Corneliu Georgeseu and (adu 2ironovici. The second article is signed by me, +6t is Lour
Hour, ComeJ+ a continuation o' the same line o' thought covered in the 'irst article. The third one
!as signed by 6on #ava, a young talented 'ighter !ho too; art in many a battle o' the student
movement, !ho attached himsel' to us, but did not become a legionary. 6ts titleG
+The (esults o' the *lections.+
There 'ollo!s a brie' anegyric on the occasion o' Aing Ferdinand=s death, !ho had assed a!ay a
'e! days be'ore. 4bove his icture, bordered in blac;, aeared the title +)ur Aing has died.
Then 'ollo!ed 2ota=s article !hich 6 reroduce here in artG
+6t is 'rom the 6con and the 4ltar that !e started, Then !e !andered 'or a !hile carried a!ay by
human !aves
I Popular na*e of the hurh in Alba)Iulia in "hih =ing Ferdinand and Bueen -aria "ere ro"ned on 1tober %C+
%&''0 ;Tr0<
and !e reached no shores desite the urity o' our imulses. 9o!, !ith heavy hearts, disersed,
torn, !e gather in the shelter, to our only !armth and consolation, strength and com'ort, giver o'
o!er, at the 'eet o' Cesus Christ, on the threshold o' the heavens blinding brilliancy, at the 6con.
:e have not been engaged in olitics, 'or not even one single day in our lives, ever. :e have a
religion, !e are the slaves o' a 'aith. :e consume ourselves in its 'ire and, totally sub>ected to it,
serve it to the limit o' our strength. There is no de'eat and disarming 'or ourselves, 'or the o!er
!hose tools !e !ant to be, is eternally invincible.
+:e cannot 'or the time being discuss in detail the causes o' the old 1eague=s do!n'all. 1et it only
be said that, in these moments o' ne! creation, !e !ant to clearly and decidedly state, in order to
imrint the character o' the ne! system being bornG
+1ight o' light ......
The article then continues giving some insights into the ne! organiDation, ending !ith an
e<ression o' 'aith in victory.
*<tract 'rom an article o' Corneliu GeorgescuG
+4ncient chronicles tell us that o' old the Gods had sent do!n a di''icult trial on ancient Hellas 'or
her sins. From the !astelands o' 4sia, large armies many hundred'old stronger than the Gree;s
s!ooed do!n li;e a temest on the country=s lains, ravaging her 'ields, demolishing her cities,
devastating her temles and shattering her armies !hich, though valiant, !ere too small in number
to ut u a success'ul oosition. 2eeting no 'urther resistance, the victorious 2edes enetrated
into the heart o' Greece at Delhi, the location o' 4ollo=s most 'amous temle. The temle riests
!ere trembling !ith 'right that soon the enemy !ould be able to desecrate the sacred temle. The
grand riest alone !as not a'raid. Full o' con'idence in divine o!er, he turned to his 'ello! riests
and said.. =Do not 'ear, God has no need o' armies. He !ill Himsel' de'end usM=
+4nd the grand riest and all the others set out to ray and their rayer accomlished miracles. 4s
soon as the con'ident armies o' the Persians aroached !ithin a stone=s thro! o' the temle, 2ount
Parnassus shoo; and rolled roc;s do!n its sloes !ith a dea'ening thunder over the enemy,
crushing him. The lightning coming do!n as i' 'rom no!here, comleted their ruin, so that 'rom the
grand army o' but a moment earlier, hardly a 'e! remained to tell o' this heavenly miracle...
+FightersM 1ight ane! in your souls the torch o' 'aith that victory and triumh shall be ours.+
Then 'ollo!s a letter o' (adu 2ironovici to one o' his brothers in the village bac; home. Ano!ing
him to be discouraged he tells himG
+Certainly, !e can be sad and grieved, but there is one right !e do not have, that o' losing our
courage and laying do!n our !eaon.+
4'ter !hich he e<lains to him the disunity in the 1eague and the 'ounding o' the 1egion, thusG
+)ur house, that !e all built !ith our o!n s!eat, !hich !as our shelter, has burned do!n...
+)nly some smo;e-blac;ened !alls remain as a ain'ul reminder o' the little old house.
+:hat do you !ant us to do no!K (ebel against GodK This cannot be, 'or =the 1ord bath given, the
1ord ta;eth a!ay, blessed be the name o' the 1ord.=
+#hall !e cross our arms and erish in misery, cold, rain and !indK 9oM 8ut, !ith 'aith in God, !e
shall begin to !or;, and little by little, should build 'or ourselves a ne! home t!ice as beauti'ul.
Here it is, =the 1egion,= 'or !hich !e have laid a 'irst cornerstone.+
Garneata=s article is ne<tG
+2y heart 'ull o' chagrin, 6 ta;e my en in hand to share !ith others the torinent o' the disEuieting
thoughts that enveloed us in the 'ace o' our late troubles...
+The Euarrel among brothers and the disagreements among leaders have become so evident that !e
can no longer hide them. Their conseEuences are li;ely going to discourage many, and the
discouragement o' those !ho laced their con'idence in the 1eague, is certainly a ste bac;!ard, a
ste to!ard de'eat.
+This is so obvious, because at no time in history !as it ever evidenced that disunity led to anything
else but mis'ortune, disaster....
+:e shall ;no! ho! to !al; on the road !e chose seven years ago, and >ust as determinedly. )ur
bones, accustomed to the harshness o' rison days and misery, !ill 'eel good in battle-trenches, on
osition against the adversary.
+1et the Ce!s, !ho today re>oice believing the hour o' their masterdom had arrived ;no! that there
is a corner in this country !here, at any hour o' the day or night, there is a troo !atching, its 'ace
to the enemy+
#everal items o' in'ormation comlete this 'irst issue together !ith the article +Dreams, Hoes,
(eality+ by engineer Gheorghe Clime, 'ormer vice-resident o' 1.4.9.C. in 2oldavia, 'rom !hich 6
e<tract the 'inal artG
+:hat do !e need in order to reach this 'inal goalK
+4 'ighting army led by a caable leader surrounded by devoted helers. 6n this Euestion, as 'ar as 6
am concerned, though much older, 6 'ollo! the action grou o' the young Corneliu Q. Codreanu,
6on -. 2ota...
+)bviously, the contribution o' many, o' all those today disersed in demoraliDed cams, is needed.
+ConseEuently, i' someone in some corner o' (omania has oened a list o' subscribers, !hether
authoriDed or not, let him enter there my name also, !ith !hat 6 can give my li'e.+
The second issue o' +The 4ncestral 1and+ !as ublished on 4ugust -F. 6n the lead article entitled
+The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel+ 6 try to 'ormulate brie'ly the 'irst ethical norms o' legionary
li'e !hich !e mean to strictly resect and a''irm, and around !hich should gather all those !ho
riDe them. 4nyone !ho !ould come and gro! in our midst !ill have to gro! u resecting them.
6 select 'rom this statute-article the ideas in the order in !hich 6 !rote them at that time.
The 'irst ideaG +2oral urity.+
The secondG +Disinterestedness in battle.+
The thirdG +*nthusiasm.+
The 'ourthG +Faith, !or;, order, hierarchy, disciline.+
The 'i'thG +The 1egion shall stimulate the energy and moral 'orce o' our nation !ithout !hich there
can never be any victory.+
The si<thG +Custice, (the 1egion shall be the school o' >ustice and o' the energy to enthrone it".+
The seventhG +Deeds, not !ords-Lou accomlishM Do not tal;M+
The eighthG +4t the end o' this school, a ne! (omania !ill emerge and the long-a!aited
resurrection o' this (omanian eole, the aim o' all our e''orts, su''ering and sacri'ices !e ma;e.+
6 !ant to elaborate uon some o' them.
De'eating ersonal interest is another 'undamental virtue o' the legionary. This is in total oosition
to the olitician=s osition !hose single motive o' acting and 'ighting is his ersonal interest alone,
!ith all its degenerate by-roducts-greed 'or enrichment, lu<ury, debauchery or arrogance. That is
!hy, dear comrades, 'rom no! on 'or as long as a legionary li'e shall e<ist, you ought to ;no! that
!herever you shall 'eel coming on, be it in the soul o' some 'ighter or be it in your o!n soul, the
snarl o' this ersonal interest, there the 1egion has ceased to e<ist. There, the legionary ends and the
olitician begins to sho! his 'angs.
1oo; a ne!comer right in the eye and i' in his eyes you should detect a gleam o' some small
ersonal interest (either material, or ambition, assion, ride" ;no! that he cannot become a
9or shall donning the green shirt or adoting the legionary salute be enough 'or someone to become
a legionary, not even i' he +radonally+ understands the legionary movementJ but only i' he leads a
li'e in con'ormance !ith the norms o' legionary li'e. For the 1egion is not only a logical system, a
chaining u o' argumentsJ it is a +living 'aith.+ >ust as someone is not a Christian i' he +;no!s+ and
+understands+ the Gosel but only i' he con'orms to the norms o' li'e esoused in it, i' he +lives the
The entire social history o' man;ind is 'ull o' struggles, having at its base t!o great rinciles, one
striving 'or a lace to the detriment o' the otherG the rincile o' authority and the rincile o'
liberty. 4uthority has striven to e<and to the detriment o' 'reedom, and the latter has endeavored to
limit as much as ossible the o!er o' authority. These t!o, 'ace to 'ace, cannot but mean con'lict.
To orient a movement a'ter one or the other o' these t!o rinciles means to continue the historical
line o' unrest and social !ar'are. 6t means to continue on one hand the line o' tyranny, oression
and in>ustice, and on the other hand the line o' bloody insurrection and o' ermanent con'lict.
There'ore 6 !ant to call the attention o' all legionaries and in articular that o' ne!er ones that they
should not deviate 'rom the movement=s line because o' a misunderstanding. 6n many a case 6
noticed that as soon as a legionary received a ran; he sti''ened !ith all his being into +authority,+
brea;ing a!ay 'rom everything that bound him to his comrades till then, and 'elt comelled to
+imress+ others by the use o' his authority.
The legionary movement is based e<clusively neither on the rincile o' authority nor on that o'
liberty, 6t has its 'oundations rooted in the rincile o' love. in it, both authority and 'reedom have
their roots.
1ove is the eace bet!een the t!o rincilesG authority and liberty. 1ove is in the middle, bet!een
them and above them, embracing both o' them in everything they have best and removing the
con'licts bet!een them.
1ove can bring neither tyranny, oression, in>ustice, bloody insurrection, nor social !ar'are. 6t can
never mean con'lict. There is also a hyocritical concet o' the rincile o' love ractised by tyrants
and Ce!s !ho, continuously and systematically aeal to the sentiment o' love o' their 'ello! men,
behind !hich they continue to hate and oress undisturbed.
4lied love means eace o' soul in society and in the !orld. Peace no longer aears li;e the oor
e<ression o' a mechanical and cold eEuilibrium bet!een the t!o rincilesG autboidty and liberty
condemned to !ar etemally, namely to an imossibility o' harmony.
Goodness and love are going to give us eace, not >ustice. For >ustice is very di''icult to realiDe
integrally. *ven i' an instrument o' its er'ect realiDation !ould be 'ound, man, !ho is incaable o'
recogniDing and areciating it, !ould remain 'orever discontented.
6n the #econd to be success'ul in battle either against nature or enemies.
Though one hundred men may love each other li;e brothers, it is ossible that, 'aced !ith need 'or
some action, they may each have a di''erent oinion. )ne hundred oinions !ill never !in. 1ove
alone !ill never ma;e them !in. Disciline is needed, 6n order to !in, all o' them must adot a
single oinion, that o' the one among them !ho is most e<erienced, their leader.
Disciline is the guarantee o' success 'or it insures the unity o' e''ort. There are di''iculties that
only a united entire eole, obeying a single command, can overcome. :ho is the imbecile !ho in
such an eventuality !ould re'use to >oin the rest o' his eole, !hen they, as one, !ill heed the
same command under the retense that disciline !ould !ound bis ersonalityK
6n such cases, !hen your country is threatened and !hen the nature o' things urges you to endanger
li'e and limb, to brea; u your 'amily, to ris; the 'uture o' your children, to renounce everything
you o!n on this earth in order to save your 'atherland, it is at least ridiculous 'or one to tal; o' his
+ersonality being hurt.+
Disciline does not humiliate one, 'or it leads to victory. 4nd i' victories cannot be attained e<cet
by sacri'ice, then the submission to disciline is the smallest o' all sacri'ices a man can ma;e 'or the
victory o' his nation.
6' disciline is a renunciation, a sacri'ice, it does not humiliate anyone. For any sacri'ice ennobles
one, does not demean him. 4s our eole has to overcome tremendous di''iculties, every (omanian
should >oyously accet the education o' disciline and be thus a!are o' his contribution to the
victory o' tomorro!.
There is no victory !ithout unityJ and there is no unity !ithout disciline. There'ore our nation
should consider it a hostile act and condemn as dangerous to her victories and her very li'e any
deviation 'rom the scbool o' disciline.
The struggle to assure the ublication o' our revie! !as the second stage o' our develoment.
1ac;ing 'inances, our e''orts too; on the asect o' a real battle. in 'act +battle+ is !hat !e named it
'rom the start.
:e made use o' t!o strategiesG
-. Concentrating all our e''orts on the same ob>ective at the same time. 6n the second to be
success'ul in battle either against nature or enemies.
Though one hundred men may love each other li;e brothers, it is ossible that, 'aced !ith need 'or
some action, they may each have a di''erent oinion. )ne hundred oinions !ill never !in. 1ove
alone !ill never ma;e them !in. Disciline is needed. 6n order to !in, all
o' them must adot a single oinion, that o' the one among them !ho is most e<erienced, their
Disciline is the guarantee o' success 'or it insures the unity o' e''ort. There are di''iculties that
only a united entire eole, obeying a single command, can overcome. :ho is the imbecile !ho in
such an eventuality !ould re'use to >oin the rest o' his eole, !hen they, as one, !ill heed the
same command under the retense that disciline !ould !ound bis ersonalityK
6n such cases, !hen your country is threatened and !hen the nature o' things urges you to endanger
li'e and limb, to brea; u your 'amily, to ris; the 'uture o' your children, to renounce everything
you o!n on this earth in order to save your 'atherland, it is at least ridiculous 'or one to tal; o' his
+ersonality being hurt.+
Disciline does not humiliate one, 'or it leads to victory. 4nd i' victories cannot be attained e<cet
by sacri'ice, then the submission to disciline is the smallest o' all sacri'ices a man can ma;e 'or the
victory o' his nation.
6' disciline is a renunciation, a sacri'ice, it does not humiliate anyone. For any sacri'ice ennobles
one, does not demean him. 4s our eole has to overcome tremendous di''iculties, every (omanian
should >oyously accet the education o' disciline and be thus a!are o' his contribution to the
victory o' tomorro!.
There is no victory !ithout unityJ and there is no unity !ithout disciline. There'ore our nation
should consider it a hostile act and condemn as dangerous to her victories and her very li'e any
deviation 'rom the scbool o' disciline.
The struggle to assure the ublication o' our revie! !as the second stage o' our develoment.
1ac;ing 'inances, our e''orts too; on the asect o' a real battle. in 'act +battle+ is !hat !e named it
'rom the start.
:e made use o' t!o strategiesG
-. Concentrating all our e''orts on the same ob>ective at the same time.
$. #timulating our 'ighters during the battle by citations and distinctions. Lou !ill encounter this
rincile in all our legionary activity.
6t embodies the 'ollo!ing advantagesG
a" The raid accomlishment o' the desired urose.
b" The education o' united action and o' the discilined e''ort o' all !or;ers.
c" The a!a;ening to the consciousness o' their o!n o!ers, con'idence in themselves and in their
o!n o!ers.
The memory o' economic de'eats, articularly the unsuccess'ul endeavors, thre! the (omanian
eole into resignation, lac; o' initiative and loss o' con'idence. :e shall have to a!a;en his
con'idence in himsel' by substituting the ain'ul memories !ith a tradition o' success in his
endeavors. 4nd 'inally, by stimulating our 'ighters, !e shall be able to attain a screening o' the
Dealous o' an elite cadre o' 'ighters. :e launched an aeal in our revie! addressed to all our
'riends, to go on the o''ensive bet!een #etember lst and )ctober -Fth, in order that together !e
might get as large a number o' ne! subscribers as ossible. 4s a result o' this aeal a real ant-li;e
camaign got under!ay in !hich one and all too; active artG youth, old 'ol;s, easants,
intellectuals. #ome brought in as many as ?F subscritions (Constantin llinoiu".
The outcome o' this 'irst battle !as rinted in the 9ovember -, -.$& issue. Here is !hat 6 !rote at
the timeG +4t si< o=cloc; in the evening on )ctober -F, the number o' subscribers reached $,F@0.
The 1egion than;s all those !ho labored 'or its 'irst victory.+
4ll those !ho articiated in this battle !ere mentioned in that issue. First o' all !e gave than;s to
Father 2ota !ho e<tended to us 'avorable ublicity through 1ibertatea (+The 1iberty+". 6 give again
here the names o' all as they !ere rinted in +The 4ncestral 1and.+ #ome o' them did not become
legionaries and some are no longer !ith us, having died in the legionary 'aith. 4nd 6 give their
names here because they !ere believers 'rom the startJ
they are listed in the order in !hich they had distinguished themselvesG
2other Pam'ilia Ciolac (5aratec", )ctav 9egut (Focsani", 4rhimandrite 4tanasie Poescu (8alti",
Hieromonah 6sihie 4ntohi (9eamt", 2ihad Tanasache, 5ictor #ilaghi, 6on 8ordeian,u, (adu
2ironovici, Cat. 5. Tuchel (6vesti", Constantin 6linoiu (6asi", 9. Grosu (8otosani", 6on 2inodora
(Husi", Grigorie 8alaci (2ovilita-Putna", 4ndrei C. lonescu (8arlad", #iru Peceli (Galati",
engineer 2ihai 6ttu (8ucharest", engineer Gh. Clime (6asi", 6on T. 8anea (#ibiu", 6lie Garneata
(6asi", Totu 9icolae (6asi", Coman 4le<andru (Gauri-Putna", Decebal Codreanu (Husi", 2ihail
2arinescu (Galati", Traian 1elescu (Piatra-9earnt", #ebastian *rhan (Camul-1ung, 8ucovina", 9.
Tecau (4merica", *lena Petcu (5aslui", Dr. #ocrate Divitari (Tecuci", 6on Plesea ()rhei", P.6.
2orariu (#uraia-Putna", 9anu Gavril (aileanu ()rhei", Cotiga Traian (Focsani", 2aria 2itea
(#everin", -. Ciobanita (8elcesti", Carausu (5oinesti", Tinistei 9eaga ()rhei", Qosim 8ardas
(Tarnava 2are", 6on 8lanaru (Focsani", luliu #tanescu (2arsani-Dol>", Corneliu Georgescu
(Poiana-#ibiului", Fanica 4nastasescu (8ucharest", D. 6'rim (6asi", 6. Durac (P. 9eamt", Pa =curaru
Gh. (8ucharest", Pro'essor 6sac 2ocanu (Turda", 2arius Po (Clu>", 9. 5oinea (Panciu", 9.8.
2unceleanu ((oman", Grigorie 8erciu (5arna", Corneliu Cristescu 8asa (Comanesti", 4ngela
Plesoianu (#even=n", *mil *remeiu (9asaud".
*ight years later !e established that 'rom the F. !ho too; art in the 'irst legionary battleG
Four had le't us, incaable o' understanding usJ in 'act, they even attac;ed us.
*ight, a'ter one or t!o years, gave no sign o' li'e !hatever. T!enty-t!o received the highest ran;s,
becoming legionary commanders, commander-aides, or legionary senators. #even became
legionaries, men o' unsha;eable 'aith, de'ying all ersecutions.
*ighteen remained our 'riends, heling us to the resent day.
4s a result o' this battle, ublication o' +The 4ncestral 1and+ !as assured 'or one year.
5asile #tate, merchant and C. 5asiliu, ensioner (4d>ud", Gh. )rea (#an-9icolaul 2are", 6on
#chiou (Prundul 8argaului, attorney 8udescu P. (8anat", 4dol' Greiter, 2isu #te'anescu, losi'
Dumitru (the 'irst subscriber to +The 4ncestral 1and+", 6lie 8erlinschi (6gesti-8ucovina", Dr. *lena
8ratu, 2ille 1e'ter (Galati", 6on Demian (Turda", Dr. Poeseu (5aslui", Teodoreseu Craciun,
4ugustin lgna, 6vanovici, 4dam 8ranDei, #o'ron (obota (Dorna", 8acuta 8oghiceanu (Husi", the
brothers 8alan (#ove>a", C. Gheorghiu Contar, Cat. #iancu, Gh. Postolache, Gheorghe Desa
(Dorna", 1uchian CoDan (Dorna", Dr. Crisan, engineer Camil Grossu, Chirulescu 5ictor, lordache
9icoara, 6on and 4le<andru 8utnaru, 4driana and Teodora 6eseanu, 5asile #tan, Pro'essor
(aDmerita, Craciunescu (Focsani", 6on 8elgea, Gurita #te'aniu, Ghita 4ntonescu, Pantelimon
#tatache, )ctav Pavelescu (Foscani", Gheorghe Potolea (8eresti", 6. Gh. Teodosiu, 2argareta
2arcu, Gheorghe 2arcu (Galati", Dan Tarnovschi, #imion Tonea, engineer #toicoiu, Col. Paul
Cambureanu, 4mos Horatiu Po (1udos", #te'an 9icolau, 6leana Constantinescu, *lvira 6onescu,
2arioara Cidimdeleon, Gh. 4mancei, Coca Tiron, 6ulius 6gna, 4ristotel Gheorghiu ((m.-#arat", D.
8unduc, 5aler Danieleanu, Constantin, 7rsescu, 5asile Tamau, C. 2ierla, )ctav Danieleanu,
#te'an 2anDat, Col. 8leDu, *u'rosina Ciudin, (everend 2other Qenaida (achis, Gh. 1iga, 4na
Dragoi (Galati", Pro'essor 2atei Coriolan.
6 cite these names, mentioned o'ten in the aer, not in order to satis'y the reader=s curiosity but
because the eole !ho heled us - articularly in our 'irst tough hours - must al!ays be
remembered. #ome o' these have died !hile some have turned into 'ighters braving all the
ersecutions to this day. 6 hastened to list them no! because 6 may not again have the oortunity
to do so in the course o' this boo;.
From the very 'irst hour, !e had the bene'it o' the Cudeo-masonic olitician=s hatred. 8ut there !ere
also eole !ho received us into their hearts li;e a ray o' hoe. Here are several letters 'rom
readers, !hich !ere rinted in the 'irst issue o' +The 4ncestral 1andG+
+6 shall not endeavor to e<ress at great length my >oy on the aearance o' the revie!. 6 !elcome it
!ith our greeting o' oldG =2ay God hel them.= 9or shall 6 delve in these lines into the recent events,
but 6 sayG =)n!ard, al!ays 'or!ard, you, the ne! men. 1ong live the troo o' 2ichael the
4rchangel. 2ay the band o' the !ic;ed be s!allo!ed by 8elDebut=s dar;ness.= +#t. 2ichael the
4rchangel !ill have to stri;e unhesitatingly and mercilessly. #uch is the aim set 'orth in the ages
o' =The 4ncestral 1and.=
+9either #atan nor his servants can ans!er the 4rchangel=s call, nor should they imagine that they
can 'ool anyone by disguise. Traitors deserve a sti''er unishment than enemies.
+#ho! no indulgence to anyone, 'or nobody lac;s the maturity to >udge !hich is the decisive
+6 close my lines by !ishing to see victory one hour sooner, the great victory.+
Col. 8leDu
I 2embers o' the 1egionary #enate, #ee age $F&. ;Tr0<
+The bright sun o' the s!asti;a has not 'ailed us this time either to ull us out o' chaos. 6t gave us
its bene'icent light, 'or our salvation, =The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel.= From no! on the
(omanian soul is again !armed by the 'aith that this holy movement shall not erish.+
+The national idea !ill call us to duty.+
+Those !ho !ill not understand us shall 'all by the !ayside. 6 am on your side.+
2.1. 1e'ter, attorney
President o' 1.4.9.C. 'or Galati
+Lou are the hoes o' our 'uture days. :e lace our 'uture and that o' our children at your 'eet.
4ll o' us !ait imatiently to see yours a o!er'ul organiDation and !e are an<ious to >oin the 'ight.+
+4nd !hen 6 tell you this 6 am not telling >ust !hat 6 mysel' 'eel, but !hat 6 see in many others.+
C.9. Paduraru
Country accountant, (utura, ((oman".
+6 see and 6 'eel (omanian hearts again being reborn. 6 do not only hoe no! that the victory !ill be
ours, 6 am sure o' it.+
6on 8anea, student, 5urar (#ibiu".
+6t is my duty as a Christian student 6 'eel, to send my congratulations and those o' my 'riends in the
Ciul=s lains 'or the determination and energy you sho! in the struggle >ust begun.+
6uliu Gb. #tanescu, student.
+:e, the (omanians o' the village o' 5ulcani, !or;ers in the Petrosani Co. carry even today in
Greater (omania the yo;e laced uon us by the comany=s 'unctionaries, 'or all o' them are aliens.
+6, 4ugustin 6gna, contracted tuberculosis. 2iner by ro'ession, 6 can no longer !or; do!n in the
mine 'or the olluted air hurts me.+
+6 'or!arded a etition, co-signed by the doctor, reEuesting !or; o' a lighter nature outside, not
do!n under, because there, 6 !ould end my days in a 'e! !ee;s. 6t !as turned do!n. 6 no! aeal
to you 'or hel 'or 6 have no one to turn to.+
6gna 4ugustin
+Please sto sending me your revie!J my name is 4<ente Poenar, miner, Carte>u de sus, because 6
do not have enough money to ay it even 'or three months, and 6 hate to send it bac;.+
+4nd no! let me e<lain to you !hy 6 do not have the money. 6t is 'all here and everybody en>oys it
because it is harvest time. That is, everybody but us miners, 'or !e lac; the clothing and the shoes
that the oncoming !inter demandsJ and our children must be sent to school. The little !e save out
o' our bitter bread !e must send on these needs.+
4<ente Poenar, miner.
+Dear and beloved children o' our eoleG
Though 6 aroach the sunset o' my li'e, a ne! ray o' hoe enetrates my soul 'or the resurrection
o' our dear country, seeing your ure and holy movement =The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel,=
the great celestial rince. 6 'eel very much saddened that 6 !ill not live long enough to see the
'lo!ering o' our eole and to en>oy the labored yield !etted by the cold s!eat, and maybe the
blood, o' those martyrs destined by God, !ho are and !ill yet be, 'or the 'ull'ilment o' the great
lan that has been ;neaded !ith so much su''ering. 6t is Euite late,. the lague is sreading, our
grave is being dug, the grave-diggers are ready to bury us 'oreverJ and !e (omanians big or small,
hesitate, barter and Euarrel over ambitions, emty vainglory and erishable !ealth.
I :e continued to ;ee his name on the subseriber=s list.
+6 ;ee Euiet, 'or 6 am unschooledJ you ;ee Euiet because you are !ilyJ he, because he is
harnessed in a olitical artyJ they ;ee Euiet because they are the administrationJ and so !e all
;ee EuietJ the dar;ness o' our do!n'all envelos us gradually and the torch o' our eole goes out.
6 am a oor easant loughman, but 6 can handle the en as !ell as 6 can the shovel or the scythe. 6
shall hel you !ith my money, my en, by deed and !ord, as;ing you to give me a little corner in
our revie! =The 4ncestral 1and.= 6 shall !rite under the title =4re !e (omanians, or are !e not, on
the threshold o' doomK 4nd !hyK=
=:ho are the guiltyK=
=:hich is the cause o' causesK=
=:hat is being done and !hat must be doneK=
=:hat must each (omanian ;no! and doK= +
5.1 )no'rei, loughman,
5illage o' Tungu>ei (5aslui"
4s a matter o' 'act, +The 4ncestral 1and+ is 'ull o' such lettersJ a contribution o' our countrymen to
the 1egion=s creation. For the 1egion is more than an organiDation !ith members, boo;s, and chie's.
6t is a state o' sirit, a unity o' 'eeling and living to !hich all o' us contribute. 2embers, chie's,
numbers, uni'orms, rogram, etc. ma;e u the visible 1egion. The other one though, that one does
not see, is the most imortant. The visible 1egion !ithout the invisible one, namely that state o'
sirit, o' li'e, means nothingJ it !ould be but a 'orm devoid o' any content.
:e did not set ourselves u, !ith our revie!, li;e ro'essors at their chairs, raising a barrier
bet!een us +the chie's,+ +the teachers,+ !ho had their teachings and theories rinted in the revie!,
and the readershi !ho has nothing to do but learn our teachings and con'orm to them. )n one hand
us, on the other they. 9o. To ma;e the 1egion does not mean giving her a uni'orm, buttons, etc.J it
does not mean to elaborate her system o' organiDation, it does not even mean to 'ormulate her
legislation, leadershi norms, logically enumerating the te<ts on aer. Cust as to create a man it
does not mean ma;ing his clothes or 'i<ing his rinciles o' behavior or establishing his rogram o'
9either statute, nor rogram nor doctrine ma;e a movement. These could constitute its legislation,
de'ine its aims, system o' organiDation, means o' action, etc. but not be the movement itsel'. These
are concets that even men o' science con'use. Creating only a +statute,+ +rogram,+ etc. then
believing you created a +movement+ is as i' !anting to ma;e a man, you !ould only ma;e his
clothing. Creating a movement means 'irst i' all giving birth to a state o' sirit, a gushing
enthusiasm o' the sirit, o' the heart o' a eole !hich has nothing in common !ith the
seculations o' cold reasoning. This is !hat constitutes the essential in the legionary movement. 6
!as not the one to create this state o' sirit, 6t came to li'e by the convergence o' our contribution o'
'eeling !ith that o' the other comatriots. The revie! +The 4ncestral 1and+ !as the meeting
ground !here our asirations and later our tbougbts 'raterniDed !ith the 'eelings and thoughts o'
those (omanians !ho !ere attuned to 7#.
#o then, the 1egion in her essence, in that unseen state o' sirit, !hich !as 'elt by all o' us, !as not
my creation.
#he !as the 'ruit o' a collaboration.
#he !as born by the 'usion o' the 'ollo!ing contributionsG
-. The 'eelings o' the 'irst legionaries.
$. The corresonding 'eelings o' other (omanians.
/. The resence in the conscience o' everybody o' all our eole=s dead.
?. The urge o' our Fatherland=s soil.
F. God=s blessing.
6 !ould not !ant my thoughts to be !rongly interreted by someone, as i' 6 !ere sayingG
+6 am not one o' these legionaries in uni'orm, 6 am a legionary in sirit.+
This cannot be.
)n this siritual 'oundation is created doctrine, rogram, statute, uni'orm, activity, all ali;e, not as
accessories but as 'actors that 'i< the siritual content o' the movement, giving it a uni'ied 'orm and
maintaining it alive in the eole=s conscience and carrying it to!ard accomlishment and victory.
The legionary movement is all o' these together.
The uni'orms that aeared in all contemorary movementsG
Fascism (the blac; shirt", 9ational-#ocialism (the bro!n shirt", etc. !ere not born 'rom the leaders
imagination. They !ere born out o' a necessity o' e<ressing this state o' sirit. The e<ression o'
the unity o' 'eeling. They are the visible 'ace o' an unseen reality.
4nytime there is tal; about a national movement, tendencies to!ard a dictatorshi are
systematically attributed to it. 6 do not !ish to ma;e a critiEue o' dictatorshis in this chater, but 6
!ant to sho! that *uroe=s resent day national movements such as the legionary movement,
Fascism, 9ational-#ocialism, etc., are neither dictatorshis nor democracies. Those !ho 'ight us by
shoutingG +Do!n !ith Fascist dictatorshiM+, +Fight against dictatorshiM+, +De'end yourselves
against dictatorshiM+ do not hit us. They are shooting o''-target. They can only hit the notorious
+dictatorshi o' the roletariat.+
Dictatorshi resuoses the !ill o' a single man 'orcibly imosed uon the !ill o' the other
sub>ects in a state. 6n other !ords, t!o oosing !illsG that o' the dictator or a grou o' men on one
hand, and that o' the eole on the other. :hen this !ill itnoses itsel' by constraint and cruelty,
then the dictatorshi is tyranny. 8ut !hen a nation !ith a ma>ority o' .@ ercent, in indescribable
enthusiasm, a nation o' 0% million or one o' ?% million souls, aroves and deliriously alauds the
chie'=s measures, it means that there is a er'ect accord bet!een the chie's !ill and that o' the
eole. 2oreover, they mesh so er'ectly that there no longer e<ist t!o !ills. There is only oneG the
!ill o' the nation, the e<ression o' !hich is the chie'. 8et!een the !ill o' the nation and the
leader=s !ill e<ists then only one relationshiG a er'ect raort bet!een them.
To claim that the unanimity obtained under the regimes o' national movements is due to +terror+
and +inEuisitorial methods+ is absolutely ludicrous, because the eole among !hom such
movements arose have a highly develoed civic a!areness. They 'ought, bled, and le't thousands
!ho died 'or 'reedomJ they never submitted, either to the enemy !ithout or to the tyrant !ithin.
:hy should they not 'ight and bleed also today, i' 'aced by such terrorK 4nd then, one can dra!
votes or even ma>orities 'orcibly, by terrorJ
one can dra! tears or sighsJ but it has never been heard nor !ill it ever be heard that one can
roduce enthusiasm and 'ervor by 'orce. 9ot even !ithin the most retarded nation in the !orld.
8ecause the national movement is not dictatorial in its essence !e
as; ourselves thenG :hat is itK 6s it a democracyK 9ot at all, because the leader is not voted in by
the electorate, and democracy is based on the eligibility rincile. )r, in national regimes, no leader
is selected by voting. He is acEuiesced to. 6' these regimes be not dictatorshis or democracies,
!hat then are theyK :ithout de'ining them one must admit that they reresent a ne! 'orm o'
government, sui genesis, in the modern states. 6t has not been encountered u to no! and 6 do not
;no! !hat name it !ill be given.
6 believe that it has at its basis that state o' sirit, that state o' elevated national conscience !hich,
sooner or later, sreads to the outs;irts o' the national organism.
6t is a state o' inner revelation. That !hich o' old !as the eole=s instinctive reository is re'lected
in these moments in the eole=s conscience, creating a state o' unanimous illumination !hich is
encountered only in the great religious revivals. This henomenon could rightly be called a state o'
national oecumenicity. 4 eole in its entirety reaches an a!areness o' sel', o' its urose and
destiny in the !orld. During ast history only 'lashes o' such a!areness have been noticed, but
today !e are 'aced !ith some ermanent such henomena.
6n such a case the leader is no longer a +master,+ a +dictator,+ !ho does as he +leases,+ !ho leads
+according to his !hims.+ He is the incarnation o' this unseen state o' sirit, the symbol o' this state
o' consciousness. He no longer does +as he leases,+ lie does !hat he +must+ do. 4nd he is guided
not by individual or collective interests, but by the interests o' the immortal nation !hich have
enetrated the conscience o' the eoles. 6t is only !ithin the 'rame!or; o' these interests and only
in that 'rame!or; that ersonal and collective interests 'ind their ma<imum o' normal satis'action.
The organiDation o' cadres constitutes a ne! develomental stage in the legionary movement.
4ny movement, in order not to remain chaotic, must be cast into moulds o' organiDation. The entire
legionary system o' organiDation is based on the idea o' +the nest,+ namely a grou varying bet!een
/ and -/ men under the command o' a leader. :e have no +members+ in the sense o' isolated
individuals. There is only the nest and the individual member is art o' a nest. The legionary
organiDation is not 'ormed 'rom a number o' members, but a number o' nests. This system has not
varied much in its essence, 'rom the beginnings to the resent day. 6t occasionally received needed
imrovements, 'or an organiDation must consider realitiesJ it is li;e a child constantly gro!ing,
!hose clothing must constantly be 'itted as it develos. 6t is !rong 'or those !ho imagine ho! the
organiDation should be in its 'inal stage, to roceed by cutting 'or it 'rom the start a vestment that
!ill not 'it it e<cet in that 'inal stage o' develomentJ >ust as it is !rong 'or some, to roceed !ith
cutting a tight 'it at the beginning, then discounting later on the movement=s gro!th, thus
comelling it to struggle in 'orms no longer 'itting.
6 shall not insist here too much on +the nest+ because 6 treated that Euestion e<tensively in +The
9est 1eader=s 2anual.+ Ho!ever, !hat led me to choose this systemK First o' all, the needs o' the
movement. There is a !orld o' di''erence bet!een the time !hen the 1eague !as 'ounded, !hen
one system !as used, and that !hen the 1egion !as 'ounded, !hen !e adoted another system. 4t
the time the 1eague !as 'ounded there e<isted a very !idesread current o' suort. 6t had to be
urgently taed. :hile !hen the 1egion came into being there !as no such current o' suort 'or
us, but only sarse, isolated men, scattered in to!ns and villages. 6 could not get started by 'ounding
county committees because !e lac;ed eole. 9or could 6 ta;e some man and name him county
head, 'or it did not ma;e any sense i' he !as barely able to organiDe one small village.
The leader o' a movement must ta;e reality into account in greatest earnestness. 2y basic reality
!as +the single man+ a oor easant in some village, cryingJ an un'ortunate sic; !or;ingman, an
urooted intellectual.
4nd then 6 gave each o' these the oortunity to gather around him a grou, according to his
abilities, !ith himsel' as leader. That !as the nest !ith its leader. 6t !as not 6 naming him the nest=s
leaderJ it !as his merits that ut him there. He did not become a leader because 6 +!anted+ him to
be one, but only i' he could gather a grou, insire it and lead it.
in time-in contrast to all other arties !here chie's are o'ten nominated on the basis o' gi'ts 6
succeeded in having a cors o' small leaders +born+ not +made,+ in !hom leader=s traits !ere
obvious. That is !hy the leader o' a legionary nest is a reality on !hich one can deend. The
net!or; o' these nest leaders 'orms the !hole s;eleton o' the legionary movement. The illar o' the
legionary organiDation is the nest=s leader, :hen these nests multily they are groued under
village, district, county, rovincial commands.
Ho! did 6 acEuire leaders over the larger unitsK 6 nominated no leader 'or village, district or county.
6 told themG +ConEuer and organiDeM 4nd, as much as you can organiDe, you !ill be chie' over.+ 6
>ust con'irmed them leaders in the ositions to !hich their o!er, Eualities and atitudes elevated
them. :e started !ith the nest=s leader and rogressively he gre! to village leader, district, the to!n
and county leader, and only in -./?, that is seven years later, to the regional leader.
The nest=s system also resents the 'ollo!ing advantagesG
a" 6t activates, uts to !or; the entire membershi o' a movement. 6n the other arties, !here there
are committees and members by village or county, it is only several committee members !ho !or;J
the rest, -,%%%, $,%%%, -%,%%%, are inactive. 6n our system, than;s to the !ide initiative the nest
leaders have, !ithin rescribed norms, and than;s to the obligation o' each nest to !rite as glorious
a age as ossible in its record, as there are no searate members as such outside o' the nest,
everybody, absolutely every single legionary, !or;s.
b" #olves all local roblems. There are a host o' items !hich a single man is unable to coe !ith
and a !hole organiDation is too large to loo; into them, e.g. the digging o' a small !ell in a village,
the reairing o' a little bridge, etc. 4 single man cannot do these by himsel'J an organiDation cannot
busy itsel' !ith themJ the nest ho!ever, o' 0, @ or -% men is the most suitable unit to e<ecute them.
c" The nest is easily changeable. From a 'ighting unit into a !or;ing one, or vice-versa.
d" 6t creates a large number o' cadres, conseEuently develoing men secialiDed in the art o'
e" The e''ect o' a de'ection or a betrayal remains localiDed,
'" Finally, the nest is the best lace 'or one to receive bis legionary education. That is because men
o' the same age meet there, men o' identical comrehensiveness and o' li;e siritual constitution.
There, all are 'riends. 4 man !ho could not con'ess his troubles, bare his soul, be'ore a youngster -
either because o' embarrassment or because he is reluctant to ma;e him a!are too early o' the
di''iculties and !orries o' li'e - here in the nest among 'riends, he can do it. >ust as he can ta;e a
rerimand or even a unishment.
The nest is a small legionary 'amily having love as its 'oundation. 6n +The 9est 1eader=s 2anual+ 6
laid do!n the si< la!s by !hich this 'amily should be guided (age ?, oint /". This 'amily should
not be governed according to the leaders=s !himJ this !ould be dictatorshi, but by la!s.
-. The la! o' disciline., 1egionaryM 8e discilinedM For only thus you can !in. Follo! your leader
through thic; and thin.
$. The la! o' !or;.. :or;M :or; every day. Put your heart into it. 1et your re!ard be, not gain, but
the satis'action that you have laid another bric; to the building o' the 1egion and the 'lourishing o'
/. The la! o' silenceG #ea; little. #ay only !hat you must. #ea; only !hen necessary. Lour
oratory should be deeds, not !ords. Lou accomlishG let others tal;.
?. The la! o' educationG Lou must become another erson. 4 hero. 6n the nest become comletely
educated. Get to ;no! the 1egion !ell.
#.The la! o' recirocal bel.. Hel your brother !ho 'ell into mis'ortune. Do not abandon him.
0. The la! o' honorG Go along only on the aths o' honor. Fight, and never be a co!ard, 1eave the
ath o' in'amy to others. 8etter to 'all in an honorable 'ight than !in by in'amy.
8ut 6 !ant to emhasiDe once again, dear legionaries, and 6 call your attention to an essential thingG
the meeting o' a nest is incomlete i' a cold atmoshere revailsJ +:hat have !e accomlishedK,+
+:hat else is there to be accomlishedK,+ +1et us do this or that.+ +Good-byeM+
Give 'ree rein to your souls. (eserve 'or them a lace in the meeting. Proceed !ith !armth. Give
everyone the chance to oen u his heart, unload his di''iculties, an<ieties, !orries, !ith !hich li'e
has burdened him. 1et him share his >oys. 1et your nest be a lace o' consolation and o' sharing
>oys. 4 nest meeting is success'ul !hen a man returns home a'ter unloading there the burdens o' his
soul and is 'ull o' 'aith in his eole. 6' in +The 9est 1eader=s 2anual+ 6 have not su''iciently
stressed this oint, 6 do it no!.
4lso in connection !ith the activity o' education in the nest, 6 reroduce 'rom +The 9est 1eader=s
2anual+ oint F?G Prayer as a decisive element 'or victory, 4eal to our ancestors., +The legionary
believes in God and rays 'or the victory o' the 1egion.
+6t should not be 'orgotten that !e are here on this earth by God=s !ill and the blessing o' the
Christian Church. 8e'ore the altars o' our churches, the entire (omanian 9ation
on this earth has assembled, times !ithout number, in eriods o' 'light and ersecution-!omen and
children and old eole-a!are that that is the last ossible lace o' re'uge. 4nd today too, !e are
ready to assemble-!e, the (omanian eole-round the altars as in 'ormer times o' great danger and
to ;neel to receive God=s blessing.
+:ars !ere !on by those !ho ;ne! ho! to summon the mysterious o!ers o' the unseen !orld
'rom above and to ensure their hel. These mysterious o!ers are the souls o' the dead, the souls o'
our ancestors !ho too !ere once attached to this land, to our 'urro!s, and !ho died in the de'ense
o' this land, and !ho today also are attached to it by the memory o' their li'e here, and through us -
their children, grand-children and great-great-grandchildren. 8ut above all the souls o' the dead
stands God.
+:hen these o!ers are summoned, they come to our aid and encourage us, to give us strength o'
!ill and everything necessary to hel us to achieve victory. They introduce anic and terror into the
hearts o' the enemy and aralyDe their actions. 6n the last analysis, victory does not deend on
material rearation, on the material strength o' the belligerents, but on their caacity to ensure the
suort o' the siritual o!ers. This is the e<lanation-in our history-o' miraculous victories even
!hen our material !eaons !ere decidedly in'erior.
Ho! can !e ma;e sure that !e have the suort o' these 'orcesK
-. 8y the >ustness and morality o' your action, and
$. 8y aealing 'ervently and insistently to these o!ers. 6nvo;e them, attract them by the strength
o' your soul and they !ill come.
The o!er o' attraction is the greater !hen the aeal, the rayer, is made by many eole
assembled together.
There'ore,-at the nest meetings !hich ta;e lace throughout the entire country every #aturday
evening-rayers !ill be raised and all legionaries e<horted to attend church ne<t day-#unday.
)ur Patron #aint is the 4rchangel 2ichael, :e ought to have his icon in our homes, and in di''icult
times !e should as; his hel and he !ill never 'ail us.
These nests are then groued in units, either by age or se<, as 'ollo!sG
-. The 8rotherhoods o' the CrossI
a" assembling youngsters u to -? years o' ageG the little brothers o' the cross.
b" assembling young men bet!een -? and -. years o' ageG the brothers o' the cross.
$. The legionaries in the ma;ing.
/. The s!orn-in legionaries.
?. The citadels, grouing girls and married !omen, or by administrative criteria, village, to!n,
county, !ith their resective leaders !ho guide their activity, thus assuring unity. 4ll these matters
!ere treated e<tensively in +The 9est 1eader=s 2anual.+ This system o' nests could have a
disadvantageJ it !ould seem that it brea;s, grinding do!n by its 'ragmentation the movement=s
unity, but this is only an aarent threat, 'or it is removed by the mutual love and the large dose o'
disciline !hich is oured into legionary education.
9ovember @th, -.$&, the 'east day o' #ts. 2ichael and Gabriel the 4rchangels !as aroaching.
That day !e !ere to ta;e our 'irst vo!. :e searched and 'ound a symbol !hich could be a 'aith'ul
e<ression o' the character o' our movement, o' our union !ith the earth o' our ancestors, our dead
and the heavens.
:e collected a small Euantity o' earth 'rom all the glorious sots o' (omanian history 'or $,%%%
I +brothers o' the cross,+ a literary translation o' the (omanian +'resh de cruce,+ are the young men !ho, according to a
native oular traditional ritual, ta;e a vo! to each other on the cross, 'or eternal 'riendshi, recirocal hel and
'aith'ulness. The legionary movement !as insired by this 6tomanian oular institution to name the young legionary
asirants +brothers o' the- cross.+ The +8rotherhoods o' the CrossK= are then grouings o' the +brothers o' the cross.+
years bac;, !hich !e then mi<ed !ell, #mall leather sac;s !ere then 'illed !ith it and tightly tied
!ith laces.
These !ere to be received by legionaries uon ta;ing the vo! and !ere to be !orn close to their
hearts. Here is the descrition o' this solemnity, reroduced 'rom the 9o. @, 9ovember -.$& issue
o' +The 4ncestral 1andG+
)n the morning o' the @th 9ovember, -.$&, all the legionaries in 6asi met in our headEuarters, and
several others !ho too; the trouble to come 'rom other laces.
Fe! in number, but strong through our un'linching 'aith in God and con'ident o' His aidJ strong in
our decision and stubborn obstinacy to remain un'linching in the 'ace o' any stormJ strong in our
comlete detachment 'rom everything eartby-a 'act !hich can be seen 'rom our desire, our leasure
to bravely brea; a!ay 'rom material things and serve the cause o' the (omanian 9ation and the
Cross, =
This !as the state o' sirit o' those !ho !ere imatiently a!aiting the hour to ta;e their vo!, so as
to >oy'ully 'orm the 1egion=s 'irst !ave o' assault. 4nd everyone can be sure that no other attitude is
ossible !hen, in our midst, clothed in !hite as in the hour o' !rath, !ere united. 6on 1 2ota, 6lie
Garneata, (adu .2ironovici, Corneliu Georgescu-those !ho, 'rom rison to rison, had carried the
!hole !eight o' the nationalist movement on their shoulders 'or the last 'ive years.
The rayer,
4t ten o=cloc;, !e all set o'' 'or the Church o' #t. #iridon, dressed in national costume !ith
caciulaI and the s!asti;a over our hearts, marching in columns. There, Great, ruler o' 2oldaviaJ o'
2ichael the 8raveJ o' 2ircea 6on 5odaJ o' Horia, Closea and CrisanJ 4vram 6ancuJ Domnul TudorJ
2ng FerdinandJ and 'or the memory o' all rulers and soldiers !ho 'ell on the 'ields o' battle in
de'ense o' the (ornanian land against enemy invaders.=
The solemnity o' ta;ing the vo!.
:e returned to our Home, marching and singing the 1egion=s Hymn. There, the touching solemnity
o' the vo! made by the 'irst legionaries too; lace.
The ancestral land,. This solemnity began by mi<ing the earth brought 'rom the tomb o' 2ichael
the 8rave 'rom Turda, !ith that 'rom 2oidavia-'rom (aDboeni-!here #te'an the Great 'ought his
greatest battle, and 'rom every other lace !here our ancestors= blood !as soa;ed by the earth in
'erocious battles, thus blessing it. :hen the ac;ets o' earth !ere oened, and be'ore they !ere
emtied out onto the table, the letters !ere read o' those !ho had brought, or sent them.
The 'ollo!ing too; their vo!G Corneliu Qelea-Codreanu, 6on 6. 2ota, llie Garneata, Corneliu
Georgescu, (adu 2ironovici, Hristache #olomon !ho resided at this solemnity, G. Clime, 2ille
1e'ter, 6on 8anea, 5ictor #ilaghi, 9icolae Totu, 4le<andru 5entonic, Dumitru l'rim, Pantelimon
#tatache, Ghita 4ntonescu, *mil *remeiu, 6on 8ordeianu, 2.
Ciobanu, 2arius Po, 2isu Crisan, Poa, 8utnaru, 8udeiu, 6. Tanasache, #te'an 8udeciu, Traian
Cotiga, and 2ihail #telescu, a high school student.
6n the December -, -.$& issue o' +The 4ncestral 1and+ !e oened a ne! drive to see; 'unds 'or the
urchase o' a light anel truc; to use in our travels. 4gain, !e used the same system o' general
e''ort. 1egionaries began organiDing 'estive sho!s, con'erences, Christmas choirs, and to contribute
their mite. +The 5rancea 8rotherhood o' the Cross+ o' Focsani distinguished itsel' by collecting the
I Pelt ca made o' curly lamb. ;Tr0<
sum o' F%,%%% lei as a result o' a 'estive sho! sonsored by Gen. 2acridescu. 6t !as at that time
that 6 changed its naine o' +5rancea+ to +5ictory 8rotherhood o' the Cross+ under !hich it is
;no!n to this day. )n February -., -.$@, that is in ten !ee;s, this drive !as success'ul. :e bought
a ne! anel truc; in 8ucharest 'or $?%,%%% lei o' !hich !e ut do!n -%%,%%% lei, the balance o'
-?%,%%% lei to be aid in t!elve monthly instalments. :e le't 8ucharest 'or 6asi, !ith #te'an
9icolau driving +The DoeI,+ as the boys batised her, and 8anea, 8ordeianu and 2ironovici. The
legionaries and our 'riends e<ected us at the edge o' the city and !e !ere !elcomed uon our
arrival amidst general >oy.
6n order to meet our monthly instalments !e 'ormed a Committee o' -%% !hose members !ere to
contribute -%% lei er month 'or one year. This committee reached a membershi o' F% !ithin t!o
months, oor eole most o' them, small emloyees, !or;ingmen, or easants !ho, arting !ith
-%% lei er month !ere ma;ing a real sacri'ice.
The girls o' the 6asi +Citadels+ and in articular those o' +The 6ulia Ha>deu Citadel+ o' Galati, began
to do embroidery !or; and sell it to collect money.
For its small needs, the movement !as moving along 'ine 'rom a material oint o' vie!. From the
!or; and the contributions o' oor eole, enough !as being collected 'or us to live on and suort
4bsolutely all sums contributed !ere ublished in +The 4ncestral 1and.+
The >ournal is 'ull o' those !ho gave -% or F lei. Those !ho gave F% or 0% lei !ere rarely 'ound,
and our ban;ers !ere those !ho could contribute -%% lei er month, the Committee o' -%%
1et us ta;e at random 'rom this committeeG
U -0. 9icolac 5oinea 'rom Panciu, a 'amily !ith 'ive children living o'' a t!o acre vineyard.
U -&. D.Poescu, a retired sub-lieutenant.
U -@. 6on 8lanaru, till yesterday a studentJ no! an engineer ma;ing ?,%%% lei er month.
I -.. 6on 8utnaru, cler; at the (omanian (ail!ays.
I $%. 9istor 2. Tilinca, salesman in a cooerative.
I $-. Come6iu Georgescu, hel 'rom arents.
I $$. (adu 2ironovici, hel 'rom arents.
I $/. 6onescu 2. Traian, engineer in 'orestry.
From the economy these contributors imosed uon their
sending 'or 'ood and clothing, enough !as being collected 'or the organiDation, !hich by
>udicious use o' the money, managed to stay alive and develo normally. 8ut the Ce!ish ress !as
yelling.. +:ith !hat money do these gentlemen buy anel truc;sK OThe Ce!, al!ays in bad 'aith,
made several truc;s out o' the one !e o!nedP. :ho 'inances this movementK+
)hM Gentlemen, no one has +'inanced+ it. 9o one, but the in'inite 'aith o' (omanians !ho, 'or the
most art, are oor as Cob. 9ot only !ere !e not +'inanced+ by caitalists, but 6 counsel anyone
!ho leads a movement based on sane rinciles to re'use all o''ers o' 'inancing i' he !ishes his
movement to survive. 8ecause a olitical movement must be constituted so as to be able to roduce
alone, out o' the 'aith and sacri'ice o' its members, e<actly as much as it needs to live and gro!. For
a normal and healthy develoment a movement has the right to consume only as much as its
members can rovideJ and its membershi can only rovide to the e<tent o' their caacity 'or 'aith,
that is, 'or sacri'ice. 6t does not rovide su''icient 'undsK Do not resort to outside 'inancing but go
increasing the 'aith o' the membershi. 6n 'act insu''icient contributions on the membershi=s art is
an indication o' little 'aith. 6t does not rovide any 'undsK The organiDation is dead and it !ill soon
collase. 1ac;ing 'aith it !ill be vanEuished by those that have it.
I *ndearing name given by legionaries to their 'irst anel truc;. ;Tr0<
4 leader !ho accets the outside 'inancing o' his movement is li;e the man !ho accustoms his
body to live on medication. To the e<tent an organism is administered medication, to the same
e<tent it is condemned to being unable to react on its o!n. 2oreover, !hen it is derived o' the
medication, it diesJ it is at the mercy o' the hannacistM 1i;e!ise, a olitical movement is at the
mercy o' those !ho 'inance it. These could cease their 'inancing at any given moment and the
movement, unaccustomed to living on its o!n, dies. 4 movement, >ust li;e an individual, in 'act
may sometimes need a larger amount o' money. 6t then may borro! and reay the loan in time, but
only i' the certainty o' being able to do so e<ists. ConseEuendy, gentlemen leaders o' movernents-
and saying this 6 address mysel' to those !ho shall come a'ter us-turn do!n those !ell-intentioned
!ho o''er to 'inance your movement, naturally, i' you should encounter this secies in the 'uture.,
though 6 thin; they !on=t e<ist in (omania, !here even today they seem to be vanishing. 4ll those
!ho can and do 'inance are the Ce!ish ban;ers, the very rich Ce!s, the big Ce!ish grain dealers, the
great Ce!ish industrialists and merchants. They 'inance the olitical arties in order to e<terminate
the (omanians in their o!n country.
Pretty soon there !ill be no one to engage in 'inancing-this !ord ree;s o' ban;er, o' rey, o'
in>ustice and indecencyM-no one. 9either (omanians nor, least o' all, Ce!s. For this caste o' ban;ers
and tycoons, o' businessmen enriched as a result o' business cous, these birds o' rey !ho
greedily stal; human society, are going to be e<terminated. :ell-to-do eole, rich eole, to the
limits o' decency, there !ill be, but they !ill not be caable o' 'inancing but only o' heling a
movement 'rom their savings. This obligation to hel, to hel their nation in hard times rests uon
every (omanian and it !ill so rest 'oreverJ and such aid is and !ill al!ays be !elcome.
8ut my o!n material situation, as !ell as that o' my comrades, !as becoming !orse and !orse,
more ressing. 6 had become the burden o' my oor 'ather-in-la!, !ho not counting me, 'rom his
small salary could hardly 'eed and clothe his 'ive children. :ith my !i'e !e occuied one room
!hile the other seven members o' the 'amily shared the other t!o rooms.
7nderstanding my redicament, than;s to his great love 'ormed and 'or the (omanian cause, he
never said a !ord to me though 6 sa! as time assed that he !as bending ever more under the
!eight o' di''iculties. Then !e decided that 6 !ould devote 'ull time to the movement and 2ota
!ith the other three comrades o' 5acaresti rison !ould set u a la! ractice to ma;e their living as
!ell as to hel me. They !ould commence shortly but they !ould meet !ith tremendous hardshis.
6 loo;ed bac;. (egistered in the university ten years earlier, !e had 'ought side by side !ith all
student classes as they came along. 4nd by and by, all o' them had 'ound lacements, creating 'or
themselves a small situation by !hich they managed to liveJ only !e remained alone on the 'ringes
o' society, li;e some madmen lost in the middle o' the !orld=s !ays. 4lthough caable la!yers, my
comrades !ould be able to e;e out but a meager e<istence. They could not be hired by the rail!ays,
city hall or the stateJ such laces are reserved 'or those !ho desert the ran;s o' the national
movement and cross over to the olitical arties-an encouragement to those lac;ing character, The
honor o' our lives dictated that they ta;e no Ce!ish case to de'end.
(omanians !ould shun them. 6t !ould be only the oor !ho !ould come into their o''ices.
The road !as tough 'or us, !e being ostraciDed in our o!n country and thus laced in the osition
!here it !as ne<t to imossible to ma;e a living.
The entire !inter !e sent in organiDing nests. #ring sa! the resumtion o' !or; in the 7ngheni
bric;yard and the garden o' 2rs. Ghica. :e !or;ed in these t!o laces ma;ing bric;s and raising
vegetables. :e !anted to build ourselves another Home, 'or !e !ere
not sure !e could stay in the old one because a la!suit !as initiated to evict us.
6n this hard !or; !e became closer to one another, 'eeling ever closer to those !ho !or; !ith their
hands and ever more distant 'rom those !ho live by the labor o' others.
This !or; !as comleting our education more than the lectures o' some university ro'essor. There
!e learned ho! to overcome hardshisJ !e steeled our !illJ !e strengthened our bodies and
became accustomed to a tough and severe !ay o' li'e in !hich no leasure 'ound lace save that o'
siritual satis'action. 6t !as then that +The 8rotherhood o' the Cross+ 'rom Galati !ith Tocu, #avin,
Costea, came to hel, as !ell as other brotherhoods.
(adu 2ironovici learned to drive our anel truc; very !ell and, heled by *remeiu, carried aying
assengers bet!een 6asi, 5aratec, 4gaia, and 9eamt monasteries. Let, because o' the summer,
!hich is al!ays oorer, 6 had to see; a loan 'rom the 4lbina 8an; o' Husi, mortgaging my 'ather=s
house 'or - -%,%%% lei, !hich 6 divided, art 'or the bric;yard, art 'or the anel truc;=s monthly
instalments and art 'or the legionary ublications. 7nable to reay this loan even to this day, my
indebtedness reached the sum o' /%%,%%% lei.
During that summer !e also entered the 'ield o' commerce in order to ma;e some money 'or the
1egion. The Ce!s have control over the vegetable mar;eting in nearly all mar;ets in 2oldavia.
Three teams o' legionary students !ere charged !ith mar;eting vegetables. These teams !ere
buying merchandise on the 6asi mar;et, loading 0%% to @%% lbs. onto the anel truc;, then
descending li;e a lague uon the Ce!s, lo!ering rices to hal'.
4ugust -, -.$@ !as the 'irst anniversary o' our revie!=s ublication. Here is !hat 6 !rote thenG
+)n 4ugust -, =The 4ncestral 1and= celebrates one year $F? o' regular ublication.
This is not much. #everal days ago, bet!een -/ and /% Culy the to!n o' Careassonne (a 'ort in
France" celebrated $,%%% years o' e<istence. 6t may be that the 1egion too, !ill have $,%%% years
ahead o' usM 8ut the hardest o' those is the 'irst year !hen one has to brea; virgin soil, to lo! the
'irst 'urro!. During these early days a lot o' di''iculties came uon us, but our >oumal-sometimes
tic;er, sometimes oorer yet al!ays great, stood 'irm, overcoming them. +:hen a year ago, starting
enniless, in the most critical moment o' the national movement, !e laced #t. 2ichael the
4rchangel=s icon on the cover, !e ;ne! that our revie! !ould survive.+

To!ards 'all, ersonal material di''iculties became oressive. :e no longer had any decent shoes
or clothing, my !i'e and 6J my !i'e !as !earing 'our-year-old shoes. :e could no longer e<ect
anything 'rom my 'ather because there !ere si< other children besides mysel', all in schools, and
the 'ights he 'ought le't him over!helmed !ith debts. )nly several thousand lei !ere le't out o' his
salary to 'eed and clothe a large 'amily.
6 then gathered all my strength and decided that 6 too, !ould commence la! ractice, intending at
the same time to lead the movement. 6 oened my o''ice in 7ngheni, !or;ing together !ith my
secretary, *rnest Comanescu. 4s a result.6 !as able to realiDe a small, very small, income !ith
!hich 6 managed to ta;e care o' our needs and the 'e! modest indulgences o' our lives. #i< years
had assed since !e had limited our e<istence to only the strict necessities o' li'e.
For si< years 6 had not entered a theater, movie, beer hall, ballroom or gone to a arty. 4nd no! as 6
!rite, it has been -? years since 6 have been to any o' them. 6 do not regret it. :hat 6 do regret is,
that a'ter a li'e o' such restrictions some individuals have accused me o' leading a leisurely
e<istence. 6n this misery that lasted years, as in the tough trials in !hich my 'ate has ut me, 6 had
the steady suort o' my !i'e !ho 'aith'ully too; care o' me. #he shared my numerous blo!s,
e<erienced rivations and endured even hunger, in order to hel me 'ight on. 6 !ill 'orever be
grate'ul to her.
There is a soul !ho has !atched us closely, ste by ste, having been interested in us. He has been
studying us, erhas. 6 sea; o' the old imosing 'igure o' 6on Gavanescul, ro'essor o' edagogy
at the 7niversity o' 6asi since -@@%. )nce he told usG +6 !ish so much that 6 too could have a little
sac; o' earthM+
:e invited him to our house on December -%, -.$@ !here, in the midst o' the grou o' legionaries 6
resented him !ith our gi't - the most recious gi't !e could give him - the little sac; o' earth. =
The old !hite-haired and !hite-bro!ed ro'essor oened !ide his eyes as in a moment o' the
gravest solemni. Then, 'ollo!ing a moment o' silence he saidG +Gentlemen, 6 am not !orthy to
receive this talisman e<cet on my ;nees.+ He too; it then, slo!ly ;nelt and rayed. :e all ;nelt
around him.
The 1iberal Party 'ell that 'all o' -.$@ as a result o' the relentless assaults o' the 9ational-Peasants
!ho threatened +violence+ and +revolution.+
The 9ational-Peasant Party succeeded theta in o!er a'ter eight years o' olitical oosition. 8ut
they soon roved to be a great disaointment to the !hole country. They !ould begin to steal, >ust
as the 1iberals didJ they !ould engage in +scandalous business
deals+ >ust li;e 1iberalsJ they !ould use the gendarmerie to +terroriDe+ and even shoot do!n their
adversaries or those !ho !ould e<ress dissatis'action, >ust li;e 1iberalsJ they !ould set u their
o!n ban;ers, >ust li;e 1iberals.
8ut articularly they !ould 'all under the continual in'luence o' international 'inance, to !hich they
began yielding u little by little, 'or years, 'or decades, the riches o' (omania, in e<change 'or
ruinous loans.
6 convo;ed at 6asi on Canuary /-?, -.$., the 'irst national meeting o' nest leaders. Forty to 'i'ty
articiated. The meetings !ere held in the house o' Gen. 6on Tarnoschi !ho on this occasion,
during a touching ceremony, !ith tears in his eyes, !as no! receiving the little sac; o' earth !hich
included the blood o' his o!n soldiers and o''icers.
+Ho! 6 !ish God gave me enough days to live to see the hour o' (omanian deliverance. 8ut 6 do
not thin; that 6 shall live that long,+ he told us.
)n this occasion another series o' legionaries too; their vo!. They !ereG #iru Peceli, !ar invalid,
Gheorghe Potolea, invalid since the charge at Prunaru, 9icolae 5oinea, and others.
From the discussions !e had and 'rom reorts each o' those resent made as reresentatives o' all
regions, !e became convinced that the system o' +nests,+ unused in our country u to then, could
catch on and give good results. Certainly, there are roblems and a!;!ardnesses that are inherent
in any endeavor. Ho!ever, it !as enough 'or me to 'ind out that in one year=s time !ithout any
other education but only on the basis o' aeals and directives given in our revie!, isolated nests
had been 'ormed, active nests, in all regions and social strata. 6 told mysel'. +The system assed the
e<am. 6t !or;s.+ This meeting o' Canuary /-? roved the correctness o' my rinciles o'
organiDation. ConseEuendy, !hat !e had to do no! !as to continue steadily along the same lines.
6 realiDed,at the same time that the movement !as catching on articularly among youth'ul ran;sJ
that the system o' dynamic education - education in arallel !ith action - is much suerior to the
static one.
There'ore !e should continue this system 'or another year, not yet trying to reach out to the masses,
and dismissing the idea o' an electoral camaign. 6t !as also then that the 1egion=s #enate !as set
uG a 'orum made u o' men over F% years o' age, intellectuals, easants or !or;ingrnen, !ho had
led a li'e o' great correctitude, had sho!ed great 'aith in the legionary 'uture, and great !isdom.
They !ould be convened at di''icult times any time it !as 'elt their advice !as needed. They !ere
not to be elected but designated by the head o' the 1egion, and later assed on by the rest o' the
#enate. The title o' #enator !as the highest honor to !hich a legionary could asire. The #enate
then !as 'ormed by Hristache #olomon, Gen. Dr. 2acridescu, Gen. 6on Tamoschi, #iru Peceli,
Col. Cambureanu, and 6on 8utnaru. #everal months a'ter its constitution, the illustrious university
Pro'essor Traian 8raileanu-!ho 'ive years later in his >ournal, +#ociological *ssays,+ !as to e<lain
in the highest identi'ic terms the legionary henomenon too; his lace in the #enate.
The 2oti still live in the mountains o' central Transylvania. )ld as those mountains, they have
lived 'or centuries the same e<istence al!ays dominated by t!o characteristicsG overty-they are the
only (omanians, erhas the only eole on earth !ho have never ;no!n throughout their history a
single day o' hainess and lenty and the struggle 'or liberty. Their !hole li'e has been a struggle
'or liberty. They gave us Horia, Closca and Crisan, and they suorted the revolution o' -&@?J they
gave us 4vram lancu, and 'ought in -@?@. History has recorded over ?% urisings in their mountains
against Hungarian dominationJ all o' them dro!ned ultimately in their o!n blood. Let, their
stead'astness could never be bro;en. 1ately the tribune voices o' 4mos Francu and Cat. *mil
#iancu, 2oti themselves, ring out in vain li;e a cry o' alarm. There are gold mines in their
mountains. )ne by one their e<loiters !ere getting rich, !hile they remained unclad and !ithout
+Gold lies in our mountains= core
:hile !e beg 'rom door to door.+
The gray roc; is bare. 9othing gro!s on itJ neither !heat nor corn. The only !ealth there is, is the
gold in the e<loiter=s hands, and the only ossibility o' ma;ing a living is in the timber o' the
The calvary o',alien domination lasted one thousand years. )ne thousand years o' endurance,
hoing that some day Greater (omania !ould be born to save them, to 'inally loo; a'ter them and
their children, to redress the long and ;illing in>ustice, to come and re!ard them 'or their millenary
atience, su''ering and struggles. )nly those !ho are motherless ;no! not consolation. )nly those
!ho do not have a 'atherland ;no! neither consolation nor recomense. The 'atherland al!ays
re!ards its children, those !ho have been a!aiting its >ustice and believed in it, and those !ho have
'ought and su''ered 'or it. 6t !as inconceivable that the 2oti !ould not be recomensed 'or their
immense atience, su''ering and braveryM
8ut a'ter the !ar every man, esecially every olitician, busied himsel' !ith his o!n +sel',+ his o!n
material, electoral, olitical situation. #o that the 2oti !ere 'orgotten. :hoever busies himsel' !ith
his o!n +sel'+ cannot busy himsel' !ith +others.+ 4nd !hoever is surrounded by resent !orries
cannot lace himsel', his thoughts and 'eelings, in history so that !or;ing in the name o' his
'atherland he !ould see to it that the great redress and historical re!ards !hich are o!ed its brave
men are given.
9ot only !ere they 'orgotten but they !ere delivered as rey to the Ce!ish usurers !ho, in their
race 'or ro'it, in'iltrated their mountains !here the alien=s 'eet could never tresass, and stole their
only livelihood by building mills high u in the mountains and 'elling their 'orests, leaving them the
bare roc;.

+) 6ancu, !hy don=t you come bac; 'rom the dead To see our mountains baredK+
6n their song o' desair they call out to lancu, their hero, to see his mountains desoiled, his 'orests
+shaved+ by the bands o' +little Ce!sJ+ this, during an administration o' Greater (omania, in the
days o' the eole=s long-a!aited victory.
5etily, !hat 'rightening tragedy, to resist 'or ten centuries against all iniEuities, and no! to die o'
misery and hunger in Greater (omania you had a!aited 'or a milleniumM
6t is she you have e<ected. #he !as the only moral suort that sustained you. 9o! this hoe too,
'alls to the ground. Lou did not have any bread but yet you hoed. For this oulation Greater
(omania did not turn out to be an invigoration, a triumh, a coronation 'ollo!ing a thousand years
o' su''ering, !ith >oyous re!ard 'rom all their eole. For this, someone !ith a soul li;e #te'an the
Great !as needed, not the ygmy soul o' the (omanian olitician. Greater (omania meant a
collase into mortal desair 'or the 2oti eole. These oliticians stain the 'ace o' our nation. For a
nation, over and above any other interest, has the duty to 'ul'ill certain moral obligations. 6' that
nation does not meet them, its 'ace remains stained.
Touched by the letter o' a teacher 'rom 8istra, near Cameni, 6 boarded a train in order to go there
and e<amine the state o' a''airs 'or mysel'. (iding a small mountain train 6 !as coursing !ith
shrin;ing heart through the valleys o' the 4useni 2ountains !here death had 'rolic;ed in scores o'
battles and !here the ghosts o' Horia and 6ancu !ander.
6 aroached a easant 2oti man in a rail!ay station. He had at least t!enty atches on his coat, an
evidence o' unaralleled overty. He !as selling !ooden barrel hoos he had made-'or a ittance.
His eyes !ere sun;en, his chee;s dra!n in. 4 gentle hysiognomy. His loo; !as shyJ one could
read no articular thoughts on his 'ace, but in his eyes !as ain and 6 sa! not only a hungry man
but one tortured by hunger.
9o interest 'or living could be seen in these gentle eyes that insired ity, no reoccuationJ they
!ere >ust blan;.
+Ho! do you manage in these artsK+ 6 as;ed him.
+:ellM :ell, than; you.+
+Can you raise corn, otatoes hereK+
+Les, !e can.+
+Do you have everything you need, 'ood ... K+
+Les, !e have...!e have...+
+Then, you don=t have it too bad ... K+
+9oM ... 90-...+
He siDed me u several times, sho!ed himsel' very little disosed to conversation-'or !ho ;no!s
on !hat shores o' desair his mind !as !andering-and in his inherited racial nobility he did not
!ish to e<lain to a stranger.
Finally 6 arrived at 8istra, 6 called on the teacher in the village !ho had !ritten me. 6 only stayed a
day. 6n the oor homes o' the 2oti that 6 visited, 6 sa! their many little cold children huddled
together-a!aiting 'or t!o, three !ee;s, or sometimes a month or more, the return o' their arents
!ho had gone on the road !ith horse and !agon to bring bac; to them a sac; o' corn meal in
e<change 'or the !ooden hoos and barrels they ma;e, then sell hundreds o' miles a!ay in other
arts o' the country to !hich God had been more generous.
6t is only 'or a 'e! months o' the year that the 2oti stay at homeJ the rest o' the time they are on the
road. The teacher told me.
+9ot even during the Hungarian domination could the 'oreigner settle here, 8ut no!adays, a lumber
mill has been set u, o!ned by a Ce!ish comany in )radea !hich grabbed our 'orests and cut
them do!n. Throughout their oor lives, the 2oti have e;ed out a livelihood by ma;ing barrels and
barrel hoos. 8ut 'rom no! on they !ill be derived o' this. They are condemned to die.
+hunger and other necessities 'orce them to !or; 'or the Ce!s, 'elling their o!n trees 'or a $% lei
daily !age, a tri'le. That is all that is le't to them out o' all that richness !hich is e<tracted 'rom
their mountains and ta;en do!n their valleys in long trainloads. 4nd !hen the timber is all cut
do!n, that !ill be the end o' us too. 8ut there is something that is even sadder. :e have lived a li'e
o' virtue 'or hundreds o' years. The Ce!s brought in !ith them the sins o' debauchery. There are
over /% Ce!s emloyed at this lumber mill.
4nd #aturday evening !hen they get their !ages, they ta;e the girls and !omen o' the 2oti and
dishonor them in night-long orgies. 2oral and hysical illnesses consume our villages in addition to
4nd one cannot say anything. 9o rotest can be attemted because these Ce!s are on such good
tenns !ith all the oliticians that they are virtually all-o!er'ul masters. 1ocal authorities are at
their bidding, 'rom gendarmes all the !ay to the to.
6' you try to say something you are immediately accused o' +ur;ing+ one art o' the citiDenry to
+hatred+ against the other citiDensJ that you +disturb social barmony+ and +the brotherbood+ in
!hich the (omanians have al!ays lived !ith the +eace'ul Ce!ish oulationJ+ that !e are not
good +Christians+ 'or Cesus Christ saidG
+1ove your neighbor even him !ho !rongs you...+ etc.
6' you utter one single !ord, you are arrested as an +enemy o' the #tate=s security+ and as an inciter
to +civil !ar.+ Lou are insulted and even beaten. They control the authorities and you must ;ee
Euiet and !atch the !hole tragedy o' your eole. 6t !ould be better 'or God to blind us so !e
!ould no longer see !ith our o!n eyesJ so !e !ould ;no! nothing.+
2y blood !as boiling in my veins and the idea occurred to me ane! o' grabbing a !eaon, going
into the mountains and mercilessly starting to shoot into the bands o' enemies and traitors, i' the
(omanian authorities and la!s o' Greater (omania can condone such crimes against the (omanian
nation, her honor and her 'uture, and i' these la!s and sold-out authorities have stried her o' any
hoes 'or >ustice and 'or salvation. 6 returned to 6asi !ith an aching heart, borne do!n by the burden
this eole carries.
Ho! terrible is the alienation o' the leading class o' a eole, o' its olitical and cultural classM
1iterati and !riters consecrate their e''orts to all ;inds o' irrelevant toics. 8oo;s and boo;s are
ublished !hich 'ill the boo;stores sho !indo!s. :hat shall the 'uture=s verdict be regarding these
men, i' 'or such a historical tragedy as that o' the 2oti, un'olding under their very eyes, they 'ound
not a single !ord o' rotest !hich could also serve as an alarm signal to the eole daDed by all the
scandalous literature that uts it to slee and clouds its 'uture road and li'eK
6n !hat light shall the nation loo; at these !riters and literati, !hose mission, the most sacred one,
is recisely that o' denouncing the dangers that threaten its moral and hysical being, and o'
lighting the !ay 'or its 'utureK 4nd ho! !ill this leading olitical class o' +orators+ in Parliament
or any!here else be loo;ed uon, !hich has deserted its most elementary obligation to !atch over
the nation=s li'e and honorK
4s 6 !as going do!n on the little train 'rom 8istra to!ard Turda, the director o' the sa!mill in
8istra also entered the same comartmentJ a 'at Ce! hardly contained by his clothing !ho gave the
imression o' a li'e abundantly lived. 6 do not believe that one li;e him ever ;ne! hunger in his li'e,
even once. 4 young man aro<imately o' my age also entered the comartment at the ne<t sto.
From the very 'irst 6 realiDed they !ere 'riends on very good terms and that the young man !as
(omanian. The Ce! oured himsel' some co''ee out o' a thermos bottle and too; out some slices o'
ca;e 'rom a ac;et. He began to eatJ 6 observed a !ol'=s aetite. He began guling be'ore realiDing
he had not invited his 'riend to arta;e, so immediately did so. The young man too; a slice o' ca;e
and a cu o' co''ee and began eating some!hat timidly, sho!ing himsel' grate'ul and resect'ul to
the rich Ce! 'or the +attention+ accorded him. 6t !as about 'ive o=cloc; in the morning, not Euite
light yet, on the Friday be'ore *asterG Passion Friday. #addened, 6 as;ed mysel'G
+:ho, 6 !onder, is this scoundrel o' a young (omanian !ho, on this day !hen the !hole Christian
!orld 'asts, eats ca;e side by side !ith the Ce!, the torturer o' (omaniansK+
From their tal; 6 learned he !as a 'orestry engineer. The Ce! sho!ed a comulsive inclination to
tal;. He tal;ed and >o;ed continuously. Then he roduced a record layer and began laying
records, everything on them most indecent. 6 sat in a corner o' the comartment and listened
!ithout a !ord, loo;ing out the !indo!. The day !as beginning to brea; and 6 could see, on the
road aralleling the railroad, a long line o' horse-dra!n !agons, and at the head o' each, a 2oti
man, trudging Euiet and sad. 1oaded !ith charcoal, they !ere headed 'or the mar;et o' Turda, a ?%
mile drive, to sell it and buy, not ne! clothes or toys, but a 'e! ounds o' commeal to ta;e home to
their children, 'or it !as *aster time. This is the only >oy they could bring their children.
2y heart groans !ith ain and an<iety. 6t is not enough that these robbers ta;e their breadJ they also
desecrate, insult, on this Passion Friday, their overty and 'aith. They ass by singing and insulting,
on these roads o' millenary su''ering on !hich-out o' resect 'or human su''ering and ain-no man
should tread e<cet in the deeest Euiet and decency, heads uncovered be'ore the hungry and
ragged eole !ho !al; heavily under the sentence o' their merciless 'ate. :hen it !as daylight
our eyes met, the young man=s and mine. 6 could see that he recogniDed me. 7neasy, he lost his
comosure. 6 too, recogniDed him. 8ac; in -.$/ 6 had seen him as a Christian nationalist student.
He !as in the 'ront lines o' a demonstrating student grou, singing..
+4nd !e shall crush the Ce!s under our heels
)r else shall gloriously die,+ etc..
6 re'lected, 'ull o' bitterness. +6' all the youth !ho 'ight !ill get to be li;e this tomorro!, then this
eole o' ours must erishJ through Ce!ish conEuest, 'loods, earthEua;e, or dynamite - it does not
matter !hich - but erish it must.+
T!o marches !ere organiDed this summer, one !ith the young men in the Galati and Focsani
+8rotherhoods o' the, Cross+ and one !ith legionaries. 6 !anted to ta;e them on the roads 6 had so
o'ten trod, to send !ith them as much time as ossible, in order to observe and study them as !ell
as to sho! them the beauties o' our country, This time, as in all 'uture marches that 6 shall tha;e, 6
shall see; to develo in the young legionaries 'irst o' all their !ill, by long marches in !hich
everyone !ill carry heavy loads through rain, !ind, heat or mudJ in 'ormation and in ste, !ith
tal;ing 'orbidden 'or hoursJ through a #artan li'e, sleeing in 'orests, eating simle 'areJ through
the obligation o' being severe !ith themselves in all resects, beginning !ith their bearing and
gesturesJ through creating 'or them obstacles they !ould have to overcome, such as climbing over
huge roc;s, getting across streams. 6 !as trying to turn them into men o' strong !ill, !ho !ere to
loo; straight at and behave in manly 'ashion under any di''iculty. There'ore 6 never ermitted the
circumvention o' an obstacleJ it had to be overcome.
6n lieu o' the !ea; and de'eated man, !ho bends !ith any assing !ind, a tye no! redominating
in both olitical li'e and the ro'essions !e must create 'or this eole a conEueror, unbending and
8y instructing them in common, 6 shall see;, on the other hand, to develo an esrit de cors, a
sense o' unity. 6 have noticed that the instruction in common has a great in'luence uon. a man=s
intellect and syche, rendering order and cadence to his disorderly mind and anarchic 'eeling. 8y
imosing unitive measures 6 shall see; to develo, in 'ine, the sense o' resonsibility and the
courage to assume that resonsibility 'or his acts. There is nothing more disgusting than the man
!ho lies and shuns his resonsibility.
6 unished regularly, !ithout e<cetion, any in'raction. 6 unished a youth in 5atra-Dorhei 'or
having caused a disturbance in a ublic ar;.
#omething o' a more serious nature haened at Dorni CoDanesti, not so much in itsel', as an
indication o' the state o' sirit the case revealed. Four youths !ent to a Ce!ish tavern, ordering
sardines, bread and !ine, and a'ter they ate !ell, they stood u. 6nstead o' aying their bill, one o'
them heroically brandished a revolver threatening the li'e o' the Ce! i' he should sEueal, 'or - he
added - they !ere 'rom Corneliu Codreanu=s grou.
6 unished him. Had 6 not done so, it !ould have been this youth - not the Ce! 'rom !hom a can o'
sardines had been stolen - !ho !ould have morally destroyed himsel'. 4s a matter o' 'act, among
legionaries, unishment cannot cause resentment, 'or all o' us are 'allible. 6n our concet,
unishment means a man o' honor has to ma;e good on his error. )nce the unishment is 'ul'illed,
man is 'ree o' its burden as i' nothing had haened. 6n most o' the cases this unishment ta;es the
'orm o' some !or;. 9ot because labor !ould be in the nature o' a condemnation, but because it
o''ers the chance o' amending through a good deed the !rong that has been committed. That is !hy
the legionary !ill receive and carry out unishment !ith serenity.
NOVEMBER $, 1929
2ore than t!o years had assed since the 1egion came into being. )ur nests had multilied all over
the country. The need !as no! 'elt to strengthen the movement by using and stimulating these
small nuclei to !or;. The only legal !ay to bring about nation!ide measures 'or the solving o' the
Ce!ish roblem !as through olitical
avenues. This resuosed a contact !ith the masses at large. :hether good or bad, this !as the
method that the la! laced at our disosal, and !hich sooner or later !e had to 'ollo!. :ith 1e'ter
and Potolea !e 'i<ed the 'irst legionary ublic meeting in Tg. 8eresti
in the northern Covurlui county on December -F. The decision !as ta;en on 9ovember @, !hen a
ne! series o' legionaries 'rom various arts o' the country too; their vo! on the anniversary o' the
1egion=s atron saint.
4t the same time 6 sent Totu into Turda county !here, together !ith 4mos Horatiu Po, he !as to
intensi'y the legionary roaganda and also organiDe a meeting.
DECEMBER 15, 1929
)n the evening o' December -? - !as in 8eresti. 1e'ter, Potolea, Tanase 4ntohi and others !ere
e<ecting me at the deot. The mar;et to!n o' 8eresti is a real !as=s nest o' Ce!sJ houses and
shos cro!ded together. The only street runs through the middle o' to!n, !ith the mud an;le-dee,
and along the sides, some board!al;s. 6 !as to stay at Potolea=s.
9e<t morning the Galati rosecutor and a gendarme ma>or came to tell me that 6 !as not ermitted
to hold the meeting.
6 told themG
+The interdiction you con'ront me !ith is neither right nor legal. 4nyone has the right to hold
meetings in this country, Germans, Hungarians, Tur;s, Tartars, 8ulgarians, Ce!s. 6s it only 6 !ho
do not have this rightK Lour measure is an arbitrary oneJ being illegal 6 shall not obey it, 6 shall hold
the meeting at any cost.+
Finally, a'ter some discussion, they aroved my holding the meeting on the condition that !e not
cause any disturbance. :hat !as 6 to doK :hat ;ind o' disturbanceK 8rea; into eole=s homesK
This !as my 'irst ublic meeting. :as 6 not 'ully determined to ;ee it in er'ect order and thus
retain the rivilege o' holding othersK
4t the determined hour a very small number o' eole gathered, hardly one hundred. 6 learned 'rom
them that a lot more eole had !anted to come but they !ere revented 'rom leaving their
villages. The !hole meeting lasted only 'ive minutes. 1e'ter so;e one
minute, Potolea another, and 6 the rest. 6 saidG +:e came to hold a rally, but authorities 'orcibly
revent our men 'rom coming. 4gainst all orders 6 shall hold ten ralliesM 1et someone bring me a
horse and 6 !ill ride 'rom village to village throughout the !hole district o' Horincea.+
6n 'act through all that mud the only means o' locomotion !as the horse. T!o hours later a horse
!as brought and 6 started o''. 4'ter me on 'oot came 1e'ter !ith 'our other legionaries. :e reached
the 'irst village, 2eria. There, in the church yard, in a matter o' minutes, everybody !as gathered -
men, !omen and children. 6 said but a 'e! !ords and 6 outlined no olitical rogramG
+1et us all unite, men and !omen, to carve 'or ourselves and 'or our eole another destiny. The
hour o' (omanian resurrection and deliverance is aroaching. He !ho believes, he !ho !ill 'ight
and su''er, !ill be re!arded and blessed by this eole, 9e! times ;noc; at our gatesM 4 !orld,
!ith an in'ertile and dry soul is dying and another one is being born, belonging to those !ho are 'ull
o' 'aith. +6n=this ne! !orld everyone !ill have his lace, not based on his schooling, intelligence, or
;no!ledge, but above all in accordance !ith his 'aith and character.+
Then !e !ent on, 1ess than three miles a!ay !e came to #livna. 6t !as getting dar;. Let eole
!ere e<ecting me !ith lighted candles. 4 nest o' legionaries headed by Teodosiu came out to meet
me at the edge o' the village. 6 so;e here too. Then 6 headed 'or Comanesti, the #livna nest o'
legionaries leading the !ay. These !ere roads 6 had never traveled be'ore. Here too, eole !ere
e<ecting me !ith lanterns and candles, !hile the young men sang. Peole !ere receiving me
>oyously no matter to !hat arty they belonged. :e !ere strangers, yet it seemed !e had been
'riends 'or ages. *nmities melted. :e !ere all one soul, one eole. 9e<t morning 6 resumed my
ride. 8ut this time 6 !as not alone. Three other riders as;ed me i' they could come along. )n the
edge o' the neighboring village, Ganesti, !e stoed at Dumitru Cristian=s. He !as a man about ?%
years old !ith a bearing o' baiduc and a air o' eyes hidden under dense bro!s. He had been a
'ierce nationalist 'ighter since early student battles. 9o!, on the instant, he unhitched his horses
'rom the !agon, ut the saddle on one o' them and came !ith us. #oon our number gre! larger
!ith Dumitru and 5asile Poa, Hasan and Chiculita. 4s !e rode 'rom village to village the number
o' riders increased to t!enty. 2ost !ere bet!een $F and /% years o' age, a 'e! being /F or ?%, the
oldest, Chiculita 'rom Cavadinesti, !as about ?F. :hen our numbers had so increased, !e 'elt the
need 'or a distinctive insignia, a uni'orm. For lac; o' something better, all o' us laced tur;ey
'eathers in our hats. 4nd so !e entered villages singing. 6t seemed-as !e !ent singing, our horses
trotting along the hills= crests near the river Pruth !here so o'ten long ago had assed and 'ought
our ancestors-that !e !ere the shado!s o' those !ho o' old had de'ended 2oldavia=s territory. The
live ones in the resent indenti'ied !ith the dead o' the ast, !e !ere the same soul, the same great
unity o' (omanianism carried by the !ind over the crests o' the hills. The ne!s o' my arrival,
carried by !ord o' mouth, had sread through all the villages. 5illagers !ere e<ecting us
every!here. *veryone !e met on the road !as inEuiringG +:hen are you going to come to us tooK
Peole had !aited 'or you yesterday !ell into the night.+
6n those villages, as 6 sang and so;e to the eole, 6 'elt ho! 6 !as enetrating into those
unde'ined deths o' soul !here the oliticians !ith their borro!ed lat'orms could never descend.
There, into those deths, 6 lunged the roots o' the legionary movement. 9o one !ill ever be able to
ull them out. Thursday !as mar;et day in 8eresti. 4t -% o=cloc; in the morning about F% o' us
riders aeared on the to o' the hill above the mar;et to!n. From there !e descended into the
to!n in 'ormation, singing.
To!ns'ol; received us !ith great enthusiasm. (omanians came out o' Christian homes ouring
ail'uls o' !ater across our ath an old custom !ishing us in our travel the 'ul'illment o' all our
hoes. 4gain !e !ent into the yard o' 9icu 8alan !here the 'irst rally !as suosed to ta;e lace.
There !ere over /,%%% eole this time. :e did not hold a meeting. 6 gave some o' the riders
6 gave my cigarette holder to 9ieu 8alanJ it !as made in the rison o' 5acaresti, Chiculita received
a s!asti;a. 1e'ter and Potolea !ere named members o' the 1egion=s #ureme Council, and 9ieu
8alan to the county o' Covurlui=s general sta''J and Dumitru Cristian as leader o' the legionaries in
the Horincea 5alley.
This Horincea 5alley, !ith its laces and eole, remained dear to me. 4'ter Focsani, it !as to
remain the second strongest illar o' the legionary movement.
:e le't 'or 1udos on the Friday be'ore Christmas, at F o=cloc; in the evening. There !ere 'our o' us
in the anel truc;G (adu 2ironovici driving, *mil *remeiu, an acEuaintance, and 6. *<tremely cold
!eather had 'orced train cancellations. That night !e almost 'roDe to death, although !e 'illed our
anel truc; !ith stra! and covered ourselves !ith it. :e traveled the route, 6asi, Piatra-9eamt,
5alea 8istritei, and at ? o=cloc; in the morning !e reached the crest o' the Carathian 2ountains.
:e arrived in 1udosul-de 2ures at -- o=cloc; that Christmas *ve a'ter more than $? hours o'
driving. Here !e had a good rest at 4mos=s house. :e !ent to church Christmas morning, then
visited the little to!n. 6t !as larger than Tg. 8erestiJ situated about -@ miles east o' Turda, the
county=s caital. This to!n too, is 'ull o' Ce!s, though not reaching the 8eresti ercentage. Here
too, Cudas, settled in the mar;et lace, sread his !eb li;e a sider over the !hole (omanian
region. The oor easants !ill be caught in this !eb, t!irled around and daDed, then suc;ed dry o'
all their ossessions. )n the morning a'ter Christmas !e got started, the anel truc; carrying ten
legionaries u ahead, then 6 !ith some t!enty riders on horsebac;-4mos, 9ichita, Colceriu,
Pro'essor 2attei and others, all o' us !earing tur;ey 'eathers in our hats. )n the road !e !ere
loo;ed uon curiously as the eole !e met !ere not a!are o' our urose. 8ut !e !ere riding as
i' !e !ere invested !ith the greatest authority, 'or !e 'elt !e !ere coming in the natne o' the
(omanian eole !ho ordered us to do so. 6n Gheta, Gligoresti and Gura-4riesului, eole !ere
gathered in as large numbers as in the Horincea 5alley. Here too, !e outlined no olitical rogram.
:e >ust told them !e came 'rom 2oldavia to stir to li'e again the su''ering soul o' (omanians, 'or
one thousand years o' slavery, in>ustice and entombment had been long enough.
Greater (omania had been realiDed !ith much sacri'ice, but it seems that the alien domination and
the old in>ustice had e<tended even this side o' the Greater (omania=s birth. Ten years o' (omanian
administrations had not succeeded in healing our ain'ul !ounds nor had they corrected the
in>ustices o' centuries. They had given us a semblance o' unity but the (omanian soul still !as slit
into as many ieces as there !ere olitical arties. The resurrection o' this eole is seething
underground and it !ill soon erut, lighting !ith its light our !hole 'uture and the dar; ast. He
!ho believes shall conEuerM
4gain 6 had the 'eeling that 6 !as descending into their hearts. 4lthough 6 !as hundreds o' miles
a!ay 'rom 2oldavia, in regions that had been 'or centuries searated 'rom us by borders, there too
6 had 'ound the same soul, e<actly the same as in the Horincea 5alley near Pruth. The same soul o'
the nation, over !hich 6 understood that no man-made 'rontier !hatever had ever been dra!n, 'or
the same breath 'lo!ed 'rom one end o' the nation to another, 'rom Dniester to the Tisa in total
disregard o' man-made 'rontiers, >ust as the underground !ater 'lo!s !ithout regard to any
obstacles man has raised on the sur'ace. There, in the deth 6 'ound no olitical arties, no enmity
or clashes, o' interest, no +blind disunity+ o' 'ratricidal 'ights, but only unity and harmony, )n the
second day a'ter Christmas !e again too; to the road. :e had stoed at a church on our !ay to
say a rayer in remembrance o' 2ichael the 8raveI, Horia and his men, and lancu, so they !ould
;no! too that !e !ere treading today on the aths on !hich, out o' their love 'or our eole, their
bodies had been tortured and ried aart. it !as the 'east o' #t. #te'anJ there'ore 6 lighted a candle
'or the reose o' #te'an the Great=s soulJ through him our eole reached the greatest glory. 6
consider him eEual in ran; !ith 9aoleon, Culius Caesar and 4le<ander o' 2acedon.
9o matter !here my stes are going to carry me or into !hat battles 6 shall engage, i' above me 6
'eel the shado! o' #t. 2ichael the 4rchangel and belo! me those o' our t!enty beloved martyrs o'
the 'amily o' the legionary movement, on my right 6 shall also 'eel the soul o' #te'an the Great and
his s!ord.
)n Canuary $%, -./% 6 sent Totu, Crang anu, and *remeiu,
: It "as on the plains of Turda that the 7ungarians had assassinated -ihael the 9rave+ Prine of
$allahia in %A(%0 7e "as the first ruler to ao*plish the te*porary unifiation of $allahia+
-oidavia and Transylvania0 ;Tr0<
!ith a teatn, in the anel truc;, into the county o' Tecuci, !hile 6 mysel' on Canuary $F !as again in
the Horincea 5alley in the midst o' my riders. )n the evening o' the $0th, a'ter assing through
(ogo>eni, !e entered )ancea. 6n both villages !e !ere received !armly and !ith high
e<ectations. :e !ere lodged in )ancea by the 4ntachi 'amily. The ne<t day, a 2onday, it !as
mar;et day in Cahul, on the le't ban; o' the Pruth.
There'ore !e decided to go into 8essarabia !here the Ce!s !ere more numerous and rovocative.
6n Cahul, as in the other 8.essarabian mar;et to!ns, Ce!ry is communisticJ not because o' +love 'or
the eole+ but because o' hatred 'or the (omanian state, !hich only through the triumh o'
Communism could be toled and laced under the heel o' total Ce!ish domination. Communism=s
triumh coincides !ith >udaism=s dream o' ruling and e<loiting the Christian nations by virtue o'
their theory o' the +chosen eole+ !hich is at the base o' the Ce!ish religion.
:e made some !hite cloth crosses that evening, about eight inches high !hich !ere se!ed on the
riders= coats. 6 !as given a !ooden cross to carry.
4t ten o=cloc; the ne<t morning 6 cross the Pruth at the head o' /% riders, carrying the cross against
the heathen o!er that !as strangling Christian 8essarabia. 4'ter covering close to three miles !e
entered the to!n. The Christians came out o' their houses and 'ollo!ed us. They did not ;no! us,
but sa! the !hite crosses on our coats and the 'eathers in our hats. :e rode along the streets
+4!a;e, a!a;e, ye (omanianM+
:e stoed in the ublic sEuare. )ver &,%%% easants gathered around us in no time at all. 9one
among them ;ne! !ho !e !ere and !hat !e !anted, but all o' them had the remonition !e had
come to save them.
6 began to tal; to them in the same vein 6 used in the Horincea 5alley and Turda. 8ut t!o minutes
later, Poov, a oliceman, accomanied by local authorities, made his !ay through the cro!d and
stoed meG
+Lou are not allo!ed to hold a ublic meeting in this sEuare...+
+The (omanian eole is allo!ed to do that any!here.+
The authorities !anted to revent us 'rom tal;ingJ the eole !anted to listen to us.
+2y good eole+-6 said to them-+this is the !ay it isJ the la! 'orbids us 'rom holding meetings in
=ublic sEuares. 1et us go to the edge o' to!n or into someone=s courtyard.+
6 signaled the riders and !e started 'or the edge o' to!n. 4n army cordon stoed the cro!d.
#everal minutes later 6 !as con'ronted by a soldiers= detachment !ith bayonets, headed by a
colonel, Col. Cornea. He dre! his revolver and ointed it at meG
+Halt, or 6 'ireM+ he said.
6 stoed.
+Colonel, !hy should you shoot meK 6 have done no !rong. 6 too, carry a revolver, but 6 did not
come here to 'ight anybody, least o' all the (omanian army.+
6 argued !ith him 'or almost an hour, but all that roved 'utile. 6 stayed there an hour, ta;ing all
ossible insult and ridicule. 6 could have relied to him in the same tone o' voice, or 'ought him, but
6 had to muster an iron !ill, 'or other!ise 6 !ould have 'allen into a sadder redicament, that is,
!ith mysel', a (omanian nationalist, 'ighting the army o' my o!n country and being !atched by
communist Ce!s.
The colonel began hitting us and our horses !ith his saber and the soldiers ric;ed us !ith their
bayonetsJ then the re'ect arrived, 6 dismounted and accomanied him to the Pre'ecture. He !as a
civiliDed man. The colonel came also.
6 told himG
+6 resect your ran;J that is !hy 6 did not ans!er you. 8ut it does not matter. :e !ill see you again
ne<t 2onday at the same lace.+
Then 6 le't. 4 sergeant brought my horse. Cristian and Chiculita !ere e<ecting me at the gate, on
'oot. They then brought their horses and !e returned the same !ay !e came, chased 'rom behind
by olice and accomanied by the insulting glares o' the Ce!s. 4t the edge o' to!n !e met the rest
o' the saddened riders, de>ected by the de'eat !e su''ered. 4 bit 'urther out a 'e! easants !ho
snea;ed out o' to!n as;ed us !ho !e !ere.
+Go bac; and tell the eole that !e !ill be bac; again, ne<t 2onday. 4ll the Christians in the
county should come to Cahul.+
:e too; a beating. :e !ere in no mood 'or singing. :e !ere going bac; and no one said a !ord.
:hen !e got bac; to )ancea !e made ten osters announcing that 2onday, February -%, !e !ould
again come to Cahul. These !ere sent by horse riders into several oints o' the county. Then !e
returned to Ganesti to Cristian=s home !here !e arrived around midnight a'ter a hard tri, a night so
dar; !e could not see t!o aces ahead, !hied 'rom in 'ront by a cold rain lashing our 'aces and
'rom behind by the recollection o' our stinging de'eat. 6 sent the night at Cristian=s and in the
morning 6 le't 'or 8eresti. There 6 issued a directive to the legionaries in the llorincea 5alley, Galati,
6asi, 8ucharest, Focsani and Turda, in'orming them o' our de'eat at Cahul and saying that, since
this is no! a matter o' honor, all o' us must go bac; there and !inJ they must reort there in the
greatest ossible numbers, The meeting lace-)ancea, !here they should arrive no later than
#unday evening, February .. 4t the same time 6 so in'ormed the team o' Totu, Cranganu, and
*remeiu, !ho at the time !ere in the county o' Tecuci. 6 also !rote a letter to my 'ather in !hich 6
as;ed him to come give us a hand. The legionaries ut some money together 'or me and 6 le't 'or
8ucharest to see 2r. 6oanitescu, 7nder-secretary o' the 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs.
6 told him !hat had haened at Cahul and reEuested ermission to hold another rally there - a legal
reEuest - assuming the resonsibility 'or conducting this rally in er'ect order, rovided the
authorities did not rovo;e us. 4'ter some additional clari'ications he demanded o' me, our rally
!as aroved. :e needed no aroval 'or such a rally, as it !as not reEuired by la!, but 6 !anted
to be covered by o''icial ermission, thus to arry any ossible tendentious interretation o' my
#unday morning 6 !as in )ancea once more. 1e'ter !ent to Cahul in order to determine the meeting
lace !ith the authorities.
There !as much e<citement in Cahul as ne!s had come to the authorities that thousands o' easants
'rom all arts o' the county !ere headed 'or Cahul 'or the rally.
T!o truc;loads arrived during the day 'rom Focsani, the grous led by Hristache #olomon and
8lanaruJ 'rom Turda, 2oga and 9ichitaJ 'rom 6asi, the legionaries !ith 8anea, l'rim and Father
6sihieJ 'rom Galati, #telescu !ith the 8rotherhoodJ a student delegate 'rom 8ucharestJ and Pralea
!ith the nests 'rom Foltesti.
Then came on 'oot, or !ith !agons and riding horses, those 'rom 8eresti, and the legionaries 'rom
the Horincea 5alley. 2y 'ather too, came. 8y evening, over /%% legionaries had arrivedJ they !ere
lodged in )ancea, 4nd more ;et coming. 8eing concerned lest the ontoon bridge over the Pruth
might be unhoo;ed by authorities in order to revent our crossing, 6 disatched overnight /%
legionaries to occuy both ends o' the bridge.
)n 2onday at @ o=cloc; in the morning 6 sent into Cahul a team o' F% legionaries under the
command o' Potolea, to olice the rally, 6n the meantime ne! interventions !ere attemted in order
to revent us 'rom going ahead !ith the rally. This !as an imossibility. 4t -% o=cloc; !e 'ormed a
column and started outG
6n the 'irst grou, -%% riders carrying a 'lag, all !ith 'eathers in their hats, many !earing green
shirts. *ach had a !hite cloth cross se!n on his coat. :e loo;ed li;e some crusaders !ho marched
in the name o' the Cross, against a heathen enemy, to 'ree the (omanians.
6n the second grou came over -%% edestrians in a marching column !ith their 'lag.
6n the third grou there 'ollo!ed about @% !agons, ? to F men in each, the greatest art eole 'rom
)ancea, also carrying a 'lag.
:e seemed li;e an army ready 'or battle. :hen !e aroached the edge o' Cahul a sea o'
uncovered heads !elcomed us, !ith no hurrahs or music, in an imressive church-li;e silence, !e
rode through this cro!d o' easants. #ome o' them !ere crying.
The 8essarabian easant oulation, too, since the uni'ication o' (omania at the end o' the First
:orld :ar, had 'elt no imrovement in its lot. For, though delivered 'rom (ussian occuation, it
'ell under the domination o' the Ce!s, 6t !as urely and simly rey to the Ce!s.
For -$ years it had been e<loited and bled by the communist Ce!s in !orse manner than the most
tyrannical regime ;no!n in history had ever e<loited any human society.
The 8essarabian cities and mar;et to!ns are real colonies o' leeches clinging onto the e<hausted
body o' the easantry.
4nd, the eitomy o' shamelessness, these leeches dared disguise themselves as'ighters
againsteole=s e<loitation, against the terror oressing the eole. These then are 8essarabia=s
and (omania=s communists.
2oreover, these leeches, bloated by the suc;ed blood o' (omanians, ;ee u in their ress, o'
!hich 4devarul (+The Truth+" and Dimineata (+The 2orning+" are the main aers, the 'ollo!ing
+:e have lived (the leechesM" in the best brotherhood and harmony !ith the (omanian eole.+
+)nly some enemies o' the eole, o' the country, some right-!ing e<tremists, !ant to soil this
There !ere over $%,%%% easants at the rally. Certainly this !as the greatest assemblage o' eole
this to!n had ever seen since the beginning, and all !ithout any mani'estoes or ne!saers to
ubliciDe it. The rally !as conducted very solemnly. )n one side the riders !ere laced in a ro!J on
the other, the column o' edestrian legionaries.
The easantry listened !ith heads uncovered. There !as not one !ord, not one gesture to disturb
this solemnity. This time Col. Cornea did not ;ee the rendeDvous !e romised him. 6 told this
8essarabian easantry-!hich, 6 sa!, !as e<ecting a !ord o' consolation, and !hich came to this
rally in such over!helming numbers, not urged by me but by its great su''eringG
+That !e !ould not abandon it to the Ce!ish slavery no! oressing itJ that it !ould be 'ree, master
o' the 'ruit o' its labor, master over its land and its countryJ that the da!n o' a ne! day 'or the
eole !as aroachingJ that in this 'ight !e have begun, all !e e<ect the easants to give !ould
be 'aith-'aith to the death-and in e<change they !ould receive >ustice and glory+
Then so;e 1e'ter, Potolea, 8anea, l'rim, Father 6sihie, 5ictor 2oga, TarDiu, Hristache #olomon.
2y 'ather so;e 'or t!o hours at the end unsurassed in style and deth, and in the eole=s
language, :hen seeches !ere over, 6 advised the easantry to return to their villages in er'ect
order and Euiet, calling it to their attention that i' !e !ere to end this imosing assembly !ith the
slightest disorder, !e !ould render a great service to the Ce!s.
Peole !anted us to go !ith them. From all sides they !ished usG
+2ay God hel youM+
4ccomanied by the a''ection o' these easants !e le't 'or )ancea !here !e arted !ays. From
that moment o' the rally in Cahul my 'ather entered into the legionary movement.
*veryone !ent home in er'ect order. )ur victory !as great, articularly by virtue o' the eace'ul
and orderly manner in !hich the rally rogressed and ended. 8ut the Ce!s o' Cahul needed a
scandal, a disturbance, a disorder at any cost in order to comromise our movement and initiate
governmental stes against us.
#eeing though that eole le't 'or their homes in a eace'ul manner, t!o Ce!s, surely set u by their
rabbi, bro;e the !indo!s o' a store, their o!n. Had the local authorities and some eole not
caught them in the act and ta;en them to olice headEuarters, the #arindar #t. I Ce!ish ress,
Dimineata (+The 2orning+" and 4devarul (+The Truth+" !ould have rinted such headlines asG
+Great devastation at Cahul,+ +Ho! much the country loses in the eyes o' the eole abroadM+ etc.
6 have given this case, seemingly o' minor signi'icance in itsel', because o' its immense imortance
'or those !ho !ish to understand and ;no! the Ce!s= devilish system o' 'ighting. They are caable
o' setting a !hole city on 'ire in order, by thro!ing the blame on their adversaries, to comromise
an action !hich other!ise !ould lead to the ultimate solving o' the Ce!ish roblem. There'ore, 6
!arn the legionaries not to ermit themselves to be rovo;ed, 'or !e !ill !in only by maintaining
the most er'ect order. Disorder, 'or us, does not mean a con'lict !ith the Ce!s but !ith the state.
8ut it is e<actly into this that the Ce!s !ant to ush us, into a ermanent con'lict !ith the state,
That is !hy, as the state is stronger than !e, i' !e !ere to be lulled or ushed into con'lict !ith the
state, !e !ould be crushedJ and they !ould continue to remain imartial onloo;ers.
2y dog Fragu !elcomed me at the gate uon my return to 6asiJ 6 had him since -.$?, a !itness to
all my trials and 'ights ever since. 6n 6asi 6 too; care o' all current Euestions o' organiDation,
corresondence !ith nests, !hich 8anea-the head o' the legionary corresondence-resented to me
in er'ect order.
:#arindar #t. iri 8ucharest is !here the Ce!ish ress o''ices and resses are located. ;Tr0<
8anea had begun to gras my !ay o' seeing things very !ell in the t!o years o' corresondence, so
that he could himsel' handle many Euestions during this eriod !hen 6 rarely came to 6asi.
6 could stay at home only 'or a !ee; because the 8essarabian easants sent delegates, letters and
telegrams, as;ing that 6 come to them. )ne cannot imagine the hoes they ut in this movement o'
ours, and their 'aith. During t!o !ee;s 'ollo!ing the rally in Cahul, the ne!s about the legionaries
sread li;e lightning among all Christian eole o' southern 8essarabiaJ 'rom village to village all
the !ay to the ban;s o' the DniesterJ that is, ne!s o' a beginning o' deliverance 'rom the Ce!ish
slavery had in'lamed the hearts o' the oor easants. 7 to then they had laced their hoes in the
Peasant Party, believing that !hen this arty !ould come to o!er, they, the easants, !ould
receive >ustice. 8ut a'ter eight years o' hardshis, battles, hoes in this arty, they discovered
something 'rightening 'or their soulsG that they had been betrayed, cbeatedJ that behind the name o'
the Peasant Party Ce!ish interests lur;edJ the arty o' +The (omanian Peasant !ith Ce!ish
earloc;s+ I as Pro'essor CuDa batiDed it.
)ne !as seiDed by anguish uon seeing the 'aith in their hearts crushed that !ay, !hen a'ter eight
years they could see that their good 'aith had been betrayed. 6 !ent bac; to 8eresti again and 'rom
there by car to (ogo>eni on the ban;s o' the Pruth, !here 6 !as e<ected by over $%% riders headed
by #te'an 2oraru and 2os Cosa, They came 'rom all the surrounding villages.
+1et us march all the !ay to the Dniester+ said one o' them.
+LesM :e !ill march+ 6 relied.
6t !as then that the notion struc; me to stage a grand e<edition over the !hole o' southern
8essarabia 'rom Tighina to Cetatea-4lba. 8ac; in 6asi the thought troubled me constantly as to ho!
could !e cross 8essarabia all the !ay to the DniesterK There e<isted one great di''icultyG ho! best
to roceed so that the authorities !ould not oose us, to avoid 'ighting the state, the armyK
6t occured to me that i' 6 launched a ne! national organiDation 'or combating Ce!ish Communism,
an organiDation inclusive o' +The 1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel+ and any other youth grous not
a''iliated !ith any olitical arty, !e might succeed in getting into 8essarabia. :hat name should
!e give this ne! organiDationK 6 debated this Euestion !ith legionaries, in the lobby o' our Home.
#ome saidG +The 4nti-Communist Falange,+ others roosed other names.
Cranganu saidG +TH* 6()9 G74(DM+
+1et this be itM+
9o! !e began rearing this anti-communist action bac;ed also by !or;ers. 4ctually, by +anti-
communist action+ 6 do not mean an +anti-!or;ers+ actionJ !hen 6 say +communists+ 6 mean Ce!s.
6n order to obtain authoriDation 'or entering 8essarabia and thus avoid any ossible trouble !ith
local authorities, 6 had an audience several days later !ith 2r. 5aida-5oevod, at that time 2inister
o' 6nternal 4''airs. He !as the second olitician o' high ran; !hom 6 consulted. lonel 8ratianu had
been the 'irst. He ;et me there 'or three hours. 6 realiDed he !as erroneously in'ormed both !ith
regard to our movement and to the Ce!ish
roblem !hich he did not ;no! in its true light. He too; us 'or some rambunctious youth inclined
to solve the
by brea;ing !indo!s. 6 e<lained to him then ho! !e sa! the Ce!ish roblemJ ho! !e consider it
a li'e and death roblem 'or all (omaniansJ ho! their number is over!helming and inadmissibleJ
ho! they destroyed the middle class and (omanian to!ns. 6 told him !hat the roortion bet!een
Christians and Ce!s !as in 8alti, chisinau, Cernauti, 6asiJ the danger they reresent in our schools,
threatening the alienation o' the (omanian leading class and the 'alsi'ication o' our culture.
6 also e<lained to him the manner in !hich !e see the solving o' this roblem. He understood 'rom
the very beginning !hat 6 !as tal;ing about. 8ut, though a man o' his stature readily understood the
gist o' the matter, yet, 6 believe he !ill never be able to comletely understand us, 'or such is the
I #ideburns e<tended into long cor;scre! curls. ;Tr0<
nature o' thingsJ the eyes o' -@.% no longer see as do those o' -./%. There are calls, urgings, mute
commands !hich only the youth hear and gras because they address themselves only to it. *ach
generation has its o!n mission in li'e. That is !hy, erhas, he !ill not trust us comletely.
6 obtained aroval 'or our march into 8essarabia, a'ter, naturally, assuming resonsibility 'or
maintaining comlete order. #everal days later 6 ut out a mani'esto addressed to all the youth o'
the country.
2ean!hile great turmoil eruted in 2aramures. This is another corner o' (omanian soil over !hich
death had sread its !ings, There, Ce!ry had invaded villages, imosed its control over 'ields,
mountains and shee corrals. (omanians, in a state o' virtual slavery, retreat ste by ste be'ore this
Ce!ish invasion and gradually erish, leaving the estates they had inherited 'rom Dragos 5oda in
the hands o' the invaders. 9o government sho!s an interest in them any longer, no la! rotects
6t !as early in Cune -./% that a !agon dra!n by t!o horses stoed at the gate o' my house in 6asi.
From it descended t!o riests, a easant and a young man.
6 as;ed them to come in. They introduced themselves, )rthodo< riest 6on Dumitrescu, Gree;-
Catholic riest 4ndrei 8erinde, and the easant 9icoara.
+:e come by !agon 'rom 2aramures. :e have been on the road 'or t!o !ee;sJ !e are both
riests in 8orsa, one Gree;-Catholic, the other )rthodo<. :e can no longer bear to see the
mis'ortune o' the (omanians o' 2aramures. :e !rote memorandum a'ter
memorandum !hich !e sent all over, to Parliament, the government, cabinet ministers, the
(egency, !ith no rely 'rom any o' them. :e do not ;no! !hat else to do. :e came by !agon
here to 6asi to as; (omanian studentry not to abandon us to our 'ate. :e sea; in the name o'
thousands o' easants 'rom 2aramures !ho have gro!n deserate, :e are their riests. :e cannot
close our eyes to !hat !e see. )ur eole are dying and our hearts are brea;ing !ith ity.+
6 hosted them 'or a 'e! days and told themG
+The only solution 6 see is to organiDe them and try to boost their morale. They should ;no! that
they are not !aging this battle by themselvesJ that !e are behind them, 'ight 'or them and that their
'ate deends on our victory.+,
Finally, 6 sent Totu and *remeiu to organiDe themJ and later #avin and Dumitrescu-Qaada.
Thousands o' easants 'rom 8orsa and all mountain valleys !ere enrolling in our organiDation. The
Ce!s, realiDing the danger o' a (omanian rebirth, started rovo;ing eole. #eeing that their tactics
'ailed, they resorted to an in'ernal means. They set 'ire to 8orsa, blaming (omanians 'or it. Ce!ish
ne!saers immediately began yelling, demanding energetic measures be ta;en against the
(omanians !ho, they !ere saying, !ere rearing ogroms. 8oth riests !ere attac;ed by Ce!s,
insulted, struc;, then chased several miles and stoned. To ca it o'', they !ere both arrested as
+agitators+ and thro!n into >ail in #igherul 2armatiei. 4lso arrested !ere #avin and Dumitrescu-
Qaada and several score o' leading easants. Totu and *remeiu too, !ere arrested in Dorna and
loc;ed u in the Camul-1ung rison. 4devarul (+The Truth+" and Dimineata (+The 2orning+" set
o'' a real cannonade o' lies and calumnies heaed uon the riests and the others arrested. 4ll the
rotests, telegrams, memoranda, etc. remained 'ruitless, as they !ere dro!ned by the Ce!ish yells,
noise and ressures.
6n vie! o' the march !e !ere to ma;e 6 issued an +order o' the march+ !hich 6 rinted in +The
4ncestral 1and.+
6 e<tract 'rom itG
-. :e shall cross the Pruth to the tune o' the old (omanian hymn o' unityG
=Come, let us >oin hands together, those o' (omanian heart.=
$. The march !ill last one month.
/. :e !ill 'orm seven o!er'ul columns, -? miles aart.
?. The crossing o' the Pruth !ill be done at seven oints, the right 'lan; column aiming to reach
Cetatea-4lbaJ the le't 'lan; column, Tighina.
F. The mode o' advancement !ill be marching on 'oot 'rom the Pruth to the Dniester.
0. The date o' dearture, Culy $% in the morning. The crossing o' the Pruth at an hour to be
:hen Ce!ry learned about our lan to enter 8essarabia in order to a!a;en the conscience o'
(omanians, the Ce!ish ress launched against us a hurricane o' attac;. Calumnies, lies, incitations,
came uon our heads unremittingly 'or a !hole month.
These attac;s !ere directed in the same measure against 2r. 5aida. The Ce!s !ere demanding that
2r. 5aida be 'orth!ith demoted in the 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs, in 'act +thro!n overboard+
because he dared consent that !e, (omanian youth, enter 8essarabia in order to ta;e to our arents
and brothers across the Pruth a (omanian !ord o' consolation and hoe.
8essarabia has been delivered over economically and olitically to absolute domination by the
Ce!s. 4ny e''ort 'or (omanian emanciation, any mention o' this blac; rule !as considered a
7nder the ressure o' attac;s and intrigues in the Ce!ish ress, the march into 8essarabia !as
'orbidden >ust the day the legionaries 'rom all arts set out to!ard the Pruth.
6 !rote on that occasion the 'ollo!ing rotest !hich 6 had distributed throughout the caitalG
()249649# )F TH* C4P6T41,
+The march o' =The 6ron Guard= !hich !as to ta;e lace in 8essarabia !as stoed. The enemies o'
a healthy and o!er'ul (omania have triumhed. For a 'ull month the #arindar #t, little Ce!s 'rom
1uta (+The Fight+", 4devarul (+The Truth+", Dimineata (+The 2orning+", these oisoners o' the
(omanian soul, have threatened, insulted, slaed our souls, here in our o!n land. +From tic;s
hoo;ing into the bosom o' this nation, they became the only ones !ho could understand the
suerior interests o' our Fatherland, and turned themselves into uninvited censors o' all its
administrative acts.
4t Turda, they demanded the government sto our demonstration, claiming that Transylvania !as
being set a'ireJ at Cabul, that revolution =!as being started in 8essarabiaJ at Galati, that
slaughterings and ogroms !ere going to begin. +They turned out to be contemtible rovocateurs
in each case, 'or the 1egion ;et er'ect order and disciline every!here, +:e !here headed today
to!ards the Dniester in order to turn 8essarabia=s 'ace to!ard 8ucharest, +8ut this did not lease
these mercenaries o' Communism.
8essarabia must continue to remain rey to 8olshevism and loo; to 2osco! so that they can
continue to terroriDe, through the rovince bet!een the Pruth and the Dniester, (omania=s entire
olitical li'e.
The venal and erverse olitical system, this uss in'ecting our lives, aids and abets them-out o'
sel'ish etty electoral interest and out o' a demeaning sirit o' servility-in their !or; o'
dismembering our country and alienating our ancestral land. 6t !as this sel'ish interest and this
sirit !hich have been utting (omania 'or the last 0% years into the hands o' 'oreigners.
1oo;, today the martyrs o' 2aramures and 8ucovina are beginning to stirM They cry out along their
roads about the bitterness o' slavery into !hich they !ere itched by the treachery o' all the
country=s leadersJ not that they bad been 'orgotten by them, but that they bad been sold out.
+Does it not seem to you at least strange hat no voice has been 'ound in this country to come to
them !ith a !ord o' consolationK 4nd does it not seem to you to be at least a shamelessness to
reduce the entire a''air in 2aramures to the =instigators= 9icolae Totu and *remeiuK 4re they the
ones !ho are guiltyK :hat about the oliticians !ho 'or -$ years have daily been cheating these
2aramures easants, are they not guiltyK :hat about the hundreds o' thousands o' roving Ce!s
!ho descended uon them li;e locusts to ta;e a!ay the land they inherited 'rom their ancestors and
to enslave them, are these not instigators and rovocateursK :hat about the gentlemen 'rom
#arindar #t. !ho ridicule our ride in being masters in our o!n country, are they not rovocateursK
Here is a tyical e<emle 'rom !hich one can see the real cause o' the =disorders= in 8ucovina and
2aramures, +7niversul (+The 7niverse+" o' Culy -&, -./% ublished the 'ollo!ing statisticG =4t
Cernauti., children o' school age in the elementary schoolsG -$,$&&, o' !hich /,/&@ only are
(omanians (boys and girls" !hile the rest are 'oreigners.= :hat other roo' o' the domination o' the
(omanian element in the northern art o' (omania do you needK :here do you !ant the soul o' the
(omanian eole to run 'rom this huge and murderous invasionK
Lou denigrate, slander, o''end it by saying it rises u 'or a slice o' bread due to its =recarious
economic situation= !hen in 'act it daringly rises u to de'end its o!n being on the northern
:hy is it that no olitician has come out to tell His 2a>esty the truth K
L)7( H6GH9*##
These un'ortunate eole do not as; bread, They demand >usticeM They demand deliverance 'or the
(omanian soul on the verge o' dying because it is being su''ocated botb in 2aramures and
8ucovina, =Fbey demand that measures be ta;en against the bundreds o' thousands o' Ce!s, gorged,
rotund and !bite as !orms, !bo de'y them daily in their overty, being rotected by all (omanian
local authorities.
G*9T1*2*9 C)7(9416#T# F()2 #4(69D4( #T(**T
Certainly, the (omanians ;no! all too !ell that such a roblem !ill not be solved by violent
demonstrationsJ but, having reached the limit o' their endurance, they !ish to imose a (omanian
leadershi 'or (omaniaJ to 'orce (omanian legislation, la!s 'or the rotection o' the (omanian
element in (omania.
Perhas you !ish that, through your continous insults !ith !hich you !ound our (omanian souls,
you !ill see me some day at the head o' the holy rebels 'rom 2aramuresK Lou had better ;no! that
at that instant your last hour has struc;M
6n any case, i' you consider the e<isting la!s inadeEuate to simmer you do!n, 6 declare to you that 6
have enough o!er to ut you in your lace and ma;e you understand in !hich country you live.
6' you do not Euiet do!n, 6 shall call u against you all that is alive in this country, determined to
'ight !ith all the !eaons that my mind can call u.
4 9e! (omania cannot be born 'rom the bac; rooms o' olitical arties, >ust as Greater (omania
!as not born 'rom the calculations o' oliticians, but on the battle'ields o' 2arasesti and the dee
valleys on !hich cannon rained steel.
4 9e! (omania cannot be born e<cet by battleJ 'rom the sacri'ice o' its sons.
That is !hy 6 do not address mysel' to oliticians but to you, #oldierM (ise uM History calls you
againM 4s you are. :ith your bro;en arm, :ith your 'ractured leg, :ith your bullet-riddled chest.
1et the o!erless and the irnbecile tremble. Lou, engage courageously in the battle.
#oon =The 6ron Guard= !ill be calling you to a great rally in 8ucbarest 'or the de'ense o'
2aramuresans, the children o' Dragos-5oda and o' the 8ucovinans, the sons o' #te'an the Great
and the #aint.
:rite on your bannersG =The 'oreigners have invaded us=, =The alienated ress oisons us,= =The
olitical system ;ills us=.
8lo! your trumets in alarm. 8lo! them !ith all your o!er.
4t this moment, !hen the enemy invades us and the oliticians betray us, (omanians, sbout !ith
treidation as o' old on mountain aths in hours o' storm.
F4TH*(149DM F4TH*(149DM F4TH*(149DM
Corneliu Qelea-Codreanu
Head o' the 1egion
)n the evening o' the day my mani'esto !as osted, 6 !as at the student center tal;ing !ith several
students. The young 8eDa aeared. 4ll o' a sudden he ried o'' his insignia o' the +5lad TeesI+
organiDation to !hich he belonged, itched it a!ay and saidG +Hence'orth 6 shall have nothing to do
!ith =5lad Tees= anymoreJ 6 resign.+
This gesture on his art did not imress me. First, because the +5lad Tees+ 1eague seemed to lac;
earnestness, more esecially the youth in that league, !hose e<istence 6 doubted 'rom the start. 4
resignation 'rom such a youth grou le't me comletely cold.
#everal minutes later, this youth again >oined our discussion saying he !ould li;e to become a
legionary, i' 6 had no ob>ection. 2y vague rely avoided a direct re'usal. 1egionary dogma imoses
reserve to!ard anyone ne! see;ing to >oin the 1egion, and this alied articularly in the resent
case. #everal !ee;s earlier 6 had seen 8eDa in a small restaurant !here he as;ed me !hether it
!ould not be advisable to shoot #tereI. Then too, 6 did not ta;e him seriously.
7on leaving, he as;ed me to send the night at his lace. 6 re'used. 6nstead, 6 sent the night !ith
the medical students. 9e<t day around noon 6 heard the ne!saer street vendorsG +4n attemt on
the li'e o' 2inister 4nghelescuM+ :hoK 8eDa. Ho!K He 'ired several shots, suer'icially hitting his
:hyK 6 did not ;no!. 6nEuiring 6 learned that a con'lict arose bet!een 2acedonians and
4nghelescu around the 1a! o' 9e! DobrogeaII !hich in'ringed uon (omanian interests in that
rovince. 6 had never met 4nghelescu. T!o days later 6 !as summoned be'ore the >udge rearing
the case. +6ron Guard+ mani'estoes have been 'ound on 8eDa. 6 declared that 6 had no ;no!ledge
!hatever o' and no connection !ith this attemt, nor did 6 ;no! his motive. 6 !as released. 4s 6 le't
6 !as ondering ho! easily mis'ortune can be'all a man. Had 6 acceted 8eDa=s invitation to slee at
his lace 6 !ould have become the moral author o' his crii-ne. 4ny argument resented to de'end
mysel' !ould have been dismissed. Particularly in vie! o' the 'act that this attemt coincided !ith
the denial o' our march into 8essarabia.
To my great astonishment the ne<t day 6 read the hal'-age headline in Dimineata (+The 2orning+"G
+Corneliu Codreanu brands 8eDa=s act.+ 6 !as dumb'ounded. ConseEuently 6 !ent to see the >udge
!ho had interrogated me the day be'ore. +Lour honor, 6 am very astonished that such incorrect
in'ormation could originate !ith your o''ice 'rom a secret interrogation. 6 did not brand 8eDa=s act.
6t is not 'or me to do soM+
+6 have released no such in'ormation. This is an invention o' the ress.+
Then 6 said to mysel'G +#hould 6 let mysel' be insulted by the Ce!ish ressK *ven i' 6 ;ne! 8eDa 'or
such a short time, though 6 had no connection o' any ;ind !ith him, no one can comel me to be
: Grigore Filieseu had given his arty the name o' 5lad to indicate he !as to 'ollo! the ractice o' 5lad the 6maler, a
:allachian ruler o' the -0th century !ho imaled thieves and dishonest sub>ects. ;Tr0<
such a scoundrel as to >um on him, in such a case as this, to condemn him. 6 do not !ant to do it.
1et anyone else but me do it, because 6 do not ;no! !hat the matter is and because o' my ast in
!hich 6 bad !orn the same shoes recludes me 'rom condemning others. 6 shall !rite another
The same day 6 rinted a mani'esto !hich 6 distributed throughout the caitalG
8ecause the ress dared again becloud the truth, claiming 6 =branded= 8eDa=s gesture, 6 insist on
giving the 'ollo!ing clari'icationG
+6' 2inister 4nghelescu might have reason to be de'ended, 6 believe that the youth 8eDa has as
many reasons at least, both in the courts and be'ore the conscience o' his countrymen.
6 declare that 6 am not going to de'end the 'ormer by branding the latter, but that 6 !ill de'end the
young 8eDa and his cause !ith all my heart and all my o!er.
4s 'or you, gentlemen 'rom #arindar #t., !rite on the list o' settlements to come, this second
Corneliu Qelea-Codreanu
4s a conseEuence o' these t!o !arnings my relationshi !ith 2r. 5aida !as ended. 2r. 5aida
became angry !ith me, but 6 could not roceed other!ise than as my conscience dictated.
#ummoned again be'ore the same >udge, 6 !as arrested. #o there 6 !as again in the 8lac; 2aria
headed 'or the 5acaresti rison, There !ere seven other youths in the same van, to !hom 6
introduced mysel'G Paanace, Caranica, Pihu, 2amali, 4nton Ciumeti, Ficata and Ghetea. They
issued a declaration o' s(,6idarity !ith 8eDa, 6 !al;ed again under the same gates as seven years
earlier !ith my old comrades, and by coincidence 6 !as laced in the same cell 6 occuied then. 6
entered the church the ne<t day to vie! #t. 2ichael=s icon 'rom !hich !e started but children seven
years be'ore.
There in rison 6 got to ;no! !ell these 4romaniansI !ho came 'rom the mountains o' Pind. They
e<hibited a high culture, sound moral health, !ere good atriots, built to be 'ighters and heroes and
!illing to sacri'ice. There 6 came to ;no! better the great tragedy o' the 2acedo-(omanians, this
(omanian branch !hich 'or thousands o'
:The Aro*anians or -aedo)Ro*anians of -aedonia ;Gree< are Roynatii)
an)spea5ing populations0 ;Tr0<
years, alone and isolated in its mountains, has de'ended-!eaons in hand-its language, nationality
and 'reedom.
6t !as then that 6 met #terie CiumetiI !hom God has chosen 'or his good soul, ure as de!, to
become through his tragic torture and death, the greatest martyr o' the legionary movement, o'
legionary (omania.
There, our thought and hearts united 'orever. Hence'orth !e !ould 'ight together 'or our !hole
eole 'rom Pind to beyond the Dniester.
9o amount o' comlaining, etitioning or intervening be'ore an administration !hich has been dea'
to all (omanian roblems here and abroad, !ill ever solve (omanian roblems any!here !ithout a
strong (omani!i nation being in control o' her o!n house. 4t that time, these (omanians, scattered
outside our borders shall be brought bac; into (omania. For the blood o' all is needed here !here
(omanians are 'aced by death. 4nd it is !ell to note that in this struggle the governments that
oened the country=s gates to thousands o' Ce!s, at the same time did not ermit (omanians 'rom
abroad to come in.
4ll the occult 'orces !ere at !or;, bearing do!n on >ustice in order to secure my conviction
2y recent arrest and incarceration in 5acaresti caused great re>oicing !nong the Ce!ish ran;s.
*very imertinent little Ce! !as attac;ing and insulting me in every aer. To lease the Ce!s, even
(omanian ne!saers run by the olitical arties, attac;ed me.
The date o' my aearance in court had been set. 6 began the necessary rearations. 6 !as !aiting
'or 9elu 6onescu, !ho had
:Arrested on the night of Dee*ber /(+%&/(+ #teri Ciu*eti+ although innoent of the shooting of
Pri*e -inister I0G0 DUa+ "as assassinated by three polie o**issars+ then thro"n into the iy
"aters of Da*bovita by orders of the responsible+ authorities in the -inistry of Internal Affairs0
DEi+shed out+ he "as seretly buried+ later to be disinterred landestinely and again buried in
sinister iru*stanes by ,unidentified, representatives of the publi order0 This ignoble ri*e
re*ained unpunished+ after having b;Ei6ore tli;E ;+ottrt of App;Eals in 9uharest a sandalous
trial "here oult as "ell as obvious pressures by the Liberal govern*ent and the polie apparatus
"ere eFerised+ even "ithin the hall of @ustie+ upon the @urors ;a*ong "ho* "as Dr0 Gheorghiu+
the retor of the University of 9uharest+ the @ury6s fore*an<+ Clu*eti6s "ido" and the attorneys0
been de'ending me in every trial since -.$%, to arrive 'rom 6asi. 2y de'ense !as >oined also by 2r.
2ihail 2ora, uon the insistence o' students.
2y trial, as al!ays, !as a Cudaic attac; trying to secure my conviction, no matter ho! small-
demanded the Ce!s 'rom 4devarul (+The Truth+"-so they could say that the movement 6 lead is
anarchical because it uses illegal means o' action. The halls o' the 2inistry o' >ustice !ere 'ull o'
Ce!s running to and 'ro !ith intercessions o' all ;inds.
Ho!ever, (omanian >ustice, in'le<ible and undaunted, acEuitted me.
8ut the rosecutor aealedJ there'ore 6 continued to be ;et in rison.
This time the ressures and the interventions o' the Cudaic o!er !ere increased. 4gain 6 !as ta;en
to the Court o' 4eals. To lease the Ce!s, Prosecutor Praorgeseu laced me in the same bo<
!ith embeDDlers, horse thieves and ic;oc;ets, For three hours, !hile their cases !ere >udged, 6
!as the ob>ect o' ironical and de'iant glares 'rom scores o' Ce!s. 2y case !as the last to be
considered and, as earlier, it !as 2r. 2ihail 2ora and 9elu lonescu !ho leaded it. The verdict on
the aeal !as a ne! acEuittal. 4'ter close to one month and a hal' o' imrisonment, 6 !as released.
6 le't 'or home.
Follo!ing all this, together !ith 9elu lonescu, Garneata, 2ota and 6braileanu, 6 le't by our anel
truc; 'or #ighetul 2armatiei to loo; into the 'ate o' the t!o riests !ho !ere loc;ed u in
'rightening misery. 9o one !as coming to see them, even to bring them 'ood. Father Dumitrescu=s
!i'e !as sic;J he had t!o small children. Their home !as a breadless, moneyless, medicineless
homeJ they lived on charity. The 'ate o' Christian riests, s!orn to de'end the cross, the church and
their eoleM The lot o' the other ten imrisoned easant leaders !as >ust as bad.
)n the outside, Ce!ry !as >ubilating. 2oney !as being collected both at home and abroadJ the
government gave money 'or the +un'ortunate Ce!s+ o' 8orsa so they could build 'or themselves
ne! t!o-story stone homes, !hile the oor (omanian easants !ere eating bread made 'rom
sa!dust meal mi<ed !ith oatmeal.
6, !ho then sa! this (omanian 2ara<nures groaning and !rithing in the throes o' death, cannot but
urge every olitician, every member o' the teaching cors, every riest, all university students and
secondary school students, and every reacher o' humanitarianism - all !ho come here to censure
our olitical li'e - +Go all o' you and observe 2aramures. 9ame anyone in the !orld as an arbiter to
tell us i' it is tolerable that in (omania something li;e that haening in 2aramures, can haen to
4t the end o' 'our months, the riests !ere trans'erred to the rison in #atu 2are !here the trial
!as held in !hich some F% easants and easant !omen !ith children in their arms !ere involved,
as !ell as $% Ce!s.
Pro'essor Catuneanu, 6on 2ota, a local attorney and mysel', 'ormed the de'ense o' the accused
(omanians. The $% Ce!s !ere reresented by 'our Ce!ish attorneys, 4'ter eight days o'
roceedings, all !ere acEuitted, 'or all charges levelled at them !ere roven 'alse.
2ean!hile, 2r. 5aida, under ressures o' Ce!ish attac;s, !as dismissed 'rom the 2inistry o'
6nternal 4''airs, being relaced by 2r. 2ihalache, !ho, as his late attitude indicated, let it be
;no!n that be !ould not besitate to use against us +strong arm+ methods.
This moment had arrived.
The youth Dumitrescu-Qaada, !ho had been arrested in #ighet, e<aserated by the lies, attac;s,
insults o' the Ce!ish ress, !ithout as;ing or telling anyone one !ord, grabbed a revolver he
haened to 'ind, !ent to 8ucharest, entered #ocor=s o''ice and 'ired one shot.
8ut the revolver !as de'ectiveJ it could not be 'ired the second time. This haened around
Christmas time. it had been a year in !hich 6 had not sent even a month at home. 6 !anted to
send the holidays !ith my 'amily. 6 !as at Focsani rearing to leave 'or home !hen 6 read in the
aers !hat haened in 8ucharest. 6mmediately 6 !as summoned to come be'ore Cudge Paadool
at the Tribunal. 6t !as roven 6 had no connection at all !ith the shooting. 6 could go my !ay. 6
returned to Focsani !here by orders 'rom 2r. 2ihalache, 'or no reason, 6 !as surrounded by olice
in Hristache #olomon=s house and ;et incommunicado 'or eight days, 2r. 2ihalache dissolved the
6ron Guard and the 1egion through a decree o' the Council o' 2inisters. #earches !ere made o' all
our headEuartersJ all our records !ere seiDedJ all our o''ices sealed. 4t home in 6asi, as !ell as in
Husi, even my illo!s and mattresses !ere ransac;ed. For the 'i'th time, my house !as ri'led,
everything connected !ith the movement being ta;en a!ay, do!n to the smallest notes 6 had.
#ac;'uls o' documents, letters, aers, !ere con'iscated 'rom our homes and ta;en to 8ucharest.
8ut !hat could they 'ind in our homes that could be illegal or comromisingK :e had been
!or;ing in broad daylight and anything !e had to say !as said out loud. :e con'essed our 'aith
strongly be'ore the !hole !orld.
)n Canuary ., 6 !as ta;en by agents 'rom Focsani to 8ucharest, and there, 'ollo!ing a -$-hour
interrogatory, 6 !as laced under arrest and sent again to 5acaresti. The second day !ere brought in
the 'ollo!ing legionaries 'rom the counties in !hich !e !ere most activeG 1e'ter, 'rom CahulJ
8anea, 'rom 6asiJ #telescu, 'rom GalatiJ 4mos Po, 'rom TurdaJ Totu and Danila.
This !as another hard blo! to the to o' the head o' a (omanian organiDation !hich had done
nothing illegal, but only !as trying to li't its bro! against the Cudaic hydra. 4 ne! attemt on the
art o' this eole to= rise u through its youth, 'rom its slavery, !as going do!n under the blo!s o'
a (omanian 2inister o' 6nternal 4''airs, !ith the unanimous alause o' Ce!ry both at home and
This time too, the 'ury to destroy us had been mercilessly unleashed, 9o means !ere sared to
annihilate usJ no in'amy. 4nd !e !ere guilty o' nothing. The Ce!ish aers in !hich !e !ere
violently attac;ed, ridiculing us and the truth, reached us in rison, and !e could do nothing, !e
could ans!er in no !ay. :ith arms crossed, !ithin the 'our rison !alls, !e !atched ho! insults
and all ;inds o' accusations !ere hurled it us.
it is su''icient to give one e<amle sho!ing the e<tent o' the in'amy o' the Ce!ish ress at that time
'rom the many attemts made !ith the intention o' setting ublic oinion against us to 'orce our
6 call the attention o' the reader to the 'act that 6 never lanned, !rote or signed such an order.I
: 6t is on the basis o' such 'alse documents, notably on a letter that Corneliu Q. Codreanu allegedly had !ritten to 4dol'
Hitler, that the military >udges - acting as servile instruments o' interested individuals - later convicted the chie' o' the
6ron Guard to ten years at hard labor 'or +crime o' treason and incitation to social revolution+.
This letter +uncovered+ by the #iguranta, in !hich Codreanu reEuested hel 'rom 4dol' Hitler 'or roing the +social
revolution+ !as calegorica'iy declared 'alse by Corneliu Q. Codreanu both at the reliminary hKng and in court. 9ot
only !as he denied the reEuired hand!riting e<ert advice and the !itnesses 'or the de'ense, but more, under the
rete<t that ublic discussion o' the case !ould hurt the +suerior interests o' the #tate+, the roceedings regarding this
oint too; lace behind closed doors so as to remove 'rom Codreanu, in'amously accused, the ossibility....KKKKKKK
The truth is that this vile staging !hich had to >usti'y the sentencing to ten years at hard labor and the imrisonment o'
the innocent Codreanu !as by the rearatory hase to his assassination, remeditated by His 2a>esty Ain Carol -- o'
(omania, carried out by the order o' His 2a>esty=s government o the rdglit o' 9ovember $.-/%, -./@. ;Tr0<
9o !ord in it belongs to me. 6t is !holly invented by Ce!ry.
Here 6 reroduce in 'ull the contemtible lie as rinted in Dimineata (+The 2orning+", !hich !as
then coied and commented on by the other aersG
:ith regard to the aims and means used by the =4rchangel 2ichael= organiDation, !e are in osition
to ublish a sensational document issued by the 1egion in 6asi.
The matter ertains to a circular sent to Camul-1ung and 1udosul 2are by the 1egion =4rchangel
2ichael= in the caital o' 2oldaviaG
The 1egion =4rchangel 2ichael= HeadEuarters 6asi ((aa Galbena"
The Cultural Christian Home
$?F/./% ad circulandum
4ddress your rely to Corneliu Qelea Codreanu
$% Florilor #t., 6asi
- in code -
To #econd 8attalion, Camul-1ung
Third 8attalion, 1udosul de 2ures
:e have the honor to bring to your attention the 'ollo!ingG
Considering that both civil and military authorities have rela<ed their vigilance because !e had
intervened !ith some highly laced o''icials-both in the 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs and in...
(another highly laced individual, 9.(. is mentioned here"-!e must ta;e advantage o' this
oortunity to double our roaganda and instigation e''orts, 'or this 'avorable situation may one
day be reversed. ConseEuently, !ith no 'urther hesitation or loss o' time, you shall do the
-. 2a;e lists o' all legionaries !ho have ta;en their vo!, by comanies and latoons. These lists
should be o' de'ense be'ore national and !orld oinion 'or!arded to the 1egion by 9ovember - o'
this year to be totaled by regions.
$. The #econd 8attalion shall convo;e in Camul-1ung the imortant leadersG (obota, Poescu,
#erban, Desa, and in total secrecy Commissar 9ubert o' 5atra-Domei and the chie' o' the
gendarmes ost o' Poiana #tamii, Paduraru Gheorghe. Lou shall in'orm them that the 1egion too;
the decision to change the lan o' action.
Hence'orth !e shall !or; consiratorially in absolute secrecyJ you shall no longer hold ublic
meetings or engage in roaganda,-you shall get in touch !ith all legionaries !ho are nest leaders-
instructing them to sustain the resent state o' revolt among the easantry.
The decisive cou !ill be delivered this 'all on the occasion o' the 2ironeseu government change.
/. Third 8attalion shall convo;e Pro'essor 2atei, 2oga 5ictor, 2oga Tanase and the latoon chie'
o' Grindeni-and 'rom 7rea you shall call only the merchant 2oldovan. #ecretly you shall call the
gend=arme instructor #gt. Constantin o' the 1udos ost-in'orm them... (as in the #econd 8attalion".
?. Lou shall ta;e out 'or e<ercises the legionary youth t!ice each !ee;-on the village graDing
grounds or else!here-rearing it and e<laining our noble aim, encouraging it.
F. The chie' o' the Third 8attalion=s #ta'' shall tern.'inate the mission he !as charged !ith both
verbally and by secret order 9o. &/-./% to carry out as soon as ossibleJ i' the Euantity o' dynamite
sent is insu''icient he is to demand more 'rom the individual in Euestion.
0. Lou shall also tell the above, by letter, to Dr. 6osi' GhiDdaru o' #ighisoara and also send him a
detailed reort on the activity in 1udos. 4 Fourth 8attalion shall come into being in #ighisoara
under the command o' Dr. GhiDdaru. This order is to be burnt immediately a'ter being read. 8e
care'ul, an army o' Ce!ish sies is on our trac;sJ do not tal; to anyone or see anyone !ho does not
sho! you my signature.
CourageJ long live the 1egion and !ith God, 'or!ardM
6asi, )ctober &, -./%
Commander o' the 1egion
(##" Corneliu Qelea-Codregnu
Chie' o' General #ta'' and #ecretary
(ss" Garneata
+it is obvious 'rom this circular that the 1egion =4rchangel 2ichael= has reared criminal actions,
suorted by a certain number o' ublic o''icials.
Though late, the authorities have the duty to identi'y absolutely all these ublic o''icials !ho lace
themselves in the service o' this criminal action o' the 1egion =4rchangel 2ichael= and aly the
most severe enalties.+
6 realiDed that the situation !as di''icultJ our organiDation dissolved, headEuarters adloc;ed,
searches every!here. The ublic, comletely daDed as a result o' Ce!ish outcries and stui'ied by
their accusations heaed uon us, !as inclined to ta;e as real all these odious 'rame-us. 2oreover,
in rison !e !ere living in misery, cold, damness, lac; o' air and light, lac; o' blan;ets. 6t !as
due only to insistent interventions on our behal' that some stra! !as issued to us to stu'' our
mattresses !ith and some mats to cover the damness o' the !alls.
:e began -./- in rison under a rain o' Ce!ish lies, insults and blo!s.
This time too, 6 too; my ne! rison comrades, !ho !ere sharing this trial !ith me, to see the icon
and all the laces !hich 'or me !ere 'ull o' memories.
Certainly the situation !as di''icult 'or them too. 8ut they had to ans!er only 'or themselves, and
this resonsibility !as much smaller. The enemy !ho had to be shattered and destroyed, !as 6. 6
'elt that blac; clouds !ere gathering ane! over our heads, that
an enemy !orld !as coming do!n on us ane! !ith even more determination to annihilate us.
The only suort in the midst o' all these in'emal machinations and gigantic assaults, !as to be
'ound in God. :e began to 'ast each Friday, total 'astJ and to read each midnight the 4;athist o'
5irgin 2ary. )utside, legionaries in the caital, headed by 4ndrei 6onescu, 6on 8elgea, 6ordache,
Doru 8elimace, 5ictor Chiruiescu, Cotiga, Horia #ima, 9icolae Petraseu, 6ancu Caranica, 5irgil
(adulescu, #andu 5aleriu, !ere doing their utmost to enlighten ublic oinion !hich !as misled
by the #arindar #t. ress.
4t the same time, the devoted and undaunted Fanica 4nastasescu - al!ays resent at my side in all
the trials 6 had to go through - tried to imrove our material rison lot.
Here is the accusation levelled at me in 4((*#T :4((49T 9). -.?
+...:hereas the acts o' criminal rocedure dra!n u against Corneliu Qelea Codreanu, attorney in
6asi, aged /-, !arned that he committed the act o' trying to engage in an action directed against the
'orm o' government established by the Constitution and tried an instigation 'rom !hich a danger 'or
ublic sa'ety could have resulted by organiDing an association =The 1egion o' 2ichael the
4rchangel= =The 6ron Guard=, having the aim o' setting u a dictatorial regime !hich !as to have
been imosed at a given moment !ished by him, by violent means, to!ard !hich his artisans !ere
reared and urged through Euasi-rdlitary drills, orders, directives and seeches, as !ell as through
ublications, osters, emblems, discourses during organiDed or ublic meetingsJ
+:hereas, this act is seci'ied by 4rt. --, Paragrah $ o' the 1a! 'or the suression o' some ne!
in'ractions against ublic order, as unishable by imrisonment o' 'rom si< months to 'ive years
and a 'ine o' 'rom -%,%%% to -%%,%%% lei and !ith loss o' civil rightsJ
Considering that 'rom the investigation conducted, serious charges and grave indications o' guilt
result against Corneliu Qelea CodreanuJ and that in order to revent the above named to
communicate !ith the in'ormers and !itnesses !hich are to be EuestionedJ as !ell as in the interest
o' ublic sa'etyJ it is imortant 'or the rearation o' this case that the accused, until 'urther
disosition, be laced in detentionJ +4'ter listening to Prosecutor 4l. Proco Dumitrescu=s
conclusions and in con'omiity to the terms o' 4rt. ./ o' the enal rocedureJ
For these reasonsG
:e mandate all agents o' the ublic 'orce, that in con'ormance to the la!, they arrest and lead to
the arrest house o' the 5acaresti rison, said Corneliu Qelea Codreanu...
Given in our o''ice today Canuary /%, -./-. +6nvestigating Cudge #te'an 2ibaescu.+
(Dossier 9o. -%--./ -"
This rain o' accusations continued uninterrutedly 'or F& days, disseminated daily in millions o'
ne!saers through villages and to!ns. :e had no chance !hatever o' resonding. 9o ray o' hoe
'rom any!here, 9o one had the caability o' coming to our de'ense and to denounce the Ce!ish
consiracy 'or see;ing our condemnation and burial and that o' our movement. :e !atched ho!
the authorities, rosecutors, the #iguranta and this gentleman named 2ihalache, 2inister o' 6nternal
4''airs, !ho-though all ;ne! 'rom the investigations they made that !e !ere guilty o' nothingJ that
no munitions, !eaons, dynamite deosits !ere 'ound, etc.--still ersisted in their in'amous
attitude, leaving rey to Ce!ish insults and ridicule some arrested men unable to de'end themselves.
8ecause state security !as involved, they should have heeded their elementary duty to Euiet ublic
oinion by issuing a communiEue denying the discovery o' caches o' munitions, the country !as on
the brin; o' civil !ar, etc.
it !as under these inausicious circumstances that our trial date !as set 'or Friday, February $&.
#ome o' the de'ense attorneys 'elt that introducing a motion 'or the ostonement o' the trial !as
advisable in vie! o' the agitated atmoshereJ that in the meantime !e call to te !itness stand
o''icials o' security units to comel them to tell the truth under oath.
:e turned do!n this roositionJ !e !ould go to trial !ithout !itnesses.
Counselor 8uicliu resided, assisted by Cudges G. #olomonescti and 6. CostinJ the rosecutor !as
Proco Dumitrescu. :e !ere de'ended by Pro'essor 9olica 4ntonescuJ attorneys 2ihail 2ora,
9elu 6onescu, 5asiliu-Clu>, 2ota, Carneata, Corneliu Georgescu, ibraileanu. 8oth the audience and
the magistrates e<ected to see some roo's against usG bombs, munition deosits, dynamite,
!eaons. 8ut nothing, absolutely nothing !as roduced in evidence. Hal' an hour a'ter our
testimony !as comleted, all the in'amous 'arce collased. Finally, !e could sea;, 'ull o' the
indignation !hich 'or t!o months had been building u !ithin us, hour uon hour. 4ll that barrage
o' lies !as bro;en in the 'ace o' truth. 4ll the chains !ith !hich they shac;led us came aartG our
la!yers de'ended us brilliantly. Though the trial continued into the second day, sentencing !as
delayed 'or several days.
4t the aointed time 'or the verdict to be handed do!n, !e !ere again ta;en to the Tribunal. The
verdict o' unanimous acEuittal !as read to us (Penal sentence 9o. @%%".
Here are the terms o' this verdict o' acEuittal, detailing the actions on the basis o' !hich +The
1egion o' 2ichael the 4rchangel+ already dissolved, had been brought be'ore the la!G
+Considering that the chie' rosecutor=s investigation results in the 'act in the dossier that the
adherents o' the 1egion had indeed been recruited only 'rom among deten=nined eoleG easants,
students and high school youthJ that, 'or instance, the dossier sea;s o' nests o' legionaries or =!hite
vulturesJ= it sea;s o' a robationary status, vo! or oath, 'ive 'undamental la!s, one o' !hich is a
la! o' secrecyJ that the 1egion is militarily organiDed !ith a uni'orm, baldric;, scarves, rograms
o' hysical education and military drills, signaling e<ercises and 2orse code, etc., still, it has not
been established that recruiters and recruited have engaged in any action against the resent 'orm o'
government established by the Constitution, or in an action !hich might result in some danger to
state security. That the 'act alone o' being constituted into such an organiDation cannot be construed
as an in'raction, even i' it might in someone=s concetion be considered such a danger. For, as long
as the organiDation !as not an occult one, administrative authorities could have steed in either to
sto it or to dissolve it. That even in the suosition that it !ould have been established that the
organiDation had coied the Fascist system as a 'orm o' ma;e-u, even then its members could not
be considered liable to the enalty stiulated by the te<t o' the la! on the basis o' !hich the
accused have been brought to trialJ because no matter !hat its 'orm, an organiDation in its static
stage does not resent any danger to state securityJ it could at most be the ob>ect o' reoccuations
o' reventive measures on the art o' administrative authorities, but not o' any reressive measures
!hich are in or der only !hen such organiDation initiates some action, (e<ceting such cases as
!hen the la! seci'ically rohibits its 'orm o' organiDation".
Furthermore, it cannot be said that >ust because several legionaries had gone through villages. in
order to see; adherents, advising the eole to organiDe, to trust the 1egion=s movement, etc. one
can roduce roo' that they intended to endanger state security-roaganda being a means 'or
'orming and relenishing the cadres o' a olitical organiDation such as thisJ or that the incetion o'
so-called nests o' high school students-'ormations outside the organiDation roer-meant any threat
to state security, i' one considers that in the organiDation=s rogram one recogniDed the a!a;ening
o' national conscience together !ith recets o' hysical and moral education be'itting a school
rogram, as long as there !as no undue agitation.
Considering that the accused cannot be blamed 'or having sought to change by their action the
resent 'orm o' government-'or, 'rom the dossier, this 'act not denied even by the reresentative o'
the Public 2inistry, - it is obvious that both the accused Corneliu Q. Codreanu and the others, as
!ell as all the members o' the organiDation, reached the need 'or a strong government to relace
the arasitic olitical arties, and recogniDed the ;ind authority !ho !as so;en o' !ith all due
resect and !hose collaborators - as attested by their mani'estoes - they !ished to become.
+4lso, as long as one sea;s o' collaboration !ith the head o' the state, one cannot tal; o' toling
a 'orm o' government that the sovereign had not sanctioned....
+:hereas, 'or these considerations the subversive action (!hich as a matter o' 'act has not been
roven 'rom any angle as being subversive" o' !hich the de'endants are accused does not 'all
!ithin the disositions o' 4rt. --....
+:hereas the march the organiDation had lanned to ma;e into 8essarabia had not ta;en laceJ that
it !ould not have ta;en lace i' the authorities had not consented-consent that the accused as a
matter o' 'act claim !as obtained but later rescindedJ that in such
circumstances it is suer'luous to retain the claims o' the accused that they intended 'irst to test the
resistance o' legionaries and second to a!a;en the national conscience
o' the oulace enetrated by 'oreign elements...
+:hereas it !as also claimed that all the acts o' the accused have to loo;ed at in the light o' their
+:hereas as long as the 'act 'or !hich the accused !ere brought to trial cannot be established, one
cannot sea; o' the acts o' Corneliu Qelea Codreanu, Danila, etc. as
determining the degree o' guilt, because the antecedents are o' interest in establishing the degree o'
unishment and not in 'orcing a condemnation...
+That such being the case, the accused are innocent o' the allegations brought against them and in
conseEuence they are to be acEuitted.+
:e returned >oyously to rison, there to ac; our bags and a!ait the order to be released. :e
!aitedJ @ o=cloc; in the evening came, .- -%, --, o=cloc;J !e >umed at each ste !e heard outside
in the yard, Finally, !e !ent to slee !ith our bags still made u.
9e<t day, again !e !aited. )nly on the third day did !e learn that the rosecutor aealed and
there'ore !e !ould have to stay in rison until the aeal !as considered.
)nce more, days began to drag slo!ly.
The ne! date !as set 'or Friday 2arch $&, -./- at the Court o' 4eals. The days assed slo!er
and slo!er. Finally they too; us by van to the Palace o' >ustice, #ection -- o' the Court o' 4eals
resided over by 2r. *rnest Ceaur 4slan. The same de'enders did their duty combating success'ully
the thesis o' Prosecutor Gica lonescu !ho laced the indictment !ith insulting outbursts 'ull o'
hatred, #entencing !as ostoned 'or several days. 8ac; to 5acaresti !here !e !aited. (ecalled,
!e !ere told o' a ne! acEuittal,
unanimous. 4'ter @& days o' imrisonment !e !ere 'inally released because !e !ere 'ound to be
innocent. :ho, 6 !ondered, !as going to unish our detractorsK :ho, 6 !ondered, !ill avenge all
the in>ustices, blo!s and su''ering !e had undergoneK
8ut the rosecutor too; the case even higher, to the #ureme Court o' 4eals. 1ater, !hen the
case came u 'or consideration, this court too, unanimously uheld the acEuittal o' the lo!er courts.
Here !e !ere, !ith t!o decisionsG one, that o' 2r. 2ihalache, by !hich +The 1egion o' 2ichael
the 4rchangel+ and +The iron Guard+ !ere dissolved as subversive organiDations dangerous to the
e<istence o' the (omanian #tateJ the other, that o' the !hole o' the (omanian >uridical system,
Tribunal, Court o' 4eals, and #ureme Court o' 4eals, !hich unanimously declared these
youth to be innocent, and that the 1egion and the Guard did not reresent any threat to ublic order
or state security. Desite all this, our headEuarters continued to remain adloc;ed.
Ce!ry, !hich !as again beaten, lay lo!, rearing in the shado!s other lies, other attac;s, other
in'amies. )h 1ordM )h 1ordM Ho! come this eole does not see that !e, its children are le't rey
to the enemy blo!s that 'all uon us one a'ter the otherK
)h 1ordM )h 1ordM :hen !ill it !a;e u and understand the great storm and the cabal directed
against it !ith so much hatred determined to stun it and slay itK
JUNE 191
The 9ational-Peasant administration 'ell in 4ril. The lorga-4rgetoianu government came to
4s the 1egion had been dissolved, 6 registered my movement !ith the central electoral commission
under the name o' +The Corneliu Q. Codreanu Grou,+ choosing as its electoral symbol the iron
8ut the ne! designation, as e<ected, did not catch on. Peole, ress, enemy, government,
continued to call it +The 6ron Guard.+ :e had to ta;e art in the elections so as to avoid the
imutation o' being di''erent 'rom the rest o' the eole, or that !e did not ta;e advantage o' legal
channels. Cune - !as election day. :ith great material e''orts, !ith borro!ing, !e succeeded in
registering lists o' county candidates.
The camaign had started., on our art the most legal and most delicate camaign. 6n the t!o
counties in !hich the candidacy o' the 2inister o' :ar and that o' the country=s Prime 2inister
!ere announced, !e did not come u !ith any listsJ thus, o' the 'e! counties !hich !e could have
counted on carrying, !e had to abandon t!o, Focsani and (adauti.
)n to o' this, government, local authorities and their hit men continued to set uon us. )ur
roaganda had been stoedJ in the end even some o' our votes !ere stolen 'rom the ballot bo<.
Let !e obtained, a'ter a tough 'ight, /?,%%% votes. Cahul came in 'irst !ith nearly F,%%% votesJ then
Turda !ith ?,%%%J Covurlui !ith its three sections, 8eresti, Ganesti, )ancea, !ith nearly ?,%%%J
6smail !ith 0,%%%J etc. #ince December -F, -.$. !hen 6 !ent to the 'irst rally in 8eresti until no!,
Cune -./-, - have been in continuous battle and imrisonmentJ 6 do not believe 6 sent t!o months
at home, !ere 6 to add u the brie' stos there.
T!enty days a'ter the elections 6 learned that a seat in Parliament had been declared vacant in the
county o' 9eamt.
4'ter 6 loo;ed over the situation 6 decided to enter the battle. :e had only -,$%% votes in this
county in the revious elections. This time, the 1iberals, the 9ational-Peasants ma;ing common
'ront !ith the 4verescans, and the Georgists,I !ere entering candidates 'or this vacancy.
The ress intended to con'er articular signi'icance on this election because the battle romised to
be a 'ierce one and its outcome !ould indicate the succession to o!er.
)ne noticed concentration o' 'orces, eole even ventured rognostications. #ome gave the victory
to 1iberals, others to 9ational-Peasants. 6n the midst o' battle some !ould lace bets.
9aturally, no one so;e at all about us. 9o one dreamed o' lacing bets on our victory.
)n Culy $F 6 issued my order 'or mobiliDation. 8ut !e !ere e<hausted., !e even,lac;ed the money
to ay the registration 'ees 'or our list. The lesanu 'amily too; care o' that and the cost o' rinting
electoral 'lyers.
)n Culy /% - !as in Piatra-9eamt a!aiting the arrival o' our camaigners. *veryone came as best
he could, on 'oot, by train, by !agon. 6t !as at this time that elements 'ormed !ithin the
8rotherhoods o' the Cross entered more seriously into battle, 'orming teams under the command o'
veteran legionaries. 6 assigned each team to a certain sector. 4ltogether !e had -%% camaigners.
They le't on 'oot, in boundless 'aith, though they ;ne! no one, not !hat they !ould eat or !here
they !ould slee 'rom then on. God !ould rovide 'or themJ and the need !ould teach them.
: The +Georgists+ !ere the members o' the arty that George 8ratianu, 6on 8ratianu=s son, 'ounded - 'ollo!ing the
death o' his 'ather, head o' the 1iberal Party - !hich he n!ned +The 9ational-1iberal Party.+ ;Tr0<
The 8rosteni team !as made u o' 8anica, Pro'essor 2atei and Cosma, to be >oined later by those
'rom Camul-1ungJ to (aciuni !ent Tocu=s teamJ to 8icaD, Cranganu=sJ to Targul-9eamt, 5ictor
#ilaghi, >or>oaia, #telescuJ to 8altatesti, 8anea, 5entonic, l'rim, 2ihail DavidJ to (oDnov, PooviciJ
to 8uhusi, Paduraru !ith the (omascanu 'amily, Hristache #olomon and engineer 8lanaruJ to
Cracaoani, Doru 8elimace and (atoiuJ to (aDboeni, 5aleriu #te'anescu, the 2ihai Craciun 'amily
and #telian Teodorescu. 6n addition to these, Pro'essor 6on Q. Codreanu !as holding meetings in
various arts o' the county.
There !ere also, here and there, legionary nests led by llerghelegiu, Tarata, Platon, 1oghin, David,
9uta, 2ihai 8icleanu, 7ngureanu, )laru 5. 4mbroDie, 2acovei, etc.
These teams !ere !or;ing as day laborers on 'arms in order to earn their ;ee. #oon they became
endeared to the easants. The 9ational-Peasants came into the county by many carloads. There
!ere seven 'ormer cabinet members !ho came into the county to camaign on their behal'.
1i;e!ise the 1iberals came in great numbers.
o' all social categories, the riest sho!ed us the least understanding. in a country in !hich the
crosses on church steeles have been 'alling do!n be'ore the oliticians masterdom, atheistic and
>e!iDed, in a battle in !hich !e !ere the only ones coming in the name o' the cross-our chests
bared be'ore the agan monster-the county=s riests, e<ceting three or 'our, !ere against 7#.
During the last !ee; 6 had to organiDe my 'orces in rearation 'or the 'inal battle. :e had no! si<
strong sectors and ten !ea; ones. Discussing this !ith my team leaders, they oined that since !e
have si< strong sectors !e could trans'er our teams into the ten !ea; sectors to strengthen them. 6
thought this !as an erroneous oinion !hich could lead to losing the battle. 6 roceeded on e<actly
the oosite course, concentrating more 'orces in our strong oints and leaving in the others only
small harassing units.
)ur adversaries committed the error 6 had avoidedJ they concentrated their e''ort in the oints
!here !e !ere stronger. #o that !e 'ought in our strongest oints !hereas they 'ought in their
!ea;est ones.
They !ere annihilated. 6 too; in -,%%% votes in each o' the si< sectors, !hile they had $%% to /%%
ma<imum. 4t the same time their strongest sectors, le't !ith an inadeEuate de'ense, !ere halved by
our teams.
)n voting day, beginning early in the morning, accomanied by Totu in a o!er'ul auto 6 covered
-F out o' -0 voting sections. 4t -$ o=cloc; that night !e learned the results o' the election, in the
great enthusiasm o' easant masses and the teams o' legionaries and in the indescribable deression
o' oliticians and Ce!s. The GuardG --,/%% votesJ the 1iberals, &,%%%J 9ational-Peasants !ith
4verescans, 0,%%% bet!een themJ the others, even 'e!er.
4nd so, in our 'irst battle, in an oen 'ield against the coalesced 'orces o' the oliticians,
legionaries, though small in number !ith incomarably smaller means at their disosal, succeeded
in !inning the victory, sreading anic among all our adversaries.
4s a result o' this election 6 entered ParliamentJ 6 !as alone in the midst o' an enemy !orld. 6
lac;ed the e<erience o' this arliamentary li'e and the talent o' democratic oratory !hich is 'ull o'
emty, but omous, shiny hraseology, o' mirror-studied gestures and a large dose o'
imertinence. The characteristics !hich hel one to succeed, to rise, God had not endo!ed me
mdth-erhas in order to revent my being temted to climb the olitical ladder.
4ll the time that 6 stayed in Parliament 6 never e<ceeded the la!s o' roriety and resect 'or those
older than mysel', be they even my greatest enemy. 6 had not ridiculed, s!orn at, laughed at, or
o''ended anyone, !hich meant 6 could not become a art o' that li'e. 6 remained isolated, not only
due to the 'act that 6 !as one against the others, but altogether isolated 'rom that ;ind o' li'e. )ne
evening, rather late, !hen deliberations !ere nearing the end and benches !ere almost emty, 6 !as
granted the 'loor. 6 tried to sho! that our country had been invaded by Ce!ryJ that !here the
invasion is the greatest, human misery is most 'righteningG in 2ammuresi that the beginning o'
Ce!ish e<istence on our soil, 'oreshado!ed the death o' (omaniansJ that as their numbers
increased, !e !ould dieJ that 'inally, the leaders o' the (omanian nation, the men o' the century o'
democracy and o' olitical arties, have betrayed their eole in this 'ight by lacing themselves at
the service o' great national or international 'inance.
6 sho!ed that in the ort'olio o' the 2armorosch 8lan; 8an;, that Cudaic nest o' consiracy and
corrution, 'igure a great many oliticians to !hom this ban; +lent+ moneyJ 2r. 8randsch,
7ndersecretary o' state - - -,%%% leiJ 8anca Taraneasca o' 2r. Davilia, ?,0&&,%%% leiJ 2r. lunian
?%&,%%% leiJ 2r. 2adgearu ?%-,%%% leiJ 2r. Filiescu -,$0F,%%% leiJ 2r. (aducanu /,?F%,%%% leiJ
The (aducanu 8an; -%,%%%,%%% leiJ 2r. Pangal (the head o' the, #cottish (ite 2asonry in
(omania" /,@%%,%%% leiJ 2r. Titulescu -.,%%%,%%% lei-all o' them leaders in (omanian ublic li'e.
=6n addition to these, there are others, very many, but 6 could not get my hands on the list o' them.
#omeone interruted me sayingG
+This is borro!ed money, it !ill be reaid.+
6 ans!eredG +:hether this !ill be reaid or not, 6 do not ;no!. 8ut 6 tell you one thingG !hen
someone borro!s money 'rom such a 'inancial source, he is under an obligation !hen he comes to
o!er, to satis'y it, or even =i' he is not in o!er, to suort it, =but in any case, not to e<ose it
:hen it should be e<osed.+
6 read then a list 'rom !hich 6 sho!ed, removing any ossibility o' denial, ho! since the !ar the
(omanian state had been de'rauded o' some F% billion lei under democracy, the most honored and
most er'ect 'orm o' government o' the +eole+ by the eoleM The leadershi o' +democracy+
having the basic idea o' the ermanent control+ o' the eole in !hich the eole, the great
controller had been robbed during -F years o' government o' the 'abulous sum o' F% billion lei.
Then 6 made several critical observations regarding democracy.
6n the end 6 made seven demandsG
-. :e demand the introduction o' the death enalty 'or the 'raudulent maniulators o' ublic 'unds.
4t this oint 6 !as interruted by 2r. 6sir, ro'essor at the Faculty o' TheologyG
+2r. Codreanu, you call yoursel' a Christian, a roagator o' Christian ideals. 6 remind you that the
idea >ust ut 'or!ard by you is anti-Christian.+
6 reliedG
+Pro'essor, !hen it is a Euestion o' choosing bet!een the death o' my country and that o' the thie', 6
re'er the death o' the thie' and 6 thin; 6 am a better Christian i' 6 do not ermit the thie' to ruin my
country and to destroy it.+
:e demand the investigation and con'iscation o' the !ealth o' those !ho have bled ouroor
/. :e demand that all oliticians !bo may be roved guilty o' baving !or;ed against the interests
o' our country by suorting sbady rivate seculations or in any other 'asbion, be brought to
?. :e demand that in the 'uture, oliticians be barred 'rom the administrative boards o' the various
ban;s and 'inancial enterrises.
F. :e demand the e<ulsion o' the bordes o' itiless e<loiters !ho have come here to drain the
riches 'rom our soil and e<loit the
!or; o' our hands.
0. :e demand that the territory o' (omania be declared the inalienable and inde'easible roerty o'
the (omanian 9ation.
&. :e demand that all camaigning agents be sent to !or; and that a single command be
established, !hich !ill insire the !hole (omanian 9ation !ith one beart and one mind.
These !ere the 'irst e''orts to ublicly 'ormulate several olitical measures that 6 considered most
urgent. They !ere not the result o' some rolonged thin;ing or ideological search, but the result o'
momentary re'lections over !hat the (omanian eole needed then, !ithout delay.
#i< months later, several Euite oular movements aeared !hich had in their rogram my three
initial ointsG
-. The death enalty, $. The investigation o' !ealth, and /. The revention o' oliticians 'rom
getting on administrative boards-!hich meant that others also observed them to be necessary.
6 !ish, in the ages that 'ollo!, to resent several conclusions o' my daily e<erience in such a
manner that they can be understood by any young legionary or !or;ingman. :e live in the
clothing, the 'orms o' democracy. 4re they, 6 !onder, goodK :e do not yet ;no!. 8ut one thing !e
do seeG !e ;no! recisely that art o' the greater and more civiliDed *uroean nations discarded
these clothes and ut on some ne! ones. Did they shed them because they !ere goodK )ther
nations too, ma;e strong e''orts to shed them and change them, :hyK Could it be that all nations
!ent madK That only (omanian oliticians remained the !isest men in the !hole !orldK 6t seems, 6
cannot Euite believe that. Certainly, those !ho changed them or !ho !ish to do so, have their o!n
8ut !hy should !e be concerned !ith somebody else=s reasonsK 1et us better be concerned !ith the
reasons !hich !ould ma;e us (omanians shed these clothes o' democracy.
6' !e have no reasons 'or discarding them, i' 'or us they are suitable, then !e should ;ee them,
even i' all *uroe should discard them. Ho!ever, they are not good 'or us either, becauseG
-. Democracy brea;s the unity o' the (omanian eole, dividing it into arties, stirring it u, and
so, disunited, e<osing it to 'ace the united bloc; o' the Cudaic o!er in a di''icult moment o' its
history. This argument alone is so grave 'or our e<istence that it !ould
constitute su''icient reason 'or us to change this democracy 'or anything that could guarantee our
unityG namely our li'eJ 'or our disunity means death.
$. Democracy trans'orms the millions o' Ce!s into (omanian citiDens, by ma;ing them the eEual o'
(omanians and giving them eEual rights in the state. *EualityK )n !hat basisK :e have lived here
'or thousands o' yearsJ !ith the lo! and !ith the !eaonJ !ith our labor and our blood. :hy
should !e be eEual to those !ho have been here 'or hardly -%%, -%, or F yearsK 1oo;ing at the ast,
it !as !e !ho created this state. 1oo;ing at the 'uture, it is !e (omanians !ho hold the entire
historical resonsibility 'or Greater (omania=s e<istenceJ they have none. Ho! could Ce!s be made
resonsible be'ore history 'or the disaearance o' the (omanian #tateK To sum uG they have
neither eEuality in the labor, sacri'ice and
'ighting that created the state, nor eEuality o' resonsibility 'or its 'uture. *EualityK 4ccording to an
ancient ma<im, eEuality means treating uneEual things uneEually. )n !hat basis do the Ce!s
demand eEual treatment, olitical rights eEual to those o' (omaniansK
/. Democracy is incaable o' continuity in e''ort. Divided into arties that govern one, t!o or three
years, it is incaable o' conceiving and accomlishing a long range lan. )ne arty nulli'ies the
lans and the e''orts o' another. :hat !as conceived and built by one today is demolished ne<t by
another. 6n a country in need o' construction, !hose historical moment is that very construction,
this dra!bac; o' democracy constitutes a threat. 6t is as i' on a 'arm the o!ners !ould change
yearly, each coming !ith di''erent lans, doing a!ay !ith !hat the redecessors did, their Lor;
only to be done a!ay !ith by the ne<t o!ner coming tomorro!.
?. Democracy ma;es it imossible 'or the olitician to do his duty to bis nation.
4 olitician o' the greatest good !ill becomes, in a democracy, the slave o' bis suortersJ he either
satis'ies their ersonal aetites or they destroy his bac;ing, The olitician lives under the tyranny
and ermanent threat o' the electoral agent. He is laced in the osition o' choosing either the
renunciation o' his li'etime=s labor or the satis'action o' his suorters. 4nd then the olitician
satis'ies their aetitesJ not out o' his oc;et, but out o' the country=s oc;et. He creates >obs,
ositions, missions, commissions, sinecures, all o' them loading do!n the national budget !hich
burdens more and more the ever more bo!ed bac;s o' the eole.
F. Democracy is incaable o' authority. 6t lac;s the o!er o' sanction. 4 arty, 'or 'ear o' losing its
suorters, does not aly sanctions against those !ho live through scandalous business deals
running into the millions, through thievery or embeDDlementJ nor does it aly any sanctions against
olitical adversaries lest they e<ose its o!n shady deals and incorrectitudes.
0. Democracy is in the service o' great 'inance.
8ecause o' the e<ensive system and the cometition among various grous, democracy needs a lot
o' money. 4s a natural conseEuence it becomes the slave o' the great Ce!ish international 'inance
!hich sub>ugates it by subvention. 6n this 'asbion the 'ate o' a eole is given into the hands o' a
caste o' ban;ers.
4 eole is not led according to its !ill., the democratic 'ormulaJ nor according to the !ill o' one
individualG the dictatorial 'ormula.
8ut according to la!s. 6 do not tal; here o' man-made la!s. There are norms, natural la!s o' li'eJ
and there are norms, natural la!s o' death, 1a!s o' li'e and la!s o' death. 4 nation is headed 'or
li'e or death according to its resect 'or one or the other o' these la!s.
There remains one Euestion to be ans!eredG :ho, in a nation, can understand or ;no! intuitively
these normsK PeoleK The multitudeK 6' this !ere the case 6 believe that too much is e<ected.
2ultitudes do not understand much simler la!s. These must be e<lained to them by reeated
insistence in order to be understood - yes, even by unishment i' need be.
Here are a 'e! e<amles o' la!s that are imeratively necessary to the li'e o' the eole, !hich
multitudes understand only !ith di''icultyG that in case o' contagious illness, the sic; must be
isolated and a general disin'ection is neededJ that sunlight must enter homes, there'ore a house
should have large !indo!sJ that i' cattle are better 'ed and cared 'or they yield more 'or man=s
nutrition, etc.
i' the multitude does not understand or understands only !ith di''iculty several la!s that are
immediately necessary to its li'e, ho! can it be imagined by someone that it-!hich in a democracy
must be led through itsel'-could understand the most di''icult natural la!sJ or that it !ould ;no!
intuitively the most subtle and imercetible norms o' human leadershi, norms that ro>ect beyond
itsel', its li'e, its li'e=s necessities, or !hich do not aly directly to it but to a more suerior entity,
the nationK
For ma;ing bread, shoes, loughs, 'arming, running a streetcar, one must be secialiDed, is there no
need 'or secialiDation !hen it comes to the most demanding leadershi, that o' a nationK Does one
not have to ossess certain EualitiesK
The conclusion. 4 eole is not caable o' governing itsel'. 6t ougbt to be governed by its elite.
9amely, through that category o' men born !ithin its bosom !ho ossess certain atitudes and
secialties. Cust as the bees raise their +Eueen+ a eole must raise its elite. The multitude li;e!ise,
in its needs, aeals to its elite, the !ise o' the state.
:ho chooses this elite-the multitudeK #uorters could be 'ound 'or any +ideas,+ or votes 'or
anyone running 'or ublic o''ice. 8ut this does not deend on the eole=s understanding o' those
+ideas,+ +la!s+ or +candidates+ but on something entirely di''erentG on the adroitness o' individuals
to !in the good!ill o' the multitudes. There is nothing more caricious and unstable in oinions
than the multitude. #ince the !ar, this multitude !as, in turn, 4verescan, 1iberal, 9ationalistic,
9ational-Peasant, 6organ, etc. hailing each, only to sit on each a year later, thus recogniDing its
o!n error, disorientation and incaacity. 6ts criterion 'or selection isG +1et us try some others.+
Thus, the choosing is done not according to >udgement and ;no!ledge, but hahaDardly and
trusting to luc;.
Here are t!o oosite ideas, one containing truth, the other the lie. Truth - o' !hich there can be but
one - is sought. The Euestion is ut to a vote. )ne idea olls -%,%%% votes, the other -%,%F%. 6s it
ossible that F% votes more or less determine or deny truthK Truth deends neither on ma>ority nor
minorityJ it has its o!n la!s and it succeeds, as has been seen, against all ma>orities, even though
they be crushing.
Finding truth cannot be entrusted to ma>orities, >ust as in geometry Pythagoras= theorem cannot be
ut to the multitude=s vote in order to determine or deny its validityJ or >ust as a chemist ma;ing
ammonia does not rum to multitudes to ut the amounts o' nitrogen and hydrogen to a voteJ or as an
agronomist, !ho studied agriculture and its la!s 'or years, does not have to turn to a multitude
trying to convince himsel' o' their validity by their vote.
Can the eole choose its eliteK :hy then do soldiers not choose the best generalK
6n order to choose, this collective >ury !ould have to ;no! very !ellG
a" The la!s o' strategy, tactics, organiDation, etc. and
b" To !hat e<tent the individual in Euestion con'orms through atitudes and ;no!ledge to these
9o one can choose !isely !ithout this ;no!ledge. 6' the multitude !ishes to choose its elite, it
must necessarily ;no! the national organism=s la!s o' leadershi and the e<tent
candidates to this leadershi con'orm by Euali'ications and ;no!ledge to said la!s.
Ho!ever, the multitude can ;no! neither these la!s nor the candidates. That is !hy !e believe that
the leading elite o' a country cannot be chosen by the multitude. To try to select this elite is li;e
determining by ma>ority vote !ho the oets, !riters, mechanics, aviators or athletes o' a country
ought to be.
Thus democracy, based on the rincile o' election, choosing its elite itsel', commits a 'undamental
error 'rom !hich evolves the entire state o' !rong, disorder and misery in our villages. :e touch
here uon a caital ointJ because it is 'rom this error o' democratic concetion that !e could say
all the other errors originate.
:hen the masses are called to choose their elite they are not only incaable o' discovering and
choosing one but choose moreover, !ith 'e! e<cetions, the !orst !ithin a nation.
9ot only does democracy remove the national elite, but it relaces it !ith the !orst !ithin a nation.
Democracy elects men totally lac;ing in scrules, !ithout any moralsJ those !ho !ill ay better,
thus those !ith a higher o!er o' corrutionJ magicians, charlatans, demagogues, !ho !ill e<cel in
their 'ields during the electoral camaign, #everal good men !ould be able to sli through among
them, even oliticians o' good 'aith. 8ut they !ould be the slaves o' the 'ormer.
The real elite o' a nation !ould be de'eated, removed, because it !ould re'use to comete on that
basisJ it !ould retreat and stay hidden. Hence, the 'atal conseEuences 'or the state. :hen a state is
led by a so-called +elite+ made u o' the !orst, most corrut, most unhealthy it has, is it not
ermitted a erson to as; !hy the state is headed 'or ruinK
Here then is the cause o' all other evils.. immorality, corrution and lust throughout the countryJ
thievery and soliation in the state=s !ealthJ bloody e<loitation o' the eoleJ overty and misery
in its hoitesJ lac; o' the sense o' duty in all 'unctionsJ disorder and disorganiDation in the stateJ the
invasion 'rom all directions o' 'oreigners !ith money, as coming to buy ban;rut stores !hose
!ares are being sold 'or a ittarice. The country is auctioned o''..
+:ho ays higherK+ 6n the last analysis this is !here democracy is going to ta;e us.
6n (omania, articularly since the !ar, democracy has created 'or us, through this system o'
elections, a +national elite+ o' (omano->e!s, based not on bravery, nor love o' country, nor
sacri'ice, but on betrayal o' country, the satis'action o' ersonal interest, the bribe, the tra''ic o'
in'luence, the enrichment through e<loitation and embeDDlement, thievery, co!ardice, and intrigue
to ;noc; do!n any adversary.
This +national elite,+ i' it continues to lead this country, !ill bring about the destruction o' the
(omanian state, There'ore, in the last analysis, the roblem 'acing the (omanian eole today, on
!hich all others deend, is the substitution o' this 'a;e elite !ith a real national one based on virtue,
love and sacri'ice 'or country, >ustice and love 'or the eole, honesty, !or;, order, disciline,
honest dealing, and honor.
:ho is to ma;e this substitutionK :ho is to lace this real elite in its lace o' leadershiK 6 ans!erG
anyone but the multitude. 6 admit any system e<cet +democracy+ !hich 6 see ;illing the (omanian
The ne! (omanian elite, as !ell as any other elite in the !orld, must be based on the rincile o'
social selection. 6n other !ords, a category o' eole endo!ed !ith certain Eualities !hich they
then cultivate, is naturally selected 'rom the nation=s body, namely 'rom the large healthy mass o'
easantry and !or;ingmen, !hich is ermanently bound to the land and the country. This category
o' eole becomes the national elite meant to lead our nation.
:hen can a multitude be consulted, and !hen must it beK 6t ought to be consulted be'ore the great
decisions that a''ect its 'uture, in order to say its !ord !hether it can or cannot, !hether it is
siritually reared or not to 'ollo! a certain ath. 6t ought to be consulted on matters a''ecting its
'ate. This is !hat is meant by the consultation o' the eoleJ it does not mean the election o' an elite
by the eole.
8ut 6 reeat my EuestionG +:ho indicates everyone=s lace !ithin an elite and !ho siDes u
everyoneK :bo establishes the selection and consecrates the members o' the ne! eliteK+ 6 ans!erG
+The revious elite.+
The latter does not choose or name, but consecrates each in his lace to !hich he elevated himsel'
through his caacity and moral !orth. The consecration is made by the elite=s chie' in consultation
!ith his elite. Thus a national elite must see to it that it leaves an inberiting elite to ta;e its lace, an
elite not based, ho!ever, on the rincile o' heredity but only on that o' social selection alied
!ith the greatest strictness. The rincile o' heredity is not su''icient in itsel'. 4ccording to the
rincile o' social selection, continually re'reshed by elements 'rom !ithin the nation=s deths, an
elite ;ees itsel' al!ays vigorous. The main historical mista;e has been that !here an elite !as
created on the basis o' the rincile o' selection, it droed ne<t day the very rincile !hich gave
it birth, relacing it !ith the rincile o' heredity thus consecrating the un>ust and condemned
system o' rivileges through birth. 6t !as as a rotest against this mista;eJ 'or the removal o' a
degenerated eliteJ and 'or the abolition o' rivilege through birth, that democracy !as born. The
abandonment o' the rincile o' selection led to a 'alse and degenerate elite !hich in turn led to the
aberration o' democracy.
The rincile o' selection removes ali;e both the rincile o' election and that o' heredity, They
cancel each other out. There is a con'lict bet!een themJ 'or, either there is a rincile o' selection
and in that case the oinion and vote o' the multitude do not matter, or the latter votes in certain
candidates and in that case selection no longer oerates.
1i;e!ise, i' the rincile o' social selection is adoted, heredity lays no art. These t!o rinciles
cannot go together unless the heir corresonds to the la!s o' selection.
4nd i' a nation bas no real elite-a 'irst one to designate the secondK 6 ans!er by a single hrase
!hich contains an indisutable truthG in that case, the real elite is born out o' a !ar !ith the
degenerate elite the 'alse one.4nd that, also on the rincile o' selection.
There'ore, summing it u, the role o' an elite isG
a" To lead a nation according to the li'e la!s o' a eole.
b" To leave behind an inheriting elite based not on the rincile o' heredity but on that o' selection,
because only an elite ;no!s li'e=s la!s and can >udge to !hat e<tent eole con'orm by atitudes
and ;no!ledge to these la!s.
it is li;e a gardener !ho !or;s his garden and sees to it that be'ore he dies he has an inheritor, a
relacement, 'or he alone can say !ho among those !or;ing !ith him is best to ta;e his lace and
continue his !or;.
)n !hat must an elite be 'oundedK
a" Purity o' soul. b" Caacity o' !or; and creativity. c" 8ravery.
d" Tough living and ermanent !arring against di''iculties 'acing the nation, e" Poverty, namely
voluntary renunciation o' amassing a 'ortune. '" Faith in God. g" 1ove.
6 have been as;ed !hether our activity so 'ar has 'ollo!ed along the same lines as those o' the
Christian Church. 6 ans!erG :e ma;e a great distinction bet!een the line !e 'ollo! and that o' the
Christian Chruch. The Church dominates us 'rom on high. 6t reaches er'ection and the sublime.
:e cannot lo!er this lane in order to e<lain our acts.
:e, through our action, through all our acts and thoughts, tend to!ard this line, raising ourselves u
to!ard it as much as the !eight o' our sins o' the 'lesh and our 'all through original sin ermit. 6t
remains to be seen ho! much !e can elevate ourselves to!ard this line through our !orldly e''orts.
+Human rights+ are not limited only by the rights o' other humans but also by other rights. There
are three distinct entitiesG
-. The individual.
$. The resent national collectivity, that is, the totality o' all the individuals o' the same nation,
living in a state at a given moment.
/. The nation, that historical entity !hose li'e e<tends over centuries, its roots imbedded dee in the
mists o' time, and !ith an in'inite 'uture.
4 ne! great error o' democracy based on +human rights+ is that o' recogniDing and sho!ing an
interest in only one o' these three entities, the individualJ it neglects the second or ridicules it, and
denies the third.
4ll o' them have their rights and their duties, the right to live and the duty o' not in'ringing on the
right to li'e o' the other t!o. Democracy ta;es care o' assuring only the rights o' the individual.
That is !hy in democracy !e !itness a 'ormidable uset. The individual believes he can encroach,
!ith his unlimited rights, on the rights o' the !hole collectivity, !hich he thin;s he can tramle and
robJ hence, in democracy, one !itnesses this rending scene, this anarchy in !hich the individual
recogniDes nothing outside his ersonal interest.
6n its turn, national collectivity e<hibits a ermanent tendency to sacri'ice the 'uture-the rights o'=the
nation-'or its resent interests. That is !hy !e !itness the itiless e<loitation and the alienation o'
our 'orests, mines, oil reserves, 'orgetting that there are hundreds o' (omanian generations, our
children=s children to come a'ter us, !ho li;e!ise e<ect to live and carry on the li'e o' our nation.
This uheaval, this breach o' relationshi brought about by democracy constitutes veritable
anarchy, an usetting o' the natural order, and is one o' the rincial causes o' the state o' unrest in
today=s society.
Harmony can be re-established only by the reinstatement o' natural order. The individual must be
subordinated to the suerior entity, the national collectivity, !hich in turn must be subordinated to
the nation. +Human rights+ are no longer unlimited, but limited by the rights o' national collectivity,
these in turn being limited by those o' the nation.
Finally, it !ould seem that in a democracy at least the individual en>oying so many rights lives
!onder'ully. 8ut in reality, and this is democracy=s ultimate tragedy, the individual has no right, 'or
!here is the 'reedom o' assembly in our country, the 'reedom to !rite, the
'reedom o' conscienceK The individual lives under terror, a state o' siege, censorshiJ thousands o'
eole are arrested, some being ;illed 'or their 'aith, as under the most tyrannical leaders. :here is
+the right o' the sovereign multitude+ to decide its 'ate, !hen meetings are 'orbidden and !hen-
thousands o' eole are revented 'rom voting, maltreated, threatened !ith death, ;illedK Lou !ill
sayG +Les, but these eole !ant to change the Constitution, limit our liberties, enthrone another
'orm o' governmentM+
6 as;G +Can democracy claim that a eole is not 'ree to decide its o!n destiny, to change its
Constitution, its 'orm o' government, as it leasesJ to live !ith greater or 'e!er 'reedoms as it
This is the ultimate tragedy.
6n reality man has no rights in a democracy. He did not lose them 'or the bene'it o' either the
national collectivity or the nation, but in 'avor o' a olitico-'inancier caste o' ban;ers and electoral
agents. Finally, the last bene'icence to the individual. 2asonic democracy
through an unaralleled er'idy masEuerades as an aostle 'or eace on this earth !hile at the same
time roclaiming !ar bet!een man and God.
Peace among men and !ar against God.
The er'idy consists in using the !ords o' our #avior +Peace among men+ in order to change into an
aostle 'or +Peace+ !hile condemning Him and sho!ing Him as man;ind=s enemy. 4nd more, this
er'idy consists also in that they retend to !ant to save eole=s lives !hile in 'act they lead them
to their deathJ 'eigning to save their lives 'rom !ar, condemn them - devilishly - to eternal
:hen !e say the (omanian nation, !e mean not only all (omanians living in the same territory,
sharing the same ast and the same 'uture, the same dress, but all (omanians, alive and dead, !ho
have lived on this land 'rom the beginning o' history and !ill live here also in the 'uture.
The nation includes.
-, 4ll the (omanians resently alive,
$. 4ll the souls o' our dead and the tombs o' our ancestors,
/. 4ll those !ho !ill be born (omanians. 4 eole becomes conscious o' itsel' !hen it attains the
consciousness o' this !hole, not only o' its o!n aims.
The nation ossessesG
-. 4 hysical, biological atrimony - her 'lesh and blood.
$. 4 material atrimony - the soil o' her country and its riches.
/. 4 siritual atrimony !hich containsG
a" Her concet o' God, the !orld and li'e, This concet 'orms a domain, a siritual roerty. The
'rontiers o' this domain are determined by the horiDons to !hich the brightness o' her concet
reaches. There e<ists a country o' the national sirit, a country o' its visions obtained by revelation
or by her o!n e''orts.
b" Her honor !hich shines to the e<tent that the nation has con'ormed during her history to the
norms stemming 'rom her concet o' God, the !orld and li'e.
c" Her culture, the yield o' her e<istence resulting 'rom her o!n e''orts in the domain o' arts and
thought. This culture is not intemational 6t is the e<ression o' national genius, o' the blood. Culture
is international as 'ar as its luminescence may reach, but national in origin. #omeone made a
beauti'ul comarisonG both bread and !heat can be international as consumtion items, but they
carry every!here the stam o' the earth in !hich they gre!. *ach o' these three atrimonies has its
imortance. 4 eole must de'end all three. The most imortant bo!ever is its siritual atrimony,
'or only it carries the stam o' eternity, it alone endures through all the centuries.
The ancient Gree;s are not remembered because o' their hysiEue-nothing but ashes is le't o' that-
nor their material riches, had they had any, but because o' their culture.
4 eole lives in eternity through its outloo;, its concet o' honor, and its culture. That is !hy the
nations= leaders must reason and act, not only according to the hysical or material interests o' the
eole, but also by ta;ing into account its historic honor, its eternal interests. 6n other !ords, not
bread, but honor at any rice.
6s it li'eK
6' it be li'e, then the means eole use to assure li'e does not matterJ even the !orst is good.
There'ore the Euestion must be raised. :hich are the rinciles guiding nations in their relationshi
!ith other nationsK #hould they be guided by the animal instinct, the tiger in them, as 'ish behave in
the sea or beasts in the 'orestK
The 'inal aim is not li'e but resurrection. The resurrection o' eoles in the name o' the #avior Cesus
Christ. Creation, culture, are but a means, not a urose as it has been believed, o' obtaining this
resurrection. 6t is the 'ruit o' the talent God lanted in our eole 'or !hich !e have to account.
There !ill come a time !hen all the eoles o' the earth shall be resurrected, !ith all their dead and
all their ;ings and emerors, each eole having its lace be'ore God=s throne. This 'inal moment,
+the resurrection 'rom the dead,+ is the noblest and most sublime one to!ard !hich a eole can
The nation then is an entity !hich rolongs her e<istence even beyond this earth. Peoles are
realities even in the nether !orld, not only in this one.
#t. Cohn narrating !hat he sa! beyond the earth, saysG
+4nd the city has no need o' the sun, nor o' the moon, to shine in itJ 'or the glory o' God has
enlightened it, and the 1amb is the lam thereo'.
+4nd the nations shall !al; in the light o' it and the ;ings o' the earth shall bring their glory and
honor into it.+
(4ocalyse, $-, $/-$?".
4nd againG
+:ho shall not 'ear Thee, )h 1ord, and magni'y Thy nameK For Thou only art holyJ 'or all nations
shall come and shall adore in Thy sight, because Thy >udgements are mani'est.+
(4ocalyse -F,?".
To us (omanians, to our eole, as to any other eole in the !orld, God has given a mission, a
historic destiny. The 'irst la! that a erson must 'ollo! is that o' going on the
ath o' this destiny, accomlishing its entrusted mission. )ur eole has never laid do!n its arms
or deserted its mission, no matter ho! di''icult or lengthy !as its Golgotha :ay.
*ven no!, obstacles high as mountains aear be'ore us. #hall !e be, 6 !onder, the !ea; and
co!ardly generation to dro 'rom our hands, under ressures o' threats, the line o' (omanian
destiny and abandon our mission as a eole in this !orldK
4t the head o' eoles, above the elite, one 'inds the monarchy. 6 re>ect the reublic.
)ne has met some monarchs that !ere good, some very good, others !ea; or bad. #ome en>oyed
honors and the love o' their eole to the end o' their lives, others !ere beheaded. There'ore, not all
o' the monarchs !ere good. 2onarchy itsel', ho!ever, has been al!ays good. )ne must not
con'use the man !ith the institution and dra! 'alse conclusions.
There can be bad riestsJ but can !e, because o' this, conclude that the Church must be abolished
and God stoned to deathK
There are !ea; and bad monarchs certainly, but !e cannot renounce monarchy because o' this. 6n
'arming, there is occasionally a bad year 'ollo!ing a good one, or one good and t!o badJ even so, it
occurred to no one in the !orld to Euit 'arming.
Does a monarch do as he leases, !hether he be great or small, good or badK
4 monarch does not do !hat he !ants. He is small !hen he does as he leases and great !hen he
does !hat he must. To each nation God has traced a line o' destiny. 4 monarch is
great and good !hen he stays on that lineJ he is small or bad, to the e<tent that he !anders a!ay
'rom this line o' destiny or ooses it. This then, is the la! o' monarchy. There are also other lines
that may temt a monarchG the line o' ersonal interest or that o' a class
o' eole or grouJ the line o' alien interests (domestic or 'oreign". He must avoid all these lines
and 'ollo! that o' his eole. #te'an the Great has shone in history 'or F%% years and
(omanians remember him because he identi'ied himsel' er'ectly !ith the destiny o' his eole.
Aing Ferdinand, in site o' ressure 'rom outside interests and in'luences, laced himsel' on the
line o' the nation=s destinyJ he su''ered !ith her, sacri'iced side by side !ith her, and !on !ith her.
6t is by virtue o' this that he is great and immortal.
)nly 'our months had assed since the election in=9eamt and the young legionary army engaged in
a ne! battle, 4t the beginning o' Canuary -./$, a congressman=s seat !as declared vacant in
6 had !eighed the situation. 6n the revious general elections, !e got only F%% votes there. The
county !as !ea;J but it !as 'ramed in by the stronger counties o' Covurlui, Cahul and Tecuci, so
that !e could easily bring in legionaries.
6t seemed to me that !e could ossibly !in, 6 !as thin;ing o' the imact an echo o' a ne! victory
!ould have. T!o consecutive victories o' the youngest generation against all olitical arties !ould
have considerably enhanced its restige in the eyes o' the country. 6 decided that my 'ather should
run, as he !as most necessary 'or me in the movement, both in Parliament and out o' it 'or
organiDation and roaganda. The election had been 'i<ed 'or 2arch -&. )n Canuary . 6 sent out a
mani'esto to the !hole county. 2y 'ather !ith a 'irst electoral team arrived on Canuary -%. Then
came the teams 'rom 6asi, Tecuci, 8eresti and Cahul. During the 'irst three !ee;s, the seed and the
bravery o' the small legionary 'orces had set o'' a current o' symathy in our 'avor throughout the
!hole county, 6n a bad !inter !ith heavy sno!s and cold !eather, the olitical arties could not go
out. They !aited 'or better !eather. 8ut during this time, over hills, through !aist-dee sno!s,
through bliDDards, legionaries traveled 'rom village to village.
4round the beginning o' February, 'ighting the enemy became more di''icult, 4 coalition o'
1iberals, 9ational-Peasants, 1uistsII
and CuDists !as 'acing us !ith a 'ierceness !e had never met be'ore. The government resorted to
truly terroristic measures and the Ce!ish ress attac;ed us vehemently.
6 'elt the need o' ne! rein'orcements, so 6 sent the last reserves 'rom 6asi, led by Totu. 6 had none
others e<cet in 8ucharest and these could not be secured 'or lac; o' 'unds. #o 6 convo;ed a
meeting o' the legionaries and roosed an heroic steG that they start o'' on 'oot 'rom 8ucharest to
8ariad, a distance o' nearly $%% miles, e<laining to them that this march !ould mean more 'or our
victory than -%%,%%% mani'estoes. 6t alone !ould constitute a great heroic discourse addressed by
legionaries to the (omanians o' Tutova.
The legionaries received my suggestion enthusiastically. 4 !ee; later a team o' about $F, led by
#telescu, Caratanase and Doru 8elimace le't 8ucharest on 'oot 'or Tutova. 4t the end o' a ten-day
march through stormy !eather, they arrived at 8ariad !here they !ere !armly !elcomed by the
!hole oulace, 8ut the ersecution had escalated to nerve-shattering tenseness. 2r. 4rgetoianu,
2inister o' internal 4''airs, sent out the gendarmes Col, lgnat, !ith large 'orces, and orders to carry
the legionaries out o' Tutova county on stretchers. 6t !as imossible 'or small teams to advance
'urther. #o 6 'ormed t!o strong teams under the command o' 5ictor #ilaghi and #telescu !hich,
suorting one another, should advance on the Puesti-Dragomiresti line, suorting my 'ather. 6
sent another smaller team in the direction o' 8acani. These t!o !ere the only t!o routes that
remained uncanvassed. They constituted the north-east hal' o' the county. The other hal', the south,
had been adeEuately !or;ed by my 'ather, 2r. D. Poescu the county head, 5ictor #ilaghi, Teodor
Tilea and 6on 4ntoniu, !ith the 'irst teams.
The t!o teams in the 9orth advanced nearly /% miles, 'ighting the bitter cold and ending u !ith
several !ounded, Tocu among others. 6n the northern art o' the county they !ere met by large
contingents o' gendarmes. The teams barricaded themselves in the attic o' an abandoned house
!here they resisted 'or ?@ hours !ithout heat, 'ood or !ater. 6n the end they !ere able to retreat
through a di''icult overnight march, e<ecuted in conditions truly heroic, only because o' 5ictor
#ilaghi=s stubborn ersistence in encouraging the e<hausted, starved and 'roDen legionaries to the
last ossible resistance.
: County of Tutova "ith 9arlad as its ounty seat ;Tr0<
:: Dr0 Lupu6s party *e*bers0 ;Tr0<
This orhan child, son o' the (omanian riest #ilaghi 'rom Careii 2ari !ho !as murdered by
Hungarians in -.-@ under tragic conditions, 'ought !ith bravery.
Finally, these teams !ere surrounded by suerior 'orces, catured and brought to 8ariad. 2y 'ather
!as arrested and loc;ed u in a regimental rison.
The third team !as comletely decimated in the battle o' 8acani. There, in a valley be'ore entering
the village in the evening, it !as attac;ed by a large contingent o' gendarmes. The team=s leader,
legionary 1ascar Poescu, struc; over the head !ith a ri'le, !as the 'irst to 'all unconscious in a
ool o' blood. The other legionaries re'used to retreat. They counterattac;ed !ith bare chests,
nothing in their hands, trying to get into the village. )ne by one they all 'ell unconscious. The last
one standing, attac;ed alone. 7nder blo!s, he 'ell on his ;nees, got u, attac;ed again. He 'ell near
his comrades. The entire team lay unconscious in a ool o' blood. From there they !ere dragged
through the sno! by the gendarmes, 'or better than a mile to the gendarmes ost in the village. 4t -
o=cloc; that night, a rider brought the ne!s to 8ariad o' !hat haened at 8acani. The team 'rom
6asi led by Totu, !hich arrived in 8arlad that midnight, le't immediately on 'oot to aid their
!ounded comrades. Follo!ing a battle 'rom /G/% to F o=cloc; in the morning, during !hich the
gendarmes 'ired all their arms, the legionaries occuied the gendannes= ost, 'inding inside, still
unconscious and lying on the ground, their comrades 'allen in the battle o' 8acani. They carried
them to the hosital in 8arlad.
8ut things did not rest here. Ce!ry launched a mammoth ress camaign, attac;ing us !ith
revolting cynicism and in>ustice. 4 !ave o' lies, insults, calumnies, came our !ay. 4ll the olitical
grouings coalesced to ut us out o' the battle.
Aic;ed by the gendarmes, attac;ed by the Ce!ish ress, !e !ere hit by a ne! dissolution o' the
Guard ordered through a simle ministerial decision. 4lthough !e !ere !ithin the 'rame!or; o'
er'ect legality, the lorga-4rgetoianu government, in de'iance o' la!s and Constitution, dissolved
the Guard arbitrarily. )ur headEuarters all over the country !ere again ta;en over and adloc;ed,
the 6asi rint sho closed do!n. 4ttac;ed in the ress, !e !ere laced in the imossible osition o'
not being able to de'end ourselves as all our ublications had been susended. 6n Parliament 6 tried
to sea;, but 6 !as revented by the din o' the ma>ority, !ho did not ermit me to de'end mysel'.
Ho!ever, the candidacy in Tutova could not be stoed. The tearn 'rom 8ucharest !as e<elled
'rom the county. 1i;e!ise the others, one by one. )ur 6asi team o' about /%, under Totu=s
command, as it !as being ta;en to the deot 'or the same evacuation oeration, bro;e the cordons
and occuied the !aiting room in !hich, barricaded, it resisted 'or $? hours, until it !as gassed out.
6n the end it !as loaded on the train and ta;en out o' the county. )nly 6braileanu, 9utu *sanu, and
my 'ather !ho !as arrested, remained in to!n. The ersecution !as then s!itched to the villages.
Peasants, school teachers and riests !ere arrested and beatenJ their homes bro;en into, The
election !as ostoned one month, until 4ril -&.
2y 'ather !as released. The elderly legionaries then came into to!n to ste into the battleG
Hristache #olomon, Col. Cambureanu, 5entonic, 6'rim, Father 6sihie, Peceli, Potolea, etc. 6 assigned
them to various sectors. *ach slied to his ost under the cover o' night. )ur teams 'rom the
neighboring counties again entered Tutova at several oints. Gh. Costea=s team crossed the 8arlad
river, !ater u to their nec;s, 'or all roads !ere atrolledJ they arrived at the olling station
driing !et.
4ril -& in the morning the voting began, continuing into the night. 4ril -@, at F o=cloc; in the
morning, the legionary victory !as announcedG F,0%% votesJ 1iberalsG F,$%%J 9ational-PeasantsG
?,%%%J the other grousG less than $,%%%J CuDistsG F%% votes.
This second legionary victory, against the coalition o' all the (omanian oliticians, !on through the
dauntlessness and the iron !ill o' the legionaries, through their heroism and blood, de'ying
obstacles, insults, blo!s and ersecution, had stirred u throughout the country an indescribable
JULY 192
2y 'ather !as validated the last day o' the arliamentary session. 8ut our rest lasted only one !ee;,
'or the lorga government had 'allen. 4 9ational-Peasant government !as 'ormed, headed by 2r.
*<hausted both hysically and 'inancially, !e !ent into a ne! battle. That !as Cune -./$. *ver
since December -F, -.$. !e had been in a constant 'ightG December -.$. - 4ril -./%, the
camaigns in Covurlui, Cahul, Turda, TecuciJ the summer o' -./%, the rearation, then
interdiction o' the march in 8essarabia, 'ollo!ed by my imrisonment until that 'allJ in )ctober and
9ovember !e !ere in 2aramures-that !inter imrisoned againJ the sring o' -./-, battle
receding general electionsJ summer o' -./-, elections in 9eamtJ !inter -./$, elections in TutovaJ
and no! !e !ere again about to come to the general elections. 6n site o' all these 'ights, !e
continued the organiDational !or; in the rest o' the country. The year be'ore, !e entered electoral
lists in -& counties, this year !e entered /0. 4ll olitical arties engaged in the same Euarrels, 'ull
o' intrigues, 'or the naming o' their candidates. This lasted a !hole !ee;. 8ut 6, alone, in one night
'i<ed all our candidate lists in /0 counties. 9o one among legionaries 'ights over his lace on the
listJ i' anything, he as;s to be ut last.
The di''icult roblem 'or us is money matters. 2ost o' the counties have been able to meet their
o!n e<enses out o' legionary contributions. )thers have not. 6 needed F%,%%% lei only to cover
electoral ta<es. 6 !al;ed as in a daDe till the last day. 6 tried one, 6 tried another. 9othing.
6 !ent to see 2r. 9ichi'or Crainic, the director o' Calendarul (+The Calendar+" in the hoe he might
have money. 8ut in vain. :ith his >ournal, !hich had been ublished 'or 'ive months, he suorted
our struggle, 'ollo!ing the bravery o' our legionary teams ste by steJ ho!ever, he could not hel
us 'inancially. Finally, 6 borro!ed 'rom Pihu and Caranica, !ho, by running to all the 2acedonians,
'ound the necessary sum. #everal counties !ere suorted by the county o' Focsani and llristache
The camaign commenced. 4 ne! ersecution be'ell our ran;s.
8eing sread over a large 'ront, our thin ran;s !ere every!here violently attac;ed. 1egionaries
#avin and Poescu !ere !ounded at Tighina. 4t 8arlad scores o' teachers and riests !ere dragged
into cellars and maltreated by orders o' 2r. Georgescu-8arlad. 4t 5aslui our small teams !ere
!ounded. 1i;e!ise at Podul-6loaiei and throughout 6asi county. 4t Focsani, the aged Hristache
#olomon, engineer 8lanaru, and ten others !ere attac;ed on orders o' attorney 9eagu by armed
bands o' 9ational-Peasants in the village o' 5ulturul. 1egionaries 'ell to the ground !ounded by
bludgeons and ;nives. )ne only remained on his 'eet li;e a mountain, Hristache #olomon, !hom
no one dared touch u to then. He 'iercely de'ended himsel', but in the end, 'ell in the middle o' the
road, over!helmed by blo!s. There on the ground he !as bludgeoned over the head by these beasts
!ho al!ays made an issue-then as they do no!-o' legality, civiliDed methods, 'reedom, etc.
The Guard obtained &%,%%% votes, double that o' the revious year. The counties o' Cahul, 9eamt,
Covurlui and Tutova !here my 'ather ran, came out strongest. Then 'ollo!ed Camul-1ung !ith
2otaJ then Turda, Focsani, 6smail, Tighina. :e !on 'ive seats, and no! !e must ma;e our choices
to 'ill them. 6 stayed in Cahul, in order to let 9utu *sanu enter Parliament. 6 decided that my 'ather
should remain in 8arlad in order to let #telescu, a $F year old student, enter ParliamentJ 6 !anted
thus to give the youth o' the country encouragement and a stimulus. The trust and love 6 sho!ed
this youth, ho!ever, !as not returned to me. I
:The author refers here to #telesu6s future betrayal of his legionary o*rades0 Tr0<
4ll the time in Parliament 6 'ought against the government and its measures !hich 6 considered
contrary to the !ell-being o' the (omanian eole, as in 'act 6 had 'ought also all the 'ormer
administrations that too; turns at the state=s helm. The country had nothing to e<ect 'rom all these
governments. 9othing o' any sanity 'or the 'uture o' our eole !as being 'orged there. 4ll
measures and la!s !ere but some alliatives that rolonged 'rom day to day the bitter and sad
e<istence o' our country.
:hen at Grivita, (omanian !or;ers !ere shot by orders o' the 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs,
sic;ened to the bottom o' my heart by the attitude o' the ro-communists !ithin the 9ational-
Peasant Party !ho !ere alauding the govemment=s ste, 6 too; the lat'orm and deemed it my
duty to sea; as 'ollo!sG
+it is bad that the un'ortunate !or;ers !ent out into the street, but it !ould be !orse i' they and our
eole, 'aced !ith the in>ustice that cries out to heaven, !ould not go out, but resignedly bend their
head under the yo;e, leaving the country in the hands o' some e<loiting oliticians.+ I
6 Euote here 'rom the )''icial 2inutes o' this sessionG
+2r. Corneliu Qelea Codreanu.. 2r. President, 'ello! congressmenM 6n the name o' the grou to
!hich 6 belong, 6 demand that in addition to the investigation !hich is normally made by cometent
authorities, another arliamentary investigation be conducted, comosed o' reresentatives o'
various olitical grous in this Parliament. 6 demand this because 6 doubt the veracity o' 2r.
2inister o' 6nternal 4''airs= statementJ 6 doubt that 'or a very good reason. )n Canuary $?, !hen
(omanian students, nationalist and Christian, !ent to the tomb o' the un;no!n soldier to lace a
cross, the #tate #ecuritate had lea;ed the in'ormation to a ne!saer in 8ucharest that that action
!as engineered and 'inanced by 2osco!.
+6' the in'ormation you have, regarding the Grivita a''air also comes 'rom such a source, then 6
understand very !ell ho! right you are in ta;ing stes o' this nature as you did yesterday and today
(4lause 'rom the benches o' =The iron Guard= and those o' the 9ational
IThe author sea;s here o' the !or;ers= stri;e at the Grivita (a'i!ay :or;s in 8ucharest on
February ?, -.// under the 9ational-Peasant administration. (Tr."
Party o' Dr. 1uu".
#econdly, 6 !ish to state that 6, as !ell as all eole o' common sense in this country, am not a'raid
o' Communism or 8olshevism. :e are a'raid o' something else, o' the 'act that those !or;ers have
nothing to eatJ they are hungry. (4lause 'rom the benches o' =The 6ron Guard= and those o' the
Peasant Party o' Dr. 1uu".
+#ome o' those !or;ers ma;e only -,-%% lei a month and have F, 0, &, children.
Dr. 5. 1uuG +6t is true.+
2r. C)rneliu Qelea CodreanuG +Having F, 0, &, children, such !ages are not enough even 'or their
daily bread, 6, on the other hand, am also a'raid o' something elseG o' their thirst 'or >ustice.+
Dr. 9. 1iiuG 5ery goodM
elmr, Corneliu Qelea CodreanuG +There'ore, you !ill have to satis'y these t!o needsG hunger, and
thirst 'or >ustice (4lause 'rom the benches o' =The 6ron Guard= and those o' the Peasant Party o'
Dr. 1uu", and this country !ill en>oy comlete order.+
(2eeting o' Thursday, February -0, -.//. )''icial monitor ?- o' February $/, -.//"
)ne o' the hardshis utting the bra;es on arliamentary activity is the thousands o' demands to the
ministries 'or intercessions o' some ;ind, This constitutes a real unishment 'or us 'rom our
constituency, (-" because arliamentarians have to !aste most o' their time satis'ying these
demands. This system is dangerous to the li'e o' an organiDation, 'or it aralyses its entire activityJ
it can lose the !hole battle. Lou have to abandon the 'ate o' your country in order to serve your
suorters. 4'ter a !hile 6 noticed that there !ere no legionaries among those coming to me !ith
such demands. 4ll !ere either ro'essional beggars or secially sent adversaries see;ing to
aralyDe us. ($" this system laced us in the touchy osition o' going be'ore, and see;ing 'avors
'rom, the men !e !ere 'ighting. For these reasons 6 ersonally re'used to intervene 'or anyone.
During all my serving in Parliament, 6 as;ed nothing o' any minister.
4nother category !as made u o' those coming to as; us 'or money. )ut o' the hundreds ;noc;ing
on our doors daily, there !ere no legionaries. #ome !ere truly sic; or 'allen into mis'ortune, but
some turned this system into a real ro'ession. Finally our grou !as a small organiDation, in
'ormation, on the move, in constant battle. This demanded articularly 'rom me uninterruted
attention to all enemy movesJ it involved the uncovering and arrying o' enemy lans, the !inning
and organiDing o' ne! ositions, in other !ords, a ermanent survey, day and night, o' the
battle'ields nation-!ide. 8ut be'ore anything else came the suervision o' legionary education so as
not to !a;e u and 'ind ourselves being gradually changed into a olitical category o' moral
in'ection 'rom !hich !e !ould not be able to e<tricate ourselves and in !hich the legionary sirit
!ould die.
Parliament too; a!ay 'rom me the time 6 really needed 'or leadershi.
6n the 'all o' -./$ and the !inter o' -.// legionaries could breathe. Three and one hal' years o'
'ighting !ere over. These youth no! deserved their rest. 6t had been almost t!o years since 6 set u
residence in 8ucharest.
6n 6asi to ta;e my lace, 8anea, aided by Totu, Cranganu, Tasca and #telian Teodorescu, stayed to
handle Euestions relating to students, rint sho, our Home, etc. The legionary student grou
increased, comrising no! more than hal' o' the militant students. 6n Clu>, a healthy start to!ard
organiDation !as accomlished by 8anica DobreJ li;e!ise in Cernauti !ith 1auric !here legionary
li'e !as budding nicely under the siritual guidance o' Pro'essor Traian 8raileanu around !hom
Pro'essor Toa and others gathered. 6n the !hole o' 8ucovina the legionary current and
organiDation !ere gro!ing under the able command o' the veteran and distinguished nationalist
5asile lasinschi. 6n Chisinau Tudorache and #erghie Floreseu !ere !or;ingJ 6n )radea 2are, losi'
The youth raised in the 8rotherhoods o' the Cross !ere reared by the time they entered
university. 4 nationalist ne!saer o' great courage and e<cellent direction had started ublication
in 8ucharest, Calendarul (+The Calendar+" under the directorshi o' 2r. 9ichi'or Crainic and !ith
the collaboration o' a hand'ul o' intellectuals headed by Pro'essor Dragos Protooescu. This aer
!as cutting, courageously, a ne! and !ide ath in the (omanian intellectual !orld, along the
Christian and nationalist line. 2r. Crainic=s articles articularly !ere real cannon 'ire !hich caused
devastation !ithin enemy ran;s. :ithin the student movement in the caital, legionaries occuied
the 'irst lines. Traian Cotiga held the residency o' the student center, having a legionary
4 turnabout !as 'elt among the intellectual youth o' the caital. Their consciences !ere
reoccuied !ith the great roblems a''ecting the li'e o' our nation. 4 talented grou gravitating
around the ne! revie! 4<a (+The 4<is+" !ith Polichroniade, 5o>en, Constant, >oined the legionary
ran;s, !hile other eminent youth such as Pro'essor 5asde Cristescu, 5as'ie 2arin, Pro'essor
5iadimir Durnitrescu, engineer 5irgd 6onescu, Pro'essor (adu Gyr, attorney Poov, ainters
8asarab and Qlotescu, all very talented and enthusiastic, !or;ed along the lines o' legionary
The healthy 2acedonian youth, ure as a tear, and brave, came ever closer to us. Ho!ever, !e
thought it un!ise that the mass o' 2acedonians in the Suadrilateral= be received into the Guard,
because, so recently resettled in the country, !e !ould e<ose it to too many ersecutions. The
2acedonian university youth ho!ever, in its entirety, >oined the legionary movement. 4t the head
o' these 2acedonian youth !ere three distinguished men o' cultureG Paanace, Caranica, and #terie
:ith the 'irst t!o 6 consulted o'ten, both o' !hom had admirable >udgtnent suorted by
irreroachable urity and sincerely, great love and courage.
6 do not believe that since -./- there has assed a day !ithout meeting !ith thern, During this time
o' ersecition, !e discussed 'or hours blo! a'ter blo!, in>ustice a'ter in>ustice, treachery a'ter
treachery, *ach bit o' ne!s o' a ne! torture o' a legionary !as a ;ni'e iercing our hearts. The ain
!e su''ered 'or all maltreated legionaries tormented our soulsJ and articularly the imossibility o'
seeing ahead any hoe 'or >ustice.
#terie Ciumeti !as living !ith me day and night. He !as a young man o' great righteousness and
dog-li;e 'aith'ulness. He became the chie' treasurer o' the Guard. 4ll his days - as many as he !ill
have - he !ill thin; only o' the Guard, !ill be concerned and !ill act only 'or the Guard, !ill not
live his li'e 'or anything else but 'or the Guard.
6n various oints o' the country aeared other valuable elementsG
:#everal ounties in southern Dobrogea anneFed by Ro*ania at the end of the
9al5an $ar in %&%/0 ;Tr0<
Dr. Pantelimon, Father 6onescu Duminica, Dr. 4ugustin 8idian at #ibiuJ Father Georgescu-*dincti,
the students= siritual con'essor, a veteran 'ighter, Cat. Ciulei at 8acau, 4ristotel Gheorghiu,also a
veteran, !ho commanded at (amnicul-#aratJ at 8rada, 6on 6liescuJ at Constanta, #eitanJ Father
Doara and 5ictor 8arbulescu at 5alceaJ
Pro'essors 5intan, Ghenadie and Duma at TimisoaraJ and the veteran legionaries, Pro'essors
9icolae Petrascu, Horia #ima, attorney 6osi' Costea, Colhon and others, !ho no! have command
osts in various arts o' the country.
8ucharest is divided into sectorsI and !e began to organiDe !ithin them. There !ere t!o good men
in the Green,and 8lue sectors, 9icolae Constantinescu and Doru 8elimace, t!o strong characters,
t!o solid brains, Doru 8elimace being one o' the most distinguished students at the Faculty o'
1ettersJ 9icolae Constantinescu ossessing an eminent economic bac;ground, !as a student at the
Commercial 4cademy. #oon, both o' them !ould rove to have imosing Eualities o' legionary
'aith and bravery.
During this eriod also, !as created the 'irst legionary ran; by the 'ollo!ing order o' the day o'
December -%, -./$G
4" The 'irst suerior ran;, named 1egionary Commandant, is established in legionary hierarchy.
in vie! o' their sacri'ice, !or;, heroism, 'aith, caacity and seniority, the 'ollo!ing legionaries are
advanced in ran;, alhabeticallyG
8anea 6on, doctoral candidate in medicineJ 8elgea 6onJ 8lanaru 6on, engineerJ Dumitrescu 6on,
riestJ 6onescu 4ndreiJ #ilaghi 5ictor, attorneyJ #teleseu 2ihail, congressmanJ Totu 9icolae,
studentJ Traian Cotiga, studentJ Tanase 4ntohi, cra'tsman.
8" 4ll legionaries o' the -.$& and -.$@ series !ho too; their vo! and are still in the active ran;s o'
the 1egion, are hereby romoted to the ran; o' 1egionary Commandant 4ide.
#ignedG Corneliu Qelea Codreanu.
The others, more advanced in years, !ere moved into the 1egion=s #enate and the 1egionary
#uerior Council.
I *ach o' the 'ive large sectors bears the name o' a colorG Green, Lello!, (ed, 6llue, and 8lac;. (Tr."
The legionary movement !as visibly gro!ing, esecially among the high school and university
youth, and among easants in all the (omanian rovinces. 6t gre! more slo!ly, ho!ever, in to!ns
!here the (omanian element !as state-emloyed and thus revented 'rom e<ressing their vie!s,
or economically enslaved by Ce!s, The same muted ersecution that !e have ;no!n since !e
started this 'ight, bac; in -.$$, increasingly haunted us, all the 'ighters and their 'amilies. 6' you
!ere a young graduate you could not get a state >ob unless you reneged on your conscience and
your 'aith. Hundreds o' youth !ere sought out to be lured !ith money, romises, honors, ositions.
The state got to be a school o' treason in !hich men o' character !ere murdered !hile treason !as
abundantly re!arded. 6' you !ere a (omanian merchant, the only one among Ce!ish merchants and
you haened to believe in the 1egion, everyone, 'rom street o''icer to mayor and re'ect, turned
into your enemy. They harassed you day and nightJ ta<ed you more than they did the Ce!sJ 'ines
!ere continually levied against youJ you received blo! a'ter blo! until they destroyed you. 6' you
!ere a easant, you !ere handcu'ied and ta;en on 'oot 'rom one village gendarmes ost to the ne<t,
and the ne<t, and the ne<t, 'or scores o' miles, being beaten every day at each gendarmes section,
Lou !ent hungry ? to F daysJ they loo;ed at you li;e savage beasts and everyone slaed you in the
'ace. 6' you !ere a !or;ingman, they thre! you out li;e a iece o' used rag 'rom every 'actory and
8ecause, in this country, a man holding our belie's must starve to death, together !ith all his
children. 4ll o' us are considered enemies o' our eole and country. 8ut !e have maintained
ourselves !ithin the most er'ect order and legality, so that no trouble could be imuted to us. 8ut
this does not mean a thing. The reasoning o' our governments isG +:e cannot destroy you because
you bro;e the la!sK 9o matter, !e !ill brea; them and !ill destroy youM Lou do not !ant to act
illegally, !ell, !e !ill act soM+ #o that, in this 'ashion, !e have entered into a truly Talmudic
systemJ on one hand !e !ere accused through the ress and by all olitical agencies o' +illegality,+
and on the other, staying
er'ectly !ithin the la!, !e !ere ground do!n by the most odious and illegal rocedures by all
governmental and state reresentatives, themselves in the most 'lagrant illegality.
Dragged be'ore tribunals, >uridical decree a'ter >uridical decree throughout the country con'irmed
the movement=s line o' legality and order. There !as not one decree condemning us. Let the basic
argument o' the oliticians and the Ce!ish ress remained invariablyG +4 movement o' disorder,+
+anarchy,+ +la!lessness,+ +terroristic.+ The Ce!ish ress constantly incited oliticians against us, 'or
them to lunge at us to ri us aart, annihilate us.
4'ter a !hile, at a loss 'or ne! accusations, the Ce!ish ress stated that !e !ere ta;ing money 'rom
2ussoliniJ that !e retended to be nationalists but in 'act our urose !as to sEueeDe money 'rom
anyone !e met. 9o!, !e 'ound 2ussolini, !hom !e !ere sEueeDing,
)ne by one, !e learned !ith astonishment thatG +:e !ere in the service o' =the Hungarians !ho
!ere a!a;ening= ...=
:e !ere in 2osco!=s service....
:e receive money 'rom the Ce!s ......
4s ridiculous as the last accusation is, it !as not sared us. Here 6 Euote a signi'icant assage 'rom
the Ce!ish ne!saer Politica (+Politics+" o' 4ugust -%, -./?, in an article titledG +2a< 4uschnitt
and The 6ron GuardG+
6n our country too, then, the henomenon had been veri'ied e<actly as it is a ;no!n 'act to anybody,
that the most imortant movement o' (omanian Fascism, the 6ron Guard, !as created and 'inanced
by the big caitalists. 4nd here comes the not-at-all sensational sensationG the Ce! 2a< 4uschnitt
has suorted and 'inanced the 6ron Guard directly. This 'act !as stated by t!o Euite serious and
resonsible eole, 2r. 2inister 5ictor 6amandi and the ;no!n ublicist #carlat Calimachi.
4ccording to these e<lanations, the 'act aears as very natural.
:ho does not yet ;no! that Hitler too, !as 'inanced by the great Ce!ish caitalists o' GermanyK+
1ately in Germany Hitler !on against the Cudeo-masonic hydra o' the entire !orld. The German
eole, !ith an e<traordinary determination and unity, 'ought and ut do!n the Cudaic o!er. The
Ce!s rint lie uon lie in their ress, see;ing to con'use the minds o' the eoleG
-. 4dol' Hitler is a ainter, stuid, incaable. :ho is going to 'all 'or him in a civiliDed country li;e
GermanyK 8ut Hitler moves ahead.
$. 4dol' Hitler is not going to !in because the German communists are going to oose him. 8ut
4dol' Hitler gets closer to o!er.
/. Hitlerism has bro;en into t!o, three. Great dissatis'action !ithin the arty, etc. 8ut Hitler is not
?. 4dol' Hitler !ent craDy. He !ent into the mountains, etc. 8ut 4dol' Hitler is in good health and
gets ever closer to victory.
F. #hould he !in, the second day a'ter, Germany !ill have a revolution. Communism !ill start a
general urising and Hitler !ill 'all. 8ut Hitler !ins o!er and the revolution dreamed o' by the
Ce!s does not erut. He !ill go 'rom ma>orities to unanimity never
be'ore encountered in history.
0. 4ll countries !ill economically boycott Germany and Hitlerism !ill 'all. 8ut 4dol' Hitler moves
ahead victorious.
&. +Dictatorshi,+ +Hitlerist terror+ throughout Germany. +The vote is snatched by terror.+ 8ut the
German eole march on behind him enthusiastically.
@. Hitler !ants to ta;e our Transylvania. 4nd !e, all (omanian nationalists, !ho !ish to rid
ourselves o' the Ce!ish calamity, are, neither more nor less, +Hitlerites,+ namely, !e !ant to give
our Transylvania to the Germans.
8ut !e ans!erG
+1et us resuose that Hitler !ants to ma;e !ar on us to ta;e our Transylvania. 6n order 'or us
(omanians to be able to de'end Transylvania against the Germans, !e must get rid o' the Ce!sJ !e,
too, must solve this Ce!ish roblem, must strengthen the osition o' our eole sEueeDed by Ce!ry
and suc;ed o' its strength until it has been made Euite unable to de'end itsel'. #addled by the Ce!ry
!hich oisons our souls and suc;s our blood, !e !ill have neither !eaons, nor soul, nor meat on
our bones.+
.. Finally, !e +receive money,+ are 'inanced, are +in the ay+ o' the 9aDis. :e ans!erG +4.C. CuDa
has been 'ighting the Ce!s since -@.%J !e, since -.-., -.$%, -.$-, -.$$, !hen !e had not even
heard o' 4dol' Hitler. 5enomous sna;esM+
8e'ore much time had gone by a ne! olitico-Ce!ish camaign !as launched against us.
9ot !anting us to be content !ith money 'rom 2ussolini, Hitler, 2osco! and 4uschnitt, our
enemy 'ound 'or us a ne! 'inancial source in the rinting o' counter'eit ban;notes o' (asinari. The
sensational discovery 'illed the columns o' Ce!ish and arty ne!saers.
:e give belo!, out o' that eriod, several assages meant to illustrate the system o' er'idies
!hich attemted our annihilation in the eyes o' the nation.
The ne!saer Patria (+The Fatherland+" o' Culy $$, ublishedG
Clu>, Culy $- - 4t (asinari, a village near #ibiu, a sensational discovery !as made, o' a ;ind !hich
resents an entire olitical organiDation in the ugliest light and against !hich the government no!
has in hand the most damaging roo' to roceed !ith all severity.
A '!,, 5%' 0%2)$!'5!*$ (%)!< %5 $&! I'%) G2"'+
#eci'ically in the village o' (asinari, one o' the many lants o' counter'eit money !as discovered.
From the investigation made it !as established ho!ever, to everybody=s astonishment that this titne
!e are not tal;ing about a band o' Gysies or mis'its !ho de'y the rigour o' the la! in the hoe o' a
Euic; enrichment, but o' the 6ron Guard, 2r. Corneliu Qelea Codreanu=s olitical organiDation,
!hich lately has indulged in the most abusive camaign against our government and generally
against all olitical arties in (omania.
T&! I'%) G2"'+ ")+ *$, '%"/")+" *) 1*##"/!,
8ut 'or those !ho ;no! the activity o' the 6ron Guard a little better, !ith its bands o' guardists
!hich cover the !hole country 'rcm one end to the other, this thing seems
very natural. For in such circumstances money is needed 'irst o' all. 6n 'act it has been ;no!n that
the 6ron Guard roagandists lately had large 'unds, !hich ermitted their travel through the
villages as !ell as the rinting o' ne!saers and the arming o' its devoted members !ith
everything necessary to coy the system =a la Hitler.=
H%- $&! 0%2)$!'5!*$*)/ -", +*,0%1!'!+
+The 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs had 'or a long time been in'ormed that some o' the Transylvanian
leaders o' the 6ron Guard, articularly those in 8rasov and #ibiu, had at their disosal large sums
!hich they then distributed to local organiDations throughout the country. 4t the Peginning it !as
susected that the money !as sulied by !ho ;no!s !hat similar 'oreign organiDation, but as a
result o' surveillance, it !as established that the susicion !as un'ounded. The discovery o' the
money rinting ress at (asinari sulied the olice authorities !ith a ne! lead, and the result o'
the investigations !as most startling.
S*B*2 5*)")0!, $&! !)$*'! %'/")*C"$*%)
6mmediately the 8ucharest authorities delegated investigating Cudge 6. #tanescu o' 8ucharest to
begin the customary investigation. 4ccomanied by Chie'-Prosecutor (adu Pascu and,Prosecutor
2ardaric, he le't 'or #ibiu, ma;ing his 'irst search at the home o' attorney 8idianu !ho headed the
guardist organiDation, !here sensational comromising material !as discovered 'rom !hich it !as
evident that the money ress served e<clusively the olitical and subversive aims o' the 6ron Guard.
4mong the con'iscated corresondence, letters o' various local organiDations !ere 'ound,
articularly 'rom the 6asi organiDation in !hich 2r. 8anea !as as;ing 'or a large sum o' money in
order to buy a anel truc; and to intensi'y roaganda in 2oldavia.
The olice e''ected a series o' arrests and con'iscated all comromising material together !ith the
eEuiment used in counter'eiting.
6nvestigations continue assiduously and an attemt is being made to establish the ties bet!een the
ress and guardist organiDations, and in articular the amount o' 'unds distributed to the latter.
T&! (%'"# 1"#2! %5 $&! I'%) G2"'+
:hen the 6ron Guard=s organiDation, !hich succeeded in creating nuclei over the !hole country,
!as so shame'ully caught red-handed, it made a ro'ound imression throughout our country and
caused real consternation !ithin the Guard=s ran;s o' artisans. 6t !as ;no!n that agitation in
villages !as done in the name o' >ustice, honor, decency, resect 'or the la!, etc., nothing but
claims no! roving to have been only emty !ords o' the 6ron Guard, !hen, in 'act, it sought only
unscruulous o!er !hen it came to the means used.
6n vie! o' these discoveries the government seems disosed to roceed !ith all severity. 2r. 5.5.
Tilea, 7ndersecretary o' #tate, declared to an intimate circle, that in vie! o' the gravity o' the acts
committed by some members, the 6ron Guard !ill have to be dissolved.
6n Chemarea (omanilor (+The (omanians= Call+" o' 4ugust 0, -.//, one read the 'ollo!ing.
+9e!saers have reorted these ast days ho! lac;eys o' the 6ron Guard !ere caught by the
authorities counter'eiting money. :e ;no! that these ;inds o' men began lately to go through all
our villages romising eole all ;inds o' things and demanding the death enalty 'or la!brea;ers.
:e are young men !ho have !aited 'or Euite a !hile to learn 'or ourselves !hat the aims and
uroses o' these eole are. Preaching !ith ardor, love o' country, its !ise administration and the
e<tiration o' 'oreigners, 'or a !hile !e thought they !ere !ell-meaning, :hen !e read in the
aers that they began !or;ing to the country=s detriment by counter'eiting money, !e began to
realiDe that !e had been mista;en and that no! !e have come to ;no! them. They are art o' the
cliEue o' ro'essional illagers o' our country and, 'or the great la!lessness they committed, !e
!ould not advise the government to do anything but to >udge them according to the manner in
!hich they demanded the >udgement 'or such deedsG the death enalty, To the gallo!s !ith the
6n Dretatea (+The >ustice+" o' Culy $$, -.//, the o''icial aer o' the 9ational-Peasant Party !e
6' a de'initive roo' !ere needed 'or the araisal o' the individuals !ho 'orm the so-called
nationalist !ing o' our olitical right, here !e have it in the resounding case o' the money
counter'eiters o' (asinari.
*very!here and al!ays the arties o' the e<treme right - !hich are actually comosed o' bands o'
hooligans and bullies - have used the most abominable, base and unconscionable means in the
roagandiDing !or; on the naive multitudes.
For, in the right=s =concetion= (sic" and=doctrine= (sic" the aim, !hich is reduced to grabbing o!er,
>usti'ies the dirtiness o' the means.
There cannot e<ist nobility in rocedure, tactics, method and behavior, !here there e<ists no
nobility in ideal or urose in the ob>ective sought. :ho could a''irm that-let us say-the ideal o' the
e<treme right hides the least bit o' nobilityK The cult o' brute 'orce in the coarse scorning o'
elementary rights !ill never constitute an ideal and a sueriorityM The ideal !hose rays !arm
man;ind=s soul is a di''erent one, an ideal o' >ustice, eace and constructive !or;, 'or the ever
higher elevation on the intellectual ladder o' national collectivity, and through this, o' all humanity,
Ho!ever, this is not the ideal o' right-!ing e<tremism, !hich is embraced by the basest humaia
e<emlars !ith the vain thought o' their gaining dictatorial o!ers. (ight-!ing e<tremism
substitutes 'or intelligence the o!er o' the 'ist (that does not distinguish bet!een an intellectual
and a common la!brea;er"J 'or >ustice, arbitrarinessJ 'or the noble ideal o' eace and cooeration
among states and eoles, the obtuse dogma o' hatred among nations.
9o intellectual can arove o' right-!ing e<tremism.
6' it succeeded in catching several men, then this !as only because they did it in the name o' an
odiously e<loited 'aith, the nationalistic 'aith.
This is ho! the association o' consirators called =The 6ron Guard= roceeded. 6t retends to act in
the name o' nationalism.
6n the name o' nationalismK This hyocrisy must be unmas;ed be'ore ublic oinion. There is no
need 'or nationalism to be served through occult organiDations, secret associations, and in articular
it has no need 'or methods as racticed by =The 6ron Guard.= 9ationalism is a 'aith that de'ends itsel'
in broad daylight, oenly, honestly, sincerely.
6n any case, one does not serve nationalism by secret orders to... =nests= (KMK", to invisible =battalions=
and occult =cells= and articularly by counter'eiting money li;e some contemtible in'ractors.
The 6ron Guard= is nothing but a hand'ul o' adventurers, clandestinely groued 'or the violent
conEuest o' o!er in the state through the most shameless and deceit'ul demagoguery. This, in the
name o' the nationalist idea.
6n the name o' the nationalist ideaK This 'aith, that belongs to all the sons o' this land, does not
tolerate such means as those used by =The 6ron GuardJ= does not admit
The discovery o' the band o' (asinari laces =The 6ron Guard= in its true light.
Peole !ere as;ing themselvesG !here do these 'ello!s get money 'romK #o much money 'or
roagandaK For organiDing and urchase o' consciencesK For travel, living, carsK :here 'romK
The discovery o' (asinari reveals the sourceG counter'eiting o' moneyM
This is ho! =The 6ron Guard= !or;s. =The 6ron Guard=s ioneers are individuals !ho 'all under the
la!s o' the enal code. They !ant to ma;e a olitical arty by counter'eiting money.
:hat moral authority do they no! have to demand the aroval o' the massesK 4nd yet at the same
time in the name o' the nationalist ideaK
=The 6ron Guard= is a guard o' counter'eiters. 4nd a guard o' counter'eiters cannot sea; in the
name o' nationalismM+
4nd 'inally, in order not to e<cessively rolong this Euotation, !e give 'rom Patra (+The
Fatherland+" o' #aturday, Culy $$, -./ /, the 'ollo!ing e<tractG
+The discovery o' (asinari has a truly sensational side. 6t goes beyond the usual, the banal, and the
ordinary, lacing into 'ull breadth and bloody crudity the entire decomosition, dissolution and
moral elasticity o' those !ho retend to regenerate the over-credulous masses see;ing a ne! creed.
4nd !e sayG =truly sensational= because, i' ne!saers lately got us used to learning that in various
corners o' the country small clandestine mints aear, never have the ingenious and little chivalrous
atrons o' this in'lationary institution, at odds !ith the enal code, roved themselves to be
members o' a some!hat higher social situation. 4t (asinari the heroes are no longer Gysies a'ter
etty thievery, nor only some eole at odds !ith >ustice see;ing an easy and underhanded ;ill, or
one o' those heroes !ho consider as aesthetic the en>oyment o' a 'ruit'ul adventure !ith great ris;s.
8ut one sea;s o' the head - note !ell - the Chie' o' =The 6ron Guard= in #ibiu. :e Euote 'rom an
ob>ective ne!saer !hich many a time too; under its disinterested rotection the movement o'
Codreanu=s 'aith'ulG
=The #ibiu authorities, searching the home o' attorney 8idian, head o' =The 6ron Guard= organiDation
in this to!n, uncovered sensational material 'rom !hich it is obvious that the lant o' counter'eit
money o' (asinari !as set u in order to suort =The 6ron Guards.= 4mong other documents !as
also a letter o' the resident o' the 6asi organiDation,, 2r. 8anea, as;ing money 'or the urchase o' a
anel truc; and 'or the intensi'ication o' roaganda 'or =The 6ron Guard=.
+6t is clear, is it notK 4 mint 'or the suort o' a arty roclaiming itsel' a regenerator o' olitics and
moresM Ano!n as unscruulous agitators, scandalmongers and bullies, no! they come to be ;no!n
also as counter'eiters, an attribute as disgrace'ul as the 'ormer but erhas more culable. #omeone
may claim to 'ind here a curious and grave sign o' our timesJ and a cross-!ord uDDle lover !ould
'ind that 'or a guardist even i' he be o' iron, it is a bit too much to turn into a counter'eiter. 9o
matter ho! one loo;s at it, the (asinari case is e<tremely serious. 6t thro!s a strong light on the
resources !ith !hich these adventurers ose no! as bully-boys, no! as martyrs, and maintain an
agitated and ambulatory e<istence. (ight in these columns, !e have as;ed, amaDed and =curious,
!hence do these gentlemen get their moneyK 1et us sincerely con'ess it, !e did not e<ect that the
ans!er !ould come so romtly, so 'righteningly, and right 'rom (asinariM
This odious camaign lasted three !ee;s.
6t !as in vain that Caranica, #teric Ciumeti and Paanace, the three elite legionaries deserately
;noc;ed at ne!saer o''ices to obtain a denial. These young men, ever since -./-, in vie! o' their
Eualities o' clear >udgement and great sincerity, have lived !ith me daily, sharing !ith me the same
tormenting !orries and heling me ste by ste in the di''icult burden o' leading an organiDation on
the battle'ield. Futile e''orts, 'or all these in'amies thro!n against us !ere ordered.
They !ill have only one e''ectG that o' amassing in our souls in>ustice a'ter in>ustice, calumny a'ter
calumny, blo! a'ter blo!, ain a'ter ain.
our youth has stood them all, burying them in its soul. 9o!, so many years later, i' 6 !anted to give
the !orld advice, 6 !ould shoutG 8e!are o' those !ho endure it 'or too longM
8ut in the 'ace o' these obstacles, blo!s, intrigues and ersecutions, assaulting us 'rom every
direction, having this terrible 'eeling o' aloneness, having no!here to turn,-e oosed all this !ith a
'irm determination to die. +The death team+ is the e<ression o' these inner 'eelings o' the legionary
youth throughout the !hole country, to receive deathJ its determination to go 'or!ard, through
4t the beginning o' 2ay -.//, a team !as 'ormed, consisting o' Father 6on Dumitrescu, 9icolae
Constantinescu, #terie Ciumeti, Petru Tocu, Constantin #avin, 8ulhac, Constantin Poescu, (usu
Cristo'or, 4dochitei, 6ovin, Traian Clime, 6osi' 8oDantan, Gogu #era'im, 6sac 2ihai, Pro'essor
Pauc, (adoiu...
8e'ore setting out to travel through hal' o' the country, they dubbed themselves +The death team.+
Carioara (The Doe" !as driven do!n 'rom 6asi 'or their use. They had to cover the route o'
8ucharest, Pitesti, (amnicul-5alcea, Targul->iu, Turnul-#everin, )ravita, and (esita. #o 'ar they
!ere to be accomanied also by Father Duminica 6onescu. Then to Timisoara, 4rad, and bac; to
8ucharest, They !ere on the threshold o' the biggest legionary e<edition and they le't !ith only
/,%%% lei in their oc;ets 'or gasolineJ 'or the rest they trusted in God and in !hat eole on their
!ay !ould give them. They too; along a code o' the country=s la!s in their hand. They !ould stay
!ithin legality but !ould de'end themselves against illegal measures. 4t Tg. Ciu, Turnul-#everin,
8oDovici, they !ere 'ollo!ed by olice and gendarmes and attac;ed. They ;nelt in 'ront o' the
truc; to rotect the tires, baring their chests to the revolvers. )n the outs;irts o' )ravita they !ere
met by machine guns, then arrested. 4 day later, Prosecutor Poovici, released them, 'inding them
innocentJ 'or they !ere not doing anything, !ere not giving seeches, !ere not holding meetings.
They !ere >ust traveling and singing - that !as all. 8ut eole understood, and greeted them !ith
'lo!ers. They !ere given 'ood and gasoline 'or their anel truc;. :herever they !ent, a trace o'
enthusiasm remained.
4t (esita 6 came out to meet them. There !e decided to hold a ublic rally. 6t !as !ithin our rights
to do so. #ince 6 !as a member o' Parliament and had entered a legionary list o' candidates in the
county o' Caras, !inning $,%%% votes, 6 !as coming to get in touch !ith our suorters in order to
give them a reort on our activity in Parliament. 6t is legal. 6t is er'ectly legal. 8ut !hen it comes
to us, la!s no longer e<ist.
9ot even during the !ar did (esita see so much military might. 6t !as brought in 'rom nearby
to!ns to occuy the to!n and encircle it.
6 realiDed the government !as setting a tra 'or me. 6t !ould have li;ed 'or me to try an irrational
moveJ to lose my temer in order to occasion a reason 'or reression.
+That is !hy !e sto these gentlemen. That is !hy they must be abolished. :herever they ass,
they rouse the oulace against our measures o' order, against the military and the authorities. They
!ant to bring on a revolution.+
#uch an error on our art !ould have been e<loited by the government and the Ce!ish ress. For
this reason 6 did not give them this oortunity, but by dro!ning all rebellion !ithin mysel' 6
avoided any clash. 6t !ould have been e<actly in >ust such a clash that they !ould have scored a
victory. :e re'erred to give u our rally.
The team !ent on, assed through Timis-Torontal county and entered the county o' 4rad. There, in
the village o' Chier, the gendarmes together !ith the Ce!s, stirred u the easants shouting that the
red bands 'rom Hungary crossed over into (omania.
The easants, armed !ith itch'or;s, a<es and bludgeons, 'ell uon the legionaries !ho had no time
to identi'y themselves. The blo!s covered them !ith blood. Ciumeti=s right.hand !as bro;en and he
'ell do!n at the edge o' the road, unconscious. 4dochitei !as lying by him. 4ll o' them !ere
!ounded. Then they !ere arrested, transorted to 4rad and ut in searate cells in the city >ail.
They !ere brought to trial 'or rebellion ten days later. )ur la!yers 'rom 4radJ 2ota, 5asile 2arin
and mysel' de'ended them and and they !ere all acEuitted. The (omanian oulace o' 4rad gave
them a !arm demonstration o' symathy.
4s a conseEuence o' this incident, 6 decided to go along !ith them. Part o' the team !ent on by
anel truc;, !hile -, accomanied by 'our o' them and the easant Fratila, le't on 'oot, going
through all the villages clear to the tomb o' 4vram 6ancu in the mountains, some @% miles. Peasants
received me >oyously every!here.
6n Tebea !e arted !ays. They continued their route through Hunedoara County and 6 le't 'or
2y 'ather !as scheduled to deliver a seech here. 4s 6 arrived that evening 6 'ound my 'ather in the
home o' a easantJ he !as covered !ith blood. 4 large number o' gendarmes entered the hall !here
the eole !ere assembled and began using their ri'le butts on everybody. 2y 'ather !as hit over
the head.
1egalityM 1egalityM
4 (omanian arliamentarian, en>oying guaranteed immunity and rights, goes to deliver a seecb
and the reresentatives o' ublic 'orce enter the hall crac;ing his head !ith ri'le butts. Peasants,
teachers, riests are all shoc;ed. 6 decided then and there that !e !ould hold a rotest meeting t!o
!ee;s later in the same lace.
)n the eve o' the meeting +The Death Team+ arrived in Teius as !ell as legionaries 'rom Clu> and
8ucharest, but the meeting could not be held.
4n in'antry regiment and a gendarmes battalion surrounded Teius, reventing the easants 'rom
6t !as the same as in (esita. 6 tried to avoid a con'rontation, deciding that my 'ather and all the
legionaries should leave to!n but meJ because the resence o' a number o' men, ho!ever 'e!,
could generate a con'lict, !hile the resence o' a single man be'ore such large 'orces could not
cause a rebellionJ nor a glory 'or the many, should they bear do!n on him.
Let the easants o' 2ihalt and surroundings tried to 'orcibly cross the bridge already occuied by
the army.
+:e, the easants o' 2ihalt conEuered this bridge 'rom the Hungarians in heavy battles. :e do not
admit that today (omanian gendarmes revent us 'rom crossing over it+ !ere saying these brave
and+ undaunted easants 'rom 2ihalt.
4 battle ensued !hich lasted over t!o hours. #hots !ere 'ired. )ne easant !as ;illed, and 'rom
+The Death Team,+ Tocu, Constantinescu and 4dochitei !ere seriously !ounded 'or the second
The entire +Death Team+ and other students, a total o' F%, !ere brought bac; by the authorities to
Teius during the day. They !ere told that they !ould be ut on the train, but as they did not have
train tic;ets, they had to go to 4lba-lulia to get them.
8ut there, instead o' getting their tic;ets, they 'ound themselves thro!n, !ithout any arrest
!arrants, into the 'amous rison !here Horia had been thro!n.
4ll their rotests !ere 'utile. They rotested in vain that their detention !as illegalJ that no detainee
may be imrisoned !ithout an arrest !arrantJ that the authority !ho thre! them there !as
committing an illegal act. 4t $ o=cloc; that night they bro;e do!n the rison gate, 'ormed a column
and !ent to the rosecutor=s home. They reorted events to him. There they stayed in the yard till
the ne<t morning !hen together !ith the rosecutor, they returned to the rison. This time arrest
!arrants !ere issued 'or +having 'orced the rison=s gate.+
6n the trial that 'ollo!ed they !ere acEuitted because, lac;ing arrest !arrants in the 'irst lace, they
!ere being detained illegally. They con'ormed to legal disositions. 8y in'orming the rosecutor
they !ere >ust 'ollo!ing regulations. )nce again it !as roved in court that those !ho rovo;ed
disorders !ere not the legionaries but the very authorities !ho instead o' uholding the la!s, bro;e
them !ith sovereign disdain.
+The Death Team+ returned to 8ucharest a'ter t!o months o' camaigning. 6ts 'ights, the su''ering
to !hich it !as sub>ected, its !ounds, stirred the soul o' the !hole o' Transylvania.
9o!, at this moment, !e can say that the legionary movement had sread throughout the country,
desite all oosition o' authorities, in site o' all ersecution.
8eginning no!, !e !ill sto, !e said. :e !ill begin to deeen legionary education by li'e in !or;
cams, :ho could be disturbed by this silent activity, articularly !hen it !as outside the olitical
JULY 10, 19
Let during the revious !inter the harmacist 4ristotel Gheorghiu, legionary leader o' (amnicul-
#arat, 'or!arded to me a reort in !hich he described the situation o' the village o' 5isani !here
the 8uDau river each year 'looded the 'ields o' 'armers over an area o' several thousand hectares.
4nd he !as saying that the entire village !ere begging us to come hel them by building a
rotective dam. 6 aroved this reEuest and too; all necessary stes by sending out secialiDed
engineers, ma;ing lans, and issuing an order that all legionaries in that region !ere to be resent at
5isani on Culy -%, -.// !hen the !or; cam !as to be oened. Here is that orderG
9ever has the roblem o' light been raised more than in the instant in !hich man has lost his sight.
1i;e the roblem o' construction is osed in a articularly ressing 'ashion at the moment man;ind
comes to clearly realiDe that everything around it is brea;ing do!n.
:hen everything is slo!ly turning to ruin, the human soul heads in an oosite direction, in an
attemt to a counterattac; by mani'esting a 'ormidable drive to build 'rom 'oundations, to erect
through labor, to construct.
9ever has this roblem o' construction been raised in *uroe as it is today !hen the !ar eriod has
le't us in ruins and !hen the ost !ar eriod has augmented our ruinous state day by day.
6n our country, 'ollo!ing -F years o' ublic discourse, omous but sterile, !hich have le't nothing
behind but ruins, our soul is disgusted !ith !ords and see;s action.
:e too, !ant to buildJ 'rom a bro;en bridge to a road and the taing o' a !ater'all and its change
into energyJ 'rom a ne! easant homestead to a ne! tye o' (omanian village, (omanian to!n,
(omanian state.
This is the historic call o' our generation, that on today=s ruins !e build a ne! and beauti'ul
6n our country today the (omanian eole cannot 'ul'ill its mission in the !orld, that o' creating its
o!n culture and civiliDation in *astern *uroe.
These truths have urged me to call you to the middle o' the country, on the shore o' the 8uDau river,
in order to raise !ith your o!n arms that huge dam !hich should carry your name 'or decades.
6 as;ed you so that you can tell the other (omanians that you are those !ho !ill build the ne!
This ne! (omania cannot be born in clubs, ca'es, cabaretsJ or 'rom the heels !orn on city streets in
romenades and amusements o' the various Don >uans.
#he !ill be born out o' the heroism o' your labor.
*BP1494T6)9# 49D 69D6C4T6)9#
-. The dam !ill rise near the village o' 5isani in the southern art o' the county o' (amnicul-#arat,
'our miles 9orth o' the Faurei deot on the 8uDau-8raila line.
$. 2eeting lace, the village o' 5isani. 4ll teams !ill be under local command as soon as they
/. Dates o' arrival in 5isaniG Culy @ and ., -. //.
?. The ro>ect is going to be e<ecuted in t!o stages o' /% days each.
First stage,. Culy -% - 4ugust -%, -.//.
#econd stageG 4ugust -% -#etember -%, -.//,
*ach team !ill be F%% strong.
General command !ill be in the hands o' the legionary commander o' (amnicul-#arat county,
4ristotel Gheorghiu !ho !ill organiDeG
- rovisioning,
- lodging,
- tooling,
- all other Euestions ertaining to the general direction o' the ro>ect.
7nder his command are to be lacedG -. The ro>ect site chie', a legionary to be ersonally named
by me at the beginning o' !or;, $. The chie' o' lodging and rovisioning, and /. The legionary
commandant o' the team, Together they !ill establish all services that !ill be needed (rovisions,
The 'irst team !ill be made u o' legionaries 'rom 8raila, 8uDau, (amnicul-#arat, Focsani, Tecuci,
8ucharest, Ploesti, 6alomita, Dambovita, 2uscel, 4rges, 5lasca, )ltenia.
The legionaries 'rom 8essarabia !ill come on Culy -F, in other !ords F days later. They !ill leave
Cbisinau on 'oot, assing through Gradiste, Comrat, CongaD, Cabul, Colibasi, (eni, Galati. The
legionaries 'rom Cabul, Tigbina, 6smail and Cetatea-4lba !ill >oin
this grou.
The 8rotherhoods o' the Cross 'rom throughout the country !ill be art o' the 'irst team.
The second team !ill be made u o' the legionaries 'rom the rest o' the country.
1egionaries !ill try to have !or;ing clothes, sare linen changes, a sade, a blan;et.
The other teams shall march or ta;e the train, ta;ing advantage o' &FR reduction 'or grou
Five deendable legionaries 'rom 8raila are to reort F days earlier, on Culy F, in order to reare
the ground!or; and receive their comradesJ these !ill be named by the 8raila legionary
commander 6on lliescu and !ill immediately get in touch !ith the legionary commander o'
(amnicul-#arat, 4ristotel Gheorghiu.
General headEuarters !here deartures and arrivals are to be announcedG 4ristotel Gbeorgbiu,
harmacist, (amnicul-#arat.
6 (*C)22*9DG
a" Comlete order all the !ay. 6' you should be rovo;ed 6 'orbid you to react. (eaching your
destination is aramount.
6 !ish that all localities through !hich you ass, villages or to!ns, to be imressed by the
disciline, correctitude, 'ully digni'ied attitude and decency o' the legionaries at all times
The teams leaders have all the resonsibility.
b" 6 call your attention to the 'act, that in 5isani and environs you must sho! e<emlary behavior in
all resectsJ 'riendly to!ards the eole and, in articular, heroic in labor and endurance.
c" 6n the event that dubious elements manage to sli in among legionaries, they !ill be sent home at
their 'irst attemt to stray 'rom the straight ath and this should be reorted to me ersonally.
6n 'act each leader is resonsible 'or his men.
d" 6 !ill arrive 2onday morning Culy -%, 'ollo!ing the rally in
4t daybrea;, be'ore starting !or; you !ill attend the religious
service celebrated by all the riests in the area.
Lou are on the eve o' !riting a ne! age in the history boo; o' legionary battles,
The country !ill be loo;ing uon you as uon heroes once again, as it has seen you so many times
Head then, your hearts 'ull o' enthusiasm, to!ards the 'ield !here a di''icult >ob is !aiting 'or you,
but through !hich you !ill ma;e a ne! sacri'ice, thus a ne! ste to!ards our victory, the legionary
6 e<ect there'ore, all o' you on our ne! 'ield o' battle.
8ucharest, Cune $/, -.//. Corneliu Qelea-Codreanu
Chie' o' the 1egion
)ver $%% young legionaries gathered at 5isani on Culy -%, coming on 'oot 'rom Calati, Focsani,
8ucharest, 8uDau, Tecuci, 6asi, 8raila, under the leadershi o' #telian Teodorescu, 9icolae
Constantinescu, Pavaluta, Doru 8elimace, #toenescu and 8ruma.
8ut instead o' being >oy'ully received and given something to eat and a resting lace, tired and
hungry as they !ere on arrival, they !ere surrounded by several gendarmes comanies, attac;ed
!ith the brutality o' savage beasts and ;noc;ed to the ground under the blo!s.
The gendarmes !ere so instructed by their o''icers, by orders 'rom the 2inistry o' 6nternal 4''airs -
!here 2r. 4rmand CalinescuI, according to his o!n statements, held a ma>or role in the measures
'or our torture and suression - that they rained their blo!s uon these young (omanians !ith as
much hatred as i' they !ere stri;ing the greatest enemies o' the (omanian eole.
4mong those !ounded and humiliated to the last limit o' humiliation !ere legionaries #telian
Teodorescu, 8ruma, Doru 8elimace, Father 6on Dumitrescu, #toenescu, Pavaluta, and 9icolae
Constantinescu, gravely !ounded 'or the 'ourth time in t!o months.
The ne!s o' this unheard - o' cruelty against some young eole coming to do a good deed, and o'
all the indignities to !hich they !ere sub>ected, has sread li;e a blac; veil over the crushed and
!orried hearts o' all our youth, !ho, 'or their 'aith and their love o' country, 'elt betrayed by the
oliticians o' the country to their alien enemy. 6 understood then, that all avenues !ere closed to us,
and that 'rom then on !e must reare 'or death.
:e e<erienced a state o' general deression in !hich !e 'elt that all our reserves o' atience and
sel' control !ere at the brea;ing oint. 6 realiDed that everything around me !as crac;ing and that,
over everything else, i' one single sla in the 'ace !ould occur, it !ould lead to irrearable
mis'ortune. 6 'elt li;e crying out 'rom the deths o' my soulG :e can no longer stand itM
6n this deressing atmoshere 6 addressed mysel' to the Prime 2inister in the 'ollo!ing letter !hich
!as ublished in the ne!saer Calendarul (+The CalendaK=" o' Culy $%, -.//G
2r. Prime 2inister,
Follo!ing the incidents in 5isani, o' such moral gravity that they ma;e my heart bleed, 6 decided to
!rite you the lines that 'ollo!G
6 am moved to do this neither by momentary imulsiveness nor by any !ish to see my letter
ublished in ne!saers in order 'or my 'riends to alaud, or in order to easily meet the customary
'ormal obligation o' =rotesting= the in'amy eretrated in (amnicul-#arat.
6 am urged to address this letter to you by my troubled conscience telling me that this ath, onto
!hich !ith so much ease you ushed us, is - 'or any man o' honor - the ath o' 'atal
: Arniand Calinesu+ then Underseretary of #tate at the -inistry of Internal Affairs+ has @ust begun his series of
perseutions of the Iron Guard0 7e left the National)Peasant Party in February %&/4 and bea*e ) by virtue of his
personal hatred of Corneliu G0 Codreanu ) -inister of Internal Affairs and right ar* of =ing Carol II of Ro*ania0
#ine then+ the star of this sorry hero of !udeo)-asonry 5ept rising until it reahed its 2enith the day "hen+ by orders of
his august sovereign+ he had the hief of the Iron Guard assassinatedH then to boast a*ong his peers+ in the tehnial
language of a hang*an+ that he had ,deapitated the Iron Guard0, In fat Calineseu "as only a sadisti rogueH the
honor for this ,deed of ar*s, goes entirely to the 5ing0 ;Tr0<
mis'ortunes !hich can no longer be avoided.
2r. Prime 2inister,
6 shall not be able to describe to you here in a 'e! lines our martyrdom during the last ten years, in
our o!n country, 'or our (omanian and Christian 'aith.
6 shall only tell you that 'or ten years, (omanian governments have gro!n tired stri;ing us. There
!as the 1iberal administration !hich crushed us under blo!sJ there 'ollo!ed 2r. Goga, and he too
crushed us in -.$0J then 2r. 2ihalache, !ho li;e!ise gloried, along !ith the alien masters, in
barbarously hitting us, in e<terminating usJ there !as then the 6orga-4rgetoianu administration
!hich ane! struc; us till it tiredJ 'inally, you came to o!er, continuing the blo!s.
9one among these has as;ed himsel', 2r. Prime-2inister, !hether !e could suort the unending
moral and hysical tortures !hich many times tended to surass our o!ers o' resistance.
During all this time !e have suorted everything !ith great strength. :e are 'ull o' !ounds, but
!e never bent our heads. :e bore them because no matter ho! trying our torture might be, at least
our sentiment o' human dignity and our honor !ere resected. Ho!ever, lately, under your
administration, our ersecution and tortures have entered the toughest hase.
:hat haened at Teius !here my 'ather !as hit and bloodied, and !hat haened articularly at
5isani, are incomarably graver than all our su''ering u to no!. These abuses attac; our very
6 !ill not resent to you too long an account.
Lou certainly remember that t!o months ago - !hen 6 came to as; you !hat !rong had !e done to
deserve the ersecution that you began - you told meG
=:hy do you not start something constructiveK=
=2r. Prime 2inister= 6 relied, =6 decided to build a dam on 8uDau=s shore. Do you have any
=9o. 5ery !ell. 5ery nice.=
6 resented a etition to the 2inistry o' Public :or;s one month be'ore anything !as to get
under!ayJ 6 consulted the most distinguished ro'essional engineers in the 'ield and on Culy -%
!or; !as to begin.
This !as not to be only some youth recreationJ it !as the call o' our youth in the service o' the great
need 'or healthy accomlishmentJ it !as to be the education o' -,%%% young men in a constructive
6t !as to be an e<amle 'or other scores o' thousands o' youth.
6t !as to be a school 'or the great oular masses !ho 'or years had gone along !ith their bridges
and roads in disreair, !aiting 'or the state to come 'i< them, !hen in a single day their !or; in
common could have reaired them.
6t !as an encouragement 'or the !hole country and an e<amle 'or those !ho mista;enly imagine
that a strong (omania could emerge out o' someone=s ity and not 'rom the labor o' us all. #everal
days be'ore !or; !as to begin 6 sent to 5isani three distinguished young men to reare the
lodging and the rovisioning 'or those to come. 8ut they !ere ic;ed u on Culy @, transorted to
(amnicul-#arat, then chained together by their handcu''s and sent home li;e the lo!liest o' thieves
in this state o' ridicule, demeaning to their human dignity.
+T!o other youth 'rom the 7niversity o' 8ucharest, sotted in the to!n o' (amnicul-#arat, !here
they arrived to enthusiastically !or;, !ere ic;ed u, ta;en to olice, trivially insulted and slaed
by the to!n=s olice chie' and t!o olice commissars - brothers
6onescu - then, !ith hands tied behind their bac;s, they !ere !al;ed through the middle o' to!n to
the deot, and by train ta;en bac; home.
Finally, on 2onday, Culy -%, $%% youth arrived in 5isani, most o' them students.
There, instead o' being !elcomed !ith oen arms 'or their good intentions, they !ere met by the
county re'ect, the rosecutor, gendarmes Col. 6gnat, Cten. Celeanu, gendarmes 1ieut. Fotea,
several hundred gendarmes !ith !eaons at the ready, an in'antry comany !ith machine guns set
u, and they !ere called on to immediately leave the locality in a tone o' un>usti'ied insulting
Faced !ith such a redicament o' threats, the $%% youth lay do!n in the si<-inch mud and in that
humble osition began singing +God is !ith 7s, +
The gendarmes !ere ordered to s!oo do!n on them. #everal hundreds rushed at them, tramling
them, crushing !ith their boots their chests and headsJ the youth endured this !hole calvary in a
martyr-li;e silence, o''ering no resistance.
4t the head o' those ;ic;ing the students !ere Prosecutor (achieru and Col. 6gnat !ho !ith his
o!n hand ulled out the hair o' student 8ruma, and 1ieut. Fotea, !ho rained blo!s !ith his 'ists on
the chee;s o' the innocent youth.
4t the end, roe !as broughtJ the hands o' the $%% youth !ere barbarously tied behind their bac;s
a'ter !hich they !ere ;et thus in the rain 'or hal' a day.
6n the meantime Father Dumitrescu arrived and the rosecutor as;ed himG
=:hat are you doing hereK=
=6 am a riest. 6 came to say 2ass be'ore !or; starts.=
=Lou are not a riest. Lou are an ass, relied the rosecutor. =Tie his hands behind his bac; right
The riest=s hands !ere tied >ust li;e the others and then all o' them, in this humiliating osition,
!ere marched to (arnnicul-#arat and loc;ed u at the gendarmerie, !here again they !ere insulted
and horribly tortured by the rosecutor, gendarmes and olicemen.
#ome, ta;en out o' those torture chambers or the cellars in !hich they had been thro!n, then beaten
!ith o<-vein !his, 'ainted.
+Follo!ing 'our days o' such an ordeal they !ere 'reed, 'or there !as nothing o' !hich they could
be accused.
+)thers, arehended on their !ay to 5isani, !ere loc;ed u at 8uDau and 8raila !hence, hands
tied, they !ere sent home. There are -F more !ho, u to today, #aturday, have not yet arrived. They
!ere. ta;en on 'oot 'rom 8uDau to 8ucharest, 'rom gendarme ost to gendarme ost, 'or 'our days
un'ed, insulted, slaed.
2r. Prime 2inister,
+These are not isolated events, but, by the government=s order reaching any lace in the country.
+For t!o !ee;s, !ithout any guilt - and the incontestable roo' o' this is all the decisions o' >ustice
handed do!n-!e have been struc; and insulted at each steJ at 8ucharest, at 4rad, at Teius, at
Piatra-9eamt, and at #uceava.
+2r, Prime 2inister,
6 call your attention in the most resect'ul manner, that !e, !ho ;no! history and the sacri'ices
made by each eole !hen it !ished to attain a better lot, !e, (omania=s resent day youth, do not
re'use this sacri'ice.
:e are not co!ards, to avoid the sacri'ice, due a ne! (omania.
=8ut, 6 again call it to your attention, that 6 taught these young men the sentiment o' human dignity
and that o' honor.
:e ;no! ho! to die, i' need be, as !e shall rove. Lou may loc; us uJ our bones can rot in the
rison=s deths. :e may be shot to death. 8ut !e may not be slaed, !e may not be s!orn at and
!e may not have our hands tied behind our bac;s.
:e do not remember that our eole -during our sad but roud (omanian history- at any time
tolerated being dishonored.
)ur 'ields are 'ull o' the dead, but not o' co!ards.
Today !e are 'ree men !ith the consciousness o' our rights. #laves !e are not and never !ere. :e
receive death, but not humiliation.
(est assured, 2r. Prime 2inister, that !e cannot suort, these days o' humiliation and indignity.
(est assured, 6 beg you, that a'ter ten years o' su''ering !e have su''icient moral strength le't to
'ind an honorable e<it 'rom a li'e !e cannot suort !ithout honor and dignity.
4ccet lease my sentiments.
Corneliu Qelea-Codreanu+
Let, the torments o' this youth !ere not to end. 8e'ore our eyes the horiDon gre! ever dar;er. )ther
trials, even greater, !ere being reared 'or us. Hardly !as the torture o' 5isani ended !hen 6 heard
that 6.G. Duca, the head o' the 1iberal Party, le't 'or Paris. :e !ere astonished to read in Parisian
ne!saers the declarations he madeJ that +The 6ron Guard+ is in the ay o' HitleritesJ that the
5aida government is !ea; because it does not destroy usJ and that he, 6.G. Duca and his arty have
assumed the resonsibility 'or rearing our death, 'or e<terminating us. 4t home, 5iitorul (+The
Future+" the arty=s o''icial aer !ill bear do!n on us on the basis o' the same argumentsG
+anarchical movement,+ +subversive movement,+ (+a movement in the ay o' the Hitlerites,+ and on
the 5aida administration accusing it o' +!ea;ness+ and +tolerance+ to!ard our movement, and o'
+'lirting+ !ith our +anarchical+ and +sold-to-the-9aDis+ movement.
4s a nation !e !ill 'all do!n these days to the lo!est levels o' humiliation. T!o (omanian
statesmen, 6.G. Duca and 9. Titulescu !ill arrange !ith the (omanian olitical 'ront o' the Paris
Ce!ish ban;ers= trusts-interested on one hand in the merciless e<loitation o' our country=s riches
and on the other in assuring as hay as ossible a situation 'or their co-religionists in (omania-the
coming to o!er o' the 1iberal Party, This, on the 'ormal condition, the obligation, to e<terminate
the legionary movement by any means. 4 young, strong, roud (omanian legionary nation to se!
them out o' the country !ith all their reying caital does not set !ell !ith the 'oreign ban;ers.
4nd thus, as a comletion o' our more than a decade o' su''ering, !ithout being guilty o' anything,
our cro!n o' death is reared 'or 7#.
8e it ermitted me that, at the end o' this series o' battles, 6 turn my thought to!ard my mother,
!hose soul has 'ollo!ed me year in and year out and hour by hour, trembling at each blo! struc; at
me and shuddering at each threat thro!n at me by 'ate. #earch a'ter search conducted by brutal and
indecent rosecutors and olice commissars disruted each year the tranEuility o' her home, 'rom
!hich any trace o' >oy and eace had long since disaeared. :hat a re!ard 'rom a eole debased
by its oliticians, to a mother !ho, in the bitterest rivation, raised seven children in the love o'
their countryM 1et these 'e! !ords be a tribute to all mothers !hose children have 'ought, su''ered
or died 'or the (omanian nationM
:ith these last narratives concluding this volume, my youth, and that o' many among you, bas
ended, :e !ill never again traverse its aths.
6' these last -? years o' our youth have not been too 'ull o' good times and >oys, a great satis'action
lights my conscience no!. 4 legionary (omania has thrust its roots, li;e those o' a tree, into the
'lesh o' our hearts. 6t gro!s 'rom ain and sacri'ice, and our hungry eyes !atch it bloom, lighting
the horiDons and the 'uture centuries !ith its slendor and ma>esty, This ma>esty over!helmingly
re!ards, not only our small sacri'ices, but any human su''ering, be it most terrible.
D*4( C)2(4D*#,
To you, !ho have been struc;, maligned or martyred, 6 can bring the ne!s, !hich 6 !ish to carry
more than the 'rail value o' a casual rhetorical hraseG soon !e shall !in.
8e'ore your columns, all our oressors !ill 'all. Forgive those !ho struc; you 'or ersonal
reasons. Those !ho have tortured you 'or your 'aith in the (omanian eole, you !ill not 'orgive.
Do not con'use the christian right and duty o' 'orgiving those !ho !ronged you, !ith the right and
duty o' our eole to unish those !ho have betrayed it and assumed 'or themselves the
resonsibility to oose its destiny. Do not 'orget that the s!ords you have ut on belong to the
nation. Lou carry them in ber name, 6n her name you !ill use them 'or unishment-un'orgiving and
unmerci'ul. Thus and only thus, !ill you be rearing a healthy 'uture 'or this nation.
4t Carmen #ylva, 4ril F, -./0.

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