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KOMPOSIT

 

Fibers

 
KOMPOSIT Fibers

Tipe-tipe Komposit Berdasarkan Material Penyusunnya

Matrix

Metal

Ceramic

Polymer

phase/Reinforc

ement Phase

Metal

Powder metallurgy

Cermets (ceramic-

Brake pads

parts – combining immiscible metals

metal composite)

Ceramic

Cermets, TiC, TiCN

SiC reinforced

Fiberglass

Cemented carbides –

Al2O3

used in tools Fiber-reinforced metals

Tool materials

Polymer

   

Kevlar fibers in an epoxy matrix

Elemental

Fiber reinforced

 

Rubber with

(Carbon,

metals

carbon (tires)

Boron, etc.)

Auto parts

aerospace

reinforced plastics

Boron, Carbon

Tipe-tipe Komposit Berdasarkan Material Penyusunnya Matrix Metal Ceramic Polymer phase/Reinforc ement Phase Metal Powder metallurgy Cermets

MMC’s

Metal Matrix Composites

CMC’s

Ceramic Matrix Comp’s.

PMC’s

Polymer Matrix Comp’s

Tipe-tipe Komposit Berdasarkan Material Penyusunnya Matrix Metal Ceramic Polymer phase/Reinforc ement Phase Metal Powder metallurgy Cermets

Penguatan oleh Fiber

Penguatan oleh Fiber Pada umumnya, komposit terdiri dari matriks yang menyatukan material penguat (reinforcing materials). Material

Pada

umumnya,

komposit

terdiri

dari

matriks

yang

menyatukan material penguat (reinforcing materials).

Material penguat yang paling penting adalah berbentuk fiber yang memberikan kekuatan utama komposit.

Namun,

fungsi

penguat

material

kadang

tidak

hanya

kekuatan akan tetapi juga dalam hal ketahan atau daya

hantar panas dan listrik, dan ketahanan korosi. Pertimbangan lainnya adalah kekakuan (stiffness/modulus elasticity) atau berbagai property yang lain.

Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix

Matrix

•Transfer Load to Reinforcement •Temperature Resistance •Chemical Resistance

Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Matrix •Transfer Load to Reinforcement •Temperature Resistance •Chemical Resistance Reinforcement •Tensile Properties

Reinforcement

•Tensile Properties •Stiffness •Impact Resistance

Bentuk2 Material Penguat

Fibers

Bentuk2 Material Penguat Fibers Penampang lintang bisa lingkaran, persegi, atau hexagonal Diameter --> 0.0001” - 0.005

Penampang lintang bisa lingkaran, persegi, atau hexagonal

Diameter --> 0.0001” - 0.005 “

Panjang --> L/D ratio

100 -- for chopped fiber much longer for continuous fiber

Particulate

Partikel kecil yang menghalangi pergerakan dislokasi (pd metal composite) dan memperkuat matriks.

For sizes > 1 μm, strength of particle is involves in load sharing with matrix

Flakes

Flat platelet form

Berbagai Pertimbangan Desain Komposit

Performansi komposit:

Berbagai Pertimbangan Desain Komposit Performansi komposit: Kekuatan, Temperatu, Kekakuan Teknik pembuatan ( manufacturing process ) Pertimbangan

Kekuatan, Temperatu, Kekakuan Teknik pembuatan (manufacturing process) Pertimbangan umur (life cycle consideration)

Harga (Cost)

Pertimbangan-Pertimbangan Pemilihan Matrik

Pertimbangan-Pertimbangan Pemilihan Matrik End Use Temperature Temperatur operasi (penggunaan) Toughness Ketangguhan Cosmetic Issues Tampilan, estetika Flame

End Use Temperature Temperatur operasi (penggunaan)

Toughness Ketangguhan Cosmetic Issues Tampilan, estetika Flame Retardant Tahan api Processing Method Metode pemrosesan

Adhesion Requirements Kebutuhan akan perekat

Macam-macam Penguat (reinforcement)

Fiber Type

Fiberglass

Carbon

Aramid

Textile Structure

Unidirectional

Woven

Braid

Macam-macam Penguat ( reinforcement ) Fiber Type Fiberglass Carbon Aramid Textile Structure Unidirectional Woven Braid

Fibers Glass (1)

E-glass:

Alumina-calcium-borosilicate glass (electrical applications)

S-2 glass:

Magnesuim aluminosilicate glass (reinforcements)

Fibers Glass (1) E-glass: Alumina-calciu m-borosilicate glass (electrical applications) S-2 glass: Magnesuim aluminosilicate glass (reinforcements) Glass

Glass offers good mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties at a relatively low cost.

 

E-glass

S-2 glass

Density

2.56 g/cc

2.46 g/cc

Tensile Strength

390 ksi

620 ksi

Tensile Modulus

10.5 msi

13 msi

Elongation

4.8%

5.3%

Glass – Fibers (2)

Glass – Fibers (2) Jenis fiber yang paling banyak dipergunakan Penggunaan: pipa, tangki, perahu, alat-alat olah

Jenis fiber yang paling banyak dipergunakan

Penggunaan: pipa, tangki, perahu, alat-alat olah raga

Kelebihan

 

Low cost

Corrosion resistance

Low cost relative to other composites:

Kekurangan

Relatively low strength

High elongation

Moderate strength and weight

Tipa-tipe:

 

E-Glass - electrical, cheaper

S-Glass - high strength

Aramid Fibers (1)

Kevlar™ & Twaron™

Aramid Fibers (1) Kevlar™ & Twaron™ Para aramid fiber characterized by high tensile strength and modulus

Para aramid fiber characterized by high tensile strength and modulus

Excellent Impact Resistance Good Temperature Resistance

Density

1.44 g/cc

Tensile Strength

400 ksi

Tensile Modulus

18 Msi

Elongation

2.5%

Aramid (Kevlar, Twaron)

(2)

Penggunaan:

Aramid (Kevlar, Twaron) (2) Penggunaan: high performance replacement for glass fiber Contoh-contoh penggunaan Armor, protective clothing,

high performance replacement for glass fiber

Contoh-contoh penggunaan

Armor, protective clothing, industrial, sporting goods

Keuntungan:

higher strength and lighter than glass More ductile than carbon

Carbon Fiber (1)

Carbon Fiber (1) PAN: Fiber made from Polyacrylonitrile precursor fiber High strength and stiffness Large variety

PAN: Fiber made from Polyacrylonitrile precursor fiber

High strength and stiffness Large variety of fiber types available

 

Standard Modulus

Intermediate Modulus

Density

1.79 g/cc

1.79 g/cc

Tensile Strength

600 ksi

800 ksi

Tensile Modulus

33 Msi

42 Msi

Elongation

1.8 %

1.8 %

Carbon – Fibers (2)

2nd most widely used fiber Examples

aerospace, sporting goods

Advantages

high stiffness and strength Low density Intermediate cost Properties:

Carbon – Fibers (2) 2nd most widely used fiber Examples aerospace, sporting goods Advantages high stiffness

Standard modulus: 207-240 Gpa Intermediate modulus: 240-340 GPa High modulus: 340-960 GPa Diameter: 5-8 microns, smaller than human hair

Fibers grouped into tows or yarns of 2-12k fibers

Carbon – Fibers (3)

Types of carbon fiber

Carbon – Fibers (3) Types of carbon fiber vary in strength with processing Trade-off between strength

vary in strength with processing

Trade-off between strength and modulus

Intermediate modulus

PAN (Polyacrylonitrile)

fiber precursor heated and stretched to align structure and remove non-carbon material

High modulus

made from petroleum pitch precursor at lower cost

much lower strength

Weight Considerations

Weight Considerations Aramid fibers are the lightest 1.3-1.4 g/cc Fiberglass is the heaviest 2.4 g/cc 1.79

Aramid fibers are the lightest 1.3-1.4 g/cc

Fiberglass is the heaviest 2.4 g/cc

1.79 g/c

Carbon

Strength Considerations

Strength Considerations Carbon is the strongest 600-800 ksi 400-600 ksi Fiberglass Aramids 400 ksi
Carbon is the strongest 600-800 ksi 400-600 ksi Fiberglass Aramids 400 ksi
Carbon is the strongest
600-800 ksi
400-600 ksi
Fiberglass
Aramids
400 ksi

Impact Resistance

Impact Resistance Kevlar is the toughest Fiberglass Carbon

Kevlar is the toughest

Fiberglass

Carbon

Stiffness Considerations

Carbon is the stiffest 30-40 msi Fiberglass 10-13 msi Aramids 14 msi
Carbon is the stiffest
30-40 msi
Fiberglass
10-13 msi
Aramids
14 msi
Stiffness Considerations Carbon is the stiffest 30-40 msi Fiberglass 10-13 msi Aramids 14 msi

Cost Considerations

Cost Considerations Fiberglass is cost effective $30.00-$50.00/lb $5.00-8.00/lb. $20.00/lb Aramids Carbon

Fiberglass is cost effective

$30.00-$50.00/lb

$5.00-8.00/lb.

$20.00/lb

Aramids

Carbon

Fabric Structures

Fabric Structures Woven: Series of Interlaced yarns at 90 ° to each other Knit: Series of

Woven:

Series of Interlaced yarns at 90° to each

other

Knit:

Series of Interlooped Yarns

Braided:

Series of Intertwined, Spiral Yarns

Nonwoven: Oriented fibers either mechanically, chemically, or thermally bonded

Woven Fabrics

Woven Fabrics Basic woven fabrics cons ists of two systems of yarns interlaced at right angles

Basic woven fabrics consists of two systems of yarns interlaced at right angles to create a single layer with isotropic or biaxial properties.

Physical Properties

Construction (ends & picks) Weight Thickness Weave Type

Physical Properties Construction (ends & picks) Weight Thickness Weave Type

Components of a Woven Fabric

Components of a Woven Fabric
Components of a Woven Fabric

Basic Weave Types

Plain Weave

Basic Weave Types Plain Weave
Basic Weave Types Plain Weave

Basic Weave Types

Satin 5HS

Basic Weave Types Satin 5HS
Basic Weave Types Satin 5HS

Basic Weave Types

2 x 2 Twill

Basic Weave Types 2 x 2 Twill
Basic Weave Types 2 x 2 Twill

Basic Weave Types

Non-Crimp

Basic Weave Types Non-Crimp
Basic Weave Types Non-Crimp

Braiding

Braiding A braid consists of two sets of yarns, which are helically intertwined. The resulting structure

A braid consists of two sets of yarns, which are helically intertwined.

The resulting structure is oriented to the longitudinal axis of the braid.

This structure is imparted with a high level of conformability, relative low cost and ease of manufacture.

Braid Structure

Braid Structure
Braid Structure

Types of Braids

Types of Braids
Types of Braids

Triaxial Yarns

A system of longitudinal yarns can be introduced which are held in place by the braiding yarns

Triaxial Yarns A system of longitudinal yarns can be introduced which are held in place by

These yarns will add dimensional stability, improve tensile properties, stiffness and compressive strength.

Yarns can also be added to the core of the braid to form a solid braid.

Triaxial Yarns A system of longitudinal yarns can be introduced which are held in place by

Kesimpulan

Kesimpulan Material komposit menjanjikan pilihan desain yang tak terbatas. Pemilihan Matriks, Fiber, dan Preform sangat penting

Material komposit menjanjikan pilihan desain yang tak terbatas.

Pemilihan Matriks, Fiber, dan Preform sangat penting pada prose sdesain.

Struktur dapat dihasilkan dengan sifat- sifat khusus untuk memenuhi kebutuhan penggunaan.

Kesimpulan Material komposit menjanjikan pilihan desain yang tak terbatas. Pemilihan Matriks, Fiber, dan Preform sangat penting

Others Fibers (1)

Boron

High stiffness, very high cost

Large diameter - 200 microns

Good compressive strength

Others Fibers (1) Boron High stiffness, very high cost Large diameter - 200 microns Good compressive

Polyethylene - trade name: Spectra fiber

Textile industry

High strength

Extremely light weight

Low range of temperature usage

Other - Fibers (2)

Other - Fibers (2) Ceramic Fibers (and matrices) Very high temperature applications (e.g. engine components) Silicon

Ceramic Fibers (and matrices)

Very high temperature applications (e.g. engine components) Silicon carbide fiber - in whisker form.

Ceramic matrix so temperature resistance is not compromised

Infrequent use

Fiber Material Properties Steel: density (Fe) = 7.87 g/ cc; TS=0.380 GPa; Modulus=207 GPa Al: density=2.71

Fiber Material Properties

Fiber Material Properties

Steel: density (Fe) = 7.87 g/cc; TS=0.380 GPa; Modulus=207 GPa Al: density=2.71 g/cc; TS=0.035 GPa; Modulus=69 GPa

Fiber Strength

Fiber Strength
Fiber Strength