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# 2/18/2014

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Chapter 9
Decibel (dB)
Level of gain
Relates input to output
Unless noted, log
10
x is assumed
N = 10
x
x = log
10
N
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 2
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FIG. 21.1 Semilog graph
paper.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 3
FIG. 21.2 Frequency log
scale.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 4
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1 Bel= 10 Decibels (dB)
Power
JB = 1log
10
P
c
P
i
Voltage
JB = 2log
10
v
c
v
i
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 5
TABLE 21.1
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 6
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At frequencies below mid-range, the coupling and bypass capacitors
lower the gain.
At frequencies above mid-range, stray capacitances associated with
the active device lower the gain.
Also, cascading amplifiers limits the gain at high and low frequencies.
Frequency Response: The frequency range in which an amplifier
will operate with negligible effects from capacitors and device
internal capacitances; often called the mid-range.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 7
X
c
=
A Bode plot illustrates
the frequency response
of an amplifier.
The horizontal scale
indicates the frequency
(in Hz) and the vertical
scale indicates the gain
(in dB).
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 8
Fig. 9.8
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The Bode plot not only
indicates the cutoff
frequencies of the
various capacitors it also
indicates the amount of
attenuation (loss in gain)
at these frequencies.
The rate of attenuation
is sometimes referred to
as roll-off.
The roll-off is measured in dB-per-octave or dB-per-decade.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 9
attenuation for every 10-
fold change in frequency.
For attenuations at the
low-frequency end, it
refers to the loss in gain
from the lower cutoff
frequency to a frequency
that is one-tenth the
cutoff value.
f
LS
= 9kHz gain is 0dB
f
LS
/10 = .9kHz gain is 20dB
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 10
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-dB/octave refers to the
attenuation for every 2-
fold change in frequency.
For attenuations at the
low-frequency end, it
refers to the loss in gain
from the lower cutoff
frequency to a frequency
one-half the cutoff value.
f
LS
= 9kHz gain is 0dB
f
LS
/ 2 = 4.5kHz gain is 6dB
Therefore the roll-off is 6dB/octave.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 11
The mid-range of an
amplifier is called the
bandwidth of the
amplifier.
The bandwidth is defined
by the lower and upper
cutoff frequencies.
Cutoff frequency any
frequency at which the
gain has dropped by 3 dB
(70.7%) from its mid-
range value
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 12
Fig. 9.8
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At low frequencies, the
reactances of the coupling
capacitors (C
S
, C
C
) and the
bypass capacitor (C
E
) affect
the circuit impedances.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 13

c
=
1
2nRC
The cutoff frequency due to C
S
can be calculated
using
where
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 14
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The cutoff frequency due to C
C
can be calculated using
where
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 15
The cutoff frequency due to C
E
can be calculated with
where
and
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 16
R
e
is the resistance as seen from C
E
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The Bode plot indicates
that each capacitor may
have a different cutoff
frequency.
It is the device that has
the highest lower cutoff
frequency (f
L
) that
dominates the overall
low-frequency response
of the amplifier.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 17
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 18
Phase shift
0 = tan
-1
R
X
c
0 = tan
-1
]
]
l
-45 at
c

I
=
1
2nRC
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ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 19
Find
r
e
Z
i
f
LS
f
LC
f
LE
Low cut-off frequency
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At low frequencies, the
reactances of the
coupling capacitors (C
G
,
C
C
) and the bypass
capacitor (C
S
) affect the
circuit impedances.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 21
The cutoff frequency due to C
G
can be calculated with
where
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 22
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The cutoff frequency due to C
C
can be calculated with
where
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 23
The cutoff frequency due to C
S
can be calculated with
where
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 24
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The Bode plot indicates that
each capacitor may have a
different cutoff frequency.
The capacitor that has the
highest lower cutoff
frequency (f
L
) is closest to
the actual cutoff frequency
of the amplifier.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 25
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 26
Find
V
GSQ
and I
DQ
g
mo
and g
m
A
VMID
Z
I
A
VS
f
LG
, f
LC
, and f
LS
Low cut-off frequency
rd =
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Any p-n junction can develop capacitance. This capacitance
becomes noticeable across:
The BJT base-collector junction in a common-emitter
amplifier operating at high frequencies
The FET gate-drain junction in a common-source
amplifier at high frequencies
These capacitances are represented as separate input and
output capacitances, called the Miller capacitances.
THESE ARE NOT ACTUAL COMPONENTS, BUT
A PHENOMENON THAT OCCURS IN THE
CIRCUIT
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 27
Note that the amount of
Miller capacitance is
dependent on inter-
electrode capacitance
from input to output (C
f
)
and the gain (A
v
).
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 28
Feedback
Capacitance
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If the gain (A
v
) is
considerably
greater than 1,
then
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 29
Junction capacitances
C
be
, C
bc
, C
ce
Wiring capacitances
C
wi
, C
wo
Coupling capacitors
C
S
, C
C
Bypass capacitor
C
E
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 30
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where
and
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 31
where
and
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 32
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ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 33
The h
fe
parameter (or )
of a transistor varies with
frequency
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 34
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Note the highest lower cutoff frequency (f
L
) and the lowest upper cutoff
frequency (f
H
) are closest to the actual response of the amplifier.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 35
Junction capacitances
C
gs
, C
gd
, C
ds
Wiring capacitances
C
wi
, C
wo
Coupling capacitors
C
G
, C
C
Bypass capacitor
C
S
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 36
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ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 37
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 38
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ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 39
0 = tan
-1
X
c
R
0 = tan
-1
]
l
]

I
=
1
2nRC
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 40
Find
f
HI
, f
HO
High cut-off frequency
Gain Bandwidth
rd =
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Each stage has its own frequency response,
but the output of each stage is affected by
capacitances in the subsequent stage. For
example, the output capacitance (C
o
) is
affected by the input Miller Capacitance (C
Mi
)
of the next stage.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 41
Once the cutoff frequencies have been determined for each stage
(taking into account the shared capacitances), they can be plotted.
Note the highest lower cutoff frequency (f
L
) and the lowest upper cutoff
frequency (f
H
) are closest to the actual response of the amplifier.
ECET 257 Consumer Power Electronics, PNC 42