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STEEL STRUCTURES DESIGN AND FABRICATION

SEPTEMBER 1989

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EGE 31-B-1 1989

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. Scope References General Design 4.1 Design Loads 4.2 Bolted Connections 4.3 Equipment Handling Facilities 4.4 Platforms, Ladders, and Stairways 4.5 Pipe supports 4.6 Clearances and Widths 5. Material Requirements 6. Welding 7. Painting and Coating

1. SCOPE This Guide covers basic requirements for the design, material, fabrication, and erection of steel structures, excluding marine and offshore structures. 2. REFERENCES The following publications form a part of this Guide. Unless otherwise specified herein, use the latest edition.
Mobil Engineering Guides EGE 00-B-3 EGE 32-B-1 EGE 34-B-15 EGE 35-B-1 EGE 35-B-10 Structures and Equipment External Loading Design Basis Instrumentation General Requirements Fireproofing General Requirements Painting General Requirements Painting Manufacturing Facilities

AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) Specifications Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings (Manual of Steel Construction) Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts (Manual of Steel Construction) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Standards A12.1 A14.3 Safety Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings, and Toe Boards Safety Requirements for Fixed Ladders

ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Standards A123 A153 Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware

AWS (American Welding Society) Specifications A5.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flex Cored Arc Welding

MOBIL ENGINEERING GUIDE EGE 31-B-1 1989


D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel
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Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR 1910 Title 29, Part 1910: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards (Labor)

3. GENERAL 3.1 Steel structures, including platforms and means of access, shall be in accordance with the spatial, loading, and other requirements given in the project specifications and with the requirements of this Guide. 3.2 Steel structures shall be in accordance with the AISC Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings. Local codes shall be used if they are more stringent. 3.3 All structural specifications, designs, drawings, and details (except those for minor structures such as miscellaneous pipe supports, anchors, and auxiliary items) shall be prepared or checked and approved by a qualified structural engineer. Where required by a state or other authority having jurisdiction, the requisite documents shall be sealed by an engineer licensed by that authority. 4. DESIGN 4.1 4.1.1 Design Loads The following loads and forces shall be considered in design:

(a) Dead loads. (b) Live loads, including snow loads where applicable. (c) Impact, including surge forces. (d) Vibration loads. (e) Thermal forces. (f) Test loads. (g) Erection loads. (h) Maintenance loads. (i) Wind. (j) Earthquake. (k) Longitudinal and lateral horizontal forces. 4.1.2 Minimum external loadings shall be as specified in EGE 00-B-3.

4.1.3 All structural framing shall be designed for the load combinations shown in Table 1 and shall be within the limits of AISC allowable stresses. Allowable stresses may be multiplied by the values shown in Table 1 when produced by the corresponding load combinations.

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EGE 31-B-1 1989

4.1.4 Allowable stresses in structural members subjected to high temperatures shall be reduced in accordance with the AISC Manual of Steel Construction. Allowable stresses for carbon steels shall be reduced, starting at temperatures of approximately 370C (700F). Reductions in stresses for high-strength, low-alloy steels vary depending on their composition. 4.2 Bolted Connections

4.2.1 The minimum size of bolts shall be 20 mm ( in.) diameter unless limited by the size of the connected parts. A minimum of two bolts is required per connection. 4.2.2 All bolting performed with ASTM A325 or A490 bolts shall be in accordance with the AISC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts. 4.2.3 All A325 and A490 high-strength bolts shall be tightened to a bolt tension not less than that specified in Table 3 of the AISC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts. 4.2.4 Use of a burning torch or drift pin to enlarge or modify bolt holes shall not be permitted. Holes that must be enlarged to admit the bolts shall be reamed. 4.3 Equipment Handling Facilities

4.3.1 Davits shall be provided for handling equipment weighing more than 68 kg (150 lb). One example is safety valves, which are subject to removal for periodic repair and for which use of mobile handling equipment is not practical. Where possible, davits shall be positioned so that the equipment can be lowered through clear, unobstructed openings to grade. 4.3.2 Trolley beams shall be provided for handling equipment during maintenance, if such equipment is inaccessible to mobile handling equipment. 4.4 Platforms, Ladders, and Stairways

4.4.1 If the access and storage areas listed below are located more than 3.7 m (12 ft) abovegrade, or more than 1.9 m (6 ft) abovegrade and inaccessible from a mobile or portable platform, fixed platforms shall be provided. (a) Access to service openings such as manways. Platforms should not be more than 1.2 m (4 ft) below the center of manways. (b) Access to all equipment except instruments requiring inspection, adjustment, servicing during operation, or frequent maintenance. For instrument locations, refer to EGE 32-B-1. (c) Local storage of material required for maintenance and operation.

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TABLE 1 LOAD COMBINATIONS Allowable Stress Multiplier General D D + W or E 90% (D) + W or E D + L1 D + L2 + W or E Vertical Vessel Support Design 90% (EL) + W or E EL + W or E OL1 OL1 + W or E TL TL + 25% (W) Horizontal Vessel Support Design EL + W or E or BP OL1 + TF OL1 + TF + W OL1 + W or E TL TL + 25% (W) Pipe Support and Pipeway Structures OL2 + PTF OL2 + PTF + W OL2 + E 90% (EL) + W or E TL TL + 25% (W) Erection Loads DS + DE + 50% (W) 90% (DS + DE) + 50% (W)
SYMBOLS BP D Tub bundle pushing and pulling forces along the longitudinal axis of the vessel. Dead loads, including weight of structure and all materials of construction to be permanently supported by the structure. Dead weight of equipment without loose internals, piping, or insulation. Dead weight of structure without fireproofing. Earthquake load. Empty load, including weight of structure, platforms, equipment (including internals), piping, fireproofing, and insulation.

1.00 1.33 1.33 1.00 1.33

1.33 1.33 1.00 1.33 1.20 1.33

1.33 1.00 1.33 1.33 1.20 1.33

1.00 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.20 1.33

1.33 1.33

DE DS E EL

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EGE 31-B-1 1989

SYMBOLS (Contd) L1 Live loads, including snow and ice loads, impact, surge forces, vibration, thermal forces, and longitudinal and lateral horizontal forces from moving equipment. Live loads, including snow and ice loads and excluding impact, surge forces, vibration, thermal forces, and longitudinal and lateral horizontal forces from moving equipment.

L2

OL1 Operating load, including weight of any liquids or solids within the vessel, attached equipment, and piping during normal operation, in addition to all other loads used in the empty condition. OL2 Operating load, including weight of any liquids or solids within piping and equipment during normal operation, in addition to the weight of piping, equipment (including internals), structure, platforms, fireproofing, and insulation. PTF Longitudinal pipe thermal force, including pipe anchor force (if any). For horizontal thermal sliding force, use 10% of the vertical operating pipe load being supported. Exception: When three or fewer pipes are being supported, use 40% of the vertical operating pipe load of the heaviest pipe. TF TL Thermal friction force. Test load, including all loads used in the empty condition and the weight of test water in all equipment and piping loaded simultaneously. Wind load.

4.4.2 Checkered plate steel decking shall be used for floors and platforms in fire exposed areas and shall have a minimum thickness of 6.35 mm ( in.) with 12.7 mm ( in.) diameter weep holes at 600 mm (24 in.) on center. Steel grating with a nonskid surface shall be used in areas that are not fire exposed. For definition of fire exposed areas (envelopes), refer to EGE 34-B-15. 4.4.3 Access to platforms attached to vessels and to auxiliary service platforms shall be gained by means of ladders. Access to main operating levels, main service level, and roofs of buildings supporting major equipment shall be gained by means of stairways. However, consideration shall be given to elevators for accessing main operating and service levels if they are a nominal 9.1 m (30 ft) or higher above ground level. Main operating and service levels shall be those serving equipment requiring the frequent attention of operating maintenance personnel. 4.4.4 Auxiliary exits from platforms (that is, those remote from the main exit) shall be provided with ladders. Such exits shall be located so that walking distance to the nearest primary or auxiliary exit does not exceed 15.2 m (50 ft) and the length of deadend platforms is no greater than 18.6 m (200 ft) and subject to either fire or toxic-material hazards shall have at least two exists at opposite ends or corners. 4.4.5 Except as amended herein, ladders shall conform to ANSI A14.3 and OSHA standards. Self-closing safety gates shall be provided across the ladder openings at all landings. Cages shall be provided for ladders that extend more than 6.1 m (20 ft) above their own base or the base of a supporting pedestal. The cage shall start 2.5 m (8 ft) above either base. When ladders are required to be used by personnel wearing self-contained breathing apparatus, cages shall be designed oversized to permit unimpeded access. 4.4.6 The vertical rise of stairways shall not exceed 4.3 m (14 ft) for a single flight. Stairways in a single run shall have the same slope. Maximum stairway slope shall not exceed 45 degrees. It is preferred that maximum riser height not exceed 200 mm (8 in.). 4.4.7 herein. Railings and toe plates shall be provided as required by ANSI A12.1, by OSHA, and as amended

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4.4.8 Railings shall enclose all platforms and stairways. Railings shall be easily removable where required for periodic maintenance of equipment or facilities, such as at vessel manways and at the channel end of elevated exchangers. 4.4.9 Toe plates shall be provided at the perimeter of all platforms and stair landings, and around floor openings for permanent equipment, when the clearance between the edges of the flooring is greater than 50 mm (2 in.). Clearances of more than 300 mm (12 in.) also require railings around the opening. 4.4.10 The bottom edge of all toe plates shall be 6.35 mm ( in.) clear above floor level.

4.4.11 Where pipe railing is used, all connections and end openings shall be sealed to prevent internal corrosion. 4.5 Pipe Supports

4.5.1 Consideration shall be given to point support of uninsulated piping. This can be accomplished by welding a 20 mm ( in.) round steel bar angle to the top flange of all support members. Point support helps to minimize pipe corrosion. 4.5.2 Steel shoes, welded to pipe only, shall be provided for insulated lines to transfer the pipe load to the supporting member. 4.6 Clearances and Widths

4.6.1 Unless otherwise specified, minimum clear headroom over platforms, walkways, and stairways shall be 2.3 m (7 ft). 4.6.2 Minimum widths shall be:
m Frequently used walkways Infrequently used walkways Servicing or access platforms at vessels (clear of projections on vessel) Stairways Stairway landings (in direction of stairway) 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.9 ft 3 2.5 3.5 2.5 3

4.6.3 Minimum clearance from edge of roadways to buildings and structures shall be 1.2 m (4 ft). Clearance from railroad tracks shall conform to the requirements of the serving railroads. Consideration shall be given to protection of steel structures from vehicular traffic by using barriers such as guardrails and bollards.

5. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 5.1 The minimum thickness of any part of a structural shape shall be 6.35 mm ( in.).

5.2 The minimum thickness of plate material used for structural connections shall be 10 mm ( in.). 5.3 Where butting of dissimilar metals will cause galvanic action or corrosion, a suitable insulating material shall be provided between the metals.

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EGE 31-B-1 1989

5.4 Specifications for high-strength or microalloy steel and structural steel for service temperatures less than 0C (32F) shall be submitted to Mobil for approval prior to placement of an order for materials. 5.5 Where structures are fabricated of steel pipes or tubing, all open ends shall be sealed to prevent internal corrosion. 6. WELDING 6.1 All welds, except edge fillet welds, shall be complete penetration welds.

6.2 Where use of intermittent welds can result in crevice corrosion due to the accumulation of moisture, welds shall be continuous. 6.3 Welding procedures shall be qualified prior to use as described in AWS D1.1. Use of prequalified procedures in accordance with AWS D1.1 will be acceptable, provided certified test results meeting all specification requirements are submitted to and approved by Mobil. 6.4 All welders and welding operators shall be qualified by tests prescribed in AWS D1.1 for welding structural shapes, pipe, and plates. 6.5 Electrodes for the flux cored arc welding (FCAW) process shall meet the requirements of AWS A5.20. Classifications EXXT-1, EXXT-5, or EXXT-8 may be used subject to brand approval by Mobil. 6.6 Use of the "short arc" mode for the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process shall be subject to approval by Mobil and shall not be considered for base material thicknesses greater than 10 mm ( in.) or for service temperatures less than 0C (32F).

6.7

A program for inspection and testing of welding shall be submitted to Mobil for approval.

7. PAINTING AND COATINGS 7.1 All structural steel shall receive surface preparation and be painted in accordance with EGE 35-B-1 and EGE 35-B-10. 7.2 For normal and severe exposure conditions, as defined in EGE 35-B-1, consideration shall be given to hot-dip galvanizing structural steel in accordance with ASTM A123. 7.3 All hardware for galvanized structural steel shall be galvanized in accordance with ASTM A153.

7.4 Where fireproofing of structural steel is specified, the steel shall be primed in accordance with EGE 35-B-10. Fireproofing shall conform to the requirements of EGE 34-B-15. 7.5 Steel surfaces embedded in or bonded to concrete for structural reasons shall not be primed.