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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by
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‫ﺃأ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‬
 ‫ﻋﺼﺮﺍاﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ‬
‫ﻭوﻭوﻟﻔﻐﺎ ﻎ ﺎﺳ‬
The Importance of Economic
Freedom in a Globalised World
Wolfgang Kasper

‫ ﻋ ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺱس‬ :‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬

27

‫ﺷﻜﺮﻭوﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺃأﻭوﺩد ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺒ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻜﺮﻱي ﻮ ﻧﻮﻓﺎﻙك ﻭوﺟﻮﻥن ﺭرﻭوﺳ ﺎﻡم ﻭوﺁآﻻﻥن ﻣﻮﺭرﺍاﻥن ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌ ﺪ ﺍاﻟﺸﺆﻭوﻥن‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﳌﺎ ﺃأﺑﺪﻭوﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﺃأﻧ ﺃأﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﻭوﺭرﺩد‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺣ ﺎﻡم ﻭوﺃأﺧﻄﺎﺀء‪  .‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬

‫‪27‬‬

‫ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﯿﺔ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻤﻜﻔﻮﻟﺔ‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑف‪  ‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻮﻑف ﳌﺎ ﻲ ﺇإﻳﻤﺎﻧﻮ ﻞ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﻣﺮﺓة ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍاﳌﺮﺍاﺳﻠ ﻥن‪"  :‬ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻤ ﺎﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻷ ﺎ ﺗﺨﺮﺝج ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس"؛ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍاﳌﻼﺣﻆ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﺃأﻥن ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﻓﻌﻼ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻌﺰ ﺰ ﻭوﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺃأﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى ﺗﺤﻈﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻭوﺗﺤﺪﺩد ﻣﻌ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍا ﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭو ‪  :‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻼﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻝل‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻧﺼﺎﻑف‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻣﺎﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍا ﻔﺎﻅظ ﻋ ﺑ ﺌﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌ ﺶ ﻓ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر؛ ﻭو‬
‫ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎﺕت ﻣﺠﺮﺩدﺓة ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻳ ﺲ ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣ ﺎ ﺸ ﻞ ﻃﺒﻴ‬
‫ﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ؛ ﻭو‬

‫ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺷﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻛـ"ﻧﻘﺎﻁط ﺇإﻳﻘﺎﻑف ﻛ "‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ‬

‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺇإﺣﺪﻯى ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺗﻨ ﻚ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺪﺍاﻑف ﺗﻠﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍا ﺪﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪﮫ ﻟ ﺲ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﻘﻒ ﻣﺪﺍاﻓﻌﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﻈﻠﻢ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻉع ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓة ﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍا ﻜﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻘ ﺣﺔ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﻌ ﻥن ﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﺩدﻻﺕت‬
‫ﺪﺍاﻑف ﺍاﻟﺮﺋ ﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇإﺫذ ﻳﻠﺘﻘﻂ ﺍاﻟﺸﻌﺒﻮ ﻮﻥن ﺇإﺣﺪﻯى ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑ ﻥن ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﻭو ﺆ ﺪﻭو ﺎ ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻏ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥن ﺑﻪﮫ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﻮ ﺃأ ﻢ ﻳﺆ ﺪﻭوﻥن ﺇإ ﻤﺎﻝل‬

‫ﺪﺍاﻑف‬

‫ﺪﺍاﻑف ﺧﺮﻯى‬

‫ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳ ﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺑﺎ ﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳﺘ ﺴ ﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎ ﻢ ﻋﺎﺟﻼ ﺃأﻡم ﺁآﺟﻼ ﺑﺎﺿﻄﺮﺍاﺭر ﻢ ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﺗﺨﺎﺫذ ﺇإﺟﺮﺍاﺀءﺍاﺕت ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣ ﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠ ﺍاﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎ ﻢ ﻭو ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴ‬

‫ﺇإ ﺍا ﻔﺎﻅظ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋ ﺣﺴﺎﺏب‬

‫ﻯى ﺍاﳌﻌ‬
‫ﻭو ﻣﺎﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮ ‪  ‬‬

‫ﺪﺍاﻑف ﺧﺮﻯى‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟ ﺪﻑف ﻳﺪﻣﺮ ﺍا ﺮﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻱي‪   .‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﺗ ﺒﻮﺃأ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺪﺍاﻑف‬

‫ﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻣﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻳﻘﺪﺭرﻩ ﺸ ﻞ ﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻮﻙك ﻭوﻓﻮﻟﺘ ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﻭوﻏ ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﻈﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ّ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻤﻞ ﺍاﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺧﺮﻯى ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ﺎ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺑ ﺖ ﺳﺎﺱس ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮﻱي ﻟﻠﻌﺼﺮ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭو‬
‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍا ﺎﻻﺕت‪ ،‬ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺪﻯى ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‬

‫ﻗﻞ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻐﻄﻲ‬

‫ﻭوﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣ ﻮﻧﺎ ﺃأﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣ ﻮﻧﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ﻣﻜﻔﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩد ﻣﺎ ﺩدﺍاﻣﺖ ﺬﻩ ﺍا ﻘﻮﻕق ﻗﺪ ﺍاﻛ ِﺴ ﺖ ﺸ ﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﻖ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩد‬

‫ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣ ﺎ ﺸ ﻞ ﺣﺮ ﻭوﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺃأﻳﺔ ﻗﻴﻮﺩد ﺿﻤﻦ ﺇإﻃﺎﺭرﻣﺒﺪﺃأ )ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‪ ،(  ‬ﻭو ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﻝل ﺑﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى‪  :  ‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺔ ﻣﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﺀء ﳌﺎ ﻟﻪﮫ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻗﻴﻮﺩد ﻣﺎ ﺩدﺍاﻡم‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﻻ ﻳ ﺴ ﺐ ﺑﺎﻷﺫذﻯى‬

‫ﻘﻮﻕق ﺧﺮﻦ؛‪ 1‬ﻭوﻋ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺳﺎﺱس ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟ ﺴﺖ‬

‫‪   1‬ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍا ﺮ ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻑف ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺪ ﻌﺮﺿﻪﮫ ﻟﻸﺫذﻯى ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺜ ﺖ ﺃأﻣﺎﻡم ﺍاﳌﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم‬
‫ﺺ ﺁآﺧﺮ ﳌﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪﮫ ﻗﺪ ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﻓﻌﻼ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟ ﺴ ﺐ ﺑﺄﺫذﻯى ﻭوﻓﻖ ﻌﺮ ﻒ ) ﺫذﻯى( ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﻗﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺒﻼﺩد؛ ﻭوﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭر ﻋ‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫ﻣﺠﺮﺩد ﺍاﻣﺘﻼﻙك ﻣﺎﺩدﻱي ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍاﳌﻘﺘ ﻴﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻣﺘﻼﻙك ﺷﺮ ﻳﺆﺳﺲ‬

‫ﺍا ﻘﻮﻕق ﻗﺪ ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﻌﻀ ﺎ ﻏ ﻣﻤﺎﺭرﺱس ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺣ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜ ﺸﻒ ﻌﺪ‪ 2.‬ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﺰﻣﺔ ﻏ ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﺓة ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺄﺳ ﺲ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺄﺳ ﺴ ﺎ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮﻋ ﺷﻴﺎﺀء ﻭوﺣﺴﺐ ) ﺎﻷﺭرﺍا‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﻓ ﺎﺭر )ﻛﺤﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺔ(‪  ‬ﻭو ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺮﺀء ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻭوﻣ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‪  .‬‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣ ﺎ ﺸ ﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﻨﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻜﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺭرﺽض ﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡم ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪﮫ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﻞ ﻓ ﺴ ﺒﻌﺪ ﺧﺮ ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺃأﺭرﺿﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡم ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺭرﺽض ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺘﻪﮫ ﺸ ﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺯزﺭرﺍاﻋﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﺻﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﻗﺪ ﻌﻤﺪ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺇإ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺟﺎﺭرﻩ ﺣﻖ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺮﻭوﺭرﻓ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﻳ ﻴﻊ ﺣﻖ ﺍاﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﻓ ﺎ ﻟﻄﺮﻑف ﺁآﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻊ ﻐ ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﻗﺪ ﻳ ﻴﻊ ﺣﻖ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺩدﻥن ﺇإ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎ‪   ،‬ﺃأﻭو ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜ ﺸﻒ ﻗﺪﺭرﺗﻪﮫ ﻋ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺭرﺎﺡح ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪﺩدﺓة ﺗ ﻴﺢ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﻦ ﺇإﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺃأ ﺸﻄﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺭرﺽض‪  .‬ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬

‫ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭرﺦ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻟﻠ ﺸﺮﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭرﻩ ﺗﺮﺍاﻛﻤﺎ ﳌﻼﻳ ﻥن ﻭوﻣﻼﻳ ﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺬﻩ ﻛ ﺸﺎﻓﺎﺕت ﻭوﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻟ ﺎ‬
‫ﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭوﺗﺮﺍاﻛ ﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺎ ﻌﺔ ﻟﻶﺧﺮﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﺍاﻟﻄﻮ ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍا ﺼﻮﻝل ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺎ ﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ؛‪ 3‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫذﺍا‬

‫ﻧﺘﻜﺒﺪ ﻋﻨﺎﺀء ﺯزﺭرﺍاﻋﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟ ﻤﻴﻊ ﺃأﻥن ﺴﺘﻮﻟﻮﺍا ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ؟ ﻭوﳌﺎﺫذﺍا ﻧﺮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻄﻌﺎﻥن ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟ ﻤﻴﻊ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺤﺼﻠﻮﺍا ﻋ ﻣﺎ ﺸﺎﺅؤﻭوﻥن ﻣ ﺎ؟ ﻭوﳌﺎﺫذﺍا ﻧﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺍاﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑف‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺩدﻥن ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻤﻨﻊ ﺍا ﻤﻊ ﺑ ﻥن ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑف ﻭوﺧ ﺍاﺕت ﺧﺮﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺪﻳﺪ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻟﺰﻋﻢ‪  .‬ﻭوﺗﺠﺪﺭر ﺷﺎﺭرﺓة ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺇإ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﻌﺎ ﺕت ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺻﺮﺓة ﻌﻜﺲ ﺍاﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﻋﺐﺀء ﺛﺒﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﻓ ﺗﻠﺰﻡم‬
‫ﺃأ ﺎﺏب ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺎﺕت ﺑ ﺈﺛﺒﺎﺕت ﻋﺪﻡم ﺴﺒ ﻢ ﺑﺄﺫذﻯى ﻟﻠﺒ ﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻌ ﺎﺱس ﻭوﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪﮫ ﺍا ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﺐﺀء ﺛﺒﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻳﺤﺮﻡم ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻜ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴ ﻥن ﻣﻦ ﻌﺾ ﺣﻘﻮﻗ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺼﻞ ﺃأﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺇإ ﺣﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻭوﻥن ﻣ ﻮﻥن ﺟﻮ ﺮﻱي ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌ ﻮﻧﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻝل‬
‫ﺟﺮﺍا ﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬ﺍاﻓ ﺍاﺽض ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﺀءﺓة‪  .‬‬
‫‪  2‬ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ‪  ..‬ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت‪  :‬ﺎﺳ ‪ ،‬ﺳ ﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑ ﺘ ﻲ )ﻡم‪(22‬؛ ﺹص‪  .218-185‬‬
‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉع ﻋ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺑ ﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﺍاﻓﻴﺔ )ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕت‪  ‬ﺻﻠﻴﺔ(‪  ‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝل ﺇإ ﺍاﳌﺴﺮﺩد ﺍاﻟﺒ ﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﺍا‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺍاﺟﻊ ﺍاﳌﺬ ﻮﺭرﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍاﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳ ﺍاﺳﻢ ﺍاﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﻴﺔ )ﻡم‪ 1‬ﻣﺜﻼ(‪].‬ﺍاﳌ ﺟﻢ[‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‪  ..‬ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭرﻋ ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﻮﺭر‪  :  ‬ﺑ ﺜﺎﻝل‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(5‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫‪  ‬ﺃأﻧﺒﻞ‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫ﻭوﻋﻤﻠ ﻢ ﻭوﺭرﺃأﺱس ﻣﺎﻟ ﻢ؟ ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ‪  ‬ﻭوﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﺮﺹص ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻌﺘﻤﺪﺍاﻥن ﻋ ﺇإﻃﺎﺭر ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻴﺤﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻧﺪﻋﻮ ﺎ "ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت"‪ 4‬ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺤ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣﺎ ﺎ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋ ﺍا ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﺓة ﺴ ﺐ ﻋﺎﺩدﺍاﺕت ﻭوﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺸ ﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎ ﻤﻴﻊ ﻳﺪﺭرﻙك‬

‫ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺐ ﻳﺆﺩدﻳﺎﻥن ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻔﻘﺮ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﺼﻮﺹص ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮﻥن‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻘﻮ ﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎ ﻲ ﻋ ﻳﺪ ﺃأﻓﺮﺍاﺩد ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮ ﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺗﻮ ﻴﺨﺎ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﻧﺘﻘﺎﻣﺎ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻧﻔﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﺗﺪ‬

‫ﺓة ﻭو ﺠﺮﻱي ﻓﺮﺿ ﺎ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺗﻠﻘﺎ ﻲ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋ ﺃأﺳﺎﺱس ﺍا‬

‫ﺑـ"ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧﻠﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭوﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟ ﺲ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﻱي ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﻋ‬
‫ﺍا ﻮ ﺮﻱي ﻟـ"ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍا‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺣ ﺍاﻡم ﻭوﺍا ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻋ ﻧﻄﺎﻕق ﻭوﺍاﺳﻊ‪ 5.‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺮ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ"‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻤﺜﻠﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﺘﺪﺭر‬

‫ﺳﺎﺱس‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺮﺩد ﺍاﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝل‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻋ ﻳﺪ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺼﻴﺪ ﻭوﺍا ﻤﻊ ﺇإ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺰﺍاﺭرﻋ ﻥن ﻭوﺭرﻋﺎﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻗﺪ ﻌﺘ ﺃأ ﻢ ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭرﺦ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻭوﻝل ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ‬

‫ﺃأﻋﺎ ﻭوﺍاﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻮﺍا )‪   (12,000‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻀﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺟﺮﺕت ﺯزﺭرﺍاﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺰﺘﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﻨﺐ ﻷﻭوﻝل ﻣﺮﺓة‪،‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻌﺪ ﺎ ﺟﺮﻯى ﺍاﻛ ﺸﺎﻑف ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺰﺭرﺍاﻋﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬

‫ﺷﻤﺎﻝل ﺷﺮﻕق ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻨﺪ )ﺍاﻟﺮﺯز‪،(  ‬‬

‫ﻭوﻧﻴﻮﻏﻴ ﻴﺎ )ﺍاﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﻧﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻣﺮ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻭوﺍا ﻨﻮ ﻴﺔ )ﺍاﻟﺬﺭرﺓة ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﺎﺻﻮﻟﻴﺎ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺎ(‪  .‬‬
‫ُ‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺗ ﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺗ ﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﻔﻌﻠﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺃأﻗﻔﺎﻝل ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺸ ﻴﺪ ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﺭر ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو‬

‫ﻴﻞ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺭرﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺭرﻣﻮﺯز ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮﺔ ) ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ‬

‫‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺮﺍاﻗﺒﺔ ﻌﺪﻳﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﻥن ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو‬

‫ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺳ ﺒﻌﺎﺩد(؛ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﺗ ﺗﺐ‬

‫ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩدﺓة ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺎﺀء ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻌ ﻢ ﻟﻀﻢ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻟﺪ ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺇإ ﻣﺎ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻣ ﺎ‪   ،‬ﺃأﻭو ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭوﺽض ﻭوﻣﺮﺍاﻗﺒﺔ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩد‬
‫ﻭو ﺴﻮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑ ﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩد ) ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ ﺑﺘ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕت(‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺠﺐ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﻧ ﺎﻛ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﻟﺸﺎ ﻊ ﻟ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟ ﻠﻤﺔ )‪  (Institutions‬‬
‫‪  4‬ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﻌ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻥن ﻣﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓة‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻴﻮﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩدﺓة ﻭوﺍاﳌﺼﺎﺭرﻑف ﻭوﺍا ﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﳌ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟ ﺴﺖ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻧ ﻠ ﻳﺔ ﻳﺨﻠﻂ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺑ ﻥن ٍ‬
‫)ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت(‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﻌﻨ ﺎ ﺑﻜﻼﻣﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ )ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕت(‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕت ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﻣﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭوﺗﺔ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺑ ﻥن ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺪﻑف ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫‪  5‬ﻓ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉع ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ‪  :‬ﺃأﻭوﺳ ﻭوﻡم )ﻡم‪  .(24‬‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺒﺪﺀء ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻻﺣ ﺍاﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺩدﻋﺖ ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﻭوﺭرﺓة ﺗﺤﻈﻰ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍا ﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺼﻐ ﺓة ﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍا ﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر؛‪ 6‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻘﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻧ ﺜﻖ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭوﻗﺖ ﻃﻮ ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻇ ﻮﺭر ﺍا‬
‫ﺎﻳﻚ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﻛﻤﺎ ﻻﺣﻆ ﻓﺮ ﺪﺭرﻚ‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺸ )ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﻊ ﻭوﺍا ﺮ ﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن "ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺃأﻗﺪﻡم ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮ ﻊ"‪ 7،‬ﻭو ﻤﺮﻭوﺭر‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻌﺰﺯزﺕت ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﺍاﻟﻜ ﻨﺔ ‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻮﻙك ﻭوﺍاﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓة( ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻛﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥن ﻋ ﻳﺪ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻇ ﺮﺕت ﺇإﺛﺮ ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍا‬

‫ﺮﻱي ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻇ ﺮ ﺃأﻓﺮﺍاﺩد‬

‫ﻭوﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕت ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻥن ﺍاﻣﺘﻼﻙك ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨ ﻥن ﻭوﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭوﻓﺮﺽض ﻋﺮﺍاﻑف ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا ﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍاﺩدﻋﻮﺍا ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺍا ﻖ ﺣﺘ ﺎﺭرﻱي ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻧ ﻥن ﺆﻻﺀء‪  :‬‬
‫ﻭوﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ّ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺣﻤﻮﺭرﺍا ﻲ )‪1686-1727‬ﻕق‪.‬ﻡم( ‪  ‬ﺑﻼﺩد ﻣﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺮﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄ ﻥن‪   .‬ﻭو‬

‫ﺩدﺑﻴﺎﺕت ﺸﺎﺭر ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻣﻮ‬

‫)ﺣﻮﺍا ‪1225‬ﻕق‪.‬ﻡم( ‪  ‬‬

‫ﺻﻴﻐﺖ ﻭوﻓﺮﺿﺖ ﻋ‬

‫ﻳﺪ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺩدﺓة‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﺑﻤﺼﻄ "ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭو ﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﻷﻥن ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎ ﺶ ﺃأﻛ ﻗﺪﺭر ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻥن ﺍاﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉع ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﺘﺞ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﻏ ﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻥن‬
‫ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻣﻨﻪﮫ ﺃأﻋﺪﺍاﺩد ﺃأﻛ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﻳﻜ ﺸﻒ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣﺎﺕت ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﳌﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ‪  .‬ﻭوﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻔﺮﻭوﺿﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺄ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﺍاﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻏ ﺍاﳌﺨﺘ ﺓة ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل ﺗﺤﻒ ﺑﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺩدﻭوﻣﺎ‪  .‬ﻭوﻣ ﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻣﺮ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ‬
‫ﺃأﻭوﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃأﻥن ﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﺖ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱي ﻋ‬
‫ﻞ‬

‫ﺃأﻱي ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﻞ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺰﺖ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪ ﺍاﳌ ﻠﻒ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺪﺭر ﺭرﺎﺡح ﺃأﻡم ﺃأﻧﻪﮫ ﺳﻴﻀﺎﻑف ﺇإ‬
‫ﺣﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕت؟ ﻭو ﻞ ﺳﺘﺠﺪ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﺳﻮﻗﺎ ﻟ ﺎ ﺃأﻡم ﻻ؟ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓ‬
‫ﻮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺤﺪﺙث ﺴ ﺐ‬

‫ﻧﺘﻘﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﻱي‪    ‬ﺍاﻟﺬ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻧﻪﮫ ﻳﻜﺒﺪ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﻦ ﺍا ﺪﺩد ﺧﺴﺎﺋﺮﺑﺎ ﻈﺔ ﻛﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥن؛ ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓة ﺑﺒﺬﻝل ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ )ﺍاﻟﺒﺎ ﻈﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ( ‪  ‬ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺭرﻭوﺣﺎ ﺭرﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﺩدﺭرﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﻳﺠﺮﻱي ﺳ ﻴﻼﺀء ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻮ ﺍاﻟﺴ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﻔﺴﺮ ﺍاﳌ ﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﻭوﺭر ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍاﳌ ﺸﻮﺩدﺓة ﻟﻦ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺎ )ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺇإﻃﺎﺭر ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺗﺆﺳﺲ‬
‫ﻣﻜﻔﻮﻟﺔ(‪  ‬‬

‫ﻘﻮﻕق ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻟﺘﺎ ‪  :‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡم ﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻱي‪  .‬ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺒﺘﻜﺮﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎ‬

‫‪  6‬ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻜﻔﺎﻑف ﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل‪  :‬ﺑﺎﻭوﺭر‪ ،  ‬ﺳ ﻥن )ﻡم‪  .(2‬‬
‫ﻓ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉع ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ )ﻡم‪  .(24‬‬
‫‪  7‬ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﻊ ﻭوﺍا ﺮﺔ‪  :‬ﺎﻳﻚ‪)  ‬ﻡم‪(14‬؛ ﺝج‪  1‬ﺹص‪  .72‬‬
‫ﻭوﺭرﺍاﺟﻊ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪  :‬ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﺗﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‪  :  ‬ﺑﻴ ﺴﻮﻥن )ﻡم‪  .(3‬‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫ﻥن ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﻳﺨﺸﻮﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﻣﻴﻢ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍاﺟ ﺔ ﺿﺮﺍاﺋﺐ "ﺍاﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﻋ‬

‫ﺭرﺎﺡح ﻓﺴ ﻭوﻝل ﻣﻴﻠ ﻢ ﺇإ ﺍاﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮﺓة‬

‫ﺑﻤﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺩدﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣﺎﺕت ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻷﻣﻼﻛ ﻢ ﻭوﻣ ﺎﺭرﺍا ﻢ ﻭوﻣﻌﺎﺭرﻓ ﻢ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍا ﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺘﻮﺍاﺿﻌﺔ ﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃأﺩدﻭوﺍاﺭر ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭر ﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴ ﺐ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴ ﺐ ﻭوﺭرﺍاﺀء ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡم ﺍاﻟﺘﻘ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﻄﻔﻴﻒ ﺧﻼﻝل‬

‫ﺑﻘﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﻓﻘ ﺓة ﺣ ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا؛‪ 8‬ﻓﺎﳌﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬

‫ﻟ ﺴﺖ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈ ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻣ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﺳﻠﻴﻢ ﻭوﺍا‬

‫‪  .‬‬

‫ﺇإﻥن ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ )ﺍاﳌﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺣ ﻮﻣﻴﺎ(‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا ﻦ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻛﻨ ﻴﺠﺔ ﳌﺨﺎﺽض ﻃﻮ ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺮﺔ ﻭوﺍا ﻄﺄ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﺓة ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻴﺪﺍاﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺧﺎﺽض ﺃأﺭر ﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫ﻭو ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺻﺮﺍاﻋﺎ ﻟ ﺴﻮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺮ ﺮﺓة ﻭو ﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﺭر ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻜﻔﻲ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﻘﺮﺃأ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺮﺔ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺴﺎﻣﺢ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳ ﺍاﻟ ﺻﻴﻐﺖ ﺧﻼﻝل ﻗﺮﻭوﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺼﺮﺍاﻉع ﺍاﻟﺪﻳ ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن‬
‫ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ‪  ‬ﻭوﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻟ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺗﺠﺪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺸ ﻞ ﺃأﺛﻤﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻌﻤﻞ ﻋ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﺾ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ )ﺗﺤﺴ ﻥن‬

‫ﻌﺰ ﺰ ﺍاﻟﻄﻤﻮﺣﺎﺕت ﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱس‪   :‬ﻓ‬
‫ﻭوﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺣﺪ ﺎ ) ﻌﺰ ﺰ ﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻝل ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻼﻡم ﻭو ﻣﻦ(‪،‬‬
‫ّ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر(‪،‬‬

‫ﻌﺰ ﺰ ﺳﺘﻘﻼﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺬﺍاﺗﻴﺔ )ﺩدﻋﻢ ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر(‪  .‬ﻭو ﻤﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﺍاﻳﺎ ﺍا ﺴﻨﺔ ﺗﺰﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭو ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻷﻱي‬

‫ﺺ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍاﳌ ﺭر ﻷﻱي‬

‫ﺺ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺪﻋﻮ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ‬

‫"ﺍاﻟﺮﺃأﺳﻤﺎﻝل ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ"‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻯى ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺺ ﺗﺠﺮ ﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺄ ﺎ‬

‫ﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﺧﺮﻯى‬

‫ﻗﻞ ﻧﺠﺎﺣﺎ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﻏ ﻭو ٍﺍاﻉع ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺛﻤ ﻥن ﺃأﺛ ﺖ ﺍاﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻧﺠﺎﻋﺘﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻛﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺤﺮﻳﯾﺔ ‪  ‬ﺍاﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﯾﺔ‪   ،٬‬ﻭوﺍاﻻﺯزﺩدﻫﮬﮪھﺎﺭر‪   ،٬‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺤﺮﻳﯾﺔ ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﯿﺎﺳﻴﯿﺔ ‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﯿﺔ‪   :‬ﺣﻠﻘﺔ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‪  ‬ﻣﻦ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻞ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟ ﺴﺖ ﻣﺠﺮﺩد ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺿﺮﻭوﺭرﻱي ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺱس‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺩدﻟﺖ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺏب ﻣﺮﺍاﺭرﺍا ﻭوﺗﻜﺮﺍاﺭرﺍا‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺗﺒ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺍا ﺮ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻟﻘﺪ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍا ﺮﻓﻴﻮﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺪﻥن ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﺔ ﺇإﺑﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍاﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ ﻋ ﺍا ﺮﺔ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ )ﻭوﺍا ﺮﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳ ﻴﺔ ﺃأﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ(‪  ‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍاﻟﺰﻋﻤﺎﺀء ﻗﻄﺎﻋﻴ ﻥن ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﺪﺓة ﻃﻮ ﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻇ ﻮﺭر‬
‫‪  8‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺤﺮﺔ‪  :‬ﺳ ﻥن‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(25‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻜﻔﺎﻑف ﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل )ﻡم‪  .(2‬‬
‫ﻟﻐﺰ ﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل‪  ..‬ﳌﺎﺫذﺍا ﺗ ﺘﺼﺮﺍاﻟﺮﺃأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﻭوﺗﻔﺸﻞ ﻞ ﻣ ﺎﻥن ﺁآﺧﺮ‪  :‬ﺩدﻱي ﺳﻮﺗﻮ‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(26‬‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫذﺍا ﺗﻔﺸﻞ ﻣﻢ‪  ..‬ﺟﺬﻭوﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﻘﺮ‪  :‬ﻋﺎﺻﻢ ﺃأﻭوﻏﻠﻮ ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺴﻮﻥن )ﻡم‪.(1‬‬
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‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝل ﺑﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﺍا ﺮﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻌﺘ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺒﺪ ﻴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا‪.‬‬

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‫ﺑﻞ ﺇإﻥن ﻌﺾ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤ ﻥن ﺃأﻗﺪﻣﻮﺍا ﺣ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡح ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﺑﺈ ﺸﺎﺀء ﻗﻮﺍاﻧﻴ ﻢ ﻭوﻣﺤﺎﻛﻤ ﻢ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻢ ﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍا ﻣﻦ ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋ ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻢ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﻢ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺃأ ﺸﺆﻭو ﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻣﺎ ﺩد‬
‫ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﻱي )‪ ،(lex mercatoria‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻌﺪ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭوﻥن ﻋ ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍاﳌﻠﻚ ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩد ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒﻂﺀء ﻭو ﻧﺤﻴﺎﺯز؛ ﻭو ﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻡم ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﻮﻥن ﺑﺼﺪ ﺃأﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻧ ﺎﺯزﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺫذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﺴ ﺐ ﺍاﻣﺘﻼﻛ ﻢ ﻷﻓ ﺎﺭر ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻔ ﻢ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻀﻄ ﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﺬﺏب ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍا ﺮﻓﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺨﻠﻘﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﻭو ﺪﻓﻌﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ‪  .‬ﻭو ﺸ ﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭر ﻇ ﺮﺕت ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﺮﺓة ﺴ ﻴﺎ ﻭوﻃﺎﻟﺒﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭو ﺤ ﻮﻣﺔ ﺩدﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺬﺍا ﻋ ﺃأﻳﺪﻱي "ﻣﻮﺍاﻃ ﺍا ِ‪  ‬ﳌ ‪  ‬ﻠﻜﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺎﻧﻮﺍا ﻳﻤﺘﻠ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﻭوﺭرﺔ ﻟ ﺼﻮﻝل ﻋ ﺍا ﺮ ﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺍاﺀء ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮﺍا ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋ ﺃأﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ‪  .‬ﻭو ﺃأﻭوﺍاﺧﺮ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻗﺎﻡم ﺛﺮﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻄﻨﻮﻥن ﺃأﻣﺮ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭوﻣﺤﻴﻄ ﺎ ﺳﻴﻮﻱي ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻜﺬﺍا ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍاﻟﺮﺃأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭوﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﻤﻴﺔ ﺭرﺳﻤﻴﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺍاﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﻠﺘﺎﻥن ﺗﺮﺷﺪﺍاﻥن ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪  10.‬‬
‫ﻭوﻣﻨﺬ ﺍاﻟﺴﺘ ﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃأ ﺣﺮﺍاﻙك ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪﮫ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕق‬
‫ﺳ ﺒﺪﺍاﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺼﻐ ﺓة ﺍاﻟﻘﻠﻘﺔ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻕق ﺁآﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺨﻮﻡم ﺁآﺳﻴﺎ ﺑﺘﺤﺴ ﻥن ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭو ﻌﻴ ﻥن ﺇإﺩدﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺗﺘﻘﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺍاﺟﺘﺬﺍاﺏب ﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙك ﻋ ﺍاﻣﺘﺪﺍاﺩد ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇإ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻭوﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺨﺮﻁط ﻓ ﺎ ﻋﺪﺓة ﺩدﻭوﻝل‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻌﺰ ﺰ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍاﻥن ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﻨﺎﺯزﻻﺕت ﺿﺮ ﻴﺔ ﻭوﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺭرﺍا‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‪   .‬ﻭوﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺄﺳﻌﺎﺭر ﺭرﺧﻴﺼﺔ‪  .‬ﻟﻘﺪ‬

‫ﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺳ ﺒﺪﺍاﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪﺍاﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺩدﻋﻴﺖ "ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮﺭر ﺳﻴﻮ ﺔ"‪  ‬ﺴ‬
‫‪  ‬ﺩد ﺎﺭر ﻭوﺯز ﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻀﺮ ﻴﺔ ﻭوﺗﺤﺴ ﻥن ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ َ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺞ ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱي ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩد ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺭرﺍاﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺯز‬
‫ﺇإ ﺗﺤﺴ ﻥن‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺟﺮﺍاﺀءﺍاﺕت ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺼﻌﻮﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﺮ ﻊ ﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻭوﺳﻄﻰ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﺎﻟ ﻴﻴﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺍاﳌﺰﺪ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭو ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺍاﻧ ﺸﺮﺕت ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭوﺻﻠﺖ ﺣ ﺇإ ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺼ ﻥن‪  .‬‬
‫‪  9‬ﺍاﳌ ﺰﺓة ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ‪  :‬ﺟﻮﻧﺰ )ﻡم‪  .(15‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻐﻴ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺀء ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي‪  :‬ﻧﻮﺭرﺙث‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(23‬‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ‪  ..‬ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت )ﻡم‪(22‬؛ ﺹص‪  .435-427‬‬
‫‪  10‬ﺍاﻟﺮﺃأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍا ﺮﺔ‪  :‬ﻓﺮﺪﻣﺎﻥن‪)  ‬ﻡم‪.(10‬‬
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‫ﺃأﺭرﺟﺎﺀء ﺷﺮﻕق ﺁآﺳﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺇإ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺤﺮﻳﯾﺔ‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴﯿﻌﺔ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻤﺰﺩدﻭوﺟﺔ‪  ‬ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺤﺴ ﺖ ﺃأﺣﻮﺍاﻝل ﺍا ﺮ ﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻧﺤﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜ ﺎ‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﺰﺍاﻝل ﻌﻴﺪﺓة ﻋﻦ ﺇإﻃﻼﻕق ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍاﳌﻜﻔﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪ 11،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺷﺎ ﺪﻧﺎ‬
‫ﺃأﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟ ﺍاﺟﻌﺎﺕت ﻣ ﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍاﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﻘ ﺓة ﻋ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍاﺀء‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﻄﺮﺡح‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﺆﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻟﺘﺎ ‪  :‬ﻞ ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻳ ﺪﺩد ﺎ ﺍا ﻄﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﺁآﺧﺮ ﻦ ﻳﻤﺘﻠ ﻮﻥن ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﻣﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺎﳌﺠﺮﻣ ﻥن ﻭو ﺣﺘ ﺎﺭر ﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺎﺭرﺗﻴﻼﺕت؟ ﺃأﻡم ﻣﻦ ﻴﺌﺎﺕت ﺣ ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺇإﺟﺒﺎﺭرﺔ؟‪  ‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺫذﻛﺮﻧﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻈ ﺮ‬

‫ﺻﻞ ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬‬

‫ﺎﺟﺔ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﻳ ﻥن‬

‫ﺇإ ﺍا ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﺁآﺧﺮﻦ ﻳﺘﺼﺮﻓﻮﻥن ﺑﺎﻧ ﺎﺯز ﺔ‪ ،‬ﺎﻟﺒﻠﻄﺠﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺘﺎﻟ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﻌﺘﺪﻱي ﺟﻨ‬
‫ﻭوﻣﺎ ﺃأﺷﺒﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺟﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻮﻛﻼﺀء ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﻟﻴﻘﺪﻣﻮﺍا ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓة‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل‪  .‬ﻭو‬

‫ﻏﻀﻮﻥن ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻛﺔ ﺍاﳌﻔﺮﻭوﺿﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻘﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺑ ﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺧﺮﻯى‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻮﺭرﺍا ﻣﺮﻛﺰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻥن ﻧﺘﺎ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﻨﻜﺒﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺗ ﺎﺩد ﻻ ‪  ‬ﺗﺮﻯى ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻥن‪  .  ‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍاﺭرﺗﻔﻌﺖ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻠ ‪   .‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﺍاﳌﻌ ﺸﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭوﺗ ﺓة ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر ﻭوﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺇإ ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺘﺨﻴﻠ ﺎ ﺃأﺣﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻣ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍاﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺝج‬

‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻡم ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺼ ﻴﻊ ﻭو ﻭوﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱي ﺇإ ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﻳﻮ ﺍا ﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺃأﻛ‬
‫ﺸﻞ‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ﻻﺣ ﺍاﻡم ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺼﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺒﺔ‪   .‬ﻭوﻧ ﻴﺠﺔ ﻟ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺟ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﺭرﺗﻔﻌﺖ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﻄﺎﻉع‬
‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓة‬

‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا ﻟ ﺸ ﻞ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺇإﺟﻤﺎ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬

‫ﻭوﺗﻮﺯز ﻌﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻟ ﺴﺖ ﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓة ﻣ ﺴﺎﻭو ﺔ‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻃ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻌﻘﺪ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈ ﺎ ﻟ ﺴﺖ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓة ﻣ ﺴﺎﻭو ﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺗ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻥن‬

‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﻣﻌ ﻥن ﻟﺘ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬

‫ﺎﻑف ﻓﺈﻥن ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺮ ﻓﺮﺿ ﺎ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ٍ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪   .‬ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻣ ﻤﺔ ﻭوﻟﻢ ِ‬
‫ﺳ ﺗﻔﻊ ﺍا ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳﺘﻘﻊ ﺁآﺛﺎﺭر ﺬﺍا ﺭرﺗﻔﺎﻉع ﻋ ﻛﻔﺎﺀءﺓة ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻦ ﻌﻮﺩد ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﻌﺪ ﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺃأﺭر ﺎﺡح ﺃأﻛﻴﺪﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭوﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﺓة‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﺧﻄﻮﻁط ﻧﺘﺎﺝج‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻏﻼﻕق ﺍاﳌﺼﺎ ﻊ‪   .‬ﻭوﺳ ﻨ ﻱي ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﻭوﻗﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺣﻴ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻞ ﺴﺎﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇإ ﺍا ﺎﻡم "ﺍاﺭرﺗﻔﺎﻉع ﺳﻌﺮ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻻﺭر"‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ‪"  ‬ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺋﺮﺓة"‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺛﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺳﺘﻔﻜﺮﺑﻤﺎ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻪﮫ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕت ﺑﺄﻳﺪ ﺎ ﻟﺰﺎﺩدﺓة ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪  .‬‬

‫‪  11‬ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪  ..‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﺮﺮ ﺍاﻟﺴﻨﻮﻱي ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡم ‪  :2012‬ﻏﻮﺍاﺭرﺗ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺳﻮﻥن‪ ،‬ﻮﻝل )ﻡم‪  .(13‬‬
‫‪27‬‬

‫ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﻤﺎ ﻋ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺗﻤﺎﺭرﺱس ﻧﻔﻮﺫذﺍا‬

‫ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﻮ ﺃأ ﺎ ﺻ ﺖ‬
‫ﻮﻣﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭوﻓﻌﻠﺖ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﻄﺮﻕق‬

‫ﺟ ﻮﺩد ﺎ ﻋ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﻭوﺍا ﺴﺪ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ )ﺍاﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍا ﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟ‬

‫ﺗﺪﺭرﺠﻴﺔ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﺘ ﺴﻴﻖ ﺍاﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن‬
‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﻓ ﺍا ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ‪    ‬ﻭو ﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻤﻮﻟ ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ‪،‬‬

‫ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﻮ ﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺗﺘﻜﺒﺪ ﺎ ﺍا‬
‫ﺳﺘﻈﻞ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﻭوﺭرﻱي ﻟ ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﺘﻮﻟﺪ‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭوﺯز ﺍا ﺪ‬
‫ﺃأﺧﻄﺎﺭرﺍا ﺩدﺍا ﻤﺔ ﻟ ﺮﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪   .‬ﻭوﻛﺜ ﺍا ﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﺪ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﻮﻥن ﻭو"ﻣﺤ ﻓﻮ ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﻒ" ‪  ‬ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺳﻠﻄﺎ ﻢ ﺿﺪ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﺃأﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ ﻭوﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻮﻱي ﺣﻤﺎﻳ ﻢ‬
‫ﻭو‬

‫ﺻﻞ ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف‪ ،‬ﻟ ﺲ ﺆﻻﺀء ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﺸﺮﺍا ﻛﻐ ﻢ‪  :‬ﻳﻨ ﺰﻭوﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺹص ﻭوﺗﻔﺴﺪ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺴ ﻮﻟﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﻭوﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗ ﺒﺬ ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﺩدﺉئ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻠﺰﻣ ﺎ ﻓﺈ ﺎ ﺴﺘﻌﻴﺾ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃأ )ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن‪  (  ‬‬
‫ﺑﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍاﻟﻠﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ ﻭوﺣﻜﻢ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس ﺑﻄﺮ ﻘﺔ ﺍاﻋﺘﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﺳ ﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺮﺩدﻋ ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﺎﺩدﻱي‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺗﻮﺳﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻭوﺗﺤﺴ ﻥن ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍا ﺎ ﺍاﳌﻌ‬

‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏب‬

‫ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺼﺎﺭرﻑف‬

‫ﺺ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﻱي؟ ﻭوﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺮﺩدﻋ ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﺼﺎﺩدﺭرﺓة ﻭوﻓﺮﺽض "ﺣﺴﻢ"‪  ‬ﻋ ﺍاﳌﻮﺩدﻋ ﻥن‬

‫ﻭوﻣﺪﺧﺮﻱي ﺃأﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺇإﺳﻨﺎﺩد ﺳ ﺍاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺎﺷﻠﺔ؟ ﻭوﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺮﺩدﻋ ﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴ‬

‫ﺇإ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺍاﻟﺮﺷﻮﺓة ﻣﻦ ﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀء ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍاﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯزﺍاﺕت ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ؟ ﻭوﻣﺎ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺮﺩدﻋ ﺎ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍاﺣﻤﺔ ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﺩدﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺳﻠﻊ ﻭوﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻭوﺗﺪﻳﺮ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺎ؟‪ 12‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃأﺛ ﺖ ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻮﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﺣﺘ ﺎﺭر ﺎﺕت ﺗﻤﻠﻜ ﺎ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﻮﻥن ﻛﻔﺎﺀء ﻢ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺯزﻣﻦ ﻃﻮ ﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﺪ ﻋﺎﺋﺪﺍاﺕت ﺳ ﻠﺔ )ﻣﻦ ﺍاﺣﺘ ﺎﺭر ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌ‬

‫ﺍاﺣﺘ ﺎﺭر‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓة ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺍاﺭر ﻋ ﺧﻄﻮﻁط ﺇإﺩدﺍاﺭر ﺔ ﻭوﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺁآﻓﺎﻕق ﺭر ﺤﻴﺔ ﺗ ﺎ ﺗﺠﺸﻢ ﺍاﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻓﺈ ﺎ‬

‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺮﻭوﺩدﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻟﻺﻧ ﻧﺖ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﺒﻎ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍا ﺎﺿﺮ(‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻤﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺴ ﻠﻚ ﻗﺪﺭرﺍا ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭرﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺨﻠﻘﻪﮫ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ )ﻓ‬
‫ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﺗﺪﻣﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩدﺓة(‪   .‬ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍا‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺤ ﻓﻮﻥن‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺃأﺣﻴﺎﻥن ﻛﺜ ﺓة ﺇإ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬

‫ﺃأﻏﻠﺐ ﺣﻴﺎﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴ ﺎ ﺫذﺍاﺗﻴﺎ ﻭوﺗ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻮﻇﻔ ﻥن ﻭوﺗﺮﻓﻴﻊ ﺍاﻟﺘﺼ ﻴﻔﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ) ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺎ ﻳﺪ‬
‫‪  12‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺎ ﺩدﻋﺎﻩ ﺑﻴﻮ ﺎﻧﻦ ﺑﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ "ﺍا‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﻀﻴﻒ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﺯزﺩدﻳﺎﺩد ﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﺎ ﻋﻤﺪ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﻮﻥن‬

‫ﺟﻌﻞ ﺃأﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﻴ ﻥن ﻟ‬

‫ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺎ‬

‫ﺇإ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺰﺣﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﺼ ﻴﻔﻲ(‪   .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻴﻞ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ"‪  ‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪﮫ‪  :‬ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍا ﺮﺔ )ﻡم‪  .(7‬‬
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‫ﻴﻢ ﻋﺪﺩد‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﺜ ﱠ ﺘﻮﻥن ﻭوﻇﻴﻔﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻛﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥن ﺇإ ﺍاﺗﺨﺎﺫذ ﻗﺮﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺗﻼﺋﻤ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺨﺒﻮﻥن ﻣﺠﺮﺩد ﻭوﺍاﺟ ﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺍاﻟﻠﻮﻡم ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭوﻗﻮﻉع ﺧﻄﺎﺀء‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺸ ﻞ ﻻ ﺸﺒﻪﮫ ﺃأﻱي ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى ﻟ ﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﻃﺮﻖ‬
‫ﺁآﺧﺮ ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﺣﺼﺔ ﺍا‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺮﺩدﻉع ﺍا‬

‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﻢ ﺛﻢ ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺗﻮﺯز ﻌ ﺎ ﻋ‬

‫ﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏب؟ ﻭوﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟﻴﺪ ﺍاﳌﺮﺋﻴﺔ ﻟ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺎﻁط ﺍاﻟﺴﻮ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓ‬

‫ﺧﺮ ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺷﺮﺍاﺀء ﺍاﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍاﻟﺸﻌ ﻭوﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ "ﺑﺘ‬

‫ﻴﺢ"‪  ‬ﺗﻮﺯز‪  ‬ﻊ ﺍاﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﺍاﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ ﺘﺠﺎﻥن‬

‫)ﺣ ﻮﻣﺔ ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺯز ﻊ(‪  ‬ﻓﻼ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺍا ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩدﺭرﺓة ﺣﻘﻮﻕق‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﺰﺍاﻋﺎ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ )ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن(‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩدﺭرﺓة ﻭوﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺯز ﻊ!‪  13‬‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺎ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻗﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﻭوﺟ ﺔ ﺭرﺋ ﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍاﳌﺰﺩدﻭوﺟﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺸﻮ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻨﺬ ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍا‬

‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍا‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﺐ ﻋ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮ ﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﻌ ﺶ ﻇﻞ ﺑﺮ ﺎﺕت ﺍا‬
‫ﺍا ﺪﻳﺚ ﱠ‪  ‬‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍا ﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭوﻟﻌﻨﺔ ﺍا‬

‫ﺮﻱي‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﻔﺮﻃﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻤﺎﺭرﺱس ﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﻭوﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺯز ﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺩدﻋﺎ ﺇإﺩدﻣﻮﻧﺪ ﺑ ﻙك ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺴﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻼ‪ "  :‬ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟ ﺀء‪ ،‬ﺬﺍا‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺀء ﺣﺪ ﺫذﺍاﺗﻪﮫ ﺍاﻧ ﺎﻙك"‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻣﻮﺍاﺟ ﺔ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺄﺯزﻕق ﺧﻼ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻨﺠﺬﺏب ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺇإ ﺇإﻏﺮﺍاﺀء ﺇإﻧ ﺎﺭر ﻭوﺟﻮﺩد ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠ ﺎ ﻋ ﻓ ﺍاﺽض ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤ ﻥن ﻭوﻭوﻛﻼ ﻢ ﺃأ ﺎﺹص ﺧ ّ ﻭوﻥن‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺪﺭرﺳﺔ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻋﻤ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺏب ﺍاﻟ ﻣﺮﺕت ﺎ ﺩدﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺃأﺟﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒ ﻥن ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﻓ ﺍاﺽض ﺑﺄﻥن‬

‫ﺎﺹص ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﻳ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺮﺍاﻋﻮﻥن ﻣﺼﺎ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺬﺍاﺗﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜ ﻢ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻟﻮﺍا‬

‫ﺇإ ﻓﺮﺳﺎﻥن ﺑﺪﺭرﻭوﻉع ﺑﺮﺍاﻗﺔ ﻳﻨﻜﺮﻭوﻥن ﺫذﻭوﺍا ﻢ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻌ ﺪ ﺇإﻟ ﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﺻﺐ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ 14.‬ﻭوﻋ ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻑف‬
‫ﺧﺮ ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻌﺘ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﻭوﺣﺶ ﺷﺮ ﺮ ﻻ‪  ‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﻭو ﻀﻪﮫ ﻓﻴﺪﻋﻮ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻔﻮﺿﻮ ﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﻮﻗﻒ ﻟ ﺲ ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﻓﺸﻼ ﺭرﺧﻴﺼﺎ ﻟﻠ ﺮﺏب ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺔ‪  .‬ﻓﻌ ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺮﺻ ﻨﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺻﻴﻐﺖ ﻟﺘﺒ ﻥن ﺑﺄﻥن ﻞ ﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘ ﺴﻴﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﻱي‬
‫ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺍا ﺎﺟﺔ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍا ﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﳌﻌﻘﺪ ﺍاﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭوﻱي‬

‫ﻭوﺍا ﻮﻛﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﻳﻘﻮﻝل ﺑﺄﻥن ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻭوﺣﺎﺕت‬

‫‪  13‬ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍا ﺮﺔ )ﻡم‪.(7‬‬
‫‪  14‬ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻓﻘﺔ‪  ..‬ﺳﺲ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺔ )ﻡم‪  .(9‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍا ﺮﺔ )ﻡم‪  .(7‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭرﻱي‪  :‬ﺑﻴﻮ ﺎﻧﻦ )ﻡم‪  .(8‬‬
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‫ﺍاﻟﻄﻮ ﺎﻭو ﺔ ﻭوﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻟ ﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺃأﺑﺪﺍا ﻋ ﺻﻌﻴﺪ ﺍاﳌﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻭوﻧ‬

‫ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍاﻟﺼﻐ ﳌﺘﻤﺮﺩدﻱي‬

‫ﺟﺰﺮﺓة ﺑ ﺘ ﺎﺭرﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍاﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀء ﻋ ﺟﺮﺍاﺋﻢ ﺍاﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭو ﺿﻄﺮﺍاﺑﺎﺕت ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺇإ ﺸﺎﺀء‬
‫‪  ‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺷﺒﻪﮫ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺳﻒ ﻟﻪﮫ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮﺔ ﻣﺤ ﻮﻡم ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻌ ﺶ‬
‫ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺗ ﻮﻥن‬

‫ﻢ ﺍا‬

‫ﻇﻞ ﺍاﻟ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺨﺘﻠﻄﺔ ﻟ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻭوﻭوﻇﺎﺋﻔ ﺎ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺨﺪﻡم ﻣﺼﺎ )ﺟﻤﻴﻊ( ‪  ‬ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫ﺻﻠﺐ ﻣ ﺎﻡم ﺎﻓﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡم ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓ ﺎ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد‪  :‬ﻓﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟ ﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﺸ ﻳﻦ ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺼﻔﻮﻥن ﺑﺎ ﻞ ﻭوﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺍا ﻄﺄ‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺴﻴﺎﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﻜﺴﻞ ﻭو ﻧ ﺎﺯز ﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻧﻮﺍا ﻟﺘﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺮﺧﺎﺀء ﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻱي ﻟ ﻤﻴﻊ؟‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﳌ ﻤﺔ ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻔﻜ ﻣﻠﻴﺎ ﺣﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺍاﺳ ﺌﻤﺎﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﻭوﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇإ ﻌﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺨﻄﻲ ﺬﺍا ﺍا ﺪ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻀﺎﻑف ﺇإ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻄﻮﺭر ﻇﺮﻭوﻑف‬

‫ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﺟﺐ ﺇإﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬

‫ﺩدﻭوﺭر ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻋﻠ ﺎ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻭو ﻤ ﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺣ ﻥن ﻭوﺁآﺧﺮ‪  .‬ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻻ ﺴﻤﺢ ﻟ ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﺸﺐ ﺣ ﻭوﺇإﻥن ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺗﺤ‬
‫ﺆﻻﺀء ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺣﻘﻘﻮﺍا ﻣﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻭو ﺄﻣﻠﻮﻥن ﺑﺘﺄﺳ ﺲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭرﺦ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﺸﺐ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﻳﻤ ﺪ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﻭوﺱس ﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﺍا ﻔﺎﻅظ ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪  .‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ‪  ‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻖ ﻻﻧﺤﺪﺍاﺭر ﺍا ﻀﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻭوﺳﻘﻮﻃ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤ ﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﻋﻤﺔ ﻟ ﺮﺔ‬
‫ﺗ ﺸﺎﺑﻪﮫ ﻣﻊ ﻭوﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻡم ﺃأ ﺎ ﻣ ﻤﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﺰﻋﻢ ﺑﺈﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇإﻧﺠﺎﺯز ﺎ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺃأﺑﺪﺍا‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﻟﻤﺔ‪  ‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﯿﺎﺩدﺓة‪  ‬ﻟﻸﺳﻮﺍاﻕق‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭر‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻲ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭرﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭر ﻋﺮﺾ ﻳﺒ ﻥن ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﺘﺪﺭر‬
‫ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﻭوﺣﺮ ﺔ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣ ﺎ ﺎﻥن ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا ﻳﻘﻊ‬
‫ﻌﺪ(‪  ‬ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺍاﳌﻌ‬

‫ﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺻﻠﺐ ﺍاﻟﺼﻌﻮﺩد )ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺑﺪﺃأ ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺴﺎﺭرﻉع‬

‫ﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﺏب ﺃأﻭوﻻ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﻭوﺯزﻩ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻘﺎﻉع ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩد‬

‫ﺧ ﺓة؛ ﻓﻤﻨﺬ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻓﺼﺎﻋﺪﺍا‪ ،‬ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻥن ﻧﺘﺎ‬
‫ﺑ ﻥن ﻣﺎﻟ ﻲ ﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﻭوﺍاﳌ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻭوﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﺇإ ﺍاﻧﺪﻻﻉع ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻨﺬ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍا ﻥن ﻭوﻧﺤﻦ‬
‫ﻧﺮﻯى ﺍاﳌﻮﺟﺔ ﺗﻠﻮ ﺍاﳌﻮﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر ﻭوﻇ ﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻭوﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺰﺩد ﺮﺓة‬
‫ﻛ ﺣﺮ ﺔ‪  .‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺪﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻤﺔ ﻣﺠﺎ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭو ﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕت ﺇإ ﺍاﻧ ﺸﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍا ﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝل ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻌﺔ ‪  ‬ﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﻟ ﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪  .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃأﺩدﺕت ﺛﻮﺭرﺓة ﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕت‬

‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﳌﺎ‬
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‫ﻤﺔ ﻭوﺿﻤﺎﻥن ﺍاﺟﺘﻴﺎﺯز ﺳﻮﺍاﻕق‬
‫ﺇإ‬

‫ﻌﺰ ﺰ "ﻧﻘﻞ ﻓ ﺎﺭر"‪  ‬‬

‫ﺣﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ؛ ﻭو ﻓ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺎﻥن ﻟ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﺛ‬

‫ﻗﻮﻯى ﻋ‬

‫ﻧﺤﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬

‫ﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ؛ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر‬

‫ﻓ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﻣﺜﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﺇإ ﺗﺤﺴ ﻥن "ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﺍاﻟ ﺗ ﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺱس ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍاﺝج ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺃأﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ "ﺍاﻟﻌﺘﺎﺩد‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺎﺩدﻱي ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ"‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳﻠﻊ ﺭرﺃأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﻣﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺰﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺼﺎ ﻊ ﻋ ﺍا ﺮﻛﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﻣﺮ ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻟﻪﮫ ﺃأ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﺃأ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻌﻮﻗﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺇإﺟﺒﺎﺭر ﺻﺎ‬

‫ﺩدﺭرﺍاﻛﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﻌﺘﺎﺩدﺓة ﻭوﺗﺤﺴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴ ﻥن ﻋ ﻗ ﺮ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻮ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻟ ﻭوﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن‪ 15.‬ﺇإﻥن ﺷﺒ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل ﻭوﺍاﻟﻜﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕت ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩدﺓة ﺍا ﺴﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻤﺮﻭوﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺣﻴﻜﺖ‬

‫ﺸ ﻞ ﺩدﻗﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﻌﻤﻞ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻳﺘﺨﻄﻰ ﺍا ﺪﻭوﺩد ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﺃأﺭر ﺎﺏب ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺃأﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭوﻥن ﺧﻴﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺸﺄﻥن ﻣﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺃأﻋﻤﺎﻟ ﻢ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻭوﺕت ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺴﻴﻄﺮ‬

‫ﻋﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﺍاﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭرﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﻳﻮﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﺍا ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا ﻳﺘﻘﺮﺭر‬

‫‪  ‬ﺻﻞ ﻋ ﺃأﺳﺎﺱس ﺍاﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭر‬

‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻼﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﺑﺄ ﺎ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕت ﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﺤﺔ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن‬
‫ﺃأﺭر ﺎﺏب ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺍاﳌﺘﺤﺮﺭر ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺳﺮ ﺍاﳌ ﺎﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻤﻠ ﻮﻥن ﻣﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝل ﺃأﻧﺤﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬
‫) ﺎﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﻭوﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﻭوﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺎﺕت( ‪  ‬ﻳ ﺴﻮﻗﻮﻥن ﻨﺎ ﻭو ﻨﺎﻙك ﺳﻌﻴﺎ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟ ﻛﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺍاﻟﻼﻣﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ ) ﺎﻷﺭرﺽض ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ(‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺗﻨﻈﻤ ﺎ‬
‫ﻭوﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻔﺮﺿ ﺎ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪   .‬ﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﺇإﻥن‬

‫ﻛ ﻧﻔﻌﺎ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕت ﻭوﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺓة ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﻧﺘﺎﺝج!‪  ‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﻮﻇﻔﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ ﺘﺠﻮﻥن ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ‪  ‬ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﻭوﻓ ﻤ ﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ﻮﻟﺔ ﻭو ﻔﺮﺿﻮ ﺎ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﻮ ﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﻭو ﻧﺘﻔﺎﻉع ﻣﻨﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﺇإﻧﻤﺎ ﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺯزﺎﺩدﺓة‬
‫ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻞ ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ‬
‫ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﺝج ﺧﺮﻯى‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﺎ ﺪﻧﺎ‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮ ﻘﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓة ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ؛ ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺧﺮﻯى‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن‬

‫ﻌﻴﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﺍاﻛﻴﺐ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻓﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺎﻃﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﺠﺪ ﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽض ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃأﺭر ﺎﺏب‬

‫ﻋﻤﺎﻝل‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﺇإﻥن ﺗﺨﺸﺐ ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭوﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪﻩ ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﺇإ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍا ﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻓﻮﻻﺫذ‬
‫ﺍا ﺎﻡم ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝج ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻠﺒﺎﺭرﺍا ﻭوﺍاﻟﻔﺤﻢ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﺨﺮﺝج ﻣﻦ ﻮ ﻻﻧﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝل ﺇإ ‪  ‬‬
‫‪  15‬ﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡح ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر‪  :‬ﻏ ﺵش )ﻡم‪  .(12‬‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ )ﻡم‪(22‬؛ ﺹص‪  .451-440‬‬
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‫ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻷﻥن ﻣﺼﺎ ﻊ ﺍاﻟﻔﻮﻻﺫذ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺭرﺅؤﻭوﺱس ﺃأﻣﻮﺍاﻝل‬

‫ﻟﻴﺒﺎﻉع‬

‫ﻤﺔ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻕق ﻋ ﻣﺪﺍاﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭوﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﺃأﻳﺎﻡم ﺳﺒﻮﻉع‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍا ﺎﺟﺔ ﺗ ﺯز ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻱي‬
‫ﻻﺟﺘﺬﺍاﺏب ﻭوﺇإﺑﻘﺎﺀء ﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل ﻭوﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﻭوﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻭوﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﻭوﻗﺖ ﻣ‬
‫ﺃأ ﺎ ﺗﺰ‬

‫ﺍا‬

‫ﻭوﻭوﻛﻼﺀء ﺍا‬

‫ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺼ ﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا ﻦ؛ ﻓﺄ‬

‫ﺎﺏب ﺭرﺍا‬

‫ﻭوﻗﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕت‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﻮﻥن ﻟﻢ ﻌﺪ ﺑﺈﻣ ﺎ ﻢ ﺍا ﺼﻮﻝل ﻋ ﺭرﻊ ﺣﺘ ﺎﺭر ﻭوﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻼﺯزﻡم ﻋﻠ ﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻜﺒﺪ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻣ ﻢ ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻋ "ﺳﻴﺎﺩدﺓة‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ"‪  ‬ﻣﺠﺎﻝل ﺍا ﻴﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﺍا ﺮﺓة‬

‫ﺳﻮﺍاﻕق‪ 16.‬ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍاﳌﺘﺨﻨﺪﻗﺔ ﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴ ﻥن ﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺪﺭرﻙك ﻌﺪ ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﳌﺔ ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﺠ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕت ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت‬
‫ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬

‫ﺍا ﻠﺒﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﺻﻼﺡح ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﺘﻈﺮ ﺣ ﻳﺄ ﻲ ﺟﻴﻞ ﺁآﺧﺮ ﺃأﻛ ﺷﺒﺎﺑﺎ ﻗﻮﺍاﻣﻪﮫ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴ ‪  ‬ﻮﻥن ﺭر ﺎﺩدﻳ ‪  ‬ﻮﻥن ﺴﺘﻌﻴﻀﻮﻥن ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭو ﻘﺪﻣﻮﺍا ﺑﺮﺍاﻣﺞ ﻟﻺﺻﻼﺡح‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺤﺪﺙث ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺎﻥن ﺃأﻥن ﺴ ﺍاﻟ ﻴﺌﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﺎﺟﺔ ﺇإ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺍا‬
‫ﻭو‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﺎﺕت ﺧﺮﻯى ﺑﺎﻟ ﻮﺀء ﺇإ ﺇإ ﺸﺎﺀء ﺷﺒ ﺎﺕت ﺣﻮﻛﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﺑﺮﺓة ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪﺍاﻥن‪،‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺎﺭرﺗﻴﻼﺕت ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪﺍاﻥن ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫذ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ؛ ﻭو ﺠﺐ ﻋ‬

‫ﺃأ ﺸﺄﻩ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺎﺩد‬

‫ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﺘ ﻮﺍا ﳌﺎ‬

‫ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻲ ﻣﻦ " ﺎﺭرﺗﻴﻞ )ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤ ﻥن( ‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﳌﺸﺮﻋ ﻥن" ‪  ‬ﻭوﻋﻮﺍاﻗﺒﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺤﺸﺪﻭوﺍا ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻂ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﺍاﻟﺸﻌ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﺗﺒﺎﻉع ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃأﺟﺰﺍاﺀء ﻛﺒ ﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒ ﻥن‪  .‬ﻭوﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺃأﺩدﻯى ﺇإﻟﻴﻪﮫ ﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺮ ﻌﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻐﻠﻮﻃﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺟﺎﺀء ﺎ ﺗﺤﺎﺩد ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺯز ﺎﺩدﺓة ﻟﺘ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍاﻟﻼﺯزﻣﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﻣﺎﻟ ﻲ ﺭرﺅؤﻭوﺱس ﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﻮﺍا‬
‫ﻐﻠﻘﻮﻥن ﺃأﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ ﻋ‬
‫ﺩدﺍاﺀء‬

‫ﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﳌﻨﻔﻌﻞ ﳌﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﺍاﻟﺮﺋ ﺴﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻟـ"ﺃأﻭوﺭرﻭو ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ" ‪  ‬ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا ﻣﺨﻴﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﻈﻦ ﺸ ﻞ ﺩدﺍاﺋﻢ‪   .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺎﺭرﺗﻴﻼﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺑﺮﺓة ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺗﺆﺩدﻱي ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺇإ ﺣﺮﻣﺎﻥن ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯزﺍا ﻢ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺿﻊ ﺧﺮﻯى‪،‬‬

‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻭوﻟﺔ ﻟﻼﻟﺘﻔﺎﻑف ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟ‬

‫ﺍاﳌ ﺍاﻣﻲ ﻃﺮﺍاﻑف ﻭوﺗﻔﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺍاﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻗﺪﻣﺖ ﺍا‬

‫ﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺎﺭرﺗﻴﻼﺕت ) ﺎ ﻤﺴﺔ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭر ‪ ،G5‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭر ‪ ،G8‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮﻦ ﺍاﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭر ‪ (G20‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻥن ﻣﻌ ﺎ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪   16‬ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﺍاﳌﺼﻄ "ﺳﻴﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ"‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺸﻌﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻴﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻄﺮﻓ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺜﻮﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﻔﺮ ﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺗ ﻨﺎﻩ ﻣﺎ ﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﻮﻥن ﻋ ﺗﻨﻮﻋﺎ ﻢ‪  :‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺭرﻛﺲ ﺛﻢ ﻟﻴﻨ ﻥن ﻓﺎﻻﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺃأ ﺸﺆﻭوﺍا ﺍاﻟﺮﺍاﻳﺦ ﺍاﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ؛ ﻭوﻧﺠﺪﻩ ﺍاﻟﻴﻮﻡم ﺑ ﻥن ﺃأﻓ ﺎﺭر‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺩدﺓة ﺗﺤﺎﺩد ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻲ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻔﻮﺿﻴﺔ ﻭوﺭر‪  ‬ﻭو ﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ ﺃأﻣﺮ ﻳﻜﺸﻒ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻮﺟ ﺎ ﻢ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺑ ﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﺱس‪  .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺩدﻋﺎﺓة ﺍا‬
‫ﻴﺌﺎﺕت ﻟﻸﻣﻢ ﺍاﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓة ﺗﻘﻊ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻳﺤﺎﻭوﻟﻮﻥن ﻧﻘﻞ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺇإ‬

‫ﺃأﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻧﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻢ ﻳﻤﺪﺣﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﺮﺗﻠﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭر ﺎ ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا‬

‫"ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻏﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺰﺩدﺭرﻭوﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭرﻩ "ﻧﺒﺬﺍا ﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺎ" ‪  ‬ﻭو"ﺳﺒﺎﻗﺎ ﻧﺤﻮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻙك ﺩد ﻰ"‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻌﺘ ﻭوﻥن ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺑﻪﮫ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﺑﺘ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺳ ﺜ ﻤﺎﺭر ﻛﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺪﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎﺕت ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ﺎ ﺗﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺗﺂ ﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ ﻭوﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻠﻘﺎﺓة ﻋ ﻋﺎﺗﻖ ﺍاﻟ ﳌﺎﻧﻴ ﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺨﺒ ﻥن؛‪ 17‬ﻭو ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻠﻪﮫ ﺃأ ﺎ ﺗﺤﻮﻝل ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻛ ﺸﺎﻑف ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓ‬

‫ﻟﻼﺑﺘ ﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺍاﳌﻤﻜﻨﺔ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻜﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺼﻔﻖ ﻟﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﻴﻮﻥن ﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻋﺐ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴ ﻥن ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﻴ ﻥن ﻭوﻣﺆ ﺪﻱي ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻭوﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﺮﺹص ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﺳ ﺲ ﺑ ﺌﺔ ﺳﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺤﺔ ﻭوﻣﺤﻤﻴﺔ‪   ،‬ﺃأﻭو ﺑﺘﺄﺳ ﺲ ﺑ ﻴﺔ ﺍاﺣﺘ ﺎﺭرﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳﻮﺍاﺀء‬
‫ﺎﻥن ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﻱي ﺃأﻡم ﺍا‬
‫ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭو ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻮ ﺃأﻣﺮﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﻔ ﻤﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﻮ ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻗﻊ‬

‫ﺔ ﻭو ﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍا ﺎﺟﺔ ﺇإ ﺍاﳌﺴﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف؛ ﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻧﺆﻛﺪ ﻣﺮﺓة ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﳌ ﻠﻔﺔ ﻭوﺍا ﻄ ﺓة ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱي ﻋ‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍاﺀء ﺎﻥن ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ ﻋ ﺣﺼﺔ‬

‫ﺁآﺛﺎﺭر ﺳ ﺌﺔ ﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﻣﻢ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻕق ﺃأﻡم ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺨﺪﻡم ﺃأﻏﺮﺍاﺿﺎ ﺍاﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭوﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣ ﻤﺔ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻓ ﻮ ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋ‬

‫ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻣﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﺍاﻟﺒ‬

‫ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻧﻪﮫ ﻳﺤﻮﻝل ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﺗﺪ ﻮﺭر ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﺍاﺕت ﻭوﺣﻀﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭرﻩ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﻣ ﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ‪  19.‬‬

‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺴﺆﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻮﺟﻪﮫ ﺇإ ﻗﺎﺩدﺓة ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺭر ﻥن‪ ،‬ﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺇإﺫذﺍا‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎ ﺎﺓة ﺃأﻣﺮﺍاﺀء ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﺎﻥن ﻳ ﺒ‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺼﻐ ﺓة ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺒﺤﻮﺍا ﺟﻤﺎﺡح ﺳﻠﻄﺎ ﻢ‬

‫ﻭوﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮﺍا ﻣﻊ ﻧﻈﺮﺍا ﻢ ﻋ ﺍاﺟﺘﺬﺍاﺏب ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺨﻠﻘﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة‪   ،‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﺎ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن‬
‫ﻳﺒ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴ‬

‫ﺇإ ﺃأﻟﻌﺎﺏب ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻮ ﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﺪﺙث ﻣﻊ ﺃأﺳﺮﺓة ﻣﻴﻨﻎ ﻭو ﺸ ﻨﻎ‬

‫‪  17‬ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺩدﺓة ﺃأﻡم ﺍاﻟﺘﺒﻌﻴﺔ‪  ..‬ﻞ ﺳﻴﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﺮ ﻜﻴﻮﻥن ﺃأﻧﻔﺴ ﻢ ﺃأﻡم ﺳﻴﺪﻋﻮﻥن ﺧﺮ ﻦ ﻳﺤﻜﻤﻮ ﻢ؟‪  :‬ﻓﻮﻧ ‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(11‬‬
‫‪  18‬ﻣﺎﺩدﺓة )ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ(‪  ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍاﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓة‪  :‬ﺎﺳ ‪)  ‬ﻡم‪  .(20‬‬
‫‪  19‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﻛﺪﻓﺎﻉع ﻋﻦ ﺍا ﺮﺔ‪  :‬ﺷ ﻳﺖ )ﻡم‪  .(27‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ﻭو ﺑﺘ ﺎﺭر ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭر ﺗﺎﺭر ‪  :‬ﺑ ﻮﻟﺰ‪ ،‬ﺷ ﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮ ﻴﻞ )ﻡم‪  .(4‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ ﻭو ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ﺍاﳌﺘ ﻥن‪  :‬ﺑ ﺘ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻟ ﺴﻮﻥن )ﻡم‪.(6‬‬
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‫ﺍاﻟﺼ ﻥن ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺃأﺳﺮﺓة ﺎ ﺴﺒﻮﺭرﻍغ ﺑﻮﺭر ﻮﻥن‬

‫ﺇإﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴ ﻥن ﺁآﺧﺮ ﺃأﻳﺎﻡم ﺇإﻣ ﺍاﻃﻮﺭر ﻢ‪ 20.‬ﺇإﻥن‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺃأﺛﻘﻞ ﺎ ﻠ ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺃأﺻ ﺒﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﺮ ﻮﺩد ﻭوﺗﺪ ﻮﺭرﺕت ﺃأﺣﻮﺍاﻟ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺳﻘﻄﺖ‬
‫ﺃأﻧﻈﻤ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف‪  .‬ﻭو ﺭرﺃأ ﻲ ﺃأﻥن ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻮﻥن ﻌﻘﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺪﻓﻌ ﻢ ﺇإ‬

‫ﺟﻌﻞ "ﺍاﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺳ ﺍا " ‪  ‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌﺎ ﻳﺠﺬﺏب ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻠﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻮﻥن‬
‫ﺃأﻗﺪﻡم ﺆﻻﺀء‬

‫ﻗﺪﺭر ﻣ ﺎﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪﮫ ﳌﺎ‬

‫ﻭوﺗﺎﻳﻮﺍاﻥن ﻗﺒﻞ ﺟﻴﻞ ﻣ‬
‫ﻮ ﻎ ﻮ ﻎ ﻭوﺳﻨﻐﺎﻓﻮﺭرﺍا ﻭو ﻮﺭر ﺎ ﺍا ﻨﻮ ﻴﺔ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺍا ﻥن ﻋ ﺗ ﺴﻴﻂ ﺇإﺟﺮﺍاﺀءﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻓﻘﺔ ﻋ‬

‫‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬

‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﻓﺘﺢ ﻣ ﺎﺗﺐ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓة ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﺣﺪﺓة ﺃأﻣﺎﻡم ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﺑﻄﻠﻮﺍا ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺳﻌﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﺮﺭرﻭوﺍا ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺭرﺃأﺱس ﺍاﳌﺎﻝل‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأ ﺸﺆﻭوﺍا ﻣﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺗﺠﺎﺭرﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺟﻌﻠﻮﺍا‬
‫‪  ‬ﻭوﻟﻮ ﺔ‬
‫ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠ ﻢ‪  .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﻄﺖ ﺍا‬

‫ﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭوﻱي ﻳﺤﺘﻞ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم ‪ 1980‬ﻋﺪﺓة ﺧﻄﻮﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬

‫ﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﻟﻨ ﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪   :‬ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺃأﻛ ﻣﺘﺎﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺇإﻏﺮﺍاﺀء‬
‫ﺎﺏب‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺑﺢ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇإ ﻌﺎﺩدﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﻭوﺍاﺋﺮ ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃأ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫذ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺼﻐ ﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻭوﻟﺌﻚ ﺍاﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝل ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺴﺎﺀء ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻌﺮﻭوﻓ ﻥن ﻳﻤﻜ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻌﻤﻞ ﺸ ﻞ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﺮﺩدﻋﻪﮫ ﺭرﺍاﺩدﻉع ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍاﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺫذﻛﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻈﺎ ﺮﺑﺄ ﺎ ﻻ ﻌﻤﻞ ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬‬
‫"ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺍاﳌﺼ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴﺔ"‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪  ‬ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪  ‬ﻋﻠﻰ‪  ‬ﺧﻠﻖ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺜﺮﻭوﺓة‪  ‬‬
‫ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺃأﺭرﺍاﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺭر ﻮﻥن ﺃأﻥن ﻌﺰﺯز‪  ‬ﻭوﺍا ﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭو ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍاﻟﻔﻮﺯز‬

‫ﺣﻠﺒﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﻜ ﻢ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺠﺪﻭوﺍا ﺩدﻟﻴﻼ ﻣﺮﺷﺪﺍا‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻌﻴﺪ ﺍاﳌﺪﻯى ﻭو ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭرﺦ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﺬﺍاﻥن ﺍاﳌﺼﺪﺭرﺍاﻥن ﻳﺒ ﻨﺎﻥن ﺑﺄﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺎﺩدﻓﺔ ﺇإ ﺗﺄﻣ ﻥن ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭوﺍاﺟﺘﺬﺍاﺏب ﺍا‬

‫ﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻘﻠﺔ ﺣﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻠﻖ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺹص ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻭوﺓة ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪  :‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ )ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭوﻣﺠﺮﺩدﺓة(‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺔ ﺑ ﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﻻ ﺗﻤ ﺑ ﻥن ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺮﺍاﺩد ﻭوﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻻﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪   :‬ﻳﺠﺐ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﻋﺪﻡم ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﻴ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻀﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﻔﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍاﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍا‬

‫ﳌﺠﺎﻻﺕت ﻌﻴ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻘﺎﻭوﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯزﺍاﺕت ﻟ‬

‫‪  20‬ﺍاﳌ ﺰﺓة ﻭوﺭرﻭو ﻴﺔ‪  :‬ﺟﻮﻧﺰ )ﻡم‪  .(15‬‬
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‫ﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺤﺎ ﻲ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن‪  .‬‬

‫ﻮﻣﻲ‬

‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ) ﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭوﺃأﻛﻴﺪﺓة(؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻓ ﻤ ﺎ‬
‫ﺴ ﻮﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋﻮﺍاﻗﺐ ﺍاﻧ ﺎﻙك ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓ ﺎ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡح ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﺖ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﺽض ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣ‬

‫ﻢ ﻭوﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺟﺮﺍاﺀءﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﺗﺒﺎﻋ ﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﺗ ﺴﻴﻂ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻀﺮ‬
‫ﻋ ﺍاﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺃأ‬

‫ﺬﺍا‬

‫‪  ‬ﻭوﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺢ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻓﻘﺎﺕت ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺘﻄﻮ ﺮ‪   ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺮﺩد‬
‫ﻤﺔ ﻭوﻏ ﻣﺸﺮﻭوﻃﺔ ﻭوﺿﻤﺎﻥن‬

‫ﺎﺏب ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺑﺮﺩدﻭوﺩد ﻣ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍاﻟ ﻴﺌﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻓﻮﺭرﻱي‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺭرﺗﺠﺎﻝل ﻠﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﻋﺪﻡم ﻐﻴ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺮﺋ ﺴﻴﺔ ﻌﺪ ﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍاﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ )ﻣﻨﻔﺘﺤﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪   :‬ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺩدﺍاﺋﻤﺎ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺭرﺷﺎﺩد‬
‫ﺎﺏب ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩدﺭر ﻦ ﻋ‬

‫ﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇإﺫذ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺃأ‬

‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺮﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﺛﻘﺔ ﻷﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﻌﻤﻮﻝل ﺑﻪﮫ ﻳﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍاﻧﻄﺒﻖ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺎ‬

‫؛ ﻓﺈﺫذﺍا ﺭرﺃأﻯى ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺜﻤﺮ ﺍاﻟﺮﺎﺩدﻱي ﺇإﺷﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﻣﻐﺮﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺹص ﻹ ﺸﺎﺀء ﺳﻮﻕق ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻓﺈﻧﻪﮫ ﻻ ﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍا‬

‫ﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭر ﺣ‬

‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻥن‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﺴﻦ ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة‪  .‬‬

‫ﻭوﺃأﺧ ﺍا‪ ،‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ )ﻣ ﺍاﺑﻄﺔ ﻭوﻏ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻗﻀﺔ(؛ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮﺩدﻳﺔ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺃأﻛ ﻛﻔﺎﺀءﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ‬
‫ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺃأﻗﻞ ﻛﻔﺎﺀءﺓة ﺑﻜﺜ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻼﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺃأﻥن‬
‫ﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﺮﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺍاﺋﻖ‬

‫ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕت ﻭوﺭرﺅؤﻭوﺱس ﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﻟﻜ ﺎ ﺗﻮﺍاﺟﻪﮫ‬
‫ﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻋﻠﻴﻪﮫ ﺍا ﺎﻝل‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ‬
‫ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ ﺇإﺑﺎﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴ ﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻭوﺗﻜﺮ ‪  ‬ﺍاﺭر ﻣﺮ ﺃأﻳﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﺬﻩ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺩدﺑﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺑﺄ ﺎ "ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻓ‬

‫ﺇإﻥن ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻒ‬

‫ﺗﺤﺴﻦ ﻭوﺿﻊ ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻭوﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺴ ﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍا ﻮﻛﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺠﺴﺪ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕت ﻻ ﺗﻔ‬

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‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺴﻤﺎﺡح ﺑـ"ﺍاﻟﺴﺒﺎﻕق ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻉع"‪  ‬ﻭوﻻ‬

‫ﺗﺆﺩدﻱي‬

‫ﺇإﻟﻴﻪﮫ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﻧﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻮﺿﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻋ ﺑﺚ ﺇإﺷﺎﺭرﺓة ﺑﺎﻻﻟ ﺍاﻡم ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟ ﺪﻑف‬

‫ﻟ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ )ﺃأﻱي‪   :‬ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺓة ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒﺪﻥن ﻭوﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‪   .‬ﺇإﻥن ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺗﺨﻠﻖ‬

‫ﺳﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺜﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺗﺨﻔﺾ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭو‬

‫‪  21‬ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ )ﻡم‪(22‬؛ ﺹص‪.135-133‬‬
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‫ﻊ ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻜ ﻥن ﻋ‬

‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد‬

‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف؛ ﻭو ﺗﺮ ﺍاﳌﺮﻭوﻧﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻴ ﻠﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭو ﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋ ﻗﻴﺎﻡم ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﻣﺘ ﻥن‪.‬‬
‫ﻭوﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡم ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻌﺘ‬

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‫ﺻﺎ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻮ ﺣﺎﻝل ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي‬

‫ﻭو ﻣﺎﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﻌﺪﻝل ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻼﻡم ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧ ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﯿﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﯿﺔ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﯿﺔ‪  ‬ﺃأﻣﺮ‪  ‬ﺧﻼﻕق‪  ‬ﻳﯾﺘﻮﺍاﻓﻖ‪  ‬ﻣﻊ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻤﻮﺍاﻁطﻨﻴﯿﻦ‪  ‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻻ ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﻣﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻗﻊ ﺍا ﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺣ ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓة ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا‬
‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭرﺍا ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟ ‪ ،‬ﻓ ﻮ ﺃأﻣﺮ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻟﻪﮫ ﻓﻮﺍاﺋﺪ ﻛﺒ ﺓة ﻭوﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓة ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺟﺮﻯى‬
‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪﮫ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻞ ﻭوﻻﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﻋ ﻧﻄﺎﻕق‬
‫ﻟ ﻮﻛﻤﺔ ﻳﺨﺼ ﺎ ﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻏ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺿﻤﻦ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻞ ﺣ ﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋ ﻧﻄﺎﻕق‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ‪   .‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﻉع ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺎ ﻌﻴﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻟﻪﮫ ﻓﻮﺍاﺋﺪ ﻋ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺤﺼﻨﺎ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺮﺓة ﺍاﻟﻨﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺪ ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﺗﺘ‬

‫ﻟﻨﺎ ﺇإﺫذﺍا‬

‫ﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍاﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭرﺍا ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺍا‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻌﻈﻤ ﺎ‬

‫ﺃأﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻓﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣ ﺎ ﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓة ﻣﺮﻜﻴﺔ ﻭوﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ ﻭوﺃأﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭوﻛﻨﺪﺍا ﻭوﺳﻮ ﺴﺮﺍا‪ 23.‬ﻭو ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﻮﺣﺪﻭو ﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺃأﺧﺬﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩد ﺧ ﺓة‬

‫ﺗﺘﺠﻪﮫ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍاﻟﻼﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣ ﺎ ﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪   :‬ﺇإﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺮﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻓﺮ ﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻨﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﺇإﻧﺪﻭوﻧ ﺴﻴﺎ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻨﺎ ﻳﺠﺪﺭر ﻃﺮﺡح ﺍاﻟﺴﺆﺍاﻝل‪   :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ ﻌﺰﺯز‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕت ﻛ ﺸﺎﻑف ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ ﻭو ﻘﻮﻱي ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن؟‪  ‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮﺍاﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮﻭوﻁط ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﻭوﺭرﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪  :‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺎ ﻌﻴﺔ‪   :‬ﺇإﻳ ﺎﻝل ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺭرﻱي ﺇإ ﺃأﺩد ﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯى‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻲ ﻳﺠﺮﻱي ﺍاﺗﺨﺎﺫذ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍا ﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭوﻛﻼﺀء ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻭوﺇإﺩدﺍاﺭر ﻥن ﻳﺘﺼﻠﻮﻥن ﺑﺄﻗﺮﺏب ﻧﺤﻮ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﻭوﺳﺎﻁط ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﻳﻔ ﺽض ﻢ ﺧﺪﻣ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋﻨﺪ ﺎ ﺳﺘ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﺍاﻃﻼﻋﺎ ﺑﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺪﺙث ﻋ‬

‫ﺃأﺭرﺽض ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺳﻴ ﻮﻥن ﺻﺎ ﻌﻮ ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺍاﺭر ﻣﻘﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺻﺎﺭرﻣﺔ‬

‫‪  22‬ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺷ ﺍاﻛﻴﺔ ﻭو ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ ﺍاﳌﺘ ﻥن )ﻡم‪  .(6‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺩدﺓة )ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ(‪  ‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍاﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮﺓة )ﻡم‪   .(20‬‬
‫‪   23‬ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺰ ﻔﺔ ) ﺎﻻﺗﺤﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﻴ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻜﺴﻴﻚ(‪  ‬ﻻ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺬﺍا ﻃﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﺮﺳ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺬﺍا‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻮﻉع ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺎﺕت ﺑﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﻳﺨﻀﻊ ﻹﻣﻼﺀءﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰﻱي‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﻇﻠﻪﮫ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻳﻔﺮﺿ ﺎ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨﻮﻥن ﺍاﳌ ﺘﻤﻮﻥن‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﻴ ﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺼﻤﻢ ﻋ ﻣﻘﺎﺱس‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻈﺮﻭوﻑف ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺎﻭوﻝل ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓة ﺗﺠﺮﺔ ﺍاﺳ ﺍاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف ﺳﻴ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﻮﺯز ﻣﻦ ﻧﺼ ﺐ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻐﺎﻳﺮﺓة ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭو‬

‫ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﺍاﺭر‬

‫ﺳﻠﻮﺏب ﻓﻀﻞ؛ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆﺳﻒ ﻟﻪﮫ ﺃأﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﺍاﻧﺠﺮﺍاﻓﺎ‬

‫ﺸ ﻞ ﻳ ﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﻌﺪ ﻳﻮﻡم ﻋﻦ ﻭوﺳﺎﻁط ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﺕت ﺣﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﺃأﻛ‬
‫ﻌﺪﺍا ﻭوﺃأﻗﻞ ﻌﺮﺿﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺻﻞ‪  :‬ﻞ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻳﺠﺮﻱي ﺇإﻧﺘﺎﺟ ﺎ ﺸ ﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮ ﻲ‬

‫ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺃأﺟﺰﺍاﺀء‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺻﺎ ﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﺁآ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻊ‬

‫ﺎﻓﺔ ﺃأﻧﺤﺎﺀء‬

‫ﺗﺤﺎﺩد ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍا ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻌﺒﺎﺭرﺓة ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى‪  :  ‬ﻭوﺟﻮﺏب ﺿﻤﺎﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍا ﺮﺓة ﻏ ﺍاﳌﻘﻴﺪﺓة ﺑ ﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت‪  .‬‬
‫ﺍا ﺼﺮﺔ‪   :‬ﻞ ﻣ ﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣ ﻤﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﺠﺮﻱي ﺇإﻳ ﺎﻟ ﺎ ﺸ ﻞ‬

‫ﺣﺼﺮﻱي ﺇإ ﺃأﺣﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮ ﺎﺕت ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺓة ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﺍاﺧﻞ ﻭوﺗﻜﺮﺍاﺭر‬

‫ﻳ ﺴ ﺐ ﺑﺼﺮﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ﻣ ﻠﻔﺔ ﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍاﻟﻨﻔﻮﺫذ ﻭوﺃأﻟﻌﺎﺏب ﺿﺎﺭرﺓة ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍاﻟﻠﻮﻡم ﻋ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻦ‪  .‬ﻭوﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ ﻋ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺩدﺍاﺋﻢ ﺑﺎﻟ ﻴﺌﺎﺕت ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟ ﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥن ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪﺍا ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺬﻩ ﺍا ﺪﻣﺔ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ‪  .‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪  :‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺇإﺩدﺍاﺭرﺓة ﺣ ﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﺣﺪﺓة ﻟﻠ‬

‫ﺔ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻱي ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍا ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰﻱي ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻋ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﻋﻨﺪ ﺎ ﻟﻦ ﻌﻮﺩد ﻟﻘﺎﺀءﺍاﺕت ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍا‬
‫ﺃأﻟﻌﺎﺏب ﺇإﻟﻘﺎﺀء ﺍاﻟﻠﻮﻡم ﻋ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ )‪  (COAG‬ﻣ ﺎﻧﺎ ﳌﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺧﺮﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﺸﻞ ﺍاﳌﺴ ﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕت ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺍاﳌﺪﺍاﺭرﺱس‪  .‬‬

‫ﺎﻓﺆ ﺍاﳌﺎ ‪  :‬ﻞ ﺣ ﻮﻣﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻣﺴﺆﻭوﻟﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﺣﺼﺮﻱي ﻋﻦ ﺗﻤﻮ ﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘ ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﳌ ﻤﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺃأﻭو ﻠﺖ ﺇإﻟ ﺎ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺗﻄﻮﻋﺖ‬

‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡم ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘ ﺎﻓﺆ ﻳﺤﻘﻖ ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺍاﺯزﻥن ﺑ ﻥن‬

‫ﺧﻄﻂ ﻧﻔﺎﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻭو ﻥن ﺍا ﺰﻱي ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺯزﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻥن‬
‫ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻜﺒﺢ ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍاﳌﺘﻮﺍاﺻﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ؛ ﻭوﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺠﺮﻱي ﺣﻈﺮ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﻮ ﻼﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭو ﻓﻘﻴﺔ ) ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻋ‬

‫ﻗﻞ ﺍا ﺪ ﻣ ﺎ ﺑﺼﺮﺍاﻣﺔ( ‪  ‬ﻓﺈﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺭر ﻥن ﻟﻦ ﻳﻤﻜ ﻢ ﻗﺒﺎﻝل ﻋ ﺑﺮﺍاﻣﺞ ﻧﻔﺎﻕق ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻮ ﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟ‬
‫ﻗ ﺍاﺽض؛ ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﺗﺠ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘ ﻢ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻖ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴ ﻥن ﺳﻴﻌﺎﺭرﺿﻮﻥن ﺬﺍا‬
‫‪279‬‬

‫ﻣﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘ ﺎﻓﺆ ﺍاﳌﺎ ﺳﻴﻘ‬

‫ﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋ‬

‫ﻋﺎﻧﺎﺕت ﺍاﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩدﺍا ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍا‪  .‬‬

‫ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺘﻐﻴ ﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﺤﻔﺰﺓة ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ )ﻭو ﻋﺘﺒﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﻌﻴﻘﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ(‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻄﺮﻘﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗ ﺒﻌ ﺎ ) ﻨﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺼﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ( ‪  ‬ﺗﻮﺯز ﻊ ﺿﺮﺒﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻭوﺍا ﺪﻣﺎﺕت )‪   (GST‬ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺗﺠﺒ ﺎ ﺍا‬

‫‪  ‬ﻮﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪  .‬ﻭو ﻜﺬﺍا ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘ ﺎﻓﺆ ﺍاﳌﺎ ﺳﻴﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﻌﺰ ﺰ ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍاﻟﺸﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕت ﻣﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﻭوﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪   :‬ﻓﺘﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺣﻴ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﺑﺜﻘﺔ ﺃأﻛ ﻭو ﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄ ﺎ ﺃأﻗﻞ ﺧﻀﻮﻋﺎ‬
‫ﻟ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ؛‪ 24‬ﺇإﺫذ ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍاﻋ ﺎ ﺣﺮﺓة ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻀﺮ ﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺣﻈﺮ ﺻﺮﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍا ﻜﻮﻣﻲ‪   :‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺩدﺳﺘﻮﺭر ﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻈﺮ ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻘ ﺿ ﺎ ﺣ ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ‬
‫ﺭرﺷﻮﺓة ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻘﻠ ﻥن ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﻻﺟﺘﺬﺍا ﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭوﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى‪  .  ‬ﻓﺈﺫذﺍا ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺗﻠﻚ ﻌﺮﺽض ﺍاﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍا‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡم ﺍاﻟﻌﺮﺽض ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ‬

‫ﻮﻣﻲ ﻋ ﺃأﺣﺪ ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠ ﻥن ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن‬

‫ﻤﻴﻊ ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺩدﻣ ﻥن ﺇإﻟ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﺩدﻱي‬

‫ﻟﻌﺎﺏب‬

‫ﺻﻔﺮ ﺔ ﺍا ﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍاﻟﻀﺎﺭرﺓة ﻭوﺗﻨﺎﻣﻲ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم‪  .‬ﻭو ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺍا ﻈﺮ ﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﺍاﺯزﻯى‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﺣﻈﺮ ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﻴ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺠﺮﻱي‬

‫ﻇﻞ "ﻓﻘﺮﺓة ﻣﻢ‬

‫ﻛ ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼ" ‪  ‬‬

‫ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﻴﺔ‪  25.‬‬
‫ﻭو ﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻻ ﺗﻮ ﻞ ﻟ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰﺔ ﺃأﻳﺔ ﻣ ﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل ﺑﺎﺳﺘ ﻨﺎﺀء‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺠﻠﺐ ﻣﻌ ﺎ ﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕت ﻣ ﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉع )ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﺸﻄﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺔ(‪  ‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﻮﻓﻮﺭرﺍاﺕت‬

‫‪   24‬ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕق ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﻮ ﻼﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩدﻳﺔ ﻭو ﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑ ﻥن ﺣ ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت‬
‫ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﻘﺮﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﻣﻨ ﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙث ﻣﻦ ﺗﺠﺮﺔ ﻤﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﻮﺯز ﻊ‬
‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف ﺑﻔﺸﻞ ﺫذﺭرﻊ ﺷﻤﻞ ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻪﮫ ) ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ‪ ،‬ﻡم‪22‬؛ ﺹص‪  .(360-352‬ﻭوﺍا ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺬﺍا‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍاﺀء‬
‫ﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻴﻤ ﻥن ﺃأﻡم ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﺴﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﺃأﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺗﺨﻔﺾ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﻮ ﻼﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺸﺪﺩد ﻋ ﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩد ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺬﺍاﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﺃأﻥن‬
‫ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﻟﺪﻯى ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒ ﻥن ﻣﺼ ﺔ ﺃأﻛ ﻭوﺍاﻗﻌﻴﺔ ﺑ ﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻀﺮ ﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﺍا ﺎ‪  .‬ﺇإﻥن ﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻮ ﻼﺕت ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴ ﻞ ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻧ ﺎﺯز ﻥن‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﻌﺎﺭرﺿﻮﺍا ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻭو ﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭوﺍا ﻋﻮﺿﺎ ﻋﻨﻪﮫ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺼﻠ ﻢ ﻋﻤﻮﺩدﻳﺎ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺃأﻓﻘﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪   25‬ﻣﺎ ﺫذﻛﺮﻧﺎﻩ ﻟ ﺲ ﺇإﻻ‪  ‬ﺗ ﻴﺼﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍاﻟﺮﺋ ﺴﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻘﻮﻡم ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺃأﻭوﺭرﺩدﻧﺎﻩ ﻟ ﺚ ﻋ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵش ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﺠﺎﻝل‪ ،‬ﻭوﳌﻦ ﻳﺮﻏﺐ ﺑﺎﻻﺳ ﺍاﺩدﺓة ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉع ﺇإ ‪  ‬ﻛﺘﺎ ّﻲ )ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪  :‬ﻌﺰﺰ ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر‪،‬‬
‫ﻡم‪17‬؛ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉع ﺇإ ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪  ..‬ﺍاﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓة ﺇإ ﺍا ﺮﺏب ﺍاﻭو ﻓ ﻢ ﺍا ﻖ ﺍاﻟﺮﺋ ‪ ،‬ﻡم‪  .(18‬ﻭوﺇإﻥن ﺎﻥن ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﻨﺼﺎﻥن ﻗﺪ ﺸﺮﺍا ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻓﺈﻧ ﻻ ﺃأﺟﺪ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇإ ﻐﻴ ﺣﺮﻑف ﻭوﺍاﺣﺪ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻭوﺭرﺩد ﻓ ﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﳌﻌ ﺓة ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ؛ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻇﻞ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺗ ﻮﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰﺔ ﺬﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺴﺆﻭوﻟﺔ ﺣﺼﺮ ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺸﺆﻭوﻥن ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉع ﺍاﻟﻮﻃ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻭوﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍا ﺪﻭوﺩد ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟ ﺮﺓة ﺍاﻟﻼﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇإ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭوﻓﺮﺽض ﻣﻌﺎﻳ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﻭوﺭرﺑﺮﺍا ﻭوﺟﻮﺍا ﻭوﻣﻌﺎﻳ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻋ ﺍاﻣﺘﺪﺍاﺩد ﺍاﻟﺒﻼﺩد‪  .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺗﺄﺛ ﺍاﺕت ﺧﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺍاﻟﻮﻃ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﺸﻐﻠ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳ ﺘﻘﻠﻮﻥن ﻛﺜ ﺍا ﻣﻦ ﻭوﻻﻳﺔ ﺇإ ﺃأﺧﺮﻯى‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﻄﺎﻕق ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍا‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥن‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ‪  .‬ﺃأﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻣ ﺎ ﺫذﺍا ﺃأ ﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺑﺮﺓة ﻟﻠﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺎﺕت ﺍا‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺒ ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻮ ﻞ ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺼﺮﺔ ﻋ ﺎ‬
‫ﻭوﻧ ﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﻓﻘﻂ‪  .‬‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺳﻴ ﻮﻥن ﻟﺪ ﺎ ﻋﺪﺩد ﺃأﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌ ﺎﻡم ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳ ﻴﺢ ﻟ ﺎ ﺩدﺍاﺀء‬

‫ﺸ ﻞ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﺭرﺩد ﺍاﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓة‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺸ ﻮﻙك ﺣﻮﻝل ﻣﺰﺍاﻳﺎ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃأﻣﺎ‬

‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺗ ﻨﺎﻣﻰ ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﻣﻌﺎﺭرﺿﺔ ﺩدﺍاﻓﻊ ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ ﻭوﺗﺘﻔﺎﻗﻢ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ ﺍاﻟﻜﺒ ﺓة‪  .‬‬

‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺼﻤﻢ ﺃأﺷ ﺎﻻ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺿﻮﺍاﺑﻂ‬

‫ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻤﻮ ﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻤﻜ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺼﻤﻢ‬
‫ﻭوﺗﻔﺮﺽض ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍاﻟﻀﻮﺍاﺑﻂ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﻇﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺒ ﺌﺔ ﻭوﺳﻮﻕق ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕت ﻭوﺳﻮﻕق ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﻥن ّ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻮﻝل ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺮﻋﺎﻳﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﺩدﺍاﺋﻤﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻪﮫ ﺇإﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺎ ﺍاﳌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻌﺎ‪  .‬ﻭو ﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺃأﻥن ّ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺮﺏب ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍا ﻠﻮﻝل ﺩدﺍاﺭر ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕت ﺍا ﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻋ ﺳ ﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺜﺎﻝل‪   :‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻮ ﻻﻧﺪ ﺃأﻥن ﺴﺘﻌﻴﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﻮ ﻞ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱي ﺍاﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺍاﺭرﺱس‬
‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺴ ﺸﻔﻴﺎﺕت ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻗﺴﺎﺋﻢ ﺩدﺭرﺍاﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺟﺮﺍاﺣﺎﺕت ﺍاﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭر ﺔ ﳌﻦ ﺴﺘﺤﻘ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺧﺒ ﻥن ﻭوﺩدﺍاﻓ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻀﺮﺍاﺋﺐ؛ ﻭو ﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺴﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺃأﻥن ّ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺮﺏب ﺇإﻏﻼﻕق ﺍاﳌﺰ ﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺼﺎ ﻊ ﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺒ ﺌﺔ ﻭوﺧﻠﻖ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺹص ﻋﻤﻞ "ﺧﻀﺮﺍاﺀء"‪  .‬ﻭو ﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻮﺗ ﻥن ﻋ ﺃأﻳﺔ ﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻧﻮﺍا ﻗﺎﺩدﺭر ﻦ ﻋ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻋﻮﺍاﻗﺐ‬
‫ﺬﻩ ﺍا ﻴﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﻴﺔ ﻭوﺃأﻥن ﻳﺼﻮﺗﻮﺍا ﻋ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺳﺎﺱس‪   .‬ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﺗﻜﺒﺪﻧﺎ ﻟﺘ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻜ ﺸﻒ ﻋ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﻧﻤﺎﻁط ﺍا‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉع ﻭوﺃأﻣﺜﺎﻟﻪﮫ‬

‫ﻣﺪ ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﻧﻤﻂ ﻳﻼﺋﻢ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪  .‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﻳ ﻴﺢ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍاﻃﻦ ﺃأﻥن ﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪﮫ ﺃأﺻﺒﺢ ﺃأﻗﻮﻯى ﻭو ﺠﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ‬

‫‪  ‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺸﺮ ﺇإﺯزﺍاﺀء ﺍاﳌﺴﺆﻭوﻟ ﻥن‪ ،‬ﺃأﻱي‪  :‬ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻮﻛﻼﺀء ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺗ ﻧﺢ ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺎﺕت ﺗﺤﺖ ﻭوﻃﺄﺓة ﻻﺃأﺑﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺱس ﻭوﺭرﻓﻀ ﻢ‬
‫ﻭو ﺸﺎﺅؤﻣ ﻢ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺄﺫذﻛﺮﻩ ﺃأﻣﺮﺍا ﻣ ﻤﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺮﺍا ﺑﺎﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭر‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا ﻦ‬
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‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺎﺕت‬

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‫ﺍاﻟﺮﺍاﺷﺪﺓة ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺩدﺍاﺭر‬
‫ﺛﻮﺭرﺍاﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺎﺭرﺦ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻗﺮﺅؤﻭوﻩ ﺣﻮﻝل‪  ‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃأﻥن ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻢ ﺗﺘﺠﻪﮫ ﺇإ‬

‫ﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕت ﻭوﺍاﻟﺼﺮﺍاﻋﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻄﻮﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺪﺍاﺭر ﺸ ﻞ ﺳ ﻭوﺗ ﺘ‬

‫ﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕت ﺍاﻟ ﺃأﺷﻌﻞ ﺷﺮﺍاﺭر ﺎ ﻏﻮﺗﻨ ﻍغ ﻣﺨ ﻉع ﺍاﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫ﺎﻳ ﺎ ﺴ ﺐ‬

‫ﺎﻳﺎﺕت ﻣ ﻠﻔﺔ‪   :‬ﻓﺜﻮﺭرﺓة‬
‫ﻌﺖ ﺭرﺍاﺀء‬

‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺻﻼﺡح‬

‫ﺍاﻛﺰﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭو ﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺃأﺩدﺕت‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺸﻜﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻏ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﻭوﺭرﻋﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﺮ‬

‫ﺎﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﺃأﺳﺎﺀءﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺿﺮﻭوﺭرﺓة ﺇإﺻﻼﺡح ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف ﺇإ ﺍاﻧﺪﻻﻉع ﺣﺮﻭوﺏب ﺩدﻳ ﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‪  .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﻓ ﺎﺭر ﺍاﻟ ﺸﻜﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﻧﻮﺍاﺭر‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺟﺮﻯى ﺸﺮ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﻭوﺳﻴﻂ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻮ ﺍاﳌﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟﻔﺮ ﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃأﺩدﺕت‬

‫ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻄﺎﻑف ﺇإ ﻇ ﻮﺭر ﺣﻘﺒﺔ )ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍاﻟﺮﻋﺐ(‪  ‬ﺴ ﺐ ﺗﺠﺎ ﻞ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ ﻟ ﺎ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍاﻟﺮﺍا ﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡم ﻧ ﻧﺖ ﺑ ﺸﺮ ﺍاﻟﺸ ﻮﻙك ﻭو ﺭرﺍاﺀء ﻏ ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎﺕت ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻟﻠﻘﻮﺓة‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻄﺮﺡح ﺍاﻟﺴﺆﺍاﻝل‪  :‬ﻞ ﺳﺘﻼﺣﻆ ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍا ﺎﻛﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻭو‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺍاﳌﺮﺓة‬

‫ﺑﺄﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﺟﺐ ﻋﻠ ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺣﻠﻮﻝل ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕت ﺗﺤﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻮﺍاﻃﻨ ﻥن ﺇإ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮﺩدﻳﻦ؟‪  ‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﳌﻔ ﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺇإﺣﺪﻯى ﻟﻴﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓة ﻻﻛ ﺸﺎﻑف ﺫذﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺬﻩ‬

‫ﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﺮﺽض ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟ ﻮﻡم ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕت "ﻏ ﺍا ﻮﻣﻴﺔ"‪  ‬ﺍاﳌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺣ ﻮﻣﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻭوﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻼﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟ ﺴﺘﻘﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌ ﻞ‬
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‫ﺿﺪ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴ ﺎ ﺍاﻟ ﺗﻄﺮﺡح‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻻ ﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻪﮫ؛ ﻓﻤﺎ ﺴﻤﻌﻪﮫ ﺍاﳌﺮﺀء ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻼ ﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻻﻥن‪   :‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭوﻥن ﻓﻀﻴﻠﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺗﻤﺮﺩد ﻭوﺃأﻧﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪  .‬‬

‫ﺿﺪ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺪ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺩدﻱي ﺇإ ﻗﻴﻮﺩد ﻏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﺪ ﺣﺮﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن‬
‫ﻭو ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ّ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃأﺟﻞ ﺍاﻟﺼﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺤﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ ﻣ ﻤﺎ ﺎﻥن ﻣﻌ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺼﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻡم؛ ﻭو ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱي ﻋ ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻛﺒ ﺓة‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﺩد ﻋ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥن‬

‫ﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻌ ﺎ ﺫذﺍاﺕت ﺗ ﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﻛﺒ ﺓة‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻤﻜﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﻝل ﺑﺄﻥن ﺻﺮﺍاﺭر ﺍاﳌﺘﺨﺸﺐ ﻋ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺴﺒﻞ ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺃأﻛ ﺗ ﻠﻔﺔ ﻋ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﺣﺘ ﺎﺭر ﺎﺕت ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭر ﺔ ﻭوﺍا‬

‫ﻣﺪ ﺍاﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‪  .‬ﻭو ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇإﻥن ﻞ ﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﻟ ﻃﺮﺣﺖ ﻟﻠﺪﻓﺎﻉع‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺳ ﺒﺪﺍاﺩدﻳﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻇ ﺮﺕت ﻣﺠﺪﺩدﺍا‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵش ﺣﻮﻝل‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍا ﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍا ﻮ ﺮ ﺔ ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﻧﻔﺴ ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑ ﻥن‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ ﻭوﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋ‬

‫‪  ‬ﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﺍا ﺮﺓة ﻭو‬

‫ﻊﻋ‬

‫ﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻡم ﺍا ﻼﻕق ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍا ﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺄﻭوﺳﻊ ﻧﻄﺎﻕق ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‪  26.‬‬
‫‪  26‬ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﺭر ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت‪ ،‬ﻭوﺣﻔﺎﻅظ ﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‪  :‬ﻓﺎﻳﻨﻐﺎﺳﺖ )ﻡم‪.(28‬‬
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‫ﻭوﻻ ﺷﻚ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﺍاﻟﻔﻴﺪﺭرﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻟ ﺴﺖ ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﺍاﺀء ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﺸﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻞ ﺩدﺍاﺀء‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺃأﻱي‬

‫ﺍاﻗ ﺍاﺏب ﻣﻦ ﺬﺍا ﺍاﳌﻨ‬

‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓة ﻋ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻞ ‪  ‬ﻭوﺗﻮﻓ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﻷ‬
‫ﻭوﺍا‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﳌﺤﺴﻮ ﻴﺔ ﻭوﻣﻨﺢ ﺍا ﺮﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟ ﺴﻠﻂ ﺍاﻟﺮﺳ‬

‫ﺎﺏب ﻣﻼﻙك‪   .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇإﻥن ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺪﻭوﻟﺔ‬

‫ﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺆﺩدﻱي ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ ﺇإ ﺗﻘﻮ ﺔ ﺍاﻟﻘﺪﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﳌﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯز ﺪﻑف‬

‫"ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﻮﻗﻊ" ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺫذﻟﻚ‬

‫ﻭوﻗﺖ ﻧﺤﺘﺎﺝج ﻓﻴﻪﮫ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﺼﻤﻮﺩد ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃأﺳﻮﺍاﻕق ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺴﻮﺩد ﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺷﺮﺱس‪  .‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﯾﻴﯿﺮ‪  ‬ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪  ‬ﺍاﻟﺠﻴﯿﺪﺓة‪  ‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﻋ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺃأﻥن ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺇإﺫذﺍا ﻧﻈﺮﻧﺎ ﻟ ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭر ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﻠﻴ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺒﺪﻭو ﻟﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻠﺔ ﻛ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺎ ‪   :‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻧﻀﻤﻦ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺗﺘﻄﻮﺭر ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺃأﻋﻀﺎﺀء ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬

‫ﺃأﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣ ﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕت ﻟﻠﺴ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺴﺆﺍاﻝل‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋ ﻧﺤﻮ‬

‫ﺧﻠﻒ ﻏﺎﻳﺎ ﻢ ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺍاﻟ‬

‫ﻳﺨﺘﺎﺭر ﺎ ﻞ ﻭوﺍاﺣﺪ ﻣ ﻢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪﮫ؟ ‪  ‬ﻭو ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺪﻱي ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺃأﻗﻞ ﺇإﺷ ﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺪﺍاﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭو ﻄﺮﺍاﺋﻖ ﻻﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺔ ﻋ ﺿﻮﺀء ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺏب‪ ،‬ﺃأﻣﺎ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ )ﺍاﻟ ﺗﺼﻨﻌ ﺎ ﺍا‬

‫ﻮﻣﺔ(‪  ‬ﻓ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪  :‬ﺇإﺫذ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﺭرﻙك ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮﺍاﺩد ﺟﻴﺪﺍا‬

‫ﺑﺄﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻌﻴﻖ ﻗﻴﺎﻣ ﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩدﻝل ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﻱي ﻭو ﻤﻨﻌ ﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍاﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍاﻣﺎﺕت ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﳌﻠﻜﻴﺎ ﻢ‪  .‬ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﻭوﻡم ﳌﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺎﺏب‪  :‬ﺇإﺫذ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍاﻟﻮﻛﻼﺀء ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﺟﺎ ﻠ ﻥن ﺸﺄﻥن ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺇإﺻﻼﺡح ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥن‬
‫ﺸﺄ ﺎ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻻ ﻌﺒﺆﻭوﻥن ﺎ ﺑ ﻞ ﺴﺎﻃﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻌﺒﺆﻭوﻥن ﺑﻤﺎ ﺇإﺫذﺍا ﺎﻧﻮﺍا ﻳ ﺴ ﺒﻮﻥن ﺣﻘﺎ ﺑﺘﺪﻣ‬
‫ﺍاﳌﻌ ﺸﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯى ﺍا ﺎﺹص‪ ،‬ﻭوﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥن ﺑﺎﺯزﺩدﺭرﺍاﺀء ﻣﻊ ﺍاﻟﺘﻤﺎﺳﺎﺕت ﺷﺮ ﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺠﻴﻢ‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀء ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﺓة ﻭوﻛﺄ ﻢ ﺛﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﺘﺤ ﻳﻦ ﺃأﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺿﺪ ﺍاﻟ ﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕت ﺍاﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭوﻗﺪ ﻳﺪﻓﻌ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﻐﺮﻭوﺭر ﺇإ ﺍاﺩدﻋﺎﺀء )ﺻﺪﺍاﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭوﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮﻭوﻥن ﺃأﻳﻀﺎ )ﻭو ﺘﻤﻮﻟﻮﻥن‪  (  ‬ﺑﺎﳌﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﳌﺼ ﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺒ‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪  27.‬‬

‫ﻭو ﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻻ ﻧﻘﻠﻞ ﺃأﺑﺪﺍا ﻣﻦ ﺃأ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺟ ﻞ ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﻣﺴ ﺸﺎﺭر ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻜﻔﻲ‬
‫ﺃأﻥن ﺴﻮﻕق ﻣﺜﺎﻻ ﻭوﺍاﺣﺪﺍا ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋ‬

‫ﺃأ ﻤﻴﺔ ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮ‪   :‬ﻓﻤﺸ ﻠﺔ‬

‫‪  27‬ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﳌﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﻛﺪﻓﺎﻉع ﻋﻦ ﺍا ﺮﺔ )ﻡم‪  .(27‬‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ )ﻡم‪(22‬؛ ﺹص‪.450-440‬‬
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‫ﺩدﺭرﺍاﻙك ﻟﺪﻯى ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن‬

‫ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴﺎ ﺎﻧﺖ ﻭوﺍا‬

‫ﺔ ﻭوﺿﻮﺡح ﺍاﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬

‫ﺃأﻋ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻜﺜ ﻣﻦ ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴ ﻥن ﺧﻼﻝل ﺍاﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴ ﻴﺎﺕت‬

‫ﺍاﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻣﻊ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺨﺐ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻤﺴﻜﺔ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍاﳌﻠ ﻣﺔ ﺑﺎ ﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺘﺪﺧﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭو‬

‫ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﻨﻖ ﻗﺪﺭرﺓة ﺍاﻟﺒﻼﺩد ﻋ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﻨﻤﻮ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺍاﺳﺘﻠﺰﻡم ﻣﺮ ﺃأﻛ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻹﺩدﺭرﺍاﻙك ﺫذﻟﻚ ﻭوﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻌﺾ ﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕت‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭو ﺔ ﺍاﻟﻼﺯزﻣﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡح‬

‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻋ‬

‫ﻗﻞ ﺃأﻥن ﻳﻘﻮﻡم ﺍاﻟ ﺰ ﺍاﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭرﻱي ﻭو ﺮﻭوﺏب ﺭرﺅؤﻭوﺱس‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﻭو ﺮﺓة ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺑ ﺚ ﺇإﺷﺎﺭرﺓة ﻣﻔﺎﺩد ﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻧﻘﺎﻁط ﺿﻌﻒ ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺴﺒ ﺖ ﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺧﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﻏ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺭر ﻤﺎ ﻳﻈﻞ ﺍاﻟﻘﺎﺩدﺓة ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﻮﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﻮﻥن ﺍاﻟﺮﺟﻌﻴﻮﻥن‬
‫ﻳﺮﺩدﻭوﻥن ﻋ ﺫذﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺮﺍاﺥخ "ﻓﻠﻴﺬ ﺒﻮﺍا ﻏ ﻣﺄﺳﻮﻑف ﻋﻠ ﻢ"‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍاﺭر‬
‫ﺍاﻟ ﺎﻳﺔ ﺇإ‬

‫ﺭرﺅؤﻭوﺱس ﻣﻮﺍاﻝل ﻭوﺍاﳌﻌﺎﺭرﻑف ﻭو ﺳ ﺜﻤﺎﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺳﻴﺆﺩدﻱي‬

‫ﻐﻴ‬

‫ﺧﺮﻭوﺝج ﺃأ‬

‫ﺎﺏب‬

‫ﺬﻩ ﺭرﺍاﺀء ﻭوﺳﺘﻈ ﺮ ﺃأﻛ ﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓة ﻣﻦ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴ ﻥن ﻭوﺍاﻟﺒ ﻭوﻗﺮﺍاﻃﻴ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥن ﺭرﺃأﻳﺎ ﻣﻐﺎﻳﺮﺍا‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭو ﻭوﺟﻪﮫ ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﻌﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃأﻥن ﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻛﺜ ﺍا ﻋ ﺍاﻟﻮﺿﻮﺡح ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻪﮫ ﺍاﻟﺮ ﻂ ﺑ ﻥن ﺍاﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏب ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬

‫ﻣﻴﻠﺘﻮﻥن‬
‫‪  ‬‬
‫ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﻗﺪ ﺩدﺃأﺏب‬

‫ﻓﺮ ﺪﻣﺎﻥن‪ ،‬ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻱي ﺍا ﺎﺋﺰ ﻋ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓة ﻧﻮ ﻞ‪ ،‬ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺑﺄﻥن ﺍاﻟﻨﺎﺧﺐ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺴﻴﺎ‬

‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎﻥن‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﻭوﺱس ﺍاﻟﺼﺎﺋﺒﺔ ﺸ ﻞ ﺃأﺳﺮﻉع ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱس ﺍا ﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭوﺍاﳌﻘﺎﺭرﻧﺔ ﺑ ﻥن ﺃأﺩدﺍاﺀء ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺎﺕت‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻘﻮﺍاﻋﺪ ﺍا ﺎﺭرﺟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‪   .‬ﻭو ﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻸﺳﻠﻮﺏب ﺍاﻟﻜ‬

‫ﺃأﻥن ﻳ ﻮﻥن ﺫذﺍا ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓة‬

‫ﻣﺜﻼ‪ ،‬ﺣﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺎ ﻟﻺﺩدﺍاﺭرﺍاﺕت ﺍاﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩدﺓة ﺃأﻥن ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ‪  ‬ﺃأﻭو ﻌﻴﻖ‬

‫ﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺜﻘﻴﻔﻨﺎ‪،‬‬

‫ﺎﺹص ﺍاﻟﻌﺎﺩدﻳ ﻥن‬

‫ﺇإﺩدﺭرﺍاﻙك ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎ ﻢ ﺍاﻟﺮﺋ ﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭوﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‪  :‬ﺍا ﺮﺔ ﻭو ﺯزﺩد ﺎﺭر‪  .‬ﻓﺈﺫذﺍا ﺎﻥن ﻣﻦ ﺍاﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺳﻠﻮﺏب‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻜ‬

‫ﻋ ﺍاﻟﺴ ﺐ ﻭوﺍاﻟﻨ ﻴﺠﺔ ﻭوﺍاﻟﺮ ﻂ ﺑﻴ ﻤﺎ ﺸ ﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﺴ ﻨﺪ ﺇإ ﺍاﻟﻮﺍاﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥن ﺬﺍا ﻣﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﺭر ﳌﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇإﻧﺠﺎﺯزﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝل ﺇإﺻﻼﺡح ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕت ﻭوﻣﻤﺎﺭرﺳﺎﺕت ﺍا ﻮﻛﻤﺔ‪  .‬‬
‫ﺳ ﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋ ﻇ ﻮﺭر ‪  ‬‬
‫ﺇإﻥن ﺬﺍا ﻮ ﺍاﻟﺴ ﺐ ﺍاﻟﺬﻱي ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍاﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕت ﺍاﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﻝل ﺍاﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎ ﻲ‬
‫ﺍاﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕت ﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃأﻭو‬
‫ﻟﺎ‬

‫ﻓ ﻤﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍاﻟ ﻳ ﺒ‬

‫ﻨﺎ‬

‫ﺬﺍا ﺍاﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻻ ﺣﺼﺮ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟ ﺎ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺃأ ﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪﮫ ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭو ﻮ‪   :‬ﺍاﻟﺒ ﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍاﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺍاﳌﺸ ﻛﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪274‬‬

‫ﻭوﻭوﻟﻔﻐﺎ ﻎ ﺎﺳ‬
‫ﺃأﺳﺘﺎﺫذ ﻓﺨﺮﻱي ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩد ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﺳﺎﻭوﺙث ﻭو ﻠﺰ )ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ(‪  .‬‬
‫ﻭوﺭرﺩدﺕت ﺬﻩ ﺍاﻟﺪﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﺍاﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕت )‪  (35-23‬ﻣﻦ ﺩدﺭرﺍاﺳﺔ ﻌﻨﻮﺍاﻥن‪  :‬‬
‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮﻣﻌ ﺪ ﺍاﻟﺸﺆﻭوﻥن ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ ﻟ ﺮﺔ ﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﻳﺔ )‪  :(2014‬ﺟﻮ ﻧﻮﻓﺎﻙك )ﺗﺤﺮﺮ(‪  ‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺒﻮﺭرﻥن‪ ،‬ﺃأﺳ ﺍاﻟﻴﺎ‪  ‬‬

‫‪  ‬‬

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