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3.

FORCE SYSTEMS
FORCE
SYSTEMS

A
Force is
characterized by
1. Point of
application (A)
2. Magnitude ( 100
N)
3. Direction
Characteristics of a Force
F
-
(from x-axis)
Objective: To bring out the characteristics of a Force as applied in Statics
Sense of Force
x
y
x
y
Tension
Compression
Objective: To bring out the two senses in which a Force can act
RIGID BODIES AND FLEXIBLE
BODIES
Flexible Body
Rigid Body
Steel, Wood, Concrete, Stone are rigid bodies, we
neglect their deformation in Statics
Foam is Flexible material, which undergoes
large deformations under loading
In Statics we deal
with
Rigid bodies alone
Objective: To bring out the difference between a Rigid Body and a Flexible Body
F
F
Hence Pulling is
equal to Pushing,
provided the Forces
are on the same
horizontal line
(same line of action)
Transmissibility
This is known as the Principle of Transmissibility
Objective: To explain the concept of Transmissibility
From the viewpoint of Statics, the Arch which is
loaded on the top is equivalent top the arch which
is loaded from beneath this is an application of
the principle of Transmissibility
Objective: An example which illustrates the principle of Transmissibility
=
P
P
Red Forces
are Applied
Forces
Blue Forces
are
Reaction
Forces
The dotted line the Reference Boundary for the
Structural System under consideration
Objective: To describe, System Boundary, Applied Forces and Reaction Forces
The Green Forces are the Internal Forces
Objective: To describe Internal Forces
Reference
Boundary of the
Structural System
External Force
Reaction Forces
Internal
Forces
Objective: An example to illustrate: System Boundary, External ,Reaction & Internal
Forces
CONCLUSIONS
1. The System
boundaries can
be defined
arbitrarily
2. What the
Applied Forces,
the Reaction
Forces and the
Internal Forces
are, will be
clarified
accordingly
Objective: To explain the idea that the System Boundary is defined, depending on the
portion of the structure one wishes to focus on
Vector Addition
Characteristics of a Vector
An important characteristic of vectors is that
they must be added according to the
parallelogram law . This is necessary because
vectors have both magnitude and direction .
Using parallelogram law, we may add vectors
graphically or by trigonometric relationships.
First we will see the graphical method and
then the trigonometric method.
Objective: To explain how Vectors can be added graphically
200
400
200
400
600 800
1000
R
=
1
3
0
0
#
o
6 . 22 =
PARALLELOGRAM
LAW OF VECTOR
ADDITION
600
800
1000
A box is being pulled up
by a Force of 900 N and
pulled to the right with a
Force of 900 N. We want
to know the Resultant.
N
N
H=900 N
H=900 N
V=900 N
V
=
9
0
0

N
5
0
0
#
9
0
0
#
75
15
R

PARALLELOGRAM LAW OF ADDITION OF VECTORS


Objective: To illustrate the parallelogrammethod of addition of vectors using triangles
z
TIP TO TAIL METHOD
Another Method of Vector Addition
O
A
B
R

O
A
B
R

Determining the Resultant by Analytical Method.


Sometimes it is more convenient to determine the Resultant by using the cosine
law as shown in the following example.
lb
F F F R
192
) 259 . 0 )( 140 )( 100 ( 2 140 100
cos 2
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
=
+ =
+ =
o
o
o
8 . 44
) 704 . 0 ( sin
704 . 0
192
966 . 0 140
105 sin
sin
sin 105 sin
1
2
2
=
=
=

=
=
=

R
F
F R
lb F 100
1
=
lb F 140
2
=
o
30
o
45
o
75
o
105 =

o
30
o
30
o
45
lb F 100
1
=
lb F 140
2
=
R
x
y
VECTOR ADDITION

35
45
900 lb
600 lb

35
45
600 lb
900 lb
Parallelogram Method
R= 1413 lb, Angle=50.8
600 lb
900 lb
R
R
Tip-to-tail method
R=1413 lb, Angle=50.8
Graphical addition of Three or More Vectors
F1
F2
F3
x
y
x
y
F2
R12
F3
R123
F1