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The teaching of number operation Mixed Operations

MIXED OPERATIONS

In this chapter,

34 8 2 = ?
Introduction
Examples of mixed operation situation
The conventional in mixed operations
- Multiplication and Division
- Subtraction and Multiplication
- Subtraction and Division
- Bracket.
Summary

LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the topic, the students are able to

to plan teaching and learning activities to

- state basic facts for the four numbers (mixed) operations spontaneously

- perform the four numbers (mixed) operations in the standard form

- solve daily problems involving the four number (mixed) operations.

- Perform micro/macro teaching and make reflection.

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

In this chapter, we will see questions like these:

3 + 7 x 4 = 12 - 6 2 =

Can you see that these questions involved more than one mathematical operations. Yes,
they are known as mixed operations. Mixed operations are the combination of more than one
basic operations ( +, - , x and ) in one mathematical sentence.

In the example of 3 + 7 x 4 = , there may be two possible ways to solve it.

First, you add 3 to 7. You will get the total of 10. Then 10 is multiplied to 4 giving the answer
40.
Or
Multiply 7 to 4, then add 3 to the product, that is 28, giving you the answer 34

Which one is correct?

This is the focus of our discussion in this chapter which are mostly based on the
convertion that had been agreed by the mathematicians.

1.1 Examples of Mixed Operational Situations;
Situations that involved mixed operations
Can be introduced to students to give
them the ideas of what mixed operations

Here are some situations that involved

Activity 1.1 To introduce an example of
mixed Operation

Teacher prepares a series of pictures as
in Figure 3.2.75

For each picture,
(a) tell story of what has happened
in the picture

(b) write it in a mathematical
sentence

For picture series (Figure 3.2.75)

Students are to refer to the pictures
A,B, and C in the Figure 3.2.75

Students are guided in writing a story
for each picture and then translate it
into a mathematical sentence.

What can you see in picture A?
( 2 group of birds,containing 4 birds
and 3 birds respectively are flying
to rest on the electrical wire).

What can you see in picture B?
(The birds were sitting on the electrical
wire).

What can you see in picture C?
(Two of the birds were flying away
from the electrical wire).

Then the students are asked to write
one mathematical sentence for the
above situation based on the pictures
in diagram 1.1
Figure 3.2.75
4 + 3 2 = ?

Diagram 1.1

For picture series Figure 3.2.76

Students are to refer to pictures
A,B and C in Figure 3.2.76

For each picture,
(c) tell story of what has happened
in the picture

(d) write it in a mathematical sentence

Students are guided in writing a story
for each picture and then translate it
into a mathematical sentence.

What can you see in picture A?

What can you see in picture B?
What can you see in picture C?

Then the students are asked to write
one mathematical sentence for the
above situation based on the pictures
in Figure 3.2.76

6 + 5 - 3 = ?

Figure 3.2.76

For picture series Figure 3.2.77

Students are to refer to pictures
A,B C and D in Figure 3.2.77

As before,students are guided
in writing a story for each picture
and then translate it into
a mathematical sentence.

What can you see in picture A?

What can you see in picture B?

What can you see in picture C and D?

Then the students are asked to write
one mathematical sentence for the
above situation based on the pictures
in Figure 3.2.77

7 - 3 + 5 = ?

Diagram 1.3

Figure 3.4.77

For picture series (Figure 3.4.78)

Students are to refer to pictures
A,B C and D in the (Figure 3.4.78)

As before, students are guided
in writing a story for each picture
and then translate it into
a mathematical sentence.

What can you see in picture A?

What can you see in picture B?

What can you see in picture C and D ?

Then the students are asked to write
one mathematical sentence for the
above situation based on the pictures
in (Figure 3.4.78)

8 5 = _____ + ____ = 9

Diagram 1.4

Figure 3.4.78

For each pictures series, we can write one mathematical equation involving mixed
operation.

EXTRA ACTIVITIES

In reverse, try to make a story if you are given a mathematical equation

Examples:

(a) 7 + 5 6 = ?
(b) 13 4 + 7 = ?

For each mathematical equation that involved mixed operations, we can make a story out of
it.

1.2 Conventional method in Mixed Operations

All mathematician had came to cosensus to use one fixed procedure on
the steps in solving the mixed operations

(a) For mixed operations that involved +,and , do it from left
to right.

Examples:

(i) 8 + 4 - 5 = 12 5
= 7

(ii) 9 5 + 2 = 4 + 2
= 6

(iii) 16 9 2 = 7 2
= 5

( b) For mixed operations that involved x,and , do it from left
to right.

(i) 3 x 8 4 = 24 4
= 6

(ii) 18 3 x 2 = 6 x 2
= 12

( c) For mixed operations that involved +,and x

The following situation can be used

To solve the problem, we have to solve for the x first, then followed by the operation + ,
no matter whether we use equation (i) or (ii).

So for the mixed operation that involved + and x, solve for x (multiplication) first then

Example 2:

(i) 5 x 6 + 4 = 30 + 4
= 34

(ii) 5 + 6 x 4 = 5 + 24
= 29

(d) For the mixed operation that involved and x, first solve for x
(multiplication) then followed by the

(subtraction).

(i) 7 x 8 6 = 56 6
= 50

(ii) 12 6 x 2 = 12 8
= 4

(e) For mixed operations that involved +,and , the following situation can
be used

Alina has 7 marbles. She received another 8 boxes of marble
containing 3 marbles in each box. How many marbles does Alina
has now?

7 + 8 x 3 = _________ ....... (i)

or

8 x 3 + 7 = _________ ........(ii)

To solve the problem, we have to solve for the first, then followed by the operation + ,
no matter whether we use equation (i) or (ii).

So for the mixed operation that involved + and , solve for (division) first then

Examples:

(j) 24 6 + 2 = 4 + 2
= 6

(ii) 24 + 6 2 = 24 + 3
= 27

(g) For the mixed operation that involved and , first solve for
(division) then followed by the (subtraction).

Examples:
(i) 48 8 4 = 6 4
= 2

(ii) 48 8 4 = 48 2
= 46

(h) For the mixed operation that involved +, , x and ,
Solve for x and , from left to right
Solve for + and , from left to right

Examples:
(i) 7 x 9 + 6 4 2 = 63 + 6 2

Azmi and Anwar are the school badminton team. Before the final
game, Azmi has RM4.00. The couple has won the final game and
received the cash prize of RM26.00.The money was divided
equally between them.How much money that Azmi has now?

4 + 26 2 = _________ ....... (i)

or

26 2 + 4 = _________ ........(ii)

= 69 2
= 67

(ii) 27 3 2 x 4 + 3 = 9 8 + 3
= 1 + 3
= 4

(iii) 7 7 + 9 3 x 3 = 1 + 9 9
= 10 9
= 1

(i) For the mixed operation that involved bracket, solve using the following steps:

Bracket ( )
Solve for x and , from left to right
Solve for + and , from left to right

Examples:
(i) 15 5 ( 9 7) = 15 5 2
= 3 2
= 1

(ii) 12 ( 6 + 4) 2 = 12 10 2
= 12 5
= 7

(iii) (9 3 x 2) x 7 = ( 9 6 ) x 7
= 3 x 7
= 21

1.3 Sample exercises on mixed operation

Example 1:

Complete the following mathematical equation by filling in the basic
operation in the spaces provided.

(1) 4 + 8 7 = 15

(2) ( 9 x 6 ) 4 = 58

(3) (10 5) + 14 = 16

(4) 8 4 2 = 10

(5) ( 4 3 ) 9 = 3

(6) ( 8 3 ) 7 = 35

(7) 9 2 4 = 72

(8) 24 4 2 = 4

SUMMARY
1. The correct procedure to solve mixed operations without bracket
Solve for x and , from left to right
Then solve for + and , from left to right

2. The correct procedure to solve mixed operations with bracket

First solve the operation in the bracket

If there are some other brackets in the bracket, start with the innest bracket.

Then solve for x and , from left to right
Lastly,solve for + and , from left to right

3. The following Mnemonik can be used to recall on the operation procedure

BODMAS (Bracket Of Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction)

4. The bracket can be in the form of () or [ ] or { }

Glossory

Subtraction
Minuend
Subtrahend
Remainder
Difference
Take away
Part-whole
Partitioned
Comparative Subtraction
Subtraction fact
Undoing
Subtraction matrix
Subtraction Algorithd
No Regouping
Regrouping
Decomposition
Associative property
Compensation
Counting on
Doubles
Indentity
Make-a-ten
Near doubles
One-more
Sharing numbers
Sum families

Excess of nines
Upper and lower boundaries
Basic facts algorithm
Counting algorithm
No-regrouping
Partial sums
Regrouping
Scratch
Naming a set
Union of disjoint sets
Associative property
Commutative property
Identity property
Whole number multiplication
Whole number division
Whole number subtraction
Basic fact strategies
Division
Multiplication
subtraction

Bibliography

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Aktiviti Pengajaran Pembelajaran Matematik: Nombor Bulat untuk sekolah rendah .
Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.

C. Alan. Riedesel. (1990). Teaching elementary School mathematics. PrenticeHall

Randall,J. Souviney (1989) Learning To Teach Mathematics. Merrill Publishing
Company

Schminke, C.W. (1981) Math Activities for Child involvement.London: Allyn and Bacon

Thomas R. Post. (1985). Teaching mathematics in Grades k-8. Allyn and Bacon, Inc

Willians, Elizabeth & Shuard, Hilary ( 1979). Primary Mathematics Today.
ELBS Edition, London: Longman Group.