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Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide
Ascalew Abebe & Dr Ian GN Smith
School of the Built Environment, Napier University, Edinburgh
(Note: This Student Guide is intended as just that - a guide for students of civil
engineering.
Use it as you see fit, but please note that there is no technical support available to
answer any questions about the guide!)

!"#S$ #% &'$ G!ID$
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There are many tets on pile foundations. !enerally, eperience shows us that
undergraduates find most of these tets complicated and difficult to understand.
This guide has etracted the main points and puts together the whole process of pile
foundation design in a student friendly manner.
The guide is presented in two versions" tet-version #compendium from) and this web-
version that can be accessed via internet or intranet and can be used as a supplementary
self-assisting students guide.

STRUCTURE OF THE GUIDE
Introduction to (ile foundations
ile foundation design
)oad on (iles
Single (ile design
ile grou( design
Installation*test*and factor of safet+
ile installation methods
&est (iles
%actors of safet+
,ha(ter - Introduction to (ile foundations
$.$ %ile foundations
$.& 'istorical
$.( )unction of piles
$.* +lassification of piles
1.4.1 lassification of pile !ith respect to load transmission and functional behaviour
1.4." End bearing piles
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1.4.# $riction or cohesion piles
1.4.4 ohesion piles
1.4.% $riction piles
1.4.& ombination of friction piles and cohesion piles
1.4.' .lassification of pile !ith respect to type of material
1.4.( )imber piles
1.4.* oncrete pile
1.4.1+ ,riven and cast in place oncrete piles
1.4.11 Steel piles
1.4.1" omposite piles
1.4.1# lassification of pile !ith respect to effect on the soil
1.4.14 ,riven piles
1.4.1% Bored piles
$., -ide to classification of piles
$.. -dvantages and disadvantages of different pile material
$./ +lassification of piles - 0eview

,ha(ter . )oad on (iles
&.$ 1ntroduction
&.& %ile arrangement

,ha(ter / )oad Distribution
(.$ %ile foundations" vertical piles only
(.& %ile foundations" vertical and ra2ing piles
(.( 3ymmetrically arranged vertical and ra2ing piles
#.#.1 E-ample on installation error

,ha(ter 0 )oad on Single ile
*.$ 1ntroduction
*.& The behaviour of piles under load
*.( !eotechnical design methods
4.#.1 )he undrained load capacity .total stress approach/
4.#." ,rained load capacity .effective stress approach/
4.#.# 0ile in sand
*.* 4ynamic approach

,ha(ter 1 Single ile Design
,.$ 5nd bearing piles
,.& )riction piles
,.( +ohesion piles
,.* 3teel piles
,., +oncrete piles
,.,.$ %re-cast concrete piles
,.. Timber piles #wood piles)
%.&.1 Simplified method of predicting the bearing capacity of timber piles

,ha(ter 2 Design of ile Grou(
..$ 6earing capacity of pile groups
&.1.1 0ile group in cohesive soil
&.1." 0ile groups in non1cohesive soil
&.1.# 0ile groups in sand

,ha(ter 3 ile S(acing and ile Arrangement

,ha(ter 4 ile Installation 5ethods
7.$ 1ntroduction
7.& %ile driving methods #displacement piles)
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(.".1 ,rop hammers
(."." ,iesel hammers
(.".# 0ile driving by vibrating
7.( 6oring methods #non-displacement piles)
(.#.1 ontinuous $light 2uger .$2/
(.#." Underreaming
(.#.# .3.0

,ha(ter 6 )oad &ests on iles
8.$ 1ntroduction
*.1.1 40 .constant rate of penetration/
*.1." 56), the maintained increment load test

,ha(ter -7 )imit State Design
$9.$ !eotechnical category !+ $
$9.& !eotechnical category !+ &
$9.( !eotechnical category !+ (
1+.#.1 onditions classified as in Eurocode '
$9.* The partial factors m, n, 0d
Introduction to pile foundations
Objectives: Texts dealing with geotechnical and ground engineering
techniques classify piles in a number of ways. The objective of this unit is that in
order to help the undergraduate student understand these classifications using
materials extracted from several sources, this chapter gives an introduction to
pile foundations.
! "ile foundations
Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of
the structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground
surface. The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles.
Piles are long and slender members which transfer the load to deeper soil or
rock of high bearing capacity avoiding shallow soil of low bearing capacity The
main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made
from these materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected
to pile caps. epending upon type of soil, pile material and load transmitting
characteristic piles are classified accordingly. !n the following chapter we learn
about, classifications, functions and pros and cons of piles.
!# Historical
Pile foundations have been used as load carrying and load transferring systems
for many years.
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!n the early days of civilisation"#$, from the communication, defence or strategic
point of view villages and towns were situated near to rivers and lakes. !t was
therefore important to strengthen the bearing ground with some form of piling.
Timber piles were driven in to the ground by hand or holes were dug and filled
with sand and stones.
!n %&'( )hristoffoer Polhem invented pile driving equipment which resembled to
days pile driving mechanism. *teel piles have been used since %+(( and
concrete piles since about %,((.
The industrial revolution brought about important changes to pile driving system
through the invention of steam and diesel driven machines.
-ore recently, the growing need for housing and construction has forced
authorities and development agencies to exploit lands with poor soil
characteristics. This has led to the development and improved piles and pile
driving systems. Today there are many advanced techniques of pile installation.
!$ Function of piles
.s with other types of foundations, the purpose of a pile foundations is/
to transmit a foundation load to a solid ground
to resist vertical, lateral and uplift load
. structure can be founded on piles if the soil immediately beneath its base
does not have adequate bearing capacity. !f the results of site investigation
show that the shallow soil is unstable and weak or if the magnitude of the
estimated settlement is not acceptable a pile foundation may become
considered. 0urther, a cost estimate may indicate that a pile foundation may be
cheaper than any other compared ground improvement costs.
!n the cases of heavy constructions, it is likely that the bearing capacity of the
shallow soil will not be satisfactory, and the construction should be built on
pile foundations. Piles can also be used in normal ground conditions to resist
hori1ontal loads. Piles are a convenient method of foundation for works over
water, such as jetties or bridge piers.

!% Classification of piles
1.4.1 Classification of pile with respect to load transmission and
functional behaviour
2nd bearing piles 3point bearing piles4
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0riction piles 3cohesion piles 4
)ombination of friction and cohesion piles

1.4.2 End bearing piles
These piles transfer their load on to a firm stratum located at a considerable
depth below the base of the structure and they derive most of their carrying
capacity from the penetration resistance of the soil at the toe of the pile 3see
figure %.%4. The pile behaves as an ordinary column and should be designed as
such. 2ven in weak soil a pile will not fail by buckling and this effect need only
be considered if part of the pile is unsupported, i.e. if it is in either air or water.
5oad is transmitted to the soil through friction or cohesion. 6ut sometimes, the
soil surrounding the pile may adhere to the surface of the pile and causes
78egative *kin 0riction7 on the pile. This, sometimes have considerable effect
on the capacity of the pile. 8egative skin friction is caused by the drainage of
the ground water and consolidation of the soil. The founding depth of the pile is
influenced by the results of the site investigate on and soil test.

1.4.3 Friction or cohesion piles
)arrying capacity is derived mainly from the adhesion or friction of the soil in
contact with the shaft of the pile 3see fig %.#4.
0igure %9% 2nd bearing piles 0igure %9# 0riction or cohesion pile
1.4.4 Cohesion piles
These piles transmit most of their load to the soil through skin friction. This
process of driving such piles close to each other in groups greatly reduces the
porosity and compressibility of the soil within and around the groups. Therefore
piles of this category are some times called compaction piles. uring the
process of driving the pile into the ground, the soil becomes moulded and, as a
result loses some of its strength. Therefore the pile is not able to transfer the
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exact amount of load which it is intended to immediately after it has been
driven. :sually, the soil regains some of its strength three to five months after it
has been driven.
1.4.5 Friction piles
These piles also transfer their load to the ground through skin friction. The
process of driving such piles does not compact the soil appreciably. These
types of pile foundations are commonly known as floating pile foundations.
1.4.6 Combination of friction piles and cohesion piles
.n extension of the end bearing pile when the bearing stratum is not hard, such
as a firm clay. The pile is driven far enough into the lower material to develop
adequate frictional resistance. . farther variation of the end bearing pile is piles
with enlarged bearing areas. This is achieved by forcing a bulb of concrete into
the soft stratum immediately above the firm layer to give an enlarged base. .
similar effect is produced with bored piles by forming a large cone or bell at the
bottom with a special reaming tool. 6ored piles which are provided with a bell
have a high tensile strength and can be used as tension piles 3see fig.%9;4

0igure %9; under9reamed base
enlargement to a bore9and9cast9in9situ
pile
1.4. Classification of pile with respect to t!pe of material
Timber
+oncrete
3teel
+omposite piles

1.4." #imber piles
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:sed from earliest record time and still used for permanent works in regions
where timber is plentiful. Timber is most suitable for long cohesion piling and
piling beneath embankments. The timber should be in a good condition and
should not have been attacked by insects. 0or timber piles of length less than
%' meters, the diameter of the tip should be greater than %<( mm. !f the length
is greater than %+ meters a tip with a diameter of %#< mm is acceptable. !t is
essential that the timber is driven in the right direction and should not be driven
into firm ground. .s this can easily damage the pile. =eeping the timber below
the ground water level will protect the timber against decay and putrefaction. To
protect and strengthen the tip of the pile, timber piles can be provided with toe
cover. Pressure creosoting is the usual method of protecting timber piles.

1.4.$ Concrete pile
Pre cast concrete Piles or Pre fabricated concrete piles : :sually of square 3see
fig %9' b4, triangle, circle or octagonal section, they are produced in short length
in one metre intervals between ; and %; meters. They are pre9caste so that
they can be easily connected together in order to reach to the required length
3fig %9' a4 . This will not decrease the design load capacity. >einforcement is
necessary within the pile to help withstand both handling and driving stresses.
Pre stressed concrete piles are also used and are becoming more popular than
the ordinary pre cast as less reinforcement is required .

0igure %9' a4 concrete pile connecting detail. b4 squared pre9cast concert pile
The ?ercules type of pile joint 30igure %9<4 is easily and accurately cast into the
pile and is quickly and safely joined on site. They are made to accurate
dimensional tolerances from high grade steels.

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0igure %9< ?ercules type of pile joint

1.4.1% &riven and cast in place Concrete piles
Two of the main types used in the := are/ West@s shell pile / Pre cast,
reinforced concrete tubes, about % m long, are threaded on to a steel mandrel
and driven into the ground after a concrete shoe has been placed at the front of
the shells. Ance the shells have been driven to specified depth the mandrel is
withdrawn and reinforced concrete inserted in the core. iameters vary from
;#< to B(( mm.
0ranki Pile/ . steel tube is erected vertically over the place where the pile is to
be driven, and about a metre depth of gravel is placed at the end of the tube. .
drop hammer, %<(( to '(((kg mass, compacts the aggregate into a solid plug
which then penetrates the soil and takes the steel tube down with it. When the
required depth has been achieved the tube is raised slightly and the aggregate
broken out. ry concrete is now added and hammered until a bulb is formed.
>einforcement is placed in position and more dry concrete is placed and
rammed until the pile top comes up to ground level.

1.4.11 'teel piles
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*teel piles/ 3figure %.'4 steelC !ron piles are suitable for handling and driving in
long lengths. Their relatively small cross9sectional area combined with their high
strength makes penetration easier in firm soil. They can be easily cut off or
joined by welding. !f the pile is driven into a soil with low p? value, then there is
a risk of corrosion, but risk of corrosion is not as great as one might think.
.lthough tar coating or cathodic protection can be employed in permanent
works.
!t is common to allow for an amount of corrosion in design by simply over
dimensioning the cross9sectional area of the steel pile. !n this way the corrosion
process can be prolonged up to <( years. 8ormally the speed of corrosion is
(.#9(.< mmCyear and, in design, this value can be taken as %mmCyear

a) :- cross-section
b) ' - cross-
section
c) steel pipe
0igure %9B *teel piles cross9sections

1.4.12 Composite piles
)ombination of different materials in the same of pile. .s indicated earlier, part
of a timber pile which is installed above ground water could be vulnerable to
insect attack and decay. To avoid this, concrete or steel pile is used above the
ground water level, whilst wood pile is installed under the ground water level
3see figure %.&4.

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0igure %9& Protecting timber piles from decay/
a4 by pre9cast concrete upper section above water level.
b4 by extending pile cap below water level
1.4.13 Classification of pile with respect to effect on the soil
. simplified division into driven or bored piles is often employed.
1.4.14 &riven piles
riven piles are considered to be displacement piles. !n the process of driving
the pile into the ground, soil is moved radially as the pile shaft enters the
ground. There may also be a component of movement of the soil in the vertical
direction.
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0igure %9+ driven piles
1.4.15 (ored piles
6ored piles3>eplacement piles) are generally considered to be non9
displacement piles a void is formed by boring or excavation before piles is
produced. Piles can be produced by casting concrete in the void. *ome soils
such as stiff clays are particularly amenable to the formation of piles in this way,
since the bore hole walls do not requires temporary support except cloth to the
ground surface. !n unstable ground, such as gravel the ground requires
temporary support from casing or bentonite slurry. .lternatively the casing may
be permanent, but driven into a hole which is bored as casing is advanced. .
different technique, which is still essentially non9displacement, is to intrude, a
grout or a concrete from an auger which is rotated into the granular soil, and
hence produced a grouted column of soil.
There are three non9displacement methods/ bored cast9 in 9 place piles,
particularly pre9formed piles and grout or concrete intruded piles.
The following are replacement piles/
.ugered
)able percussion drilling
5arge9diameter under9reamed
Types incorporating pre caste concrete unite
rilled9in tubes
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-ini piles

!& 'ide to classification of piles
0igure %9+. for a quick understanding of pile classification, a hierarchical
representation of pile types can be used. .lso advantages and disadvantages
of different pile materials is given in section %.B.

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0igure %9, hierarchical representation of pile types
!( 'dvanta)es and disadvanta)es of different pile *aterial
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+ood piles
, The piles are easy to handle
, >elatively inexpensive where timber is plentiful.
, *ections can be joined together and excess length easily removed.
-- The piles will rot above the ground water level. ?ave a limited bearing
capacity.
-- )an easily be damaged during driving by stones and boulders.
-- The piles are difficult to splice and are attacked by marine borers in salt
water.

"refabricated concrete piles .reinforced/ and pre stressed concrete piles!
.driven/ affected b0 t1e )round 2ater conditions!
, o not corrode or rot.
, .re easy to splice. >elatively inexpensive.
, The quality of the concrete can be checked before driving.
, *table in squee1ing ground, for example, soft clays, silts and peats pile
material can be inspected before piling.
, )an be re driven if affected by ground heave. )onstruction procedure
unaffected by ground water.
, )an be driven in long lengths. )an be carried above ground level, for
example, through water for marine structures.
, )an increase the relative density of a granular founding stratum.
-- >elatively difficult to cut.
-- isplacement, heave, and disturbance of the soil during driving.
-- )an be damaged during driving. >eplacement piles may be required.
-- *ometimes problems with noise and vibration.
-- )annot be driven with very large diameters or in condition of limited
headroom.

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Driven and cast-in-place concrete piles
"er*anentl0 cased .casin) left in t1e )round/
Te*poraril0 cased or uncased .casin) retrieved/
, )an be inspected before casting can easily be cut or extended to the desired
length.
, >elatively inexpensive.
, 5ow noise level.
, The piles can be cast before excavation.
, Pile lengths are readily adjustable.
, .n enlarged base can be formed which can increase the relative density of a
granular founding stratum leading to much higher end bearing capacity.
, >einforcement is not determined by the effects of handling or driving stresses.
, )an be driven with closed end so excluding the effects of DW
-- ?eave of neighbouring ground surface, which could lead to re consolidation
and the development of negative skin friction forces on piles.
-- isplacement of nearby retaining walls. 5ifting of previously driven piles,
where the penetration at the toe have been sufficient to resist upward
movements.
-- Tensile damage to unreinforced piles or piles consisting of green concrete,
where forces at the toe have been sufficient to resist upward movements.
-- amage piles consisting of uncased or thinly cased green concrete due to the
lateral forces set up in the soil, for example, necking or waisting. )oncrete
cannot be inspected after completion. )oncrete may be weakened if artesian
flow pipes up shaft of piles when tube is withdrawn.
-- 5ight steel section or Precast concrete shells may be damaged or distorted by
hard driving.
-- 5imitation in length owing to lifting forces required to withdraw casing, nose
vibration and ground displacement may a nuisance or may damage adjacent
structures.
-- )annot be driven where headroom is limited.
-- >elatively expensive.
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-- Time consuming. )annot be used immediately after the installation.
-- 5imited length.

3ored and cast in -place .non -displace*ent piles/
, 5ength can be readily varied to suit varying ground conditions.
, *oil removed in boring can be inspected and if necessary sampled or in9 situ
test made.
, )an be installed in very large diameters.
, 2nd enlargement up to two or three diameters are possible in clays.
, -aterial of piles is not dependent on handling or driving conditions.
, )an be installed in very long lengths.
, )an be installed with out appreciable noise or vibrations.
, )an be installed in conditions of very low headroom.
, 8o risk of ground heave.
-- *usceptible to 7waisting7 or 7necking7 in squee1ing ground.
-- )oncrete is not placed under ideal conditions and cannot be subsequently
inspected.
-- Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing out cement.
-- 2nlarged ends cannot be formed in cohesionless materials without special
techniques.
-- )annot be readily extended above ground level especially in river and marine
structures.
-- 6oring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils requiring base grouting to
achieve economical base resistance.
-- *inking piles may cause loss of ground ! cohesion9less leading to settlement
of adjacent structures.

Steel piles .Rolled steel section/
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, The piles are easy to handle and can easily be cut to desired length.
, )an be driven through dense layers. The lateral displacement of the soil
during driving is low 3steel section ? or ! section piles4 can be relatively easily
spliced or bolted.
, )an be driven hard and in very long lengths.
, )an carry heavy loads.
, )an be successfully anchored in sloping rock.
, *mall displacement piles particularly useful if ground displacements and
disturbance critical.
-- The piles will corrode,
-- Will deviate relatively easy during driving.
-- .re relatively expensive.

!4 Classification of piles - Revie2
* Tas5
$. escribe the main function of piles
&. !n the introduction, it is stated that piles transfer load to the
bearing ground. *tate how this is achieved.
(. Piles are made out of different materials. !n short state the
advantages and disadvantages of these materials.
*. Piles can be referred as displacement and non9displacement
piles. *tate the differences and the similarities of these piles
,. Piles can be classified as end9bearing piles cohesive or friction
piles. escribe the differences and similarity of these piles.
.. Piles can be classified as bored or driven state the differences.
6O'D O7 "I6ES
#! Introduction
This section of the guide is divided into two parts. The first part gives brief
summary on basic pile arrangements while part two deals with load distribution on
individual piles.
Piles can be arranged in a number of ways so that they can support load imposed
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on them. Eertical piles can be designed to carry vertical loads as well as lateral
loads. !f required, vertical piles can be combined with raking piles to support
hori1ontal and vertical forces.
often, if a pile group is subjected to vertical force, then the calculation of load
distribution on single pile that is member of the group is assumed to be the total
load divided by the number of piles in the group. ?owever if a group of piles is
subjected to lateral load or eccentric vertical load or combination of vertical and
lateral load which can cause moment force on the group which should be taken
into account during calculation of load distribution.
!n the second part of this section, piles are considered to be part of the structure
and force distribution on individual piles is calculated accordingly.

Objective/ !n the first part of this section, considering group of piles with limited
number of piles subjected to vertical and lateral forces, forces acting centrally or
eccentrically, we learn how these forces are distributed on individual piles.
The worked examples are intended to give easy follow through exercise that can
help quick understanding of pile design both single and group of piles. !n the
second part, the comparison made between different methods used in pile design
will enable students to appreciate the theoretical background of the methods while
exercising pile designing.
6earnin) outco*e
When students complete this section, they will be able to/
)alculate load distribution on group of piles consist of vertical piles
subjected to eccentric vertical load.
)alculate load distribution on vertically arranged piles subjected to
lateral and vertical forces.
)alculate load distribution on vertical and raking piles subjected to
hori1ontal and eccentric vertical loads.
)alculate load distribution on symmetrically arranged vertical and
raking piles subjected to vertical and lateral forces

#!# "ile arran)e*ent
8ormally, pile foundations consist of pile cap and a group of piles. The pile cap
distributes the applied load to the individual piles which, in turn,. transfer the load to
the bearing ground. The individual piles are spaced and connected to the pile cap
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or tie beams and trimmed in order to connect the pile to the structure at cut)off
level, and depending on the type of structure and eccentricity of the load, they can
be arranged in different patterns. 0igure #.% bellow illustrates the three basic
formation of pile groups.

a4 P!52 D>A:P )A8*!*T A0 A85F
E2>T!).5 P!52*
b4 P!52 D>A:P )A8*!*T A0 6AT?
E2>T!).5 .8 >.=!8D P!52*
c4 *F--2T>!).55F .>>.8D2
E2>T!).5 .8 >.=!8D P!52*
8 ; <ertically applied load
' ; 'ori=ontally applied load

0igure #9% 6asic formation of pile groups
6O'D DISTRI3UTIO7
To a great extent the design and calculation 3load analysis4 of pile foundations
is carried out using computer software. 0or some special cases, calculations
can be carried out using the following methodsG...0or a simple understanding
of the method, let us assume that the following conditions are satisfied/
The pile is rigid
The pile is pinned at the top and at the bottom
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2ach pile receives the load only vertically 3i.e. axially applied 4H
The force P

acting on the pile is proportional to the displacement : due to
compression
0 7 8.U GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG;.%
Since 0 7 E.2
E.2 7 8.U GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG;.#
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG;.;

where:
P

= vertical load component
k = material constant
U = displacement
E = elastic module of pile material
A = cross-sectional area of pile
0igure ;9% load on single pile
The length 5 should not necessarily be equal to the actual length of the pile. !n a group of piles,
!f all piles are of the same material, have same cross9sectional area and equal length 5 , then
the value of k is the same for all piles in the group.
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5et us assume that the vertical load on the pile group results in vertical, lateral and torsion
movements. 0urther, let us assume that for each pile in the group, these movements are small
and are caused by the component of the vertical load experienced by the pile. The formulae in
the forthcoming sections which are used in the calculation of pile loads, are based on these
assumptions.

$! "ile foundations: vertical piles onl0
?ere the pile cap is causing the vertical compression :, whose magnitude is equal for all
members of the group. !f I 3the vertical force acting on the pile group4 is applied at the neutral
axis of the pile group, then the force on a single pile will be as follows /
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG;.'

where:
P
v
= vertical component of the load on any pile from the resultant load Q
n = numer of vertical piles in the !roup "see fi!#.$)
Q = total vertical load on pile !roup

!f the same group of piles are subjected to an eccentric load Q which is causing rotation around
axis 1 3see fig ;.%4H then for the pile i at distance r%i from axis 1/
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG;.<
is a small an!le tan see fi!ure#.$.)
0i 7 force .load on a single pile i
Ui ; displacement caused by the eccentric force .load/ 9
r-i ; distance bet!een pile and neutral a-is of pile group:
r-i positive measured the same direction as e and negative !hen in the opposite direction.
e 7 distance bet!een point of intersection of resultant of vertical and hori;ontal loading !ith underside
of pile .see figure #.(/

The sum of all the forces acting on the piles should be 1ero
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG;..
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0igure ;9# -oment

!f we assume that the forces on the piles are causing a moment - about axis 191 then the sum
of moments about axis 191 should be 1ero 3see figure ;.% aJ b4


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GGGGGGGG;.&

from e.q. ;.# we see that

&
'
= &
'

GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG..;.+

applying the same principle, in the x direction we get equivalent equation.!f we assume that the
moment -K and -L generated by the force I are acting on a group of pile, then the sum of
forces acting on a single pile will be as follows/
GGGGGGGGGGGGGG;.,

if we dividing each term by the cross9sectional area of the pile, ., we can establish the working
stream /

2xample ;.%
.s shown in figure ;.#, . group of Eertical piles are subjected to an eccentric force I,
magnitude of #B((k8. etermine the maximum and the minimum forces on the piles. I is
located (.# m from the x9axis and (.%< m from the 19axis.
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0igure ;9; Worked example


'olution
%. )alculate -oment generated by the eccentric force
&% = ()** "*.() = +(* ,-
&. = ()** "*./+) = #0* ,-
#.)alculate vertical load per pile: = ()**1/( = (/2 k-
%1>5
413T.
r
i
m
r
&
i
m
&
r
=i
m
r
&
=i
m
&
?
:
2@
?
A
2@m
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a$,* 9.8 9.7$B& $.(, $.7&(B& ,&9 (89
a&,( 9.8 9.7$B& 9.*, 9.&9(B& ,&9 (89
c$,* 9.8 9.7$B& $.(, $.7&(B& ,&9 (89
c&,( 9.8 9.7$B& 9.*, 9.&9(B& ,&9 (89
b$,* 9.8 9 $.(, $.7&(B& ,&9 (89
b&,( 9.8 9 9.*, 9.&9(B& ,&9 (89

..*7 $&.$,(
%1>5
CDn
2 @
5
-
r
;i
< r
"
;i
#
,&9
r
=i
)D$&.$,(
5
;
r
-i
< r
"
-i
#
(89B
r
i
)D ..*7
%
i
2 @
a$ &$/ ,7 ,* &$/-,7-,* ; $9,BB ?inimum load $9, E@, carried by pile a$
a&

$8 ,* &$/-$8-,* ; $**
a(

$8 ,* &$/F$8-,* ; $7&
a*

,7 ,* &$/F,7-,* ; &&$
b$

,7 9 &$/-,7-99 ; $,/
b&

$8 9 &$/-$8-99 ; $,/
b(

$8 9 &$/F$8-99 ; &(.
b*

,7 9 &$/F,7-99 ; &/,
c$

,7 ,* &$/F,7-,* ; &&$
c&

$8 ,* &$/-$8F,* ; &,&
c(

$8 ,* &$/F$8F,*;&89
c*

,7 ,* &$/F,7F,* ; (&8BBB ?aimum load (&8 E@, carried by pile c*

2xample ;.#
. pile trestle shown on figure ;9; consists of four vertical piles surmounted by a
%.#m thick pile cap. !t carries a hori1ontal load applied to the surface of the cap
of '((k8. The only vertical load exerted on the pile group is the weight of the
pile cup. etermine the loads on the piles.
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0igure ;9' 2xample ;.#

'olution*
%. etermine the magnitude of the vertical force/ 0or a pile cape '.(((m square, weight of pile
cap is/
$ % $ % /( % $ = $)/k- vertical load M 'B%k8
#. etermine the location of the 8... for the vertical piles/
; . resultant of vertical load and hori1ontal load cuts the underside of the pile cup at a point
%.(Bm from 8... pile group. This can be achieved graphically. 2.g. An a millimetre paper, in
scale, draw the pile cup. Taking the top of the pile cup draw the vertical component downward
as shown in figure #9; then taking the tip of the vertical component as reference point draw the
hori1ontal component perpendicular to the vertical component. 6y joining the two components
establish the resultant force >. -easure the distance from the 8.. to the cutting point of > at
the underside of the pile cup.
'. :sing the following formula, calculate the load on each pile/
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M#(#k8 max and #+k8 minimum

$!# "ile foundations: vertical and ra5in) piles
To resist lateral forces on the pile group, it is common practice to use vertical piles combined
with raking piles 3see figure;9<4 The example below illustrates how the total applied load is
distributed between the piles and how the forces acting on each pile are calculated.
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0igure ;9< 5oad distribution for combined vertical and raking piles
To derive the formulae used in design, we first go through the following procedures/9
! ecide the location of the 8.. of the vertical and the raking piles in plan position.
3see example below4.
#! raw both 8.. till they cross each other at point c+ this is done in 2levation and move
the forces ,+ -. / to point c 3see fig.;.< elevation4.
$! 5et us assume that the forces , 3/ cause lateral and torsional movements at point
c.
%! Point c is where the moment - is 1ero. 0 is the moment arm 3see fig. ;.<4
0igure ;.B shows that the resultant load > 3in this case I4 is only affecting the vertical piles.

0igure ;9B

n = numer of vertical piles
m = numer of rakin! piles
Pv =
.s shown in figure ;.B the lateral force, ?, is kept in equilibrium by the vertical and the raking
piles.
4 = *: 4-m Pr sin = *
5 = *: m Pr cosine - n Pv = *
where:
Pr = 41"m sin)
Pv = 41"n tan )
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0igure ;9&

86 / The hori1ontal force, ?, imposes a torsional force on the vertical piles.

6um of forces on a sin!le pile = , 1 - 1 /
as a result of ,: Pvi = Q1n
as a result of -: Pvi = - 41"n tan )
as a result of -: Pri = 7 41"m sin )
as a result of moment /*
ri measured perpendicular to the 8.. of both the vertical and raking piles

2xample ;.;
0igure ;.& shows a pile group of vertical and raking piles subjected to vertical load I M ;((( k8
and lateral load ? M #<( k8. etermine the forces acting on each pile. The raking piles lie at an
angle of '/%.

'olution*
0irst we determine the location of the neutral axis, 8.., of both the vertical piles and the raking
piles. 0rom figure ;.& we see that the number of vertical piles M + and the number of raking piles
M '
! 8.. for the vertical piles is determined as follows/
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?ere we assume N through piles a%, a#, a;, a' as a reference point and start measuring in the
positive direction of the K axis, where it is denoted on figure ;.%( as 8-8
3'4 ( m O 3#4 %m O 3#4# m M nP nPeo , nPeo M M (.&< m
The neutral axis for the vertical piles is located at (.&< m from the N line of pile a%, a#, a;, a'.
3%.( 9(.&< 4m M (.#<m K M (.#< m, the distance to the vertical load I.
where/
nPeo M +PeA and the numbers ', #, # are number of piles in the same axis
#! 8.. for the raking piles/
?ere we can assume that the N for the raking piles b%and b' as a reference line and calculate
the location of the neutral axis for the raking piles as follows/
3#4 ( m O 3#4%m M 3m4e%
where/ 3m 4e% M ' e%, ' is the total number of raking piles.
' e% e% M M (.< m the location of neutral axis of raking piles at a distance of 3 (.#< O
(.<4 m M (.&<m from eo or from the 8.. Af the vertical piles.

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0igure ;9+ calculated positions of 8..

$! raw both neutral axis till they cross each other at point c. 3see figure ;.,4 and establish the
lever arm distance, 9, so that we can calculate the moment -, about C.
Pile inclination '/% F M 3(.&<4' 9 (.B M #.'m
where (.&< m is the location of 8.. of raking piles from eo or from the 8.. Af the vertical piles.
& M( I3K4 9 ?3F4 M ;(((3(.#<4 9 #<(3#.'4 M %<(k8m
%! 2stablish the angle and calculate sin, cos, and tangent of the angle
The inclination '/% M %'.('
tan M (.#<
sin M (.#'
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cos. M (.,&
cos
#


M (.,'

0igure ;9, 2xample ;.;
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&! )alculate the forces acting on each pile/
>aking piles

r
i
measured perpendicular
to the neutral axis
0igure ;9%(
b ,b , ri M 9(.<3(.,&4 M 9(.'+< m
c ,c , ri M (.<3(.,&4 M (.'+<

Eertical Piles
ri measured perpendicular to the neutral axis
b ,b , ri M (.#< c#,c;, ri M %.#<m
a , a , a , a , ri M 9(.&<m

%1>5 #2 @) a b&, b( c&, c( b$, b* c$, c*
ri
-9./, m 9.&, m $.&, m 9.*7, m 9.*7, m
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8 #2@) (/, (/, (/, 9 9
' #2@) -$&, -$&, -$&, &.9 &.9
5 #2@)
&(.&8#9-9./, ;
-$/.*/
&(.&8#9.&,) ;
,.7&
&(.&8#$.&,) ;
&8.$$
&(.&8#9.*7,) ;
-$$.(
&(.&8#9.*7,) ;
$$.(9
force per pile
C F ' F ?
&((2@B &,.2@ &/82@B &*8 2@ &/2@

Q.s we can see the maximum load #&,k8 will be carried by pile c% and the minimum load
#;;k8 is carried by piles in row a%

$!$ S0**etricall0 arran)ed vertical and ra5in) piles
Rust as we did for the previous cases, we first decide the location of the neutral axis for both the
vertical and raking piles.
2xtend the two lines till they intersect each other at point c and move the forces : ; H to point
C. 3see fig.%%4
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0igure ;9%%symmetrically arranged piles
!n the case of symmetrically arranged piles, the vertical pile ! is subjected to compression stress
by the vertical component Pv and the raking pile Pr is subjected to tension 3see figure ;.%% 9 %#4

0igure ;9%# 0igure ;9%;
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Pv = k "U)
pr = k "U cos. ) = P5 cos.
E M ( Q 9 n Pv 9 m Pr cos. = *
Pr = Pv cos. Pv =
The symmetrical arrangement of the raking piles keeps the lateral force, ?, in equilibrium and
it@s effect on the vertical piles is ignored.
With reference to figure ;.%; ?ori1ontal projection of forces yield the following formulae.
? M (
0igure ;9%'
73 the lateral force ? imposes torsional stress on half of the raking piles.

2xample;.'
*ymmetrically arranged piles/
etermine the force on the piles shown in figure ;.%<. The inclination on the raking piles is </%,
the vertical load, I M;B(( k8 the hori1ontal load, ? M#(( k8 and is located (.B m from pile
cutting level.

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0igure ;9%< 2xample ;.'

'olution
! 8. for the raking piles / ' 3(4O# 3(.,4 M Be er M (.; m
#! 8. for the vertical piles/ # 3(4O# 3%4 M 'e ev M (.< m
$! 2stablish moment arm F
!nclination </% F M < 3(.BO(.<4 9(.B M '., m
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& M I 3K4 9 ?3F4 M ;B((3(.#4 9 #((3'.,4 M 9#B( k8m

%! 2stablish the angle and the perpendicular distance r8 of the piles from the neutral axis.
slope </% M %%.;
sin M (.%,B
cos M (.,+
cos
#
M (.,B
tan M (.#(
>aking piles
0or raking piles laying on axis a ,
-ri M (.; 3cos 4
7ri M (.B 3cos 4
M 3(.;
#
cos
#
4
r
(
9 M 3(.;
#
(.,B 4 ' M (.;'B m
#
0or raking piles laying on axis b and b ,
= 3(.B
#
cos
#
4
M 3(.B
#
(.,B4 # 3two piles4 M %.(;& m
#
M 3(.;'BO%.(;&4 # M #.(& m
#
Eertical piles
ri = *.+ m
vertical piles laying on axis b and c
3 (.<
#
# O (.<
#
#4 M %.( m
#
M vertical and raking piles M #.(& O %.( M ;.(& m
#
&! )alculate load distribution on individual piles/
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I P5 M
Pr M Pv cos M #;# (.,+ M ##&k-
? Pr M
-

%1>5 ar br bv cv cr dr
C #2@)
&&/ &&/ &(& &(& &&/ &&/
' #2@)
-7, -7, 9 9 7, 7,
? ;
-7, #-9.( 9.87) ; &, -,9BBB *(BB -*(BB ,9BBB -&,
force on %i #2@)
$./ 8$ &/, $78 ($( &7/

ar M 9+< 39(.; (.,+4 M #<
br M 9+< 3(.B (.,+4 M 9<(.(QQQ
bv#, bv ; M 9+< 39(.<4 M '#.<QQ
cv#, cv; M 9+< 3(.<4 M 9'#.<

where/
ar, br, bv, cv, cr, dr represent raking and vertical piles on respective axis.
3.3.1 E2ample on installation error
:ntil now we have been calculating theoretical force distribution on piles. ?owever during
installation of piles slight changes in position do occur and piles may miss their designed
locations. The following example compares theoretical and the actual load distribution as a
result of misalignment after pile installation.
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0igure ;9%B 2xample on installation error

3efore installation .t1eoretical position/ see fi)!$-(
I M <(( k8 -K M <(( (.; M %<(
-L M <(( ( M (
ICn M <((CB M +;.; k8
Pi M ICn 3 -1 rxi4C r
#
xi
r
#
xi M (.&
#
; M (.&
#
; M #.,' m
#
Pi M +;.; 9 3%<(C#.,'4 rxi
P%,#,; M +;.;9 3%<(C#.,'4 (.& M '&.B k8
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P',<,B M +;.; O 3%<(C#.,'4 (.& M %%, k8

'fter installation
isplacement of piles in the K9K direction measured, left edge of pile cap as reference point
3see figure ;.%&4
0igure ;9%& piles after installation

The new neutral axis 38 .4 for the pile group/
3(.<O(.BO(.'O#.(O#.%O%.&4 % M B e e M %.## m
The new position of I M (.#, m
- M <(( 3(.#,4 M %'< k8m
-easured perpendicular to the new 8.., pile distance, ri, of each pile/
ri% M %.##9(.< M (.&#
ri# M %.##9#.( M 9(.&,
ri; M %.##9(.B M (.B#
ri' M %.##9#.% M 9(.++
ri< M %.##9(.' M (.+#
riB M %.##9%.& M 9(.',
r
#
xi M (.&#
#
O (.&,
#
O (.B#
#
O (.++
#
O (.+#
#
O (.',
#
M ;.# m
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pile CD@ #2@) *,.( #ri)
sum of forces on each pile
0i 7 9<n . 5; r-i/< r
"
-i
$ 7(.( *,.( #-9./&) ,$
& *,.( #9./8) *8
( *,.( #-9..&) ,,
* *,.( #9.77) $&(
, *,.( #-9.7&) */
. *,.( #9.*8) $9,
6O'D O7 SI7G6E "I6E
%! Introduction
!n this section, considering pileCsoil interaction, we learn to calculate the bearing
capacity of single piles subjected to compressive axial load. uring pile design,
the following factors should be taken into consideration/
pile material compression and tension capacity
deformation area of pile, bending moment capacity
condition of the pile at the top and the end of the pile
eccentricity of the load applied on the pile
soil characteristics
ground water level ..etc.

8evertheless, calculation method that can satisfy all of these conditions will be
complicated and difficult to carry out manually, instead two widely used
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simplified methods are presented. These two methods are refereed as
geotechnical and dynamic methods. This section too has worked examples
showing the application of the formulae used in predicting the bearing capacity
of piles made of different types of materials.
6earnin) outco*e
When students complete this section, they will be able to
understand the theoretical back ground of the formulae used in
pile design
carry out calculation and be able to predict design bearing
capacity of single piles
appreciate results calculated by means of different formulae

%!# T1e be1aviour of piles under load
Piles are designed that calculations and prediction of carrying capacity is based
on the application of ultimate axial load in the particular soil conditions at the
site at relatively short time after installation.
This ultimate load capacity can be determined by either/
the use of empirical formula to predict capacity from soil properties
determined by testing, or
load test on piles at the site
0ig.'9%, When pile is subjected to gradually increasing compressive load in
maintained load stages, initially the pile9soil system behaves in a linear9elastic
manner up to point . on the settlement9load diagram and if the load is realised
at any stage up to this point the pile head rebound to its original level. When the
load is increase beyond point .

there is yielding at, or close to, the pile9soil


interface and slippage occurs until point 6

is reached, when the maximum skin


friction on the pile shaft will have been mobilised. !f the load is realised at this
stage the pile head will rebound to point )

, the amount of permanent


settlement being the distance A). When the stage of full mobilisation of the
base resistance is reached 3 point 4, the pile plunges downwards with out any
farther increase of load, or small increases in load producing large settlements.

@o end-bearing is mobilised up to this point. The whole of the load is carried by the s2in friction on the
pile shaft see figure 4-1 I)

The pile shaft is carrying its maimum s2in friction and the pile toe will be carrying some load

-t this point there is no further increase in the load transferred in s2in friction but the base load will
have reached its maimum value.
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0igure 9% axial compression of pile

%!$ Geotec1nical desi)n *et1ods
!n order to separate their behavioural responses to applied pile load, soils are
classified as either granularCnoncohesive or claysCcohesive. The generic
formulae used to predict soil resistance to pile load include empirical modifying
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factors which can be adjusted according to previous engineering experience of
the influence on the accuracy of predictions of changes in soil type and other
factors such as the time delay before load testing.
30ig '9$114 the load settlement response is composed of two separate
components, the linear elastic shaft friction >
s
and non9linear base resistance
>
b
. The concept of the separate evaluation of shaft friction and base resistance
forms the bases of 7static or soil mechanics7 calculation of pile carrying
capacity. The basic equations to be used for this are written as/
I M I
b
O I
s
9 W
p
or
>
c
M >
b
O >
s
9 W
p
>
t
M >
s
O W
p

=here> I M >
c
M the ultimate compression resistance of the pile
I
b
M >
b
M base resistance
I
s
M >
s
M shaft resistance
W
p
M weight of the pile
>
t
M tensile resistance of pile
!n terms of soil mechanics theory, the ultimate skin friction on the pile shaft is
related to the hori1ontal effective stress acting on the shaft and the effective
remoulded angle of friction between the pile and the clay and the ultimate shaft
resistance >
s
can be evaluated by integration of the pile9soil shear strength
a

over the surface area of the shaft/
a 7 a ?
n
tan a
=here>
n
7 @
s

v

.refer geotechnical notes/

a
7
a
? @
S

v
tan
a
and
where" p ; pile perimeter
> ; pile length
; angle of friction between pile and soil
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E
s
; coefficient of lateral pressure
the ultimate bearing capacity, 0
b,
of the base is evaluated from the bearing capacity
theory"
-
b
; area of pile base
+ ; undrained strength of soil at base of pile
@
+
; bearing capacity factor

GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG

8evertheless, in practise, for a given pile at a given site, the undrained shear
strength )
a
varies considerably with many factors, including, pile type, soil type,
and methods of installations.
!deally, )
a
should be determined from a pile9load test, but since this is not
always possible, )
a
is correlated with the undrained cohesion )
u
by empirical
adhesion factor so that the general expression in e.q. 3'9%4 could be simplified
to the following expression/
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
Where/ Ws M weight of soil replaced by the pile
Maverage value of shear strength over the whole shaft length
4.3.1 #he undrained load capacit! 3total stress approach4
0or piles in clay, the undrained load capacity is generally taken to be the critical
value unless the clay is highly over consolidated. !f the undrained or short9term
ultimate load capacity is to be computed, the soil parameters ), , , should
be appropriate to undrained conditions and
v
and
vb
should be the total
stresses. !f the clay is saturated

, the undrained angle of friction


u
is 1ero, and

a
3angle of friction between pile and soil4 may also be taken as 1ero. !n
addition, 8
q
M %, 8 M %, so that the eq in3'9%4 reduces to/
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GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG*.(
Where/ 8
c
, 8
q
, 8 ,M bearing capacity factors and are functions of the internal
angle of friction of the soil, the relative compressibility of the soil and the pile
geometry.
4.3.2 &rained load capacit! 3effective stress approach4
0or piles installed in stiff, over consolidated clays, the drained load capacity is
taken as design criterion. !f the simplified assumption is made that the drained
pile9soil adhesion )N
a
is 1ero and that the term in eq 3'9%4Ginvolving 8
c
, 8
ignoring the drained ultimate bearing capacity of the pile may be expressed as /
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG'.'
Where/ s N
v,
and s N
vb
M effective vertical stress at depth 1 respective at pile
base
f N
a
,M effective angle of friction between pileCsoil and implied can be taken as f N
,
8
q
which is dependant up on the values of f N may be taken to be the same as
for piles in sand, and can be decided using table %(9< J %(9B
4.3.3 5ile in sand
!f the pile soil adhesion )
a
and term 8
c
are taken as 1ero in e.q 3'9%4G and the
terms (.< d 8 is neglected as being small in relation to the term involving 8 ,
the ultimate load capacity of a single pile in sand may be expressed as follows/
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG'.<
Where/ s N
v,
and s N
vb
M effective vertical stress at depth 1 respective at pile
base
0
w
M correction factor for tapered pile 3 M % for uniform diameter4
%!% D0na*ic approac1
-ost frequently used method of estimating the load capacity of driven piles is to
use a driving formula or dynamic formula. .ll such formulae relate ultimate load
capacity to pile set 3the vertical movement per blow of the driving hammer4 and
assume that the driving resistance is equal to the load capacity to the pile under
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static loading they are based on an idealised representation of the action of the
hammer on the pile in the last stage of its embedment.
:sually, pile9driving formulae are used either to establish a safe working load


or to determine the driving requirements for a required working load.
The working load is usually determined by applying a suitable safety factor to
the ultimate load calculated by the formula. ?owever, the use of dynamic
formula is highly criticised in some pile9design literatures. ynamic methods do
not take into account the physical characteristics of the soil. This can lead to
dangerous miss9interpretation of the results of dynamic formula calculation
since they represent conditions at the time of driving. They do not take in to
account the soil conditions which affect the long9 term carrying capacity,
reconsolidation, negative skin friction and group effects.

specified load acting on the head of the pile


SI7G6E "I6E DESIG7
&! End bearin) piles
!f a pile is installed in a soil with low bearing capacity but resting on soil beneath
with high bearing capacity, most of the load is carried by the end bearing.
!n some cases where piles are driven in to the ground using hammer, pile
capacity can be estimated by calculating the transfer of potential energy into
dynamic energy . When the hammer is lifted and thrown down, with some
energy lose while driving the pile, potential energy is transferred into dynamic
energy. !n the final stage of the pile@s embedment,An the bases of rate of
settlement, it is able to calculate the design capacity of the pile.
0or standard pile driving hammers and some standard piles with load capacity
":
;sp8
), the working load for the pile can be determined using the relationship
between bearing capacity of the pile, the design load capacity of the pile
described by/ :
;sp

n
:
6d
and table <9%
where: :
6d
M design load for end baring.
The data is valid only if at the final stage, rate of settlement is %( mm per ten
blow. .nd pile length not more than #( m and geo9category # . for piles with
length #( 9 ;( m respective ;( 9 <( m the bearing capacity should be reduced
by %( res. #<S.

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Table &- 3arin) capacit0 of piles installed b0 1a**erin)
hammer D"# 'A55$" (released b+ trigger9 dro( hammer (activated b+ ro(e and friction winch

cross*sectional area of (ile cross*sectional area of (ile

fall height 9.9,,m
&
9.9/(m
&
fall height 9.9,,m
&
9.9/(m
&
( TH@
9.(
9.*
9.,
*&9 kN
*89
,.9
*,9 kN
,&9
,89
9.*
9.,
9..
(89 kN
*,9
,&9
*&9 kN
*79
,*9
* TH@
9.(
9.*
9.,
*/9
,*9
.$9
,$9
,89
.79
9.*
9.,
9..
**9
,$9
,,9
*79
,,9
.$9
, TH@
9.(
9.*
9.,
,79
./9
/.9
.*9
/*9
7*9
9.*
9.,
9..
,,9
.$9
./9
.99
..9
/(9

E<a*ple &!
. concrete pile with length #B m and cross9sectional area 3#;<4 3#;<4 is
subjected to a vertical loading of ;,( k8 3ultimate4 load. etermine appropriate
condition to halt hammering. Type of hammer rop hammer activated by rope
and friction winch. )lass #, D) #, pile length #( m

solution*
)
0sp

n
. )
sd

n
; $.$ #table $9-()
vertical load ;,( k8 )
0sp
#$.$)(89D9.8BBB; *//2@
Pile cross9sectional area (.#;<
#
M (.(<< m
#

type of hammer/ rop hammer activated by rope and friction winch

===For piles #>* - $>* len)t1? t1e bearin) capacit0 s1ould be reduced b0
>@
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Table value 3table <9%4/ ?ammer weight M ' ton fall height (.'<m
3interpolation4
?ammer weight M ; ton fall height (.<' m
' ton hammer with fall height (.'<m is an appropriate choice.

&!# Friction piles
5oad on piles that are driven into friction material, for the most part the weight is
carried by friction between the soil and the pile shaft. ?owever considerable
additional support is obtained form the bottom part.
!n designing piles driven into friction material, the following formulas can be
used
GGGGGGGGGG
,.$
where" q
ci
; consolidation resistance
B can be decided using table $9-*
-
b
; end cross-sectional area of the pile
-
mi
; shaft area of the pile in contact with the soil.
should be $., for piles in friction material
q
cs
; end resistance at the bottom of the pile within * pile diameter from the end of the
pile
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0igure <9% 0riction Pile

E<a*ple &!#
Pile length ## m, steel pile, friction pile, external diameter %(( mm, D)#,
etermine the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile

solution/
A
c
B
m. depth measured from ground
level to bottom of pile/
50a
9
m
- ,
m
,.*
, - $$ ..*
$$ - $7 /.9
$7 - && /.,
&&
m
7.9

The values are slightly scattered then the usual while the rest of the condition is
favourable.
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4d
; $., #the lowest value)

n
; $.$

.t the base where condition is unfavourable we get /

s
; 9.,

m
; 9.99&,

esign bearing capacity of the pile is B# =8.

&!$ Co1esion piles
Piles installed in clay/ The load is carried by cohesion between the soil and the
pile shaft. 6earing capacity of the pile can be calculated using the following
formula for pile installed in clay.
GGGGGGGGGG ,.&
Where/
a i M adhesion factor for earth layer
cudci M undrained shear strength of clay.
.mi M area of pile shaft in contact with the soil.
The adhesion factor is taken as ( for the firs three meters where it is expected
hole room and fill material or week strata. 0or piles with constant cross9
sectional area the value of can be taken as %.( and for piles with uniform
cross9sectional growth the value of can be taken as %.# .
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0igure <9# )ohesion Pile
E<a*ple &!$
%+ m wood pile is installed small end down in clay. Pile diameter is %#< mm at
the end and %( mmCm increase in diameter. The undrained shear strength of
the soil, measured from the pile cut9off level is/ (9B m M %# kP B9%# m M %B kPa
%#9%+ m M %, kPa. etermine the ultimate load capacity of the pile. Pile cut9off
level is %.<m from the ground level.
>d
M %.&

0igure <9; 2xample <9;
solution
decide the values for
M ( for the first ;.( meters
M %.# for the rest of the soil layer
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divided the pile into ; parts 3each B.( m in this case4
calculate .verage diameter at the middle of each section/
.verage diameter / 3ottom 3section4 M (.%#<O;.( 3(.(%4 M (.%<
Aiddle 3section4 M (.%<<OB (.(% M (.#%
Top 3section4 M (.#%<O3;O#.#<4 3(.(%4 M (.#B+
;
:ltimate bearing capacity of the pile is %%&k8

&!% Steel piles
6ecause of the relative strength of steel, steel piles withstand driving pressure
well and are usually very reliable end bearing members, although they are
found in frequent use as friction piles as well. The comment type of steel piles
have rolled H, 8 or circular cross9section3pipe piles4. Pipe piles are normally,
not necessarily filled with concrete after driving. Prior to driving the bottom end
of the pipe pile usually is capped with a flat or a cone9shaped point welded to
the pipe.
*trength, relative ease of splicing and sometimes economy are some of the
advantages cited in the selection of steel piles.
The highest draw back of steel piles is corrosion. )orrosive agents such as salt,
acid, moisture and oxygen are common enemies of steel. 6ecause of the
corrosive effect salt water has on steel, steel piles have restricted use for
marine installations. !f steel pile is supported by soil with shear strength greater
than &kPa in its entire length then the design bearing capacity of the pile can be
calculated using the following formulas. :se both of them and select the lowest
value of the two/

GGGGGGGGGG <.;

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GGGGGGGGGG ,.'

Where/ m M correction factor
2*) M elasticity module of steel
! M fibre moment
fyc characteristic strength of steel
. M pile cross9sectional area
)uc M characteristic undrained shear strength of the soil.


E<a*ple &!%
etermine the design bearing capacity of a *teel pile of external diameter %((
mm, thickness of %( mm. Treated against corrosion. pile. )onsider failure in the
pile material. )
c
of the soil is %+ kPa, favourable condition. *#
*teel 6* #%&#
solution /
n M %.%
m M (.,

2sc M #%( Dpa
for 6* #%&# f
yc
M ;#( -Pa
M
M M
The first formula gives us lower value, therefore, the design bearing capacity of
the pile is (.; -8
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!f we consider corrosion of %mmCyear
M M
&!& Concrete piles
>elatively, in comparable circumstances, concrete piles have much more
resistance against corrosive elements that can rust steel piles or to the effects
that causes decay of wood piles, furthermore concrete is available in most parts
of the world than steel.
)oncrete piles may be pre9cast or cast9in place. They may be are reinforced,
pre9stressed or plain.
&!&! "re-cast concrete piles
These are piles which are formed, cast to specified lengths and shapes and
cured at pre casting stations before driven in to the ground. epending up on
project type and specification, their shape and length are regulated at the prefab
site. :sually they came in square, octagonal or circular cross9section. The
diameter and the length of the piles are mostly governed by handling stresses.
!n most cases they are limited to less than #< m in length and (.< m in diameter.
*ome times it is required to cut off and splice to adjust for different length.
Where part of pile is above ground level, the pile may serve as column.
!f a concrete pile is supported by soil with undrained shear strength greater than
& -Pa in its entire length, the following formula can be used in determining the
bearing capacity of the pile /

GGGGGGGGGG ,.,
GGGGGGGGGG ,..

Where/ 8
u
M bearing capacity of the pile, designed as concrete column
2
sc
M characteristic elasticity module of concrete
!
c
M fibre moment of the concrete cross9section ignoring the reinforcement
)
uc
M characteristic undrained shear strength of the soil in the loose part of the
soil within a layer of '.( m
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E<a*ple &!&
)oncrete pile 3(.#;<4 3(.#;<4 cross9section installed in clay with characteristic
undrained shear strength of %# kPa. !n favourable condition. )<(. etermine
design load of the pile. )onsider failure in the material.
Solution:


ef
M %.;
l
c
Ch M #(
k
c
M (.B, k M (.#', k
s
M (.B#
f
cc
M ;<.< C3%.< %.%4 M #%.< -Pa
f
st
M '%(C3%.%< %.%4 M ;#' -Pa
2ffective reinforced area/

0
>d
M
m
8
:

m
M (., 0
>d
M 3(.,4(.&B, M (.B,# -8

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0ailure checking using the second formula/
2
cc
M ;' DPa
The lowest value is (.B;# -8 esign capacity M(.B; -
&!( Ti*ber piles .2ood piles/
Timber piles are frequently used as cohesion piles and for pilling under
embankments. 2ssentially timber piles are made from tree trunks with the
branches and bark removed. 8ormally wood piles are installed by driving.
Typically the pile has a natural taper with top cross9section of twice or more
than that of the bottom.
To avoid splitting in the wood, wood piles are sometimes driven with steel
bands tied at the top or at the bottom end.
0or wood piles installed in soil with undrained shear strength greater than &kPa
the following formula can be used in predicting the bearing capacity of the pile/
GGGGGGGGGG
,./
Where/ M reduced strength of wood
. M cross9sectional area of the pile
!f the wood is of sound timber, 3e.g. pinewood or spruce wood with a diameter T
(.%;m4, then 3reduced strength4 of the pile can be taken as %%-Pa.
!ncrease in load per section of pile is found to be proportional to the diameter of
the pile and shear strength of the soil and can be decided using the following
formula/
GGGGGGGGGG
,.7

where/ .
m,
M area of pile at each ;.< m section mid point of pile
)
m
M shear strength at each ;.<m section mid point of pile
d
m
M diameter of pile at each ;.< m section mid point of pile
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P
mi
M pile load at the middle of each section

E<a*ple &!(
etermine the design bearing capacity of a pile %#m pile driven in to clay with
characteristic undrained shear strength %(=Pa and %.(kPa increase per metre
depth. Piling condition is assumed to be favourable and the safety class #. The
pile is cut at %.<m below the ground level. Top diameter of the pile is %+(mm
and growth in diameter is ,mmCm.
0igure <9' 2xample <.B
QAften it is assumed that cohesive strength of the soil in the fires three meters is
half the values at the bottom.
solution:
0irst decide which part of the pile is heavily loaded. To do so, divide the pile
which is in contact with the soil in three parts or sections 3see fig.'.%4 in this
example the pile is divided into three ;.<m parts
)alculate and decide diameter of the pile at the mid point of each ;.<m section
3(.%+(O(.((,3y
i
4 H y
i
growth per meter from the end point.
)alculate the shear strength of the soil at the mid point of each ;.<m section )
mi
M 3## 9 %3y
i
4 4. *hear strength at the end of the pile M 3%(-Pa O %-Pa 3%#m44M##
-Pa
ecide the values of the partial coefficients from table .>- - >-%/
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%art
y
mi#see fig. ,.*)
m
d
mi
;
#9.$79F9.998
y
i
m
+
mi
; #&& - $
#y
i
)
&#top) section
7./, 9.&,8 $(.( $..8
5#middle)
section
,.&, 9.&&/ $..7 $7./
:#bottom)
section
$./, 9.$8. &9.( $8.,

"
ti
B pile load at t1e top of eac1 section
%art
y
ti
m
m
&#top)
,,.$ $9., 9.&/, 8&7
this part of the pile is highly loaded
5#middle)
(7.& /.9 9.&*( 7&*
:#bottom)
$8., (., ,,&
M stress at the top of the pile

The bearing capacity of the pile is <<.%k8
8ow using the equation in 3B9&4, we will check the pile for failure
f
>ed
M %%-Pa 3see section <.B4

n
M (.,

n
M %.%
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M
!n consideration of failure in the pile material, the pile can be loaded up to ,.(
-Pa
!n consideration of cohesion force, the pile can be loaded up to << -Pa
the bearing capacity of the pile is therefore, << -Pa

&!(! Si*plified *et1od of predictin) t1e bearin) capacit0 of ti*ber piles
)onsider the previous case and use the following formula /

GGGGGGGGGG
,.8

regarded the pile in its full length
calculate average diameter of the pile
calculate average shear strength of the pile
;. decide the values of
>d, m
and 3table >- - >-%4 /

>d,
M %.&

m
M %.+ 3(.+4 M %.''
M %.#
the bearing capacity of the pile is <B k8
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DESIG7 OF "I6E GROU"
Introduction
Group action in piled foundation/ -ost of pile foundations consists not of a
single pile, but of a group of piles, which act in the double role of reinforcing the
soil, and also of carrying the applied load down to deeper, stronger soil strata.
0ailure of the group may occur either by failure of the individual piles or as
failure of the overall block of soil. The supporting capacity of a group of
vertically loaded piles can, in many cases, be considerably less than the sum of
the capacities the individual piles comprising the group. Drope action in piled
foundation could result in failure or excessive settlement, even though loading
tests made on a single pile have indicated satisfactory capacity. !n all cases the
elastic and consolidation settlements of the group are greater than those of
single pile carrying the same working load as that on each pile within the group.
This is because the 1one of soil or rock which is stressed by the entire group
extends to a much greater width and depth than the 1one beneath the single
pile "fi!.)-/)
0igure B9% )omparison of stressed 1one beneath
single pile and pile group

6earnin) out co*e
When students complete this section, they will be able/
o to calculate and predict design bearing capacity of pile group in
different soil types
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o to appreciate the governing factors in design of group of piles
o to design pile groups with appropriate pile spacing
(! 3earin) capacit0 of pile )roups
Pile groups driven into sand may provide reinforcement to the soil. !n some
cases, the shaft capacity of the pile driven into sand could increase by factor of
# or more.
6ut in the case of piles driven into sensitive clays, the effective stress increase
in the surrounding soil may be less for piles in a group than for individual piles.
this will result in lower shaft capacities.
0igure B9# :nder axial or lateral load, !n a group, instead of failure of individual
piles in the group, block failure 3the group acting as a block4 may arise.
0igure B9# 6lock failure
!n general ,the bearing capacity of pile group may be calculated in consideration
to block failure in a similar way to that of single pile, by means of equation '9
%,but hear .
s
as the block surface area and .
b
as the base area of the block or
by rewriting the general equation we get/
................................3B.%4

where"
-
s
, surface area of bloc2
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-
b
; base area of bloc2 #see fig..-()

b
,
s
; average cohesion of clay around the group and beneath the group.
@
c
; bearing capacity factor. )or depths relevant for piles, the appropriate value of @
c is
8
I
p
and I
s
; weight of pile respective weight of soil

!n examining the behaviour of pile groups it is necessary to consider the
following elements/
a free9standing group, in which the pile cap is not in contact with the underlying soil.
a 7piled foundation,7 in which the pile cap is in contact with the underlying soil.
pile spacing
independent calculations, showing bearing capacity of the block and bearing capacity of
individual piles in the group should be made.
relate the ultimate load capacity of the block to the sum of load capacity of individual
piles in the group 3 the ratio of block capacity to the sum of individual piles capacity4 the
higher the better.
!n the case of where the pile spacing in one direction is much greater than that in
perpendicular direction, the capacity of the group failing as shown in 0igure B9# b4
should be assessed.

6.1.1 5ile groups in cohesive soil
0or pile groups in cohesive soil, the group bearing capacity as a block may be calculated by
mans of e.q. '9< with appropriate 8c value.
6.1.2 5ile groups in non)cohesive soil
0or pile groups in non9cohesive soil, the group bearing capacity as a block may be calculated by
means of e.q. '9&
6.1.3 5ile groups in sand
!n the case of most pile groups installed in sand, the estimated capacity of the block will be well
in excess of the sum of the individual pile capacities. .s a conservative approach in design, the
axial capacity of a pile group in sand is usually taken as the sum of individual pile capacities
calculated using formulae in '9+.

+or5ed E<a*ple (-
)alculate the bearing capacity and group efficiency of pile foundation installed in uniform clay of
bulk unit weight, of #(k8Cm
;
and undrained shear strength of )u of <(k8Cm
#
. The foundation
consists of #< piles each %+m long ,(.'m in diameter and weight B(k8. The weight of the pile
cap is B((k8 and founded %m below the ground level. The adhesion factor for the soilCpile
interface has a value of (.+
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0igure B9; Worked 2xample B9%


'678#96:
)alculate single pile bearing capacity/
>s M )s .s M (.+ <( %+ 3(.'4 M ,('k8


>b M 8c )b .b M , <( 3(.#4
#
M <B.Bk8
>ci M >si O >bi M ,(' O <B.B M ,B(
3Wp OWcap4 9 Ws M 3B( #<O3B((9#( <.( <.( %.(44 9 3#( %+ 3(.#4
#
#< M 'B,k8


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total load capacity of #< piles M >uc#< M 3>ci M >si O >bi4 #< 9 U3Wp OWcap4 9 WsV M ,B( #< 9 'B,
M #;<;%k8
calculate block load capacity /
M ' 3%+ '.' <( (.+4O <( '.' '.' , M #<B<(k8


surface area of pile group

weight of soil replaced by pile cap
"ile spacin) and pile arran)e*ent
!n certain types of soil, specially in sensitive clays, the capacity of individual
piles within the a closely spaced group may be lower than for equivalent
isolated pile. ?owever, because of its insignificant effect, this may be ignored in
design. !nstead the main worry has been that the block capacity of the group
may be less than the sum of the individual piles capacities. .s a thumb rule, if
spacing is more than # 9 ; pile diameter, then block failure is most unlikely.
!t is vital importance that pile group in friction and cohesive soil arranged that
even distribution of load in greater area is achieved.
5arge concentration of piles under the centre of the pile cap should be avoided.
This could lead to load concentration resulting in local settlement and failure in
the pile cap. Earying length of piles in the same pile group may have similar
effect.
0or pile load up to ;((k8, the minimum distance to the pile cap should be %((
mm
for load higher than ;((k8, this distance should be more than %<( mm.
!n general, the following formula may be used in pile spacing/
5nd-bearing and friction piles" 3 ; &., #d) F 9.9& . > ...............&.%
+ohesion piles" 3 ; (., #d) F 9.9& > ...............&.#
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!here>
d 7 assumed pile diameter
6 7 assumed pile length
S 7 pile centre to centre distance .spacing/
E2ample )1
. retaining wall imposing a weight of %#(k8Cm including self9weight of the pile
cap is to be constructed on pile foundation in clay. Timber piles of #<(mm in
diameter and each %'m long with bearing capacity of ,(k8Cst has been
proposed. .sses suitable pile spacing and pile arrangement.

'olution*
%. recommended minimum pile spacing/
* M ;.< 3d4 O (.(# 5 M ;.< 3(.#<4 O (.(# %' M %.%B m

#. try arranging the piles into


two rows/
vertical load M %#(k8C-
single pile load capacity M
,(k8Cst
M $.((m
spacing in the two rows

minimum distance to the edge of the pile M (.%m 3 M # (.% O (.#< O %.%( M %.<<m

here because of the descending nature of the pile diameter a lesser value can be taken , say %.%(m
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"I6E I7ST'6'TIO7 AETHODS
C! Introduction
The installation process and method of installations are equally important
factors as of the design process of pile foundations. !n this section we will
discuss the two main types of pile installation methodsH installation by pile
hammer and boring by mechanical auger.
!n order to avoid damages to the piles, during design, installation -ethods and
installation equipment should be carefully selected.
!f installation is to be carried out using pile9hammer, then the following factors
should be taken in to consideration/
the si1e and the weight of the pile
the driving resistance which has to be overcome to achieve the
design penetration
the available space and head room on the site
the availability of cranes and
the noise restrictions which may be in force in the locality.

C!# "ile drivin) *et1ods .displace*ent piles/
-ethods of pile driving can be categorised as follows/
%. ropping weight
#. 2xplosion
;. Eibration
'. Racking 3restricted to micro9pilling4
<. Retting

".2.1 &rop hammers
. hammer with approximately the weight of the pile is raised a suitable height in
a guide and released to strike the pile head. This is a simple form of hammer
used in conjunction with light frames and test piling, where it may be
uneconomical to bring a steam boiler or compressor on to a site to drive very
limited number of piles.
There are two main types of drop hammers/
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*ingle9acting steam or compressed9air hammers
ouble9acting pile hammers
%. *ingle9acting steam or compressed9air comprise a massive weight in the
form of a cylinder 3see fig.+9%4. *team or compressed air admitted to the
cylinder raises it up the fixed piston rod. .t the top of the stroke, or at a
lesser height which can be controlled by the operator, the steam is cut off
and the cylinder falls freely on the pile helmet.
#. ouble9acting pile hammers can be driven by steam or compressed air.
. pilling frame is not required with this type of hammer which can be
attached to the top of the pile by leg9guides, the pile being guided by a
timber framework. When used with a pile frame, back guides are bolted
to the hammer to engage with leaders, and only short leg9guides are
used to prevent the hammer from moving relatively to the top of the pile.
ouble9acting hammers are used mainly for sheet pile driving.

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)igure 7-$ %ile driving using hammer
".2.2 &iesel hammers
.lso classified as single and double9acting, in operation, the diesel hammer
employs a ram which is raised by explosion at the base of a cylinder.
.lternatively, in the case of double9acting diesel hammer, a vacuum is created
in a separate annular chamber as the ram moves upward, and assists in the
return of the ram, almost doubling the output of the hammer over the single9
acting type. !n favourable ground conditions, the diesel hammer provide an
efficient pile driving capacity, but they are not effective for all types of ground.
".2.3 5ile driving b! vibrating
Eibratory hammers are usually electrically powered or hydraulically powered
and consists of contra9rotating eccentric masses within a housing attaching to
the pile head. The amplitude of the vibration is sufficient to break down the skin
friction on the sides of the pile. Eibratory methods are best suited to sandy or
gravelly soil.
Dettin)/ to aid the penetration of piles in to sand or sandy gravel, water jetting
may be employed. ?owever, the method has very limited effect in firm to stiff
clays or any soil containing much coarse gravel, cobbles, or boulders.

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C!$ 3orin) *et1ods . non-displace*ent piles/
".3.1 Continuous Flight ;uger 3CF;4
.n equipment comprises of a mobile base carrier fitted with a hollow9stemmed
flight auger which is rotated into the ground to required depth of pilling. To form
the pile, concrete is placed through the flight auger as it is withdrawn from the
ground. The auger is fitted with protective cap on the outlet at the base of the
central tube and is rotated into the ground by the top mounted rotary hydraulic
motor which runs on a carrier attached to the mast. An reaching the required
depth, highly workable concrete is pumped through the hollow stem of the
auger, and under the pressure of the concrete the protective cap is detached.
While rotating the auger in the same direction as during the boring stage, the
spoil is expelled vertically as the auger is withdrawn and the pile is formed by
filling with concrete. !n this process, it is important that rotation of the auger and
flow of concrete is matched that collapse of sides of the hole above concrete on
lower flight of auger is avoided. This may lead to voids in filled with soil in
concrete.
The method is especially effective on soft ground and enables to install a variety
of bored piles of various diameters that are able to penetrate a multitude of soil
conditions. *till, for successful operation of rotary auger the soil must be
reasonably free of tree roots, cobbles, and boulders, and it must be self9
supporting.
uring operation little soil is brought upwards by the auger that lateral stresses
is maintained in the soil and voiding or excessive loosening of the soil minimise.
?owever, if the rotation of the auger and the advance of the auger is not
matched, resulting in removal of soil during drilling9possibly leading to collapse
of the side of the hole.
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0igure +9# )0. Process
".3.2 8nderreaming
. special feature of auger bored piles which is sometimes used to enable to
exploit the bearing capacity of suitable strata by providing an enlarged base.
The soil has to be capable of standing open unsupported to employ this
technique. *tiff and to hard clays, such as the 5ondon clay, are ideal. !n its
closed position, the underreaming tool is fitted inside the straight section of a
pile shaft, and then expanded at the bottom of the pile to produce the
underream shown in fig. +9;.8ormally, after installation and before concrete is
casted, a man carrying cage is lowered and the shaft and the underream of the
pile is inspected.
0igure + 9; a4hydraulic rotary drilling equipment b4 ).0.., c4undrreaming tool open
position
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".3.3 C.-.&.5
0igure +9', )ontinuous helical displacement piles/ a short, hollow tapered steel
former complete with a larger diameter helical flange, the bullet head is fixed to
a hallow drill pipe which is connected to a high torque rotary head running up
and down the mast of a special rig. . hollow cylindrical steel shaft sealed at the
lower end by a one9way valve and fitted with triangular steel fins is pressed into
the ground by a hydraulic ram. There are no vibrations.
isplaced soil is compacted in front and around the shaft. Ance it reaches the a
suitably resistant stratum the shaft is rotated. The triangular fins either side of its
leading edge carve out a conical base cavity. .t the same time concrete is
pumped down the centre of the shat and through the one9way valve. >otation of
the fins is calculated so that as soil is pushed away from the pile base it is
simultaneously replaced by in9flowing concrete. >ates of push, rotation and
concrete injection are all controlled by an onboard computer. Torque on the
shaft is also measured by the computer. When torque levels reach a constant
low value the base in formed. The inventors claim that the system can install aW
typical pile in %# minute. . typical Bm long pile with an +((mm diameter base
and ;<(mm shaft founded on moderately dense gravel beneath soft overlaying
soils can achieve an ultimate capacity of over #((t. The pile is suitable for
embankments, hard standing supports and floor slabs, where you have a soft
silty layer over a gravel strata.
0igure + 9' ).?..P.
6O'D TEST O7 "I6ES
E! Introduction
Pile load test are usually carried out that one or some of the following
reasons are fulfilled/
To obtain back9figured soil data that will enable other piles to
be designed.
To confirm pile lengths and hence contract costs before the
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client is committed to over all job costs.
To counter9check results from geotechnical and pile driving
formulae
To determine the load9settlement behaviour of a pile,
especially in the region of the anticipated working load that the
data can be used in prediction of group settlement.
To verify structural soundness of the pile.
Test loadin)/ There are four types of test loading/
compression test
uplift test
lateral9load test
torsion9load test
the most common types of test loading procedures are )onstant rate of
penetration 3)>P4 test and the maintained load test 3-5T4.

$.1.1 C<5 3constant rate of penetration4
!n the )>P 3constant rate of penetration4 method, test pile is jacked into the
soil, the load being adjusted to give constant rate of downward movement to
the pile. This is maintained until point of failure is reached.
0ailure of the pile is defined in to two ways that as the load at which the pile
continues to move downward without further increase in load, or according
to the 6*8 the load !hich the penetration reaches a value eAual to one1tenth of the
diameter of the pile at the base.
0ig.,9#, !n the cases of where compression tests are being carried out, the
following methods are usually employed to apply the load or downward force
on the pile/
. platform is constructed on the head of the pile on which a mass of heavy
material, termed 7kentledge7 is placed. Ar a bridge, carried on temporary
supports, is constructed over the test pile and loaded with kentledge. The
ram of a hydraulic jack, placed on the pile head, bears on a cross9head
beneath the bridge beams, so that a total reaction equal to the weight of the
bridge and its load may be obtained.
$.1.2 /7#+ the maintained increment load test
0ig.,9%, the maintained increment load test, kentledge or adjacent tension
piles or soil anchors are used to provide a reaction for the test load applied
by jacking3s4 placed over the pile being tested. The load is increased in
definite steps, and is sustained at each level of loading until all settlements
has either stop or does not exceed a specified amount of in a certain given
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period of time.
0igure ,9% test load arrangement using kentledge

0igure ,9# test being carried out
6i*it State Desi)n
Introduction
Traditionally, design resistance of foundations has been evaluated on an
allowable stress basis that piles were designed with ultimate axial capacity
between # and ; times than working load. ?owever structural design is now
using a limit state design 35*4 bases whereby partial factors are applied to
various elements of the design according to the reliability with which the
parameters are known or can be calculated. 5* approach is the base of all the
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2urocodes, including that for foundations design. !t is believed that 5imit state
design has many benefits for the economic design of piling. The eurocode
approach is particularly rigorous, and this guide adopts the partial factors
presented in the codes.
Eurocode 4 divides investigation, design and implementation of
geoconstructions into three categories. !t is a requirement of the code that
project must be supervised at all stages by personnel with geotechnical
knowledge.
!n order to establish minimum requirements for the extent and quality of
geotechnical investigation, deign and construction three geotechnical categories
defined. These are/ Deotechnical )ategory %, #, ;.
>! Goetec1nical cate)or0 ? GC
this category includes small and relative simple structures/
9for which is impossible to ensure that the fundamental requirements will be
satisfied on the basis of experience and qualitative geotecnical investigationH
9with negligible risk for property and life.
Deotechnical )ategory % procedures will be only be sufficient in ground
conditions which are known from comparable experience to be sufficiently
straight9forward that routine methods may be used for foundation design and
construction. Iualitative geotechnical investigations
>!# Geotec1nical Cate)or0? GC #
This category includes conventional types of structures and foundations with no
abnormal risks or unusual or exceptionally difficult ground or loading conditions.
*tructures in Deotechnical category # require quantitative geotechnical data
and analysis to ensure that the fundamental requirements will be satisfied, but
routine procedures for field and laboratory testing and for design and execution
may be used. Iualified engineer with relevant experience must be involved.
>!$ Geotec1nical Cate)or0? GC $
This category includes structures or parts of structures which do not fall within
the limits of Deotechnical )ategories %and #.
The following are examples of structures or parts of structures complying with
geotechnical category #/
conventional type of /
spread foundationsH
raft foundationsH
piled foundationsH
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walls and other structures retaining for supporting soil or waterH
excavationsH
bridge piers and abutmentsH
embankment and earthworksH
ground anchors and other tie9back systemsH
tunnels in hard, non9fractured rock and not subjected to special water
tightness or other requirement.
Geotec1nical Cate)or0 $ includes very large or unusual structure. *tructures
involving abnormal risks or unusual or exceptionally difficult ground or loading
conditions and highly seismic areas. Iualified geotechnical engineer must be
involved.
The following factors must be considered in arriving at a classification of a
structure or part of a structure/
8ature and si1e of the structure
5ocal conditions, e.g. traffic, utilities, hydrology, subsidence, etc.
Dround and groundwater conditions
>egional seismicityG..
1%.3.1 Conditions classified as in Eurocode
!n the code, conditions are classified as favourable or unfavourable.
Favourable conditions are as suc1:
, if experience shows that the material posses limited spreading characteristic
, if large scale investigation was carried out and test results are reliable
, the existence of well documented investigation carried out using reliable
methods which can give reproducible results
, if additional tests, investigations and supervisions are recommend
, high certainty in defining test results
, failure is plastic

Unfavourable conditions are as suc1:


-- if experience shows that the material posses spreading characteres
-- if test results shows large spreading than the normal conditions
-- if the extent of investigation is limited
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-- limited experience and methods lucking reproducibility
-- where there is no recommendation for additional test, investigations and
supervision
-- uncertainty in analysing test results
-- if failure is brittle
2urocode & refers to foundation loadings as action. The se can be permanent
as !n the case of weights of structures and installations, or variable as imposed
loading, or wind and snow loads. They can be accidental, e.g. vehicle impact or
explosions.
.ctions can vary spatially, e.g. self9weights are fixed 3fixed actions4, but
imposed loads can vary in position 3free actions4. The duration of actions
affections affects the response of the ground. !t may cause strengthening such
as the gain in strength of a clay by long9term loading, or weakening as in the
case of excavation slopes in clay over the medium or long term. To allow for
this 2urocode & introduces a classification related to the soil response and
refers to transient actions 3e.g. wind loads4, short9term actions 3e.g. construction
loading4 and long9term actions. !n order to allow for uncertainties in the
calculation of he magnitude of actions or combinations of actions and their
duration and spatial distribution, 2uorcode requires the design values of actions
:
d
to be used for the geotechnical design either to be assessed directly or to be
derived from characteristic values :
k
/
:
d
= :
k
>!% T1e partial factors
*? n? Rd
T1e partial factor
*
: this factor is applied as a safety factor that the
characteristic values of the material is divided by this factor. 3m M material
index4 and covers /
unfavourable deviation from the material product property
inaccuracies in the conversion factors/ and
uncertainties in the geometric properties and the resistance
model.
!n ultimate limit state, depending upon a given conditions, for Deotechnical
)ategory #, the values of the
m
may be decided using table %(9%J %(9#.
T1e partial co-efficient
n
/ in order to ensure stability and adequate strength in
the structure and in the ground, in the code, cases ., 6, and ) have been
introduced. Ealues of
n
is given in table %(9;
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"artial co-efficient
Rd
/ this co9efficient is applied in consideration of deviation
between test results and future construction. Ealues of the
n
should be
between %.' 9 %.+
Table >- partial factors on *aterial properties for conventional desi)n situations for ulti*ate li*it states
-aterial property Partial factor
m

tan %.%9 %.#<
modules %.# 9 %.+
other properties %.B 9 #.(

Table >-# partial factors on *aterial properties for conventional desi)n situations for service li*it state
-aterial property Partial factor
m

modules %.# 9 %.+
other properties %.B 9 #.(
7or*all0 t1e desi)n values? d ? Ed? tan ? can be decided usin) t1e follo2in) for*ulae:
f
d
7 f
8
<.
n m
/
E
d
7 E
8
<.
n m
/
tan
d
7 tan
8
<.
n m
/
=here>
f 7 reaction force
7 internal angle of friction
E 7 elastic module
Table >-$ partial factor n
)lass
n

. %.(
6 %.%
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) %.#

Table >-% ad1esion factor
pile
b

s

)oncrete piles (.< (.((<
*teel piles (.< (.((#
timber piles 3wood piles4 (.< (.((,

The table is used for qc %( -pa
Table >-& 3earin) factors 7 ? 7F? 7C
d 8 8) 8q
#< B.'+ #(.& %(.&
#B &.B' ##.# %%.+
#& +.,, #;., %;.#
#+ %(.B #<.+ %'.&
#, %#.< #&., %B.'
;( %'.& ;(.% %+.'
;% %&.' ;#.& #(.B
;# #(.B ;<.< #;.#
;; #'.' ;+., #B.%
;' #,.( '#.# #,.'
;< ;'.' 'B.% ;;.;
;B '%., <(.B ;&.&
;& ',.% <<.B '#.,
;+ <+., B%.; '+.,
;, &(., B&., <B.(
'( +<.B &<.; B'.#
'% %(' +;., &;.,
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'# %#B ,;.& +<.'
'; %<' %(< ,,.(
'' %,( %%+ %%<
'< #;' %;' %;<