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Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!

Dr. Hui Hu
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011, U.S.A
Lecture # 11: Flow Visualization techniques:
Shadowgraph and Schlieren
AerE 344 Lecture Notes
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Shadowgraph and Schlieren technique
Index of refraction:
Depend on variation of index of refraction
in a transparent medium and the resulting
effect on a light beam passing through the
test section
Shadowgraph systems: are used to indicate
the variation of the second derivatives
(normal to the light beam) of the index of
refraction.
Schlieren Systems: are used to indicate
the variation of the first derivative of the
index of refraction
1 /
0
> = =

v c n
shadowgraph depicting the flow generated by a bullet
at supersonic speeds. (by Andrew Davidhazy )
Schlieren images of the muzzle blast and
supersonic bullet from firing a .30-06 caliber
high-powered rifle (by Gary S. Settles )
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Shadowgraph and Schlieren Systems are
often used in shock waves and flame
phenomena, in which density gradient is
quite big.
While these techniques are mostly used for
qualitative flow visualization, they can be
used to determine pressure, density or
temperature measurements theoretically.
These techniques are often used to
determine the integrated quantity over the
length of light beam.
shadowgraph image of plumes during solidification
process (by Lum Chee)
Schlieren image
Shadowgraph and Schlieren technique
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Introduction-3
Index of refraction is a function of thermodynamic state (density) for homogeneous
medium:
Lorenz-Lorentz relationship:
When n~1, for gaseous flow:
at standard condition, with n
o
and
o, :
When first and second derivative is determined as in Schlieren and shadowgraph
apparatus:
const
n
n
=
+

2
1 1
2
2

const
n
const
n 1 1
= =

1
1
) 1 ( 1
1
0
0
0
0 0
0

=
= =

n
n
n n const
n

2
2
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
1
1
1
1
y
n
n y y
n
const y
y
n
n y y
n
const y
c
c

=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
c
c

=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c


Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Introduction-4
Application of the Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques:
Compressible flow with shock waves density changes
Natural convective flow density changes
Flame and combustion system: density changes
Temperature changes inside flows:
For low speed flow with heat transfer:
P = constant
] ) (
2
[
1
1
1 1
/
2
2 2
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
y
T
T y
T
T
n
y
n
y
n
n
T
y
T
y
T
T
n
y
n
y
n
y
T
T y
T
RT
P
y
RT P
c
c
+
c
c

=
c
c

c
c

=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=

Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!


Fundamentals of Schlieren System
According to definition of index of refraction,
the light velocity will be V=C
o
/n.
The slope of the wave front of the light:
If the angle is quite small.
dy
n d
dz
y d
dz
dy
n d
dz
dy
dn
n
dz
dy
dn
n
n dz
dy
n
d
n d
dz
dy
Z y
n
n
y
Z
y y
n
C Z Z Z
n
C
Z
y y
) (ln
) (ln
) (
1
] [
1
]
)
1
(
[ '
) / )
1
( ( '
) / )
1
( (
2
2
2
2
0
2
0
=
= = = = =
A A A =
A
A
= A
A A A A = A A = A
A = A
A +
o
o
t
t
Ay
AZ
y
Z
Parallel lights
dz
dy
A
2
Z
' o A
' o A
' o A
} }
=

~
=
= = = =
dz
dy
dn
n
dz
dy
dn
n
dz
dy
n d
dz
dy
dn
n
dz
dy
dn
n
n dz
dy
n
d
n d
'
1
) (
1
'
) (ln
) (
1
] [
1
]
)
1
(
[ '
2
o o
o
1 /
0
> = =

v c n
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Fundamentals of Schlieren System
For a gas flow with density change:
L
dy
d n
a
f
I
I
L
dy
d n
a
f
I
I
n
dz
dy
d n
a
f
I
I
y
n
n y
dz
dy
dn
a
f
I
I
dz
dy
dn
a
f
I
I
K k
K k
K k
K k
K k


o
o
0
0 2
0
0 2
0
0 2
0
0
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
'

=
A

=
A
~

=
A

c
c

=
c
c
=
A
=
=
A
}
} }
L
y
T
T
n
a
f
I
I
const
y
T
T
n
n if
dz
y
T
T
n
a
f
dz
dy
dn
a
f
I
I
y
T
T
n
dy
dn
K k
K K k
c
c
c
c
=
A

~
c
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
= =
A
c
c
c
c
=
} }
2
2 2
1
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Visualization of shock wave in a transonic/supersonic nozzle
using Schlieren technique
Before turning on the Supersonic jet
Aftyer turning on the Supersonic jet
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Alternative Schlieren system
A. Setup with one
converging and one
plane mirror
A. Setup with one
converging mirror
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Shadowgraph technique
}
}

=
A

=
=~
A

~
A
=

A
A
=

=
A
+ A = A
A
A
=
dz
dy
n d
n
Z
I
I
dz
dy
dn
n
dy
d
Z
I
I
dy
d
Z
y
d
Z
y
y
I
I I
I
I
d Z y y
I
y
y
I
a
sc
a
sc
sc
sc
sc
sc
sc
sc sc
sc
sc
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
since
1
o
o
o o
o
Sensitive is proposal to Z
sc
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Experimental setup with one converging mirror
Experimental setup without lens or mirror
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Direct Shadowgraph
Point Source
Bubble of high
density gas
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Schlieren vs. Shadowgraph
Shadowgraph
Displays a mere shadow
Shows light ray displacement
Contrast level responds to
No knife edge used
Schlieren
Displays a focused image
Shows ray refraction angle, c
Contrast level responds to
Knife edge used for cutoff
y
n
c
c
2
2
y
n
c
c
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Examples
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Examples: Shlieren Photography
A cough
The firing of an AK-47. A simulated explosion in an airplane cabin.
An invisible gas leak
A hair dryer's effects
A glass of warm water
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Examples: Shadowgraph images
.
Shadowgraph Images of Re-entry Vehicles
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
ISUs Z-type Schlieren System
1
st
Field Mirror
2
nd
Field Mirror
Screen/Instrument Panel
Light Source
Test Section
Knife Edge
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Light Source
Lamp
Condenser Lens
Section A-A
A-A
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Setting Up The Schlieren System
Step 1: Find the focal length of the field mirrors
Focal Length
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Setting Up The Schlieren System
Step 2: Set up the first field mirror
1
st
Field Mirror
Light Source
Test Section
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Setting Up The Schlieren System
Step 3: Set up the second field mirror
1
st
Field Mirror
Light Source
Test Section
2
nd
Field Mirror
Screen/Instrument Panel
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Setting Up The Schlieren System
Step 4: Set up the knife edge
Focus the
source image
on the knife
Adjust the cutoff
Obtain a uniform
darkening of the image
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
Uniform Darkening
Knife edge too close
to second field mirror
Knife edge too far from
second field mirror
Uniform darkening
Copyright by Dr. Hui Hu @ Iowa State University. All Rights Reserved!
AerE344 Lab#9: Visualization of shockwaves using Schielren technique
Visualization of shockwaves in an supersonic jet flow
using Schielren technique.
Demonstration experiment only
Sign-in sheet signature
No lab report