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MAN Diesel & Turbo
86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
marineengines-de@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com
MAN Diesel & Turbo a member of the MAN Group
All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. Copyright MAN Diesel & Turbo.
D2366416EN Printed in Germany GKM-AUG-03130.5
51/60DF
Project Guide Marine
Four-stroke dual-fuel engines
compliant with IMO Tier II
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2366416_PRJ_51-60_DF.indd 4 31.05.2013 11:48:00
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51/60DF
Project Guide Marine
Four-stroke dual-fuel engines
compliant with IMO Tier II
Status Version Checked Date Checked Date
06.2013 3.7 Rid 2013-06-06 Utjesinovic 2013-06-04
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All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational purposes only and is
especially not guaranteed in any way.
Depending on the subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to changes
and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This will depend on the particular
characteristics of each individual project, especially specific site and operational conditions.
If this document is delivered in another language than English and doubts arise concerning the transla-
tion, the English text shall prevail.
For latest updates on Project Guides, visit our website www.mandieselturbo.com:
"Products Marine Engines & Systems Medium speed Project Guides".
In addition, please always contact MAN Diesel & Turbo at early project stage to ensure that the latest
information is transferred and the latest status of project tools is used.
MAN Diesel & Turbo
86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
marineengines-de@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com
MAN Diesel & Turbo
Reproduction permitted provided source is given.
51/60DF Table of contents - 1
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Table of contents
1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 1 - 1
1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme........................................................................ 1 - 3
1.2 Engine description.................................................................................................................... 1 - 5
1.3 Overview 51/60DF..................................................................................................................... 1 - 9
1.4 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements.................................................................. 1 - 15
1.5 Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-fuel engine
Short overview ........................................................................................................................ 1 - 17
2 Engine and operation ........................................................................ 2 - 1
2.1 Approved applications.............................................................................................................. 2 - 3
2.2 Engine design............................................................................................................................ 2 - 5
2.2.1 Engine cross section............................................................................................. 2 - 5
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters............................................................. 2 - 7
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments ................................................................................... 2 - 9
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Electric propulsion....................... 2 - 11
2.2.5 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Mechanical propulsion ................ 2 - 13
2.2.6 Engine inclination................................................................................................ 2 - 15
2.2.7 Engine equipment for various applications .......................................................... 2 - 17
2.3 Ratings (outputs) and speeds ................................................................................................ 2 - 21
2.3.1 Standard engine ratings...................................................................................... 2 - 21
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications .................................................. 2 - 23
2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment
installations in exhaust gas line and resulting installation demands ...................... 2 - 31
2.3.4 Engine speeds and related main data ................................................................ 2 - 35
2.3.5 Speed adjusting range........................................................................................ 2 - 37
2.4 Starting conditions ................................................................................................................ 2 - 39
2.5 Low load operation ................................................................................................................. 2 - 43
2.6 Load application Preheated engine..................................................................................... 2 - 45
2.6.1 General remarks ................................................................................................. 2 - 45
2.6.2 Start up time till reaching nominal speed............................................................. 2 - 46
2.6.3 Load application 51/60DF................................................................................... 2 - 47
2.6.4 Load application in liquid fuel mode in emergency case ...................................... 2 - 51
Table of contents - 2 51/60DF
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2.7 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)........................................................ 2 - 52
2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions.............................................................................. 2 - 53
2.9 Engine load reduction............................................................................................................ 2 - 57
2.10 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure......................................................... 2 - 59
2.11 Fuel sharing mode Optional feature for electric propulsion with constant speed............ 2 - 61
2.11.1 General information............................................................................................. 2 - 61
2.11.2 Load dependend range of fuel sharing rate......................................................... 2 - 62
2.11.3 Operating data (only for information without guarantee) .................................... 2 - 63
2.12 Generator operation................................................................................................................ 2 - 65
2.12.1 Operating range for generator operation ............................................................. 2 - 65
2.12.2 Load application for ship electrical systems ........................................................ 2 - 67
2.12.3 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations ...................................... 2 - 69
2.12.4 Operation of vessels with electric propulsion Failure of one engine................... 2 - 71
2.12.5 Alternator Reverse power protection ................................................................ 2 - 73
2.12.6 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators .......................... 2 - 75
2.13 Propeller operation ................................................................................................................. 2 - 77
2.13.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)......................................... 2 - 77
2.13.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control .................................................. 2 - 79
2.13.3 Torque measurement flange ............................................................................... 2 - 83
2.14 Fuel consumption; lube oil consumption; starting air/control air consumption.................. 2 - 85
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II ........................................... 2 - 85
2.14.2 Lube oil consumption.......................................................................................... 2 - 91
2.14.3 Starting air/control air consumption .................................................................... 2 - 91
2.14.4 Charge air blow off amount................................................................................. 2 - 92
2.14.5 Recalculation of total gas consumption and NO
x
-emissions dependent on ambient
conditions 51/60DF.......................................................................................... 2 - 92
2.14.6 Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions ........ 2 - 93
2.14.7 Aging.................................................................................................................. 2 - 95
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion .................................................................................................................. 2 - 97
2.15.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode ................................................................................ 2 - 97
2.15.2 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode ................................................................................ 2 - 99
2.15.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode ............................................................................................... 2 - 101
2.15.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode......................................................................................................... 2 - 102
51/60DF Table of contents - 3
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2.15.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode ............................................................................................... 2 - 104
2.15.6 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode......................................................................................................... 2 - 105
2.15.7 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode ............................................................................................... 2 - 106
2.15.8 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode ............................................................................................... 2 - 108
2.15.9 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode......................................................................................................... 2 - 110
2.15.10 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode......................................................................................................... 2 - 112
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP ......................................................................................... 2 - 114
2.16.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode .............................................................................. 2 - 114
2.16.2 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode .............................................................................. 2 - 116
2.16.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode ............................................................................................... 2 - 118
2.16.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode......................................................................................................... 2 - 119
2.16.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode ............................................................................................... 2 - 120
2.16.6 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode......................................................................................................... 2 - 121
2.16.7 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Constant speed................................................................... 2 - 122
2.16.8 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Recommended combinator curve ....................................... 2 - 124
2.16.9 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Constant speed................................................................... 2 - 126
2.16.10 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Recommended combinator curve ....................................... 2 - 128
2.16.11 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Constant speed ............................................................................ 2 - 130
2.16.12 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Recommended combinator curve................................................. 2 - 132
2.16.13 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Constant speed ............................................................................ 2 - 134
2.16.14 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Recommended combinator curve................................................. 2 - 136
2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures.................................................................. 2 - 138
2.18 Filling volumes and flow resistances................................................................................... 2 - 141
Table of contents - 4 51/60DF
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2.19 Internal media systems ........................................................................................................ 2 - 143
2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger................................................................. 2 - 149
2.21 Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit......................................................... 2 - 151
2.22 Exhaust gas emission........................................................................................................... 2 - 153
2.22.1 Maximum allowed emission value NOx IMO Tier II............................................. 2 - 153
2.22.2 Smoke emission index 51/60DF IMO Tier II (FSN) ............................................. 2 - 154
2.22.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines............. 2 - 155
2.23 Noise...................................................................................................................................... 2 - 157
2.23.1 Airborne noise................................................................................................... 2 - 157
2.23.2 Intake noise ...................................................................................................... 2 - 159
2.23.3 Exhaust gas noise............................................................................................. 2 - 161
2.23.4 Charge air blow off noise .................................................................................. 2 - 163
2.24 Vibration................................................................................................................................ 2 - 164
2.24.1 Torsional vibrations ........................................................................................... 2 - 164
2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (static)............................................................. 2 - 167
2.26 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)......................................................... 2 - 169
2.26.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel.................................................. 2 - 169
2.26.2 Balancing of masses Firing order ................................................................... 2 - 171
2.26.3 Static torque fluctuation.................................................................................... 2 - 173
2.27 Power transmission.............................................................................................................. 2 - 177
2.27.1 Flywheel arrangement ....................................................................................... 2 - 177
2.28 Arrangement of attached pumps ......................................................................................... 2 - 179
2.29 Foundation ............................................................................................................................ 2 - 181
2.29.1 General requirements for engine foundation...................................................... 2 - 181
2.29.2 Rigid seating..................................................................................................... 2 - 183
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin............................................................................ 2 - 191
2.29.4 Resilient seating................................................................................................ 2 - 197
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation....................................................... 2 - 199
2.29.6 Engine alignment .............................................................................................. 2 - 209
3 Engine automation ............................................................................ 3 - 1
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview....................................................................................................... 3 - 3
3.2 Power supply and distribution ................................................................................................. 3 - 9
3.3 Operation................................................................................................................................. 3 - 11
51/60DF Table of contents - 5
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3.4 Functionality ........................................................................................................................... 3 - 13
3.5 Interfaces ................................................................................................................................ 3 - 17
3.6 Technical data......................................................................................................................... 3 - 19
3.7 Installation requirements ....................................................................................................... 3 - 21
4 Specification for engine supplies ..................................................... 4 - 1
4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies Dual-fuel engines............................................... 4 - 3
4.1.1 Lubricating oil ....................................................................................................... 4 - 3
4.1.2 Operation with gaseous fuel .................................................................................. 4 - 4
4.1.3 Operation with liquid fuel ....................................................................................... 4 - 4
4.1.4 Pilot fuel ................................................................................................................ 4 - 5
4.1.5 Engine cooling water............................................................................................. 4 - 5
4.1.6 Intake air ............................................................................................................... 4 - 5
4.1.7 Inert gas ............................................................................................................... 4 - 5
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF......... 4 - 7
4.3 Natural gas specification........................................................................................................ 4 - 15
4.3.1 Gas types and gas quality................................................................................... 4 - 15
4.3.2 Fuel specification for natural gas ......................................................................... 4 - 17
4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO) .............................................................................. 4 - 19
4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines.................................... 4 - 21
4.6 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)........................................................................................... 4 - 25
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)..................................................................................... 4 - 27
4.8 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram) ....................................................................... 4 - 39
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water .................................................................................. 4 - 41
4.10 Cooling water inspecting........................................................................................................ 4 - 49
4.11 Cooling water system cleaning.............................................................................................. 4 - 51
4.12 Specification for intake air (combustion air)......................................................................... 4 - 53
5 Engine supply systems ..................................................................... 5 - 1
5.1 Basic principles for pipe selection........................................................................................... 5 - 3
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions ............................................................. 5 - 3
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines.................. 5 - 5
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels ...................................... 5 - 11
Table of contents - 6 51/60DF
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5.2 Lube oil system....................................................................................................................... 5 - 15
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram..................................................................................... 5 - 15
5.2.2 Lube oil system description................................................................................. 5 - 21
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication.............................................................................. 5 - 29
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets ................................................................................................... 5 - 31
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank ........................................................................................... 5 - 35
5.2.6 Pressure control valve......................................................................................... 5 - 39
5.2.7 Lube oil filter ....................................................................................................... 5 - 41
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent............................................................................. 5 - 43
5.3 Water systems ........................................................................................................................ 5 - 45
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram............................................................................ 5 - 45
5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation ............ 5 - 55
5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system........................................................ 5 - 59
5.3.4 Miscellaneous items............................................................................................ 5 - 61
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device................ 5 - 63
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation ............................................................. 5 - 65
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system........................................................................................ 5 - 67
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module .............................................................................. 5 - 69
5.3.9 Preheating module.............................................................................................. 5 - 73
5.4 Fuel system............................................................................................................................. 5 - 75
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system ........................................................... 5 - 75
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for dual-fuel engines................................ 5 - 77
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system................................................................. 5 - 83
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system ..................................................................... 5 - 87
5.4.5 Fuel supply at blackout conditions ...................................................................... 5 - 98
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO........... 5 - 99
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system..................................................................................... 5 - 105
5.5 Compressed air system........................................................................................................ 5 - 111
5.5.1 Starting air system............................................................................................ 5 - 111
5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors...................................................................... 5 - 117
5.5.3 Jet Assist .......................................................................................................... 5 - 119
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air....................................................................... 5 - 121
5.7 Exhaust gas system.............................................................................................................. 5 - 125
5.7.1 General information........................................................................................... 5 - 125
5.7.2 Components and assemblies............................................................................ 5 - 127
51/60DF Table of contents - 7
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6 Engine room planning ....................................................................... 6 - 1
6.1 Installation and arrangement................................................................................................... 6 - 3
6.1.1 General details...................................................................................................... 6 - 3
6.1.2 Installation drawings.............................................................................................. 6 - 5
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer
A support programme to configure the engine room............................................. 6 - 9
6.1.4 Engine arrangements.......................................................................................... 6 - 15
6.1.5 Mechanical propulsion system arrangement ....................................................... 6 - 19
6.1.6 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner ................................................. 6 - 21
6.1.7 Lifting appliance.................................................................................................. 6 - 23
6.1.8 Space requirement for maintenance ................................................................... 6 - 27
6.1.9 Major spare parts................................................................................................ 6 - 29
6.2 Exhaust gas ducting ............................................................................................................... 6 - 33
6.2.1 Ducting arrangement .......................................................................................... 6 - 33
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger ................................................. 6 - 35
7 Propulsion packages......................................................................... 7 - 1
7.1 General ...................................................................................................................................... 7 - 3
7.2 Propeller layout data................................................................................................................. 7 - 5
7.3 Propeller clearance................................................................................................................... 7 - 7
8 Electric propulsion plants ................................................................. 8 - 1
8.1 Advantages of electric propulsion ........................................................................................... 8 - 3
8.2 Efficiencies in diesel-electric plants........................................................................................ 8 - 5
8.3 Components of an electric propulsion plant............................................................................ 8 - 7
8.4 Electric plant design................................................................................................................. 8 - 9
8.5 Engine selection...................................................................................................................... 8 - 11
8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design.......................................................................... 8 - 13
8.7 Over-torque capability............................................................................................................ 8 - 17
8.8 Protection of the electric plant............................................................................................... 8 - 19
8.9 Drive control............................................................................................................................ 8 - 21
8.10 Power management................................................................................................................ 8 - 23
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants .......................................................... 8 - 27
Table of contents - 8 51/60DF
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9 Annex................................................................................................. 9 - 1
9.1 Safety instructions and necessary safety measures .............................................................. 9 - 3
9.1.1 General ................................................................................................................. 9 - 3
9.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side.............................................. 9 - 4
9.1.3 Provided by plant-side especially for gas-fueled engines....................................... 9 - 7
9.2 Programme for Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)....................................................................... 9 - 9
9.3 Engine running-in ................................................................................................................... 9 - 11
9.4 Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 9 - 15
9.5 Symbols................................................................................................................................... 9 - 19
9.6 Preservation, packaging, storage .......................................................................................... 9 - 23
9.6.1 General information............................................................................................. 9 - 23
9.6.2 Storage location and duration............................................................................. 9 - 24
9.6.3 Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded............................ 9 - 25
9.6.4 Removal of corrosion protection ......................................................................... 9 - 26
9.7 Engine colour .......................................................................................................................... 9 - 27
9.8 Form........................................................................................................................................ 9 - 29
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data..................................................................................... 9 - 29
9.8.2 Propeller layout data ........................................................................................... 9 - 35
Index ......................................................................................................... I
Page 1 - 1
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1 Introduction
Page 1 - 2
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Introduction
1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme
H-BC V28/33D, V28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 1 - 3
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1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme
IMO Tier II compliant engine programme
Figure 1-1 MAN Diesel & Turbo engine programme
Introduction
1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme
Page 1 - 4 V28/33D, V28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF H-BC
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Introduction
1.2 Engine description
E-BD 51/60DF Page 1 - 5
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1.2 Engine description
General
The 51/60DF engine from MAN Diesel & Turbo is a
dual-fuel marine engine that converts diesel fuel or
natural gas into electrical or mechanical propulsion
power efficiently and with low emissions. In com-
bination with a safety concept designed by MAN
Diesel & Turbo for applications on LNG carriers,
the multi-fuel capability of the engine represents
an appropriate drive solution for this type of vessel,
as well as for other marine applications. The capa-
bility to changeover from gas to diesel operation
without interruption rounds off the flexible field of
application of this engine.
51/60DF for electrical and mechanical propulsion
The first type approval for constant speed applica-
tion was passed successfully in year 2007. As a
result of continuous development MAN Diesel &
Turbo has opened the application range of the
51/60DF engine and passed successfully the type
approval for mechanical propulsion with Controlla-
ble Pitch Propeller (CPP) in year 2012.
Fuels
The 51/60DF engine is designed for operation with
liquid and gaseous fuels. In gas operation, the gas
to be burnt has to meet the latest applicable MAN
Diesel & Turbo directives for natural gas. With liq-
uid fuel, the 51/60DF engine can be operated with
MGO (DMA, DMZ), MDO (DMB) and with HFO up
to a viscosity of 700 mm/s (cSt) at 50 C. It is de-
signed for fuels up to and including the specifica-
tion CIMAC 2003 H/K700/DIN ISO 8217.
Marine main propulsion engines
Engine output is limited to 100 % of rated output
for engines driving CP-propellers. Engine output is
limited to 110 % of rated output for engines driving
a generator. Overload above 100 % load is permit-
ted briefly to prevent a frequency drop during sud-
den load imposition in generator applications.
Marine auxiliary engines
Fuel stop power is 110 % of rated output. Over-
load above 100 % may only be used briefly to bal-
ance out fluctuations in frequency during load
acceptance in diesel and gas modes.
Engine frame
Rigid housing in monoblock design (cast) with full
length tie-rods from suspended main bearing to
upper surface of engine frame and tie-rods from
cylinder head to intermediate bottom.
Cylinder liner
The cylinder liner, mounted in individual cylinder
jacket, is free of deformations arising from the en-
gine frame and thus assures optimum piston run-
ning, i.e. high service life and long service intervals.
Con-rods and con-rod bearings
Optimised marine head version with split joint in
upper shaft area, thus no release of the con-rod
bearing necessary during piston extraction; low
piston extension height. Optimised shells for con-
rod bearings increase operating safety.
Stepped pistons
Forged steel crown highly resistant to deformation
(with shaker cooling) made from high grade mate-
rial and nodular cast iron in lower section. In com-
bination with a flame ring, the stepped pistons
prevent undesirable bore polishing on the cylin-
der liner and assure permanently low lubricating
oil consumption, i.e. low operating costs. Chrome
ceramic coating of first piston ring with wear re-
sistant ceramic particles in ring surface results in
low wear, i.e. long service life and long service in-
tervals.
Cylinder head
With its combustion chamber geometry, the cylin-
der head assures optimum combustion of gase-
ous and liquid fuels. Atomisation of the fuel spray
in both operating modes is unimpeded thus
Introduction
1.2 Engine description
Page 1 - 6 51/60DF E-BD
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leading to very good air: fuel mixture formation and
an optimum combustion process, i.e. reduction in
fuel consumption in both operating modes.
Valves
The exhaust valves have water-cooled, armoured
exhaust valve seat rings and thereby low valve
temperatures. Propellers on the exhaust valve
shaft cause rotation of the valve due to the gas
flow with resultant cleaning effect of the sealing
surfaces. The inlet valves are equipped with Roto-
caps. This results in a low rate of wear, i.e. long
service intervals.
Injection
High pressure injection in liquid fuel mode with im-
proved atomisation for combustion of fuels with
the lowest quality still accepted. In gas mode, ig-
nition is achieved via injection of a small quantity of
pilot fuel by means of a common rail system. Over-
all, a fuel injection system optimised for low con-
sumption and low amount of harmful emissions.
Rocker housing
Modified, weight-reduced rocker arm casing al-
lows quick replacement of injectors in gas and liq-
uid fuel modes. The components required for gas
operation are completely integrated into the rocker
housing. High design strength, good heat dissipa-
tion and a configuration for the highest ignition
pressures ensure that the unit has a very high level
of component safety, i.e. long service life.
MAN Diesel & Turbo charging system
Optimally adapted charging system (constant
pressure) with modern MAN Diesel & Turbo turbo-
chargers from the TCA series having long bearing
overhaul intervals and high efficiency. Good part
load operation thanks to very high turbocharger
efficiency even under low pressure conditions. The
51/60DF engines are charged by just one TCA tur-
bocharger, which means that only one common
exhaust gas collector pipe is required for all cylin-
ders.
Advanced Miller Cycle
By applying the Advanced Miller Cycle in combi-
nation with a higher compression ratio the mean
firing pressure could be increased by three per-
centages compared to a version without this fea-
ture.
Service-friendly design
Hydraulic tools for tightening and loosening cylin-
der head nuts; Quick locks and/or clamp and stub
connections on pipes/lines; Generously sized
crankcase cover; Hydraulic tools for crankshaft
bearings and lower connecting rod bearings; Very
low maintenance Geislinger sleeve spring vibration
dampers.
SaCoS
one

The 51/60DF is equipped with the Classification
Society compliant safety and control system Sa-
CoS
one
. The SaCoS
one
control system allows safe
engine operation in liquid fuel and gas modes with
optimum consumption and low emissions. In gas
mode, the SaCoS
one
control system guarantees
safe operation between the knock and misfire
boundaries. All cylinders are controlled individually
in this instance. For operation with liquid fuel, con-
trol is based on the standard SaCoS
one
control
system for diesel engines. The complete system is
subject to a test-run in the factory with the engine
so that fine tuning and functional testing during
commissioning in the vessel only involve a mini-
mum of effort.
Special functionalities have been implemented to
cover the requirements on the LNG carrier busi-
ness. Exemplary can be named:
Fuel quality manager
During a round trip of an LNG Carrier the fuel
gas composition is changing in a big range. Af-
ter bunkering the Natural Boil off Gas (NBOG)
contains a high amount of Nitrogen. Contents
of 20 % and higher are quite common. This
lowers the heat value of the fuel gas, and leads
to longer gas injection. In the SaCoS
one
system
after comparison of an external engine output
signal with actual engine parameters an adjust-
ment of parameters in the control is done, to
Introduction
1.2 Engine description
E-BD 51/60DF Page 1 - 7
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feed the engine with sufficient gas fuel amount
according to the required load.
Adaptive air fuel control
Additionaly the air fuel ratio will be adjusted ac-
cording to the change in fuel gas and the cor-
responding changed heat value and knocking
characteristic.
Cleaning cyle for change over
During HFO operation the combustion cham-
ber will be contaminated with deposits formed
by the combustion of HFO. The cleaning cycle
function will be activated in case of recognized
HFO operation and knocking events during
change over to gas operation. So for this clean-
ing cycle no intermediate fuel like MDO is need-
ed and heavy knocking events will be avoided.
Soot
Soot emissions during operation on liquid fuel are
on very low level by means of optimised combus-
tion and turbocharging. For increased demands in
respect of invisible soot emissions also in the
range of 20 % output down to idle, special auxilia-
ry equipment is offered that prevents the formation
of visible smoke, even at this low load range. In
gas mode soot emissions are in the whole load
range well below the limit of visibility.
Fuel Sharing
The 51/60DF is optional available with the innova-
tive Fuel Sharing feature. This means that mixtures
of Gas and HFO can be simultaneously burned in
a single engine. This feature offers total fuel flexibil-
ity e. g. to the operator of a LNGC.
NO
x
emission with gaseous fuels
On natural gas, the 51/60DF undercuts IMO Tier II
levels by extremely wide margin indeed, in gase-
ous fuel mode, the 51/60DF already fulfils the strict
IMO Tier III NO
x
limitations prescribed for Emis-
sions Control Zones (ECAs).
NO
x
emission with liquid fuels
The 51/60DF complies with IMO Tier II NO
x
emis-
sions limits.
Micropilot ignition by common rail pilot-fuel injection
The 51/60DF employs the latest micropilot gas
ignition technology. The gaseous fuel is ignited by
injection of a distillate pilot fuel representing just
approx. 1 % of the quantity of liquid fuel needed to
achieve the 51/60DFs full rated output in its liquid
fuel back-up mode.
The 51/60DF pilot injection system uses the re-
cent MAN Diesel & Turbo common rail technology
which allows flexible setting of injection timing, du-
ration and pressure for each cylinder. This flexibility
allows the fuel consumption and emissions of the
51/60DF to be optimised at any point on its oper-
ating profile. In gaseous fuel mode MAN Diesel &
Turbo common rail technology also allows the gas
admission and pilot injection of the 51/60DF to be
very closely matched to power demand, even
down to very low engine loads, e.g. when meeting
only the vessels hotel load. Likewise, MAN
Diesel & Turbo common rail technology also al-
lows the 51/60DF to respond rapidly to combus-
tion knocking and misfiring on a cylinder-by-
cylinder basis.
To ensure nozzle cooling pilot-fuel injection stays
in operation during liquid fuel operation.
Knocking detection
The individual knocking levels from each cylinder
are collected by the knocking detection unit. In
combination with the cylinder individual control of
the pilot injection and the gas admission, the Sa-
CoS
one
control ensures a stable operation in gas
mode with a sufficient margin to the knocking and
the misfiring limit.
Introduction
1.2 Engine description
Page 1 - 8 51/60DF E-BD
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Additional notes/brief summary
Dual-fuel engines offers fuel flexibility. If the gas
supply fails once, also a full load running engine is
automatically switched over to liquid fuel mode
without interruption in power supply. DF engines
can run in:
Liquid fuel mode
Gas mode (for ignition a small amount of diesel
oil is injected by separate pilot fuel injection
nozzles)
Fuel sharing mode (mixtures of gas and HFO
can be burned simultaneously)
Backup mode operation (in case the pilot fuel
injection should fail, the engine can be operat-
ed further on, by using the main fuel injection
system; in this case a higher wear of the pilot
fuel injection nozzles is accepted)
Starting and stopping of the engine is always per-
formed in liquid fuel mode. The engine power in
gas mode is generally equal to the generated
power in liquid fuel mode.
Pilot fuel injection is also activated during liquid fuel
and fuel sharing mode (cooling of the nozzles). The
injected pilot fuel quantity depends on the engine
load.
Introduction
1.3 Overview 51/60DF
A-BB 51/60DF Page 1 - 9
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1.3 Overview 51/60DF
Figure 1-2 V51/60DF
Introduction
1.3 Overview 51/60DF
Page 1 - 10 51/60DF A-BB
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Figure 1-3 Overview L51/60DF counter coupling side
Legend
1
Gas pipe
4
Lube pil pump
2
LT cooling water pump (optional)
5
Exhaust heat shield
3
HT cooling water pump - -
Introduction
1.3 Overview 51/60DF
A-BB 51/60DF Page 1 - 11
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Figure 1-4 Overview L51/60DF coupling side
Legend
1
HT, LT cooling water outlets
4
Charge air cooler
2
Turbocharger exhaust outlet
5
Silencer
3
Camshaft cover - -
Introduction
1.3 Overview 51/60DF
Page 1 - 12 51/60DF A-BB
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Figure 1-5 Overview V51/60DF counter coupling side
Legend
1
Exhaust heat shield
4
HT cooling water pump
2
Gas pipe
5
Lube oil pump
3
LT cooling water pump (optional)
6
Camshaft cover
Introduction
1.3 Overview 51/60DF
A-BB 51/60DF Page 1 - 13
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Figure 1-6 Overview V51/60DF coupling side
Legend
1
HT, LT cooling water outlets
3
Turbocharger exhaust outlet
2
Charge air cooler
4
Silencer
Introduction
1.3 Overview 51/60DF
Page 1 - 14 51/60DF A-BB
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Introduction
1.4 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements
J-BB 51/60DF Page 1 - 15
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1.4 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements
Figure 1-7 Example for LNG carrier two propeller plant
NBOG = Natural Boil Off Gas
GCU = Gas Combustion Unit (in case the gas
mode of the DF engines is switched over to pure
liquid fuel mode the surplus NBOG will be burned,
to keep the pressure of the natural gas tank in the
required range)
Introduction
1.4 Typical marine plants and engine arrangements
Page 1 - 16 51/60DF J-BB
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Figure 1-8 Example for LNG carrier one propeller plant
NBOG = Natural Boil Off Gas
GCU = Gas Combustion Unit (in case the gas
mode of the DF engines is switched over to pure
liquid fuel mode the surplus NBOG will be burned,
to keep the pressure of the natural gas tank in the
required range)
Introduction
1.5 Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-fuel engine Short overview
E-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 1 - 17
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1.5 Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-fuel engine
Short overview
This chapter serves to describe in a short form the
safety philosophy of MAN Diesel & Turbo's dual-
fuel engines and the necessary safety installations
and engine room arrangements. The engines
serve as diesel-mechanical prime movers as well
as power generation unit in diesel electric applica-
tions onboard of LNG carriers or other gas fueled
ships. Possible operation modes are pure gas
mode or pure diesel mode as well as fuel sharing
mode (liquid and gaseous fuel burned together).
This safety concept deals only with the necessary
gas related safety installations.
The MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-fuel engines are
four-stroke engines with either liquid fuel or gas as
main fuel. The engines are started and stopped
only in liquid fuel mode. The operating principle in
gas-mode is the lean-burn concept. A lean-mix-
ture of gas and air is provided to the combustion
chamber of each cylinder by individually controlled
gas admission valves. The mixture is ignited by a
small amount of pilot Diesel fuel. In liquid fuel
mode the fuel is injected in the combustion cham-
ber by conventional fuel injection pumps. In addi-
tion for certain applications fuel sharing mode is
available.
The safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbos dual-
fuel engines is designed to operate in gas or in fuel
sharing mode with the same safety level as
present in liquid fuel mode. The concept is based
on an early detection of critical situations, which
are related to different components of the gas sup-
ply system, the combustion and the exhaust sys-
tem. If necessary the safety system triggers
different actions, leading to alarm or automatically
switching to liquid fuel mode, without interruption
of shaft power or a shutdown of engines and gas
supply systems.
The safety philosophy is to create along the gas
supply and gas reaction chain an atmosphere in
the engine room, which under normal operation
conditions is never loaded with gas. The gas sup-
ply piping is double walled. Negative pressure pre-
vails in the interspace between the inner and the
outer pipe. Engine rooms, gas valve unit room and
additonal necessary rooms are monitored and
controlled, and are always sufficient ventilated, in
the way that a (small) negative pressure is set. Gas
detection is required in the gas valve unit compart-
ment, in the interspace between the inner and the
outer pipe of the double walled pipes and the en-
gine rooms.
The exhaust system can be purged by an explo-
sion proofed fan installed in the exhaust gas sys-
tem. The purged air is always led through the
exhaust gas duct outside the engine room. Rup-
ture discs or explosion relief valves are installed in
the exhaust gas duct.
All system requirements and descriptions have to
be in accordance with international rules and nor-
matives, the IMO (International Marine Organisa-
tion) and the IGC (International Gas Carrier Code)
and classification societies rules. Note that all sys-
tems have to be built in accordance with the
above mentioned requirements.
For further information please refer to our separate
brochures Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-
fuel engine.
Introduction
1.5 Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-fuel engine Short overview
Page 1 - 18 35/44DF, 51/60DF E-BC
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2 Engine and operation
Page 2 - 2
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Engine and operation
2.1 Approved applications
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 3
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2.1 Approved applications
The 51/60DF is designed as multi-purpose drive.
It has been approved by type approval as marine
main engine and auxiliary engine by all main classi-
fication societies (ABS, BV, CCS, ClassNK, CR, CRS,
DNV, GL, KRS, LR, RINA, RS).
As marine main engine
1
it may be applied for me-
chanical or electric propulsion drive
2
for applica-
tions,
as bulker, container vessel and general cargo
vessel.
as ferry and cruise liner.
as tanker.
others to fulfill all customers needs the project
requirements have to be defined at an early
stage.
Hereby it can be applied for single- and for multi-
engine plants.
As marine auxiliary engine it may be applied for
electric power generation
2
for auxiliary duties for
applications as:
Auxiliary power generation
3
Note!
The engine is not designed for operation in
hazardous areas. It has to be ensured by the
ships own systems, that the atmosphere of
the engine room is monitored and in case of
detecting a gas-containing atmosphere the
engine will be stopped immediately.
1
In line with rules of classifications societies each engine whose driving force may be used for propulsion pur-
pose is stated as main engine.
2
See "Section 2.3.2: Engine ratings (output) for different applications, page 2-23".
3
Not used for emergency case or fire fighting purposes.
Engine and operation
2.1 Approved applications
Page 2 - 4 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine and operation
2.2.1 Engine cross section
H-AI 51/60DF Page 2 - 5
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2.2 Engine design
2.2.1 Engine cross section

Figure 2-1 Engine cross section L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.2.1 Engine cross section
Page 2 - 6 51/60DF H-AI
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Figure 2-2 Engine cross section V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 7
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2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters
Example to declare engine designations
Parameter Value Unit
Number of cylinders 6, 7, 8, 9,
12, 14, 16, 18
-
Cylinder bore 510
mm
Piston stroke 600
Swept volume of each cylinder 122.5 dm
3
Compression ratio 13.3 -
Distance between cylinder centres L = 820 mm
Distance between cylinder centres V = 1,000
Vee engine, vee angle 50
Crankshaft diameter at journal, in-line engine L = 415 mm
Crankshaft diameter at journal, vee engine V = 480
Crankshaft diameter at crank pin 415
Table 2-1 Design parameters engine 51/60DF
18 V 51/60 DF
Engine stroke [cm]
V= Vee engine, L= in-line engine
Cylinder number
Dual-fuel
Engine bore [cm]
Engine and operation
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters
Page 2 - 8 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine and operation
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 9
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2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments

TC-type in brackets: variations in gas quality may
cause the selection of a different TC specification
or even another TC frame size.
Please consider the relevant turbocharger project
guide according to this table.
Above mentioned turbocharger assignments are
only for guidance and may vary due to projectspe-
cific reasons.
51/60DF IMO Tier II
No. of cylinder Mechanical propulsion with CPP/electric propulsion
975 kW/cyl.
500 rpm
1,000 kW/cyl.
514 rpm
6L TCA55-42 TCA55-42
7L TCA55-42 TCA55-42
8L TCA55-42 (TCA66-42) TCA55-42191 (TCA66-42)
9L TCA66-42 (TCA55-42) TCA66-42298 (TCA55-42)
12V TCA66-42 (TCA77-42) TCA66-42 (TCA77-42)
14V TCA77-42 TCA77-42
16V TCA77-42 TCA77-42 (TCA88-42)
18V TCA77-42 (TCA88-42) TCA77-42 (TCA77-42)
Table 2-2 Turbocharger assignments
Engine and operation
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments
Page 2 - 10 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine and operation
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Electric propulsion
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 11
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2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Electric propulsion
Engine L51/60DF Electric propulsion
Figure 2-3 Main dimensions Engine L51/60DF
Engine A B* C* W H Weight without fly-
wheel
mm tons
9L51/60DF 10,545 4,805 15,350 2,970 6,030 225
All weights and dimensions are for guidance only and apply to dry engines without flywheel.
Minimum centreline distance for twin engine installation: In-line engine 3,200 mm.
More information available upon request.
Table 2-3 Main dimensions and weights Engine L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 12 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine V51/60DF Electric propulsion
Figure 2-4 Main dimensions and weights Engine V51/60DF
Engine A B* C* W H Weight without fly-
wheel
mm tons
12V51/60DF 9,835 4,950 14,785 4,700 6,530 276
14V51/60DF 10,835 5,150 15,985 318
18V51/60DF 13,148 5,410 18,558 381
All weights and dimensions are for guidance only and apply to dry engines without flywheel.
Minimum centreline distance for twin engine installation: V-type engine 4,800 mm.
More information available upon request.
Table 2-4 Main dimensions and weights Engine V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.2.5 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Mechanical propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 13
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2.2.5 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Mechanical propulsion
Engine L51/60DF Mechanical propulsion
Figure 2-5 Main dimensions Engine L51/60DF
Engine L L
1
W H Weight without fly-
wheel
mm tons
6L51/60DF 8,494 7,455 3,165 5,340 106
7L51/60DF 9,314 8,275 119
8L51/60DF 10,134 9,095 135
9L51/60DF 11,160 9,915 3,283 148
All weights and dimensions are for guidance only and apply to dry engines without flywheel.
Minimum centreline distance for twin engine installation: In-line engine 3,200 mm.
More information available upon request.
Table 2-5 Main dimensions and weights Engine L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.2.5 Engine main dimensions, weights and views Mechanical propulsion
Page 2 - 14 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine V51/60DF Mechanical propulsion
Figure 2-6 Main dimensions and weights Engine V51/60DF
Engine L L
1
W H Weight without fly-
wheel
mm tons
12V51/60DF 10,254 9,088 4,713 5,517 187
14V51/60DF 11,254 10,088 213
16V51/60DF 12,254 11,088 240
18V51/60DF 13,644 12,088 265
All weights and dimensions are for guidance only and apply to dry engines without flywheel.
Minimum centreline distance for twin engine installation: V-type engine 4,800 mm.
More information available upon request.
Table 2-6 Main dimensions and weights Engine V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine inclination
J-BC 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 15
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2.2.6 Engine inclination
Figure 2-7 Angle of inclination
Note!
For higher requirements contact MAN Diesel & Turbo. Arrange engines always lengthwise of the
ship!
Legend
o Athwartships
| Fore and aft
Max. permissible angle of inclination []
1)
1)
Athwartships and fore and aft inclinations may occur simultaneously.
Application Athwartships o Fore and aft |
Heel to each
side (static)
Rolling to
each side
(dynamic)
Trim (static)
2)
2)
Depending on length L of the ship.
Pitching
(dynamic)
L < 100 m L > 100 m
Main engines 15 22.5 5 500/L 7.5
Table 2-7 Inclinations
E
D
D
E
Engine and operation
2.2.6 Engine inclination
Page 2 - 16 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF J-BC
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Engine and operation
2.2.7 Engine equipment for various applications
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 17
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2.2.7 Engine equipment for various applications
Device/measure
Propeller Auxiliary
engines
Diesel-
mechanic
Diesel-
electric
Charge air by-pass ("hot compressor by-pass", flap 3) O O O
Charge air by-pass ("cold compressor by-pass", flap 4) X X X
Two-stage charge air cooler X X X
Charge air preheating by HT-LT switching O O
Charge air preheating by LT shut-off O O
CHATCO (charge air temperature control) X X X
Jet assist (acceleration of the turbocharger) O O O
VIT (Variable Injection Timing) X X X
Slow turn X X X
Oil mist detector O O O
Splash oil monitoring X X X
Main bearing temperature monitoring X X X
Sealing oil O O O
Compressor wheel cooling O O O
Attached HT cooling water pump X X X
Attached LT cooling water pump O O O
Attached lubrication oil pump X X X
Torque measurement flange X
X = required, O = optional, = not designed
Table 2-8 Engine equipment
Engine and operation
2.2.7 Engine equipment for various applications
Page 2 - 18 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine equipment for various applications General description
Charge air by-pass (hot compressor by-pass, see "Fig-
ure 2-8: Overview flaps 51/60DF" flap 3)
For gas and DF engines it is used at cold ambient
conditions to blow by a part of the hot charge air
downstream of the compressor into the intake air
duct. This serves for preheating the intake air and
thereby expands the engine-specific temperature
compensation range. This feature is only available
in connection with an external intake air system. It
can not be applied to an engine with TC silencer.
Charge air by-pass (cold compressor by-pass, see "Fig-
ure 2-8: Overview flaps 51/60DF" flap 4)
This is the main control device for air volume ratio
adjustment (lambda control) of gas and DF en-
gines. A part of the charge air is withdrawn down-
stream of the charge air cooler and is blown off
(silencer required). Optionally the withdrawn
charge air can be blown by into the intake air duct
upstream of the compressor (only at engines with
external intake air system - not possible at engines
with TC silencer). A continuously adjustable flap is
used to regulate this air-flow to optimize the air fuel
ratio dependent on the present engine operating
conditions.
Figure 2-8 Overview flaps 51/60DF
Two stage charge air cooler
The two stage charge air cooler consists of two
stages which differ in the temperature level of the
connected water circuits. The charge air is first
cooled by the HT circuit (high temperature stage of
the charge air cooler, engine) and then further
cooled down by the LT circuit (low temperature
stage of the charge air cooler, lube oil cooler).
Charge air preheating by HT LT switching
Charge air preheating by HT - LT switching is used
in the load range from 0 % up to 20 % to achieve
high charge air temperatures during part-load op-
eration. It contributes to improved combustion
and, consequently, reduced exhaust gas discolor-
ation. Unlike the charge air preheating by means of
the CHATCO control valve, there is no time delay
in this case. The charge air is preheated immedi-
Engine and operation
2.2.7 Engine equipment for various applications
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 19
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ately after the switching process by HT cooling
water, which is routed through both stages of the
two-stage charge air cooler.
Charge air preheating by LT shut off (integrated in CHAT-
CO)
Charge air preheating by LT shut off (by means of
the CHATCO control valve) is as well used in the
load range from 0 % up to 20 % to reduce exhaust
gas discoloration. Higher charge air temperatures
are achieved by shut off the LT-stage of the two
stage charge air cooler. Depending on engine type
there is a delay in time of about 15 to 25 minutes,
till the positive effect can be noticed, because pre-
viously remaining LT-water in the LT-stage needs
to be heated up by the charge air.
CHATCO (Charge Air Temperature Control)
The charge air temperature control CHATCO
serves to prevent accumulation of condensed wa-
ter in the charge air pipe. In this connection, the
charge air temperature is, depending on the intake
air temperature, controlled in such a way that, as-
suming a constant relative air humidity of 80 %,
the temperature in the charge air pipe does not fall
below the condensation temperature.
Integrated in the functionality of CHATCO is
Charge air preheating by LT shut off.
Jet assist (acceleration of the turbocharger)
This equipment is used where special demands
exist regarding fast acceleration and/or load appli-
cation. In such cases, compressed air from the
starting air vessels is reduced to a pressure of ap-
prox. 4 bar before being passed into the compres-
sor casing of the turbocharger to be admitted to
the compressor wheel via inclined bored passag-
es. In this way, additional air is supplied to the
compressor which in turn is accelerated, thereby
increasing the charge air pressure. Operation of
the accelerating system is initiated by a control,
and limited to a fixed load range.
VIT (Variable Injection Timing)
For some engine types with conventional injection
a VIT is available allowing a shifting of injection
start. A shifting in the direction of advanced injec-
tion is supposed to increase the ignition pressure
and thus reduces fuel consumption. Shifting in the
direction of retarded injection helps to reduce
NO
x
emissions.
Slow turn
Engines, which are equipped with slow turn, are
automatically turned prior to engine start, with the
turning process being monitored by the engine
control. If the engine does not reach the expected
number of crankshaft revolutions (2.5 revolutions)
within a specified period of time, or in case the
slow-turn time is shorter than the programmed
minimum slow-turn time, an error message is is-
sued. This error message serves as an indication
that there is liquid (oil, water, fuel) in the combus-
tion chamber. If the slow-turn manoeuvre is com-
pleted successfully, the engine is started
automatically.
Oil mist detector
Bearing damage, piston seizure and blow-by in
combustion chamber leads to increased oil mist
formation. As a part of the safety system the oil
mist detector monitors the oil mist concentration
in crankcase to indicate these failures at an early
stage.
Splash oil monitoring system
The splash-oil monitoring system is a constituent
part of the safety system. Sensors are used to
monitor the temperature of each individual drive
unit (or pair of drive at V-engines) indirectly via
splash oil.
Main bearing temperature monitoring
As an important part of the safety system the tem-
peratures of the crankshaft main bearings are
measured just underneath the bearing shells in the
bearing caps. This is carried out using oil-tight re-
sistance temperature sensors.
Sealing oil
While longterm operation (more than 72 h within
14 days) with MGO (Class DMA or Class DMZ)
seal oil avoids effectively contamination of lube oil
by means of separation of fuel and lube oil side
within the conventional fuel injection pumps (not
needed for CR injection system).
Engine and operation
2.2.7 Engine equipment for various applications
Page 2 - 20 51/60DF B-BD
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Compressor wheel cooling
The high-pressure version (as a rule of thumb
pressure ratio approx. 1 : 4.5 and higher) of the
turbochargers requires compressor wheel cool-
ing. This water cooling is integrated in the bearing
casing and lowers the temperature in the relevant
areas of the compressor.
Torque measurement flange
For a mechanical CP (controllable pitch) propeller
driven by a dual-fuel engine, a torque measure-
ment flange has to be provided. The torque meas-
urement flange gives an accurate power output
signal to the engine control, thus enabling exact
Lambda control (despite calorific value fluctua-
tions due to differing gas quality or fuel sharing
mode) and rapid switchover operations (liquid fuel/
gas and vice versa).
Engine and operation
2.3.1 Standard engine ratings
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 21
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2.3 Ratings (outputs) and speeds
2.3.1 Standard engine ratings
P
ISO, Standard
: ISO-Standard-Output (as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1)
Engine type
No. of cylinders
Engine rating, P
ISO, Standard
1)

2)
1)
P
ISO,Standard
as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1, "Paragraph: Definition of engine rating, page 2-22".
2)
Engine fuel
Liquid fuel mode: Distillate according to ISO 8217 DMA/DMB/DMZ-grade fuel or RM-grade fuel, fullfilling the stated quality
requirements.
Gas mode: Natural gas with a methane number 80, NCV 28,000kJ/Nm
3
and fullfilling the stated quality requirements.
500 rpm 514 rpm
Available turn-
ing direction
CW/CCW
3)
3)
CW = clockwise
CCW = counter clockwise.
Note!
Nm
3
corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at O C and 101.32 kPa.
kW Available turn-
ing direction
CW/CCW
3)
kW
6 L51/60DF 6 Yes/Yes 5,850 Yes/Yes 6,000
7 L51/60DF 7 Yes/Yes 6,825 Yes/Yes 7,000
8 L51/60DF 8 Yes/Yes 7,800 Yes/Yes 8,000
9 L51/60DF 9 Yes/Yes 8,775 Yes/Yes 9,000
12 V51/60DF 12 Yes/Yes 11,700 Yes/Yes 12,000
14 V51/60DF 14 Yes/Yes 13,650 Yes/Yes 14,000
16 V51/60DF 16 Yes/Yes 15,600 Yes/Yes 16,000
18 V51/60DF 18 Yes/Yes 17,550 Yes/Yes 18,000
Table 2-9 Engine ratings 51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.3.1 Standard engine ratings
Page 2 - 22 51/60DF B-BD
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Definition of engine rating
General definition of Diesel engine rating
(according to ISO 15550: 2002; ISO 3046-1:
2002)

Reference conditions (according to:
ISO 3046-1: 2002; ISO 15550: 2002)
Air temperature T
r
K /C 298/25
Air pressure p
r
kPa 100
Relative humidity ur % 30
Charge air temperature (regulated
temperature)
1)
1)
Specified reference charge air temperature corresponds to
a mean value for all cylinder numbers that will be achieved
with 25 C LT cooling water temperature before charge air
cooler (according to ISO).
K /C 316/43
Table 2-10 Standard reference conditions
Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 23
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2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
P
Application, ISO
: Available rating (output) under ISO-conditions dependent on application
P

A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

o
u
t
p
u
t

i
n

p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
o
f

I
S
O
-
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
-
o
u
t
p
u
t
F
u
e
l

s
t
o
p

p
o
w
e
r

(
b
l
o
c
k
i
n
g
)
M
a
x
.

a
l
l
o
w
e
d

s
p
e
e
d

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
a
t

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

t
o
r
q
u
e
1
)
1)
Maximum torque given by available output and nominal speed.
T
r
o
p
i
c

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s
(
t
r
/
t
c
r
/
p
r
=
1
0
0
k
P
a
)
2
)
2)
t
r
= Air temperature at compressor inlet of turbocharger.
t
cr
= Cooling water temperature before charge air cooler.
p
r
= Barometric pressure.
N
o
t
e
s
O
p
t
i
o
n
a
l

p
o
w
e
r

t
a
k
e
-
o
f
f

i
n

p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
o
f

I
S
O
-
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
-
o
u
t
p
u
t
Kind of application % % % C - -
Marine main engines (with mechanical or electric propulsion)
Electric propulsion 100 110 - 45/38
3)
3)
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the rated engine output is permissible only for a short time to provide addi-
tional engine power for governing purpose only (e. g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied load).
This additional power shall not be used for the supply of electrical consumers.
Yes/up to 100 %
Mechanical propulsion with CPP 100 100 - 45/38
4)
4)
Only applicable with nominal speed 514 rpm.
Yes/up to 100 %
Table 2-11 Available outputs/related reference conditions 51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
Page 2 - 24 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
J-BC 51/60DF Page 2 - 25
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P
Operating
Liquid fuel mode relevant derating factors
Available rating (output) under local conditions and dependent on application
Dependent on local conditions or special application demands a further load reduction of P
Application, ISO
might be needed.
1. No de-rating necessary, provided the conditions listed in the respective column
(see "Table 2-12: De-rating Limits of ambient conditions") are met:
2. De-rating due to ambient conditions and negative intake pressure before compressor or exhaust gas
back pressure after turbocharger.
No de-rating up to
stated reference
conditions (Tropic),
see 1.
De-rating needed according to formula,
see 2.
De-rating
needed
accord. to spe-
cial calcula-
tion, see 3.
Air temperature before
turbocharger T
x
s 318 K (45 C) 318 K (45 C) < T
x
s 333 K (60 C) > 333 K (60 C)
Ambient pressure > 100 kPa (1 bar) 100 kPa (1 bar) > p
ambient
> 90 kPa < 90 kPa
Cooling water tempera-
ture inlet charge air
cooler (LT stage)
s 311 K (38 C) 311 K (38 C) < T
cx
s 316 K (43 C) > 316 K (43 C)
Intake pressure before
compressor
> 20 mbar
1)
1)
Below/above atmospheric pressure.
20 mbar > p
air before compressor
> 40 mbar
1)
< 40 mbar
1)
Exhaust gas back pres-
sure after turbocharger
s 30 mbar
1)
30 mbar < p
exhaust after turbine
s 60 mbar
1)
> 60 mbar
1)
Table 2-12 De-rating Limits of ambient conditions
1.2
x cx
318 311
a 1.09 0.09 with a 1
T U O T
(
| | | |
( = s
| |
+ +
(
\ . \ .

Operating Application,ISO
P P a =
a Correction factor for ambient conditions
T
x
Air temperature before turbocharger [K] being considered
U Increased negative intake pressure before compressor leads to an de-rating, calculated as increased air temperature
before turbocharger
( )
x
x
T 273 t = +
( )
Air before compressor
U 20mbar p mbar 0.25K mbar withU 0 = > (

Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
Page 2 - 26 51/60DF J-BC
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Note!
Operating pressure data without further speci-
fication are given below/above atmospheric
pressure.
O Increased exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger leads to a de-rating, calculated as increased air temperature
before turbocharger:
T
cx
Cooling water temperature inlet charge air cooler (LT stage) [K] being considered
T Temperature in Kelvin [K]
t Temperature in degree Celsius [C]
( )
Exhaust after turbine
O P mbar 30mbar 0.25K mbar with0 0 = > (

( )
CX cx
T 273 t = +
Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 27
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P
Operating
Gas mode relevant derating factors
Derating
At gas and DF engines the lambda control device (air volume ratio adjustment) compensates ambient
conditions in a certain range (see "Figure 2-12: Ambient temperature compensation").
Relevant for a derating in gas mode are the methane number, the water temperature inlet charge air
cooler and the N
2
-content of the fuel gas.

Figure 2-9 Engine output as a function of methan number
Figure 2-10 Engine output as a function of water temperature inlet charge air cooler LT stage
Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
Page 2 - 28 51/60DF E-BD
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Net caloric value (NCV) dependent on N
2
content
The NCV from the gas is influenced by the N
2
con-
tent. Up to 22 % of N
2
content no derating is nec-
esarry. Above 22 % to 30 % N
2
content derating is
required.
Figure 2-11 Engine output as a function of N
2
content in the fuel gas
Engine output at site (P) is calculated as follows:
P
0perating
= P
Application, ISO
x (100-dm-dt-dN) / 100
P
0perating
:
Available rating (output) under local conditions and
dependent on application.
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 29
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Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
Ambient temperature compensation Gas/DF engines
Figure 2-12 Ambient temperature compensation
The engine compensates changes of the ambient
pressure as well as changes of the air temperature
before compressor within a range of 20 K. This is
performed by a by-pass arrangement.
The maximum possible air temperature before
compressor (mostly similar to the ambient temper-
ature) has to be predetermined.
If the temperature range of 20 K will be exceeded
because of too low ambient temperature, preheat-
ing of the intake air or alternative systems must be
provided.
If the predetermined maximum ambient air tem-
perature will be exceeded the engines output has
to be reduced.
Range of
temperature
compensation
K
Maximum
Reduced engine output
compensation
Preheating of
intake air required
Maximum
temperature
before
compressor
Page 2 - 30 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine and operation
2.3.2 Engine ratings (output) for different applications
Derating due to special conditions or demands
Please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo:
If limits of ambient conditions mentioned in "Ta-
ble 2-12: De-rating Limits of ambient conditions"
are exceeded. A special calculation is neces-
sary.
If higher requirements for the emission level ex-
ist as stated in "Section 2.22: Exhaust gas emission,
page 2-153".
If special requirements of the plant for heat re-
covery exist.
If special requirements on media temperatures
of the engine exist.
If any requirements of MAN Diesel & Turbo
mentioned in the Project Guide can not be
kept.
C-BD Page 2 - 31
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Engine and operation
2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line
2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment
installations in exhaust gas line and resulting installation demands
If the recommended exhaust gas back pressure as stated in "Section: "Planning data" "Operating/service
temperatures and pressures" cannot be kept due to exhaust gas after treatment installations following items
need to be considered.
Maximum exhaust gas pressure drop - layout
Shipyard and supplier of equipment in exhaust gas line have to ensure that pressure drop p
exh
over
entire exhaust gas piping incl. pipe work, scrubber, boiler, silencer, etc. must stay below stated stand-
ard operating pressure at all operating conditions.
Hereby it is recommended to consider an additional 10 mbar for consideration of aging and possible
fouling/staining of the components over lifetime.
Possible counter measures could be a proper dimensioning of the entire flow path including all in-
stalled components or even the installation of an exhaust gas blower if necessary.
At the same time the pressure drop p
intake
in the intake air path must be kept below stated standard
operating pressure at all operating conditions and including aging over lifetime.
If either p
exh
or p
intake
exceeds the stated standard values and even the stated values for an in-
creased fuel oil consumption a customized engine matching becomes mandatory which will likely re-
sult in increased sfoc. For significant overruns in pressure losses even a reduction in the rated power
output may become necessary.
In case the performance of the engine is claimed (e.g. for excessive sfoc or exhaust gas temperature),
it must be possible to install pressure sensors directly after turbine outlet and directly before com-
pressor inlet to prove that the engine is not the root cause for poor performance.
Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
Operating pressure p
exh
, standard 0 ... 30 mbar
Operating pressure p
exh
, range with increase of fuel consumption 30 ... 60 mbar
Operating pressure p
exh
, where a customized engine matching is needed > 60 mbar
Intake air pressure before turbocharger
Operating pressure p
intake
, standard 0 ... 20 mbar
Operating pressure p
intake
, range with increase of fuel consumption 20 ... 40 mbar
Operating pressure p
intake
, where a customized engine matching is needed < 40 mbar
Sum of the exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger and the absolute value of the intake air pressure before
turbocharger
Operating pressure p
exh
+ Abs(p
intake)
, standard 0 ... 50 mbar
Operating pressure p
exh
+ Abs(p
intake)
, range with increase of fuel consumption 50 ... 100 mbar
Operating pressure p
exh
+ Abs(p
intake)
, where a customized engine matching is needed > 100 mbar
Page 2 - 32 C-BD
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Engine and operation
2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line
Bypass for emergency operation
It needs to be evaluated if the chosen exhaust gas after treatment installation demands a bypass for
emergency operation.
For scrubber a bypass is mandatory to ensure emergency operation of the engine in case the scrub-
ber is blocked or damaged in such a way that the exhaust path is physically blocked or the exhaust
flow cannot be directed through the scrubber for any other reason.
The bypass needs to be dimensioned for the same pressure drop as the main installation that is by-
passed otherwise the engine would operated on a differing operating point with negative influence
on the performance, e.g. a lower value of the pressure drop may result in too high turbocharger
speeds.
Single streaming per engine recommended/Multi streaming to be evaluated project specific
In general each engine must be equipped with a separate exhaust gas line as single streaming instal-
lation. This will prevent reciprocal influencing of the engines as e.g. exhaust gas backflow into an en-
gine out of operation or within an engine running at very low load (negative pressure drop over the
cylinder can cause exhaust gas back flow into intake manifold during valve overlap).
In case a multi-streaming solution is realized (i.e. only one combined scrubber for multiple engines)
this needs to be stated on early project stage. Hereby air/exhaust gas tight flaps need to be provided
to safeguard engines out of operation. A specific layout of e.g. sealing air mass flow will be necessary
and also a power management may become necessary in order to prevent operation of several en-
gines at very high loads while others are running on extremely low load. A detailed analysis as HAZOP
study and risk analysis by the yard becomes mandatory.
Engine to be protected from backflow of media out of exhaust gas after treatment installation
A backflow of e.g. urea, scrubbing water, condensate or even rain from the exhaust gas after treat-
ment installation towards the engine must be prevented under all operating conditions and circum-
stances, including engine or equipment shutdown and maintenance/repair work.
Turbine cleaning
Both wet and dry turbine cleaning must be possible without causing malfunctions or performance
deterioration of the exhaust system incl. any installed components such as boiler, scrubber, silencer,
etc.
White exhaust plume by water condensation
A visible white exhaust plume must be avoided even if it is not harmful for the environment. Especially
for scrubber counter measures as a reheating of the exhaust gas after scrubber or/and a demister to
catch any condensed water droplets to be taken.
The design of the exhaust system including exhaust gas after treatment installation has to make sure
that the exhaust flow has sufficient velocity in order not to sink down directly onboard the vessel or
near to the plant. At the same time the exhaust pressure drop must not exceed the limiting value.
Vibrations
There must be a sufficient decoupling of vibrations between engine and exhaust gas system incl. ex-
haust gas after treatment installation, e.g. by compensators.
C-BD Page 2 - 33
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Engine and operation
2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line
Electronic data exchange between engine and exhaust gas after treatment installation.
A specification is necessary about all engine and exhaust gas parameters that have to be provided from
the engine as input for exhaust gas after treatment installation and vice versa.
Page 2 - 34 C-BD
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Engine and operation
2.3.3 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations in exhaust gas line
Engine and operation
2.3.4 Engine speeds and related main data
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 35
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2.3.4 Engine speeds and related main data

Unit 60 Hz 50 Hz
Rated speed rpm 500 514
Mean piston speed m/s 10.0 10.3
Ignition speed
(starting device deactivated)
rpm V-engine: 65
L-engine: 65
Engine running
(activation of alarm- and safety system)
200
Speed set point deactivation prelubrication pump
(engines with attached lube oil pump)
250
Speed set point deactivation external cooling water pump
(engines with attached cooling water pump)
350
Minimum engine operating speed
1)
FPP (30 % of nominal speed)
CPP (60 % of nominal speed)
Electric propulsion (100 % of nominal speed)
1)
In rare occasions it might be necessary that certain engine speed intervals have to be barred for continuous operation.
For FPP applications as well as for applications using resilient mounted engines, the admissible engine speed range has to
be confirmed (preferably at an early project phase) by a torsional vibration calculation, by a dimensioning of the resilient
mounting, and, if necessary, by an engine operational vibration calculation.
not available
not available
500
not available
514
514
Clutch
Minium engine speed for activation (FPP)
Minium engine speed for activation (CPP)
Maximum engine speed for activation
not available
"Minimum engine operating speed" x 1.1
500
2)
514
2)
2)
May possibly be restricted by manufacturer of clutch.
Highest engine operating speed 515 529
Alarm overspeed (110 % of nominal speed) 550 566
Auto shutdown overspeed (115 % of nominal speed)
via control module/alarm
575
3)
3)
This concession may possibly be restricted, see "Section 2.12.3: Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations, page 2-69".
591
3)
Speed adjusting range See "Section 2.3.5: Speed adjusting range, page
2-37"
Alternator frequency Hz 50 60
Number of pole pairs - 6 7
Note!
Power take-off on engine free end up to 100 % of rated output.
Table 2-13 Engine speeds and related main data
Engine and operation
2.3.4 Engine speeds and related main data
Page 2 - 36 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine and operation
2.3.5 Speed adjusting range
L-BA 51/60DF Page 2 - 37
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2.3.5 Speed adjusting range
The following specification represents the stand-
ard settings. For special applications, deviating
settings may be necessary.
Drive Speed droop Maximum
speed at full
load
Maximum
speed at idle
running
Minimum
speed
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c

g
o
v
e
r
n
o
r
s
1 main engine with control-
lable-pitch propeller and with-
out PTO
0 % 100 % (+0,5%) 100 % (+0,5%) 60 %
1 main engine with control-
lable-pitch propeller and with
PTO
0 % 100 % (+0,5%) 100 % (+0,5%) 60 %
Parallel operation of 2 engines
driving 1 shaft with/without
PTO:
Load sharing via speed droop
or
5 % 100 % (+0,5%) 105 % (+0,5%) 60 %
Master/Slave operation 0 % 100 % (+0,5%) 100 % (+0,5%) 60 %
GenSets/Diesel-electric plants:
with load sharing via speed
droop
or
5 % 100 % (+0,5%) 105 % (+0,5%) 60 %
Isochronous operation 0 % 100 % (+0,5%) 100 % (+0,5%) 60 %
Table 2-14 Electronic governors
Engine and operation
2.3.5 Speed adjusting range
Page 2 - 38 51/60DF L-BA
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Engine and operation
2.4 Starting conditions
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 39
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2.4 Starting conditions
Requirements on engine and plant installation for
"Stand-by Operation" capability
Engine
Attached lube oil pump
Plant
Prelubrication pump with low pressure before
engine
(0.3 bar < p
Oil before engine
< 0.6 bar)
Note!
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar to be ensured also for lube
oil temperature up to 80 C.
Preheating HT cooling water system
(60 90 C)
Preheating lube oil system (> 40 C)
Power management system with supervision of
stand-by times engines
Requirements on engine and plant installation for
"Black-Start" capability
Engine
Attached lube oil pump
Attached HT cooling water pump recommend-
ed
Attached LT cooling water pump recommend-
ed
Attached fuel oil supply pump recommended (if
applicable)
Plant
Prelubrication pump with low pressure before
engine (0.3 bar < p
Oil before engine
< 0.6 bar)
Note!
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar to be ensured also for lube
oil temperature up to 80 C.
Equipment to ensure fuel oil pressure of
> 0.6 bar for engines with conventional injec-
tion system and > 3.0 bar for common rail sys-
tem
Note!
E. g. air driven fuel oil supply pump or fuel oil serv-
ice tank at sufficient height or pressurized fuel oil
tank, if no fuel oil supply pump is attached at the
engine.
Note!
Statements are relevant for non arctic conditions.
For arctic conditions please consider relevant sec-
tions and clarify undefined details with MAN
Diesel & Turbo.
Engine and operation
2.4 Starting conditions
Page 2 - 40 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine starting
conditions
After blackout or "Dead
Ship" ("Black-Start")
From stand-by mode After stand-still
("Normal Start")
Start up time until
load application
< 1 minute < 1 minute > 2 minutes
General notes
- Engine start-up only within
1 h after stop of engine that has
been in operation
1 h after end of stand-by mode
Note!
In case of "Dead Ship" condi-
tion a main engine has to be
put back to service within max.
30 min. according to IACS UR
M61.
Maximum stand-by time
7 days
Supervised by power manage-
ment system plant.
(For longer stand-by periods in
special cases contact MAN
Diesel & Turbo.)
Stand-by mode only possible after
engine has been started with Nor-
mal Starting Procedure and has
been in operation.
-
Required engine conditions
Start-blocking active No No
Start-blocking of engine leads
to withdraw of "Stand-by Oper-
ation".
No
Slow turn No No Yes
1)
Preheated and pre
lubricated
No, if engine was previously in
operation or stand-by as per gen-
eral notes above.
For other engines see require-
ments in other columns.
Yes Yes
Required system conditions
Lube oil system
Prelubrication period No, if engine was previously in
operation or stand-by as per gen-
eral notes above.
For other engines see require-
ments in other columns.
Permanent Permanent
Prelubrication pressure
before engine
p
Oil before engine
< 0.3 bar
permissible
0.3 bar < p
Oil before engine
< 0.6 bar
0.3 bar < p
Oil before
engine
<0.6 bar
Preheating tempera-
ture before engine
Less than 40 C permissible > 40 C > 40 C
Table 2-15 Required starting conditions (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.4 Starting conditions
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 41
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HT cooling water
Preheating tempera-
ture before engine
Less than 60 C permissible 60 90 C 60 90 C
Fuel system
For MDO operation If fuel oil supply pump is not
attached to the engine:
Air driven fuel oil supply pump or
fuel oils service tank at sufficient
height or pressurized fuel oil tank
required.
Supply pumps in operation or with starting command to
engine.
For HFO operation Supply and booster pumps in operation, fuel preheated to
operating viscosity.
(In case of permament stand-by of liquid fuel engines or dur-
ing operation of an DF-engine in gas mode a periodical
exchange of the circulating HFO has to be ensured to avoid
cracking of the fuel. This can be done by releasing a certain
amount of circulating HFO into the day tank and substituting
it with "fresh" fuel from the tank.)
1)
It is recommended to install slow turn. Otherwise the engine has to be turned by turning gear.
Engine starting
conditions
After blackout or "Dead
Ship" ("Black-Start")
From stand-by mode After stand-still
("Normal Start")
Table 2-15 Required starting conditions (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.4 Starting conditions
Page 2 - 42 51/60DF B-BD
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Engine and operation
2.5 Low load operation
B-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 43
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2.5 Low load operation
Definition
Generally the following load conditions are differ-
entiated:
Overload (for regulation):
> 100 % of full load output
Full load: 100 % of full load output
Part load: < 100 % of full load output
Low load: < 25 % of full load output
Correlations
The ideal operating conditions for the engine pre-
vail under even loading at 60 % to 90 % of the full
load output. Engine control and rating of all sys-
tems are based on the full load output.
In the idling mode or during low load engine oper-
ation, combustion in the cylinders is not ideal. De-
posits may form in the combustion chamber,
which result in a higher soot emission and an in-
crease of cylinder contamination.
Moreover, in low load operation and during ma-
noeuvring of ships, the cooling water tempera-
tures cannot be regulated optimally high for all
load conditions which, however, is of particular im-
portance during operation on heavy fuel oil.
Better conditions
Optimization of low load operation is obtained by
cutoff of the LT stage of the charge air cooler or
perfusion of the LT stage with HT water if HT or LT
switching is available for this engine type.
For common rail engines mostly this is not neces-
sary because optimized combustion is realized by
an electronically controlled fuel injection system.
HT: High temperature
LT: Low temperature
Operation with HFO (RM-grade fuel)
Because of the afore mentioned reasons, low load
operation < 25 % of full load output on heavy fuel
oil is subjected to certain limitations. For further in-
formation see "Figure 2-13: Time limits for low load op-
eration (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on
the right)", the engine must, after a phase of part
load operation, either be switched over to diesel
operation or be operated at high load (> 70 % of
full load output) for a certain period of time in order
to reduce the deposits in the cylinder and exhaust
gas turbocharger again.
In case the engine is to be operated at low load for
a period exceeding (see "Figure 2-13: Time limits for
low load operation (on the left), duration of relieving op-
eration (on the right)"), the engine is to be switched
over to diesel oil operation beforehand.
Be aware, that after 500 hours continuous heavy
fuel oil operation at low load in the range 20 % to
25 % of the full engine output a new running in of
the engine is needed (see "Section 9.3: Engine run-
ning-in, page 9-11"). For continuous heavy fuel oil
operation at low load in the range < 25 % of the full
engine output, coordination with MAN Diesel &
Turbo is absolutely necessary.
Operation with diesel fuel MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO
(DMB)
For low load operation on diesel fuel oil, the follow-
ing rules apply:
A continuous operation below 20 % of full load
has to be avoided, if possible.
Note!
Should this be absolutely necessary, MAN
Diesel & Turbo has to be consulted for spe-
cial arrangements (e. g. the use of part load
injection nozzles).
A no-load operation, especially at nominal
speed (alternator operation) is only permitted
for a maximum period of one hour.
No limitations are required for loads above 20 % of
full load, as long as the specified operating data of
the engine will not be exceeded.
Engine and operation
2.5 Low load operation
Page 2 - 44 51/60DF B-BD
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Operation with gas
The 51/60DF engine always is started in liquid fuel
mode. The switch over to gas operation mode
takes place at loads > 15 % of engine full load. Re-
garding low load operation there are no restric-
tions at these engine loads.
Figure 2-13 Time limits for low load operation (on the left), duration of relieving operation (on the right)
* In general the time limits in HFO operation are valid for all HFO-qualities that are in accordance to the stated specification. In
rare cases using HFO-qualitiy with a high ignition delay in combination with a high content of coke residuals it may be
needed to raise the complete limit curve for HFO-operation from a load level from 20 % to 30 % load.
Explanations
New running in needed after > 500 hours low load
operation (see "Section 9.3: Engine running-in, page
9-11").
Note!
Acceleration time from present output to 70 %
of full load output not less than 15 minutes.
Example
Line a (time limits for low load operation):
At 10 % of full load output, HFO operation is per-
missible for maximum 19 hours, MGO/MDO oper-
ation for maximum 40 hours, than output has to
be increased.
Line b (duration of relieving operation):
Operate the engine for approx. 1.2 hours at not
less than 70 % of full load output to burn away the
deposits that have formed.
Legend
P Full load output [%]
t Operating period [h]
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 45
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2.6 Load application Preheated engine
2.6.1 General remarks
In the case of highly supercharged engines, load
application must be tuned to the delayed charge-
air pressure build-up by the turbocharger run-up.
Besides, an optimized load application promotes
uniform heating of the engine.
In general, requirements of the International Asso-
ciation of Classification Societies (IACS) and of ISO
8528-5 according performance grade G2 con-
cerning dynamic speed drop, remaining speed
variation and recovery time during load application
are valid.
Dynamic speed drop in % of the nominal
speed:
10%
Remaining speed variation in % of the nominal
speed:
5%
Recovery time until reaching the tolerance
band 1 % of the respective engine speed at
the new load:
5 sec
Any higher project specific requirements need to
be clarified with MAN Diesel & Turbo at early
project stage and need to be a part of the con-
tract.
In case of a load drop of 100 % nominal engine
power, the dynamic speed variation must not ex-
ceed 10 % of the nominal speed and the remain-
ing speed variation must not surpass 5 % of the
nominal speed.
To limit the effort regarding regulating the media
circuits, also to ensure an uniform heat input it al-
ways should be aimed for longer load application
times by taking into account the realistic require-
ments of the specific plant.
All questions regarding the dynamic behaviour
should be clarified in close cooperation between
the customer and MAN Diesel & Turbo at an early
project stage.
Requirements for plant design:
The load application behaviour must be con-
sidered in the electrical system design of the
plant.
The system operation must be safe in case of
graduated load application.
The load application conditions (E-balance)
must be approved during the planning and ex-
amination phase.
The possible failure of one engine must be con-
sidered, see "Section 2.12.4: Operation of vessels
with electric propulsion Failure of one engine, page
2-71".
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
Page 2 - 46 51/60DF F-BD
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2.6.2 Start up time till reaching nominal speed
The needed start up time in normal starting mode, with the needed time for start up lube oil system and
prelubrication of the engines is shown in"Figure 2-14".
Figure 2-14 Start up time until load application in normal starting mode (not stand-by mode) engines preheated
For engines in stand-by mode the needed start up time is shortened accordingly to"Figure 2-15".
Figure 2-15 Start up times until load application from stand-by mode engines preheated and prelubricated
Engines in stand-by mode can be started with normal starting procedure at any time.
0
20
40
60
80
100

W

^
10 s 60 s
Prelubrication
30 s
Slow turn
20 ... 40s
Run up
10 ... 20s
Synchronization
Engine speed [%]
Time [sec]
0
20
40
60
80
100

Time [sec]
Engine speed [%]
20 ... 40s
Run up
10 ... 20s
Synchronization
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 47
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2.6.3 Load application 51/60DF
After nominal speed is reached and synchronisa-
tion is done, the load application process is visual-
ized in the following diagrams.
"Figure 2-16" and "Figure 2-17" show the maximum
load step which can be applied as a function of the
currently driven base load.
Figure 2-16 L51/60DF, load application dependent on base load
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
Page 2 - 48 51/60DF F-BD
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Figure 2-17 V51/60DF, load application dependent on base load
Based on above "Figure 2-16" and "Figure 2-17" the
following figures "Figure 2-18" to "Figure 2-21" show
the load application process dependent on the
fuel mode.
Note!
Time period for change over from liquid fuel
mode to gas mode is not included in "Figure 2-
20" and "Figure 2-21", as this is dependent on the
plant layout. As guidance for the change over
process (leakage test on the GVU, internal
checks for safety reasons etc.) a time period of
140 sec can be stated.
In each diagram the left both curves (limiting
curves) represent the maximum allowed load ap-
plication in load steps, or continuously applied
load, as well as the shortest possible loading
times, that the engine is able to realize in both cas-
es.
Nevertheless generally it should be chosen a load
curve within the area Recommended to aim for
reserves, to achieve a trouble-free operation of the
engine and the plant.
Hereby in all sections of the load curve, the gradi-
ent has to be less, and the minimum time between
load steps has to be longer in comparison to the
aforementioned limiting curves, additionally load
steps have always to comply with "Figure 2-16" re-
spectively "Figure 2-17".
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 49
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Figure 2-18 L51/60DF, load application liquid fuel mode
Figure 2-19 V51/60DF, load application liquid fuel mode
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
Page 2 - 50 51/60DF F-BD
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Figure 2-20 L51/60DF, load application gas mode
Figure 2-21 V51/60DF, load application gas mode
Engine and operation
2.6 Load application Preheated engine
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 51
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2.6.4 Load application in liquid fuel mode in emergency case
"Figure 2-22" shows the shortest possible load ap-
plication time for continuously loading, applicable
only in emergency case and only in connection
with liquid fuel mode (nominal speed is reached
and synchronisation is done).
For this purpose, the power management system
should have an own emergency operation pro-
gram for quickest possible load application.
MAN Diesel & Turbo cannot guarantee the invisi-
bility of the exhaust gas under these circumstanc-
es.
Figure 2-22 51/60DF, Load application only emergency case
Engine and operation
2.7 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)
Page 2 - 52 51/60DF F-BD
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2.7 Load application Cold engine (only emergency case)
In case of emergency, it is possible to start the
cold engine provided the required media tempera-
tures are present: lube oil > 20 C, cooling water
> 20 C
Distillate fuel must be used for starting and till
warm-up phase is completed.
The engine is prelubricated.
The engine is started and accelerated up to
100 % engine speed within 1 3 minutes.
Loading the engine gradually up to 30 % en-
gine load within 6 to 8 minutes.
Warming up the engine: lube oil temperature
> 40 C, cooling water temperature > 60 C.
The necessary time span for this process depends
on the actual media temperatures and the specific
design of the plant. After these prescribed media
temperatures are reached, the engine can be
loaded regularly in liquid fuel mode or in gas mode
up to 100 % engine load according to "Figure 2-16:
L51/60DF, load application dependent on base load",
"Figure 2-20: L51/60DF, load application gas mode" or
"Figure 2-21: V51/60DF, load application gas mode".
Note!
Operation in liquid fuel mode only till media
temperatures of > 40 C for oil temperature
and > 60 C for HT cooling water are reached.
Figure 2-23 Load application, emergency case; cold engines
Engine and operation
2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions
F-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 53
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2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions
Arctic condition is defined as:
Air intake temperatures of the engine below +5 C
If engines operate under arctic conditions (inter-
mittently or permanently), the engine equipment
and plant installation have to meet special design
features and requirements. They depend on the
possible minimum air intake temperature of the
engine and the specification of the fuel used.
Minimum air intake temperature of the engine, t
x
:
Category A
+5 C > t
x
> 15 C
Category B
15 C > t
x
> 35 C
Category C
t
x
< 35 C
Special engine design requirements
Charge air blow-off according to categories A,
B or C.
If arctic fuel (with very low lubricating properties)
is used, the following actions are required:
- The maximum allowable fuel temperatures
have to be kept.
- Fuel injection pump
Only in case of conventional fuel injection
system, dependent on engine type installa-
tion and activation of sealing oil system may
be necessary, because low viscosity of the
fuel can cause an increased leakage and the
lube oil will possibly being contaminated.
- Fuel injection valve
Nozzle cooling has to be switched off to
avoid corrosion caused by temperatures be-
low the dew point.
- Inlet valve lubrication
Has to be activated to avoid an increased
wear of the inlet valves.
Engine equipment
SaCoS/
SaCoS/equipment is suitable to be stored at
minimum temperatures of 15 C.
In case these conditions cannot be met, pro-
tective measures against climatic influences
have to be taken for the following electronic
components:
- EDS Databox APC620
- TFT-touchscreen display
- Emergency switch module BD5937
These components have to be stored at plac-
es, where the temperature is above 15 C.
A minimum operating temperature of > 0 C
has to be ensured. The use of an optional elec-
tric heating is recommended.
Alternators
Alternator operation is possible according to sup-
pliers specification.
Plant installation
Intake air conditioning
Air intake of the engine and power house/en-
gine room ventilation have to be two different
systems to ensure that the power house/en-
gine room temperature is not too low caused
by the ambient air temperature.
It is necessary to ensure that the charge air
cooler cannot freeze when the engine is out of
operation (and the cold air is at the air inlet
side).
Engine and operation
2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions
Page 2 - 54 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF F-BD
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Gas engines
- An air intake temperature > +5 C has to be
ensured by preheating.
- In addition, the maximum ambient tempera-
ture has to be considered since the engine
control can only compensate a limited tem-
perature range.
Example:
Maximum ambient temperature .... +35 C
Temperature compensation
by engine.......................................... 20 K
> An air intake temperature of > +15 C
(35 C 20 K = 15 C) has to be en-
sured by preheating.
Dual-fuel engines
- Category A, B
No additional actions are necessary. The
charge air before the cylinder is preheated
by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT
circuit closed).
- Category C
> An air intake temperature > 35 C has to
be ensured by preheating.
> Additionally the charge air before the cyl-
inder is preheated by the HT circuit of the
charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
> In special cases the change-over point
for the change from diesel operation to
dual-fuel mode (gas mode) has to be
shifted to a higher load.
Diesel engines
- Category A, B
No additional actions are necessary. The
charge air before the cylinder is preheated
by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT
circuit closed).
- Category C
> An air intake temperature > 35 C has to
be ensured by preheating.
> Additionally the charge air before the cyl-
inder is preheated by the HT circuit of the
charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
Maximum permissible antifreeze concentration (ethylene
glycol) in the engine cooling water
An increasing proportion of antifreeze decreases
the specific heat capacity of the engine cooling
water, which worsened the heat dissipation from
the engine and will lead to higher component tem-
peratures.
The antifreeze concentration of the engine cooling
water systems (HT and NT) within the engine room
respectively power house is therefore limited to a
maximum concentration of 40 % glycol. For sys-
tems that require more than 40 % glycol in the
cooling water an intermediate heat exchanger with
a low terminal temperature difference should be
provided, which separates the external cooling
water system from the internal system (engine
cooling water).
Instruction for minimum admissible fuel temperature
In general the minimum viscosity before engine
of 1.9 cSt must not be undershoot.
The fuel specific characteristic values pour
point and cold filter plugging point have to be
observed to ensure pumpability respectively fil-
terability of the fuel oil.
Fuel temperatures of approximately minus
10 C and less are to be avoided, due to tem-
porarily embrittlement of seals used in the en-
gines fuel oil system and as a result their
possibly loss of function.
Engine and operation
2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions
F-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 55
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Minimum power house/engine room temperature
Ventilation of power house/engine room
The air of the power house/engine room venti-
lation must not be too cold (preheating is nec-
essary) to avoid the freezing of the liquids in the
power house/engine room systems.
Minimum powerhouse/engine room tempera-
ture for design > +5 C
Coolant and lube oil systems
- HT and lube oil system has to be preheated
for each individual engine, see "Section 2.8:
Starting conditions, page 2-3".
- Design requirements for the preheater of HT
systems:
> Category A
Standard preheater
> Category B
50 % increased capacity of the preheater
> Category C
100 % increased capacity of the pre-
heater
- If a concentration of anti-freezing agents of
> 50 % in the cooling water systems is
needed, please contact MAN Diesel &
Turbo for approval.
- For information regarding engine cooling
water see "Section 4: Specification for engine
supplies, page 4-1".
Insulation
The design of the insulation of the piping sys-
tems and other plant parts (tanks, heat ex-
changer etc.) has to be modified and designed
for the special requirements of arctic condi-
tions.
Heat tracing
To support the restart procedures in cold con-
dition (e. g. after unmanned survival mode dur-
ing winter), it is recommended to install a heat
tracing system in the piping to the engine.
Note!
A preheating of the lube oil has to be ensured.
If the plant is not equipped with a lube oil sep-
arator (e. g. plants only operating on MGO) al-
ternative equipment for preheating of the lube
oil must be provided.
For plants taken out of operation and cooled
down below temperatures of +5 C additional
special measures are needed in this case
please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Engine and operation
2.8 Engine operation under arctic conditions
Page 2 - 56 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF F-BD
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Engine and operation
2.9 Engine load reduction
E-BD 32/40DF, 51/60DF Page 2 - 57
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2.9 Engine load reduction
Sudden load shedding
For the sudden load shedding from
100 % P
Nominal
to 0 % P
Nominal
several require-
ments from the classification societies regarding
the dynamic and permanent change of engine
speed have to be fulfilled.
A sudden load shedding represents a rather ex-
ceptional situation, e. g. opening of the diesel-
electric plants alternator switch during high load.
Before final engine stop the engine has to be op-
erated for a minimum of 1 min at idling speed.
After a sudden load shedding it has to be ensured
that the system circuits remain in operation after fi-
nal engine stop for a minimum of 15 min to dissi-
pate the residual engine heat.
In case of sudden load shedding and related com-
pressor surging, check the proper function of the
turbo charger silencer filter mat.
Recommended load reduction / stopping the engine
Liquid fuel mode
Unloading the engine
In principle, there are no restrictions with regard
to unloading the engine. However, a minimum
of 1 min is recommended for unloading the en-
gine from 100 % P
Nominal
to approx. 25 %
P
Nominal
.
Engine stop
From 25 % P
Nominal
further engine unloading is
possible, without interruption.
Before final engine stop the engine has to be
operated for a minimum of 1 min at idling
speed.
Gas mode
Load reduction according "Figure 2-24: Load re-
duction and time to change over to liquid fuel mode".
Run-down cooling
In order to dissipate the residual engine heat,
the system circuits should be kept in operation
for a minimum of 15 min.
.
Figure 2-24 Load reduction and time to change over to liquid fuel mode


E
N
G
I
N
E
L
O
A
D

> '
>K/E'WZK'ZD
Engine and operation
2.9 Engine load reduction
Page 2 - 58 32/40DF, 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine and operation
2.10 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure
J-BC Page 2 - 59
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2.10 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure
Requirements for the power management sys-
tem/propeller control
In case of a load reduction request due to prede-
fined abnormal engine parameter (e.g. high ex-
haust gas temperature, high turbine speed, high
lube oil temperature) the power output (load) must
be at least ramped down as fast as possible to
60 %.
Therefore the power management system/propel-
ler control has to meet following requirements:
After a maximum of 5 seconds after occur-
rence of the load reduction signal the load must
be reduced for at least 5 %.
Then, within a maximum period of 30 sec the
load must be reduced for at least 35 %.
The prohibited range shown in "Figure 2-25:
Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure"
has to be avoided.
Figure 2-25 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure
Engine
load [%]
Time [sec]
60%
Load reduction signal / request
max. 5 sec
max. 35 sec
max. 60%
min. 5%
prohibited range
Engine and operation
2.10 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure
Page 2 - 60 J-BC
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Engine and operation
2.11.1 General information
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 61
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2.11 Fuel sharing mode Optional feature for electric propulsion with
constant speed
2.11.1 General information
It is optional possible to run the engine, not only in
gas or liquid fuel mode, but also on mixtures of fuel
gas (natural gas) and liquid fuel (MGO, MDO or
HFO) hence the designation Fuel Sharing
mode.
E.g. if applied for LNG carrier shortfalls or fluctua-
tions in the availability of natural boil-off gas
(NBOG) can be compensated by increasing liquid
fuel injection beyond the quantity used by the ded-
icated pilot fuel injection system. Either heavy fuel
oil (HFO) or distillate fuel can be used for this pur-
pose, injected via the main fuel pumps.
The vessels or the plants management system
demands from the engine a certain engine power
output, furthermore it supplies the SaCoS
one
sys-
tem with information which energy share can be
provided by natural gas. The complete engine (all
cylinders) will operate on fuel sharing mode at the
same time with the same ratio of gas and liquid fu-
el. The fuel sharing mode is controlled by the en-
gine control system of the SaCoS
one
depending on
the manual input from one of the SaCoS
one
dis-
plays or the input signals of the power manage-
ment system (PMS) or the vessels control system
(compare to "Figure 2-26: Schematic principle of fuel
sharing mode").

Figure 2-26 Schematic principle of fuel sharing mode
The implementation of the fuel sharing mode de-
mands an extention of the signal exchange be-
tween plant automation system and SaCoS
one
.
Signals from plant automation sytem to SaCoS
one
(only for information):
Gas rate setpoint [%]
Fuel sharing request
Additional binary/analog outputs or inputs
Project specific additional outputs/inputs may
be needed.
Signals from SaCoS
one
to plant automation system
(only for information):
Fuel sharing mode active
Actual gas rate
Fuel sharing common alarm
Status: FSM blocked: min. load reached
Possible gas rate limit min. [%]
Possible gas rate limit max. [%]
Project specific all needed information regarding
signlas and alarm messages need to be defined.
Engine and operation
2.11.2 Load dependend range of fuel sharing rate
Page 2 - 62 51/60DF E-BD
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2.11.2 Load dependend range of fuel sharing rate
"Figure 2-27: Operating diagram of fuel sharing opera-
tion" shows the operating diagram for fuel sharing.
On the axis of abscissae the gaseous (lower axis)
and the liquid fuel oil rate [%] (higher axis) are plot
against the relative engine power [%]. The areas
A1 to A5 show the restrictions of engine operation
to the different fuel modes.
.
Figure 2-27 Operating diagram of fuel sharing operation
The DF engine will be started and stopped in
liquid fuel mode only.
In the range of 0 % up to 15 % relative engine
power liquid fuel mode is allowed only (A5).
From 15 % relative engine power the operator
can decide either to ramp-up the engine power
in 100 % liquid mode (left side of diagram
frame), to change to 100 % gas mode (right
side of diagram frame) or to use the fuel sharing
mode, which is marked with the blue coloured
area (A1).
The A1-area is defined as main operating range
where fuel sharing mode is possible. It should
be aimed for high gas rates for an efficient total
fuel consumption.
In the A2-area the fuel sharing mode is possi-
ble, but it should be avoided due to increasing
smoke emissions.
In the A3-area fuel sharing mode is not be pos-
sible. In this area the minimum opening dura-
tions of the fuel gas valves will be undershoot.
Engine and operation
2.11.3 Operating data (only for information without guarantee)
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 63
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In the A4-area fuel sharing mode is not be pos-
sible. In this area the liquid fuel amount of the
main injection system will be below the mini-
mum value.
Between liquid fuel operation, gas operation
and fuel sharing mode can be switched without
interruption of engine operation.
If for gas operation or for fuel sharing mode the
permissible operating range or needed precon-
ditions will be left, it will be switched to liquid
fuel operation automatically.
2.11.3 Operating data (only for information without guarantee)
For 100 % load NO
x
-emission and SFC (specific
fuel consumption) values dependend on the gas
rate can be seen in following graphs.
Figure 2-28 100 % load SFC values dependend on the gas rate
Figure 2-29 100 % load NOx-emission dependend on the gas rate
Engine and operation
2.11.3 Operating data (only for information without guarantee)
Page 2 - 64 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine and operation
2.12.1 Operating range for generator operation
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 65
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2.12 Generator operation
2.12.1 Operating range for generator operation
Figure 2-30 Operating range generator operation
Engine and operation
2.12.1 Operating range for generator operation
Page 2 - 66 51/60DF E-BD
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MCR
Maximum continuous rating.
Range I
Operating range for continuous service.
Range II
No continuous operation allowed. Maximum
operating time less than 2 minutes.
Range III
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the
rated output is permissible only for a short time to
provide additional engine power for governing pur-
poses only (e.g. transient load conditions and sud-
denly applied load). This additional power shall not
be used for the supply of electrical consumers.
IMO certification for engines with operating range for
electric propulsion
Test cycle type E2 will be applied for the engines
certification for compliance with the NO
x
limits ac-
cording to NO
x
technical code.
Engine and operation
2.12.2 Load application for ship electrical systems
B-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 67
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2.12.2 Load application for ship electrical systems
The specification of the IACS (Unified Requirement
M3) contains first of all guidelines for suddenly ap-
plied load steps. Originally two load steps, each
50 %, were described. In view of the technical
progress regarding increasing mean effective
pressures, the requirements were adapted. Ac-
cording to IACS and ISO 8528-5 following dia-
gram is used to define based on the mean
effective pressure of the respective engine the
load steps for a load application from 0 % load to
100 % load. Thereby this can be seen as guideline
for four stroke engines and is reflected accordingly
in the rules of the classification societies.
Please be aware, that for marine engines load ap-
plication requirements must be clarified with the
respective classification society as well as with the
shipyard and the owner.
Figure 2-31 Load application in steps as per IACS and ISO 8528-5
Note!
Higher load steps than listed in general are not
allowed.
60
70
80
90
100
P
e
[%]
4
3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
5 10 15 20 25 30
p
e
[bar]
1
3
2
1 1st Step
2 2nd Step
3 3rd Step
4 4th Step
P
e
[%] Load application
of continuous rating
p
e
[bar] Mean effective
pressure (mep) of the
continuous rating
Engine and operation
2.12.2 Load application for ship electrical systems
Page 2 - 68 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF B-BD
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Requirements of the classification societies
Minimum requirements concerning dynamic
speed drop, remaining speed variation and recov-
ery time during load application are listed below.
In case of a load drop of 100 % nominal engine
power, the dynamic speed variation must not ex-
ceed 10 % of the nominal speed and the remain-
ing speed variation must not surpass 5 % of the
nominal speed.
Requirements for plant design
The load application behaviour must be con-
sidered in the electrical system design of the
plant.
The system operation must be safe in case of
graduated load application.
The load application conditions (E-balance)
must be approved during the planning and ex-
amination phase.
The possible failure of one engine must be
considered please see "Section 2.12.4: Opera-
tion of vessels with electric propulsion Failure of one
engine, page 2-71".
Questions concerning the dynamic operational
behaviour of the engine/s has to be clarified with
MAN & Turbo and should be a part of the contract.
Classification Society Dynamic speed
drop in% of the
nominal speed
Remaining speed
variation in% of the
nominal speed
Recovery time until reach-
ing the tolerance band
1 % of the respective
engine speed at the new
load
Germanischer Lloyd s 10 % s 5 % s 5 sec.
RINA
Lloyds Register s 5 sec., max 8 sec.
American Bureau of Shipping s 5 sec.
Bureau Veritas
Det Norske Veritas
ISO 8528-5
Table 2-16 Minimum requirements of the classification societies plus ISO rule
Engine and operation
2.12.3 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations
A-BC Page 2 - 69
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2.12.3 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations
General
Generating sets, which are integrated in an elec-
tricity supply system, are subjected to the frequen-
cy fluctuations of the mains. Depending on the
severity of the frequency fluctuations, output and
operation respectively have to be restricted.
Frequency adjustment range
According to DIN ISO 8528-5: 1997-11, operating
limits of > 2.5 % are specified for the lower and up-
per frequency adjustment range.
Operating range
Depending on the prevailing local ambient condi-
tions, a certain maximum continuous rating will be
available.
In the output/speed and frequency diagrams, a
range has specifically been marked with No con-
tinuous operation allowed in this area. Operation
in this range is only permissible for a short period
of time, i. e. for less than 2 minutes. In special cas-
es, a continuous rating is permissible if the stand-
ard frequency is exceeded by more than 3 %.
Limiting parameters
Max. torque
In case the frequency decreases, the available
output is limited by the maximum permissible
torque of the generating set.
Max. speed for continuous rating
An increase in frequency, resulting in a speed that
is higher than the maximum speed admissible for
continuous operation, is only permissible for a
short period of time, i. e. for less than 2 minutes.
For engine-specific information see "Section: Engine
and operation Ratings (output) and speeds" of the spe-
cific engine.
Overload
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the
rated engine output is permissible only for a short
time to provide additional engine power for gov-
erning purpose only (e. g. transient load condi-
tions and suddenly applied load). This additional
power shall not be used for the supply of electrical
consumers.
Figure 2-32 Permissible frequency deviations and corresponding max. output
Engine and operation
2.12.3 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations
Page 2 - 70 A-BC
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Engine and operation
2.12.4 Operation of vessels with electric propulsion Failure of one engine
E-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 71
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2.12.4 Operation of vessels with electric propulsion Failure of one engine
Operation of vessels with electric propulsion is de-
fined as parallel operation of main engines with
generators forming a closed system.
In the electrical system design of the plant the pos-
sible failure of one engine has to be considered in
order to avoid overloading and under frequency of
the remaining engines with the risk of an electrical
blackout.
Therefore we recommend to install a power man-
agement system. This ensures uninterrupted op-
eration in the maximum output range and in case
one unit fails the power management system re-
duces the propulsive output or switches off less
important energy consumers in order to avoid un-
der frequency.
According to the operating conditions it's the re-
sponsibility of the ship's operator to set priorities
and to decide which energy consumer has to be
switched off.
The base load should be chosen as high as possi-
ble to achieve an optimum engine operation and
lowest soot emissions.
The optimum operating range and the permissible
part loads are to be observed (see "Section 2.5: Low
load operation, page 2-39").
Load application in case one engine fails
In case one engine fails, its output has to be made
up for by the remaining engines in the system
and/or the load has to be decreased by reducing
the propulsive output and/or by switching off elec-
trical consumers.
The immediate load transfer to one engine does
not always correspond with the load reserves that
the particular engine still has available in the re-
spective moment. That depends on its base load.
The permissible load applications for such a case
can be derived from "Figure 2-33: Load application de-
pending on base load".
Figure 2-33 Load application depending on base load
Engine and operation
2.12.4 Operation of vessels with electric propulsion Failure of one engine
Page 2 - 72 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF E-BD
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The maximum engine load per engine in a multi-
engine plant, dependent on the total number of
operating engines, which doesn't lead to a total
output reduction in case one engine fails, can be
derived (see "Table 2-17: Load application in case one
engine fails").
Example
The isolated network consists of 4 engines with
12,170 kW electrical output each.
To achieve an uniform load sharing all engines
must have the same speed droop.

The possible output of the multi-engine plant op-
erating at 100 % load is:
If the present system load is P
0
= 39,000, each en-
gine runs with:
In case one unit suddenly fails, an immediate
transfer of 20 % engine output is possible accord-
ing to the diagram, i. e. from 80 % to 100 % en-
gine output.
100 % engine output of the remaining
3 engines is calculated as follows:
Consequently, an immediate load decrease from
39,000 kW to 36,500 kW is necessary, e. g. elec-
trical consumers of a total amount of 2,500 kW
have to be switched off.
No. of engines running-in the system 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Utilisation of engines capacity during system
operation in (%) of P
max

50 75 80 83 86 87.5 89 90
Table 2-17 Load application in case one engine fails
max
P 4 12,170kW 48,680kW 100% = = =
0 max
100% P P 100% 39,000 48,680 80%Load = =
1
P 3 12,170kW 36,500kW = ~
Engine and operation
2.12.5 Alternator Reverse power protection
B-BD Page 2 - 73
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2.12.5 Alternator Reverse power protection
Demand for reverse power protection
For each alternator (arranged for parallel opera-
tion) a reverse power protection device has to be
provided because if a stopped combustion engine
(fuel admission at zero) is being turned it can
cause, due to poor lubrication, excessive wear on
the engines bearings. This is also a classifications
requirement.
Definition of reverse power
If an alternator, coupled to a combustion engine, is
no longer driven by this engine, but is supplied
with propulsive power by the connected electric
grid and operates as an electric motor instead of
working as an alternator, this is called reverse
power. The speed of a reverse power driven en-
gine is accordingly to the grid frequency and the
rated engine speed.
Examples for possible reverse power
Due to lack of fuel the combustion engine no
longer drives the alternator, which is still con-
nected to the mains.
Stopping of the combustion engine while the
driven alternator is still connected to the electric
grid.
On ships with electric drive the propeller can
also drive the electric traction motor and this in
turn drives the alternator and the alternator
drives the connected combustion engine.
Sudden frequency increase, e. g. because of a
load decrease in an isolated electrical system
-> if the combustion engine is operated at low
load (e. g. just after synchronising).
Adjusting the reverse power protection relay
The necessary power to drive an unfired diesel or
gas engine at nominal speed cannot exceed the
power which is necessary to overcome the internal
friction of the engine. This power is called motoring
power. The setting of the reverse-power relay
should be, as stated in the classification rules,
50 % of the motoring power. To avoid false trip-
ping of the alternator circuit breaker a time delay
has to be implemented. A reverse power >> 6 %
mostly indicates serious disturbances in the gen-
erator operation.
This facts are summarized in the "Table 2-18: Adjust-
ing the reverse power relay".
Admissible reverse
power P
el
[%]
Time delay for tripping
the alternator circuit
breaker [sec|
P
el
< 3 30
3 s P
el
< 8 3 to 10
P
el
> 8 No delay
Table 2-18 Adjusting the reverse power relay
Engine and operation
2.12.5 Alternator Reverse power protection
Page 2 - 74 B-BD
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Engine and operation
2.12.6 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators
F-BB 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 2 - 75
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2.12.6 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators
General
The use of electrical equipment on diesel engines
requires precautions to be taken for protection
against shock current and for equipotential bond-
ing. These not only serve as shock protection but
also for functional protection of electric and elec-
tronic devices (EMC protection, device protection
in case of welding, etc.).
Figure 2-34 Earthing connection on engine (are arranged
diagonally opposite each other)
Earthing connections on the engine
Threaded bores M12, 20 mm deep, marked with
the earthing symbol have been provided in the en-
gine foot on both ends of the engines.
It has to be ensured that earthing is carried out im-
mediately after engine set-up! (If this cannot be ac-
complished any other way, at least provisional
earthing is to be effected right at the beginning.)
Measures to be taken on the alternator
Because of slight magnetic unbalances and ring
excitations, shaft voltages, i. e. voltages between
the two shaft ends, are generated in electrical ma-
chines. In the case of considerable values (e. g.
> 0.3 V), there is the risk that bearing damage oc-
curs due to current transfers. For this reason, at
least the bearing that is not located on the drive
end is insulated on alternators approx. > 1 MW.
For verification, the voltage available at the shaft
voltage) is measured while the alternator is running
and excited. With proper insulation, a voltage can
be measured. In order to protect the prime mover
and to divert electrostatic charging, an earthing
brush is often fitted on the coupling side.
Observation of the required measures is the alter-
nator manufacturers responsibility.
Consequences of inadequate bearing
insulation on the alternator, and insulation check
In case the bearing insulation is inadequate, e. g.,
if the bearing insulation was short-circuit by a
measuring lead (PT100, vibration sensor), leakage
currents may occur, which result in the destruction
of the bearings. One possibility to check the insu-
lation with the machine at standstill (prior to cou-
pling the alternator to the engine; this, however, is
only possible in the case of single-bearing alterna-
tors) would be to raise the alternator rotor (insulat-
ed, in the crane) on the coupling side, and to
measure the insulation by means of the Megger
test against earth (in this connection, the max.
voltage permitted by the alternator manufacturer is
to be observed!).
If the shaft voltage of the alternator at rated speed
and rated voltage is known (e. g. from the test
record of the alternator acceptance test), it is also
possible to carry out a comparative measurement.
If the measured shaft voltage is lower than the re-
sult of the earlier measurement (test record), the
alternator manufacturer should be consulted.
Engine and operation
2.12.6 Earthing of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators
Page 2 - 76 35/44DF, 51/60DF F-BB
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Earthing conductor
The nominal cross section of the earthing conduc-
tor (equipotential bonding conductor) has to be
selected in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, part
540 (up to 1000 V) or DIN VDE 0141 (in excess of
1 KV).
Generally, the following applies:
The protective conductor to be assigned to the
largest main conductor is to be taken as a basis
for sizing the cross sections of the equipotential
bonding conductors.
Flexible conductors have to be used for the con-
nection of resiliently mounted engines.
Execution of earthing
On vessels, earthing must be done by the shipyard
during assembly on board.
Earthing strips are not included in the MAN
Diesel & Turbo scope of supply.
Additional information regarding the use of welding
equipment
In order to prevent damage on electrical compo-
nents, it is imperative to earth welding equipment
close to the welding area, i. e., the distance be-
tween the welding electrode and the earthing con-
nection should not exceed 10 m.
Engine and operation
2.13.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 77
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2.13 Propeller operation
2.13.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)
Figure 2-35 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller
Note!
In rare occasions it might be necessary that
certain engine speed intervals have to be
barred for continuous operation.
For FPP applications as well as for applica-
tions using resilient mounted engines, the ad-
missible engine speed range has to be
confirmed (preferably at an early project
phase) by a torsional vibration calculation, by
a dimensioning of the resilient mounting, and,
if necessary, by an engine operational vibration
calculation.
Engine and operation
2.13.1 Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)
Page 2 - 78 51/60DF E-BD
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Rated output/operating range
Maximum continuous rating (MCR)
Range I: Operating range for continuous opera-
tion.
Range II: Operating range which is temporarily ad-
missible e. g. during acceleration and manoeu-
vring.
The combinator curve must keep a sufficient dis-
tance to the load limit curve. For overload protec-
tion, a load control has to be provided.
Transmission losses (e. g. by gearboxes and shaft
power) and additional power requirements (e. g.
by PTO) must be taken into account.
IMO certification for engines with operating range for
controllable-pitch propeller (CPP).
Test cycle type E2 will be applied for the engines
certification for compliance with the NO
x
limits ac-
cording to NO
x
technical code.
Engine and operation
2.13.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control
D-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 79
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2.13.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control
Pitch control of the propeller plant
4 20 mA load indication from engine control
As a load indication a 4 20 mA signal from the
engine control is supplied to the propeller control.
General
A distinction between constant-speed operation
and combinator-curve operation has to be en-
sured.
Failure of propeller pitch control:
In order to avoid overloading of the engine upon
failure of the propeller pitch control the propeller
pitch must be adjusted to a value < 60 % of the
maximum possible pitch.
Combinator-curve operation:
The 4 20 mA signal has to be used for the as-
signment of the propeller pitch to the respective
engine speed. The operation curve of engine
speed and propeller pitch (for power range, see
"Section 2.6.1: Operating range for controllable-pitch pro-
peller (CPP), page 2-36") has to be observed also
during acceleration/load increase and unloading.
Acceleration/load increase
The engine speed has to be increased prior in-
creasing the propeller pitch (see "Figure 2-36: Exam-
ple to illustrate the change from one load step to
another").
Or if increasing both synchronic the speed has to
be increased faster than the propeller pitch. The
area above the combinator curve should not be
reached.
Automatic limiting of the rate of load increase must
also be implemented in the propulsion control.
Deceleration/unloading the engine
The engine speed has to be reduced later than the
propeller pitch (see "Figure 2-36: Example to illustrate
the change from one load step to another").
Or if decreasing both synchronic the propeller
pitch has to be decreased faster than the speed.
The area above the combinator curve should not
be reached.
Engine and operation
2.13.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control
Page 2 - 80 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BD
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Example of illustration of the change from one load step to another
Figure 2-36 Example to illustrate the change from one load step to another
Engine output [%]
Engine speed [%]
1 Load limit
2 Recommended combinator curve
3 Zero thrust
MCR
1
3
2
Load steps
1st Pitch
(load)
2nd Speed
Detail:
decreasing load
2nd Pitch
(load)
1st Speed
Detail:
increasing load
Engine and operation
2.13.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control
D-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 81
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Windmilling protection
If a stopped engine (fuel admission at zero) is be-
ing turned by the propeller, this is called windmill-
ing. The permissible period for windmilling is
short, because windmilling can cause, due to poor
lubrication at low propeller speed, excessive wear
of the engines bearings.
Single-screw ship
The propeller control has to ensure that the wind-
milling time is less than 40 sec.
Multiple-screw ship
The propeller control has to ensure that the wind-
milling time is less than 40 sec. In case of plants
without shifting clutch, it has to be ensured that a
stopped engine won't be turned by the propeller.
(Regarding maintenance work a shaft interlock
has to be provided for each propeller shaft.)
Binary signals from engine control
Overload contact
The overload contact will be activated when the
engines fuel admission reaches the maximum po-
sition. At this position, the control system has to
stop the increase of the propeller pitch. If this sig-
nal remains longer than the predetermined time
limit, the propeller pitch has to be decreased.
Operation close to the limit curves (only for electronic
speed governors)
This contact is activated when the engine is oper-
ated close to a limit curve (torque limiter, charge air
pressure limiter...). When the contact is activated,
the control system has to stop the increase of the
propeller pitch. If this signal remains longer than
the predetermined time limit, the propeller pitch
has to be decreased.
Propeller pitch reduction contact
This contact is activated when disturbances in en-
gine operation occur, for example too high ex-
haust-gas mean-value deviation. When the
contact is activated, the propeller control system
has to reduce the propeller pitch to 60 % of the
rated engine output, without change in engine
speed.
Distinction between normal manoeuvre and emergen-
cy manoeuvre
The propeller control system has to be able to dis-
tinguish between normal manoeuvre and emer-
gency manoeuvre (i.e. two different acceleration
curves are necessary).
MAN Diesel & Turbo's guidelines concerning acceler-
ation times and power range have to be observed
The power range (see "Section: Propeller operation
Operating range for controllable-pitch propeller (CPP)")
and the acceleration times (if available, see "Sec-
tion: Engine and operation Propeller operation Accel-
eration times") are to be observed.
In "Section 2.10: Engine load reduction as a protective
safety measure, page 2-59" the requirements for the
response time are stated.
Engine and operation
2.13.2 General requirements for propeller pitch control
Page 2 - 82 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BD
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Engine and operation
2.13.3 Torque measurement flange
E-BC 51/60DF Page 2 - 83
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2.13.3 Torque measurement flange
As the fuel gas composition supplied to the dual-
fuel engine may change during a voyage in a wide
range, it is needed to adapt the engine control ac-
cordingly. This will be done in the SaCoS
one
sys-
tem after comparison of an external engine output
signal with actual engine parameters. Therefore a
torque measurement flange needs to be provided
for each engine separately.
Note!
Please be aware that this will influence the in-
stallation layout.
Requirements for torque measurement flange:
For each engine its own torque measurement
flange needs to be provided.
Torque measurement flange must be certified
and must be calibrated according to recom-
mendation of manufacturer.
Torque measurement flange must be proofed
for reliability and durability.
Torque measurement flange must be capable
of operation under the specific condition of the
application, e.g.:
- Vibration
- Wide temperature range
- High humidity and spray water
- Oil vapors
Torque measurement flange must withstand
torque fluctuations and torsional vibrations.
Torque measurement flange must be accessi-
ble for check.
Implementation of torque measurement flange
between engine and gear box.
Specific signal quality:
- Specified for highest possible torque ac-
cording to engines operating range.
- High accuracy:
Total deviation (inclusive non linearity, drift,
hysteresis) of < 5 % of nominal (rated) signal
in whole operating range of the engine.
- Signal 4-20 mA.
- Low pass filter 1 Hz to remove torque ripple.
Engine and operation
2.13.3 Torque measurement flange
Page 2 - 84 51/60DF E-BC
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Engine and operation
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 85
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2.14 Fuel consumption; lube oil consumption; starting air/control air
consumption
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Engine 51/60DF, electric propulsion
975/1,000 kW/cyl., 500/514 rpm
% Load Spec. fuel consumption in gas mode without attached pumps
1)2)
1)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-27: Reference conditions 51/60DF".
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance is taken into account.
100 85 75 50 25
a) Natural gas kJ/kWh 7,393 7,356 7,492 7,816 8,739
b) Pilot fuel g/kWh
kJ/kWh
2.0
86
2.4
101
2.7
114
4.1
172
12.6
540
c) Total = a + b
3)
3)
Gas operation (including pilot fuel).
kJ/kWh 7,479 7,457
4)
4)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
7,606 7,988 9,279
Table 2-19 Fuel consumption in gas mode
% Load Spec. fuel oil consumption with HFO/MDO (DMB) without attached pumps
1)2)
1)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-27: Reference conditions 51/60DF".
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance is taken into account.
100 85 75 50 25
a) Main fuel g/kWh 181.3 180.4 187.1 188.7 209.3
b) Pilot fuel g/kWh
kJ/kWh
2.2
95
2.6
109
2.9
124
4.3
186
8.7
371
c) Total = a + b
3)
3)
Liquid fuel operation (including pilot fuel).
g/kWh
kJ/kWh
183.5
7,835
183
4)
7,815
4)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
190
8,115
193
8,245
218
9,310
Table 2-20 Fuel oil consumption in liquid fuel mode
Engine and operation
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Page 2 - 86 51/60DF F-BD
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Engine 51/60DF, mechanical propulsion with CPP
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm
% Load Spec. fuel consumption in gas mode without attached pumps
1)2)
1)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-27: Reference conditions 51/60DF".
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance is taken into account.
100 85 75 50 25
Speed [rpm] 514 514 514 514 514
a) Natural gas kJ/kWh 7,444 7,449 7,436 7,898 9,510
b) Pilot fuel g/kWh
kJ/kWh
2.0
86
2.4
101
2.7
114
4.1
172
12.6
540
c) Total = a + b
3)
3)
Gas operation (including pilot fuel).
kJ/kWh 7,530 7,550
4)
4)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
7,550 8,070 10,050
Table 2-21 Fuel consumption in gas mode, constant speed
% Load Spec. fuel consumption in gas mode without attached pumps
1)2)
1)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-27: Reference conditions 51/60DF".
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance is taken into account.
100 85 75 50 25
Speed [rpm] 514 514 501 462 402
a) Natural gas kJ/kWh 7,444 7,449 7,496 7,548 7,580
b) Pilot fuel g/kWh
kJ/kWh
2.0
86
2.4
101
2.7
114
4.1
172
12.6
540
c) Total = a + b
3)
3)
Gas operation (including pilot fuel).
kJ/kWh 7,530 7,550
4)
4)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
7,610 7,720 8,120
Table 2-22 Fuel consumption in gas mode, recommended combinator curve
Engine and operation
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 87
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% Load Spec. fuel oil consumption with HFO/MDO (DMB) without attached pumps
1)2)
1)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-27: Reference conditions 51/60DF".
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance is taken into account.
100 85 75 50 25
Speed [rpm] 514 514 514 514 514
a)Main fuel g/kWh 181.3 179.4 183.1 185.7 197.3
b) Pilot fuel g/kWh
kJ/kWh
2.2
95
2.6
109
2.9
124
4.3
186
8.7
371
c) Total = a + b
3)
3)
Liquid fuel operation (including pilot fuel).
g/kWh
kJ/kWh
183.5
7,835
182.0
4)
7,775
4)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
186.0
7,945
190.0
8,115
206.0
8,800
Table 2-23 Fuel oil consumption in liquid fuel mode, constant speed
% Load Spec. fuel oil consumption with HFO/MDO (DMB) without attached pumps
1)2)
1)
Based on reference conditions, see "Table 2-27: Reference conditions 51/60DF".
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note! The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance is taken into account.
100 85 75 50 25
Speed [rpm] 514 514 501 462 402
a)Main fuel g/kWh 181.3 179.4 181.6 183.2 179.3
b) Pilot fuel g/kWh
kJ/kWh
2.2
95
2.6
109
2.9
124
4.3
186
8.7
371
c) Total = a + b
3)
3)
Liquid fuel operation (including pilot fuel).
g/kWh
kJ/kWh
183.5
7,835
182.0
4)
7,775
4)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
184.5
7,880
187.5
8,010
188.0
8,030
Table 2-24 Fuel oil consumption in liquid fuel mode, recommended combinator curve
Engine and operation
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Page 2 - 88 51/60DF F-BD
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Load [%] Additions to fuel consumption
100 85 75 50 25
Speed [rpm] 514 514 514 514 514
For one attached cooling water pump g/kWh +0.6 +0.7 +0.8 +1.2 +2.4
kJ/kWh +25.6 +29.9 +34.2 +51.2 +102.4
For all attached L.O. pumps g/kWh +1.9 +2.3 +2.6 +3.8 +7.7
kJ/kWh +81.1 +98.2 +111.0 +162.2 +328.8
Speed [rpm] 514 514 501 462 402
For one attached cooling water pump g/kWh +0.6 +0.7 +0.8 +1.0 +1.8
kJ/kWh +25.6 +29.9 +34.2 +42.7 +76.9
For all attached L.O. pumps g/kWh +1.9 +2.3 +2.6 +3.4 +6.8
kJ/kWh +81.1 +98.2 +111.0 +145.2 +290.4
Speed [rpm] independent of the speed
For operation with MGO g/kWh +2.0
kJ/kWh +85.4
For exhaust gas back pressure after turbine
> 30 mbar
g/kWh every additional 1 mbar (0.1 kPa) + 0.05
kJ/kWh every additional 1 mbar (0.1 kPa) + 2.135
Table 2-25 Additions to fuel consumption
Fuel oil consumption at idle running (kg/h) with HFO/MDO (DMB)
No. of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 12V 14V 16V 18V
Speed 500/514 rpm 100 120 140 160 200 230 265 300
Table 2-26 Fuel oil consumption at idle running
Reference conditions (according to ISO 3046-1: 2002;
ISO 15550: 2002)
Air temperature before turbo-
charger t
r
C 25
Ambient pressure p
r
bar 1
Relative humidity ur % 30
Charge air temperature (regu-
lated temperature)
1)
C 43
Table 2-27 Reference conditions 51/60DF
1)
Specified reference charge air temperature corresponds to
a mean value for all cylinder numbers that will be achieved
with 25 C LT cooling water temperature before charge air
cooler (according to ISO)
Engine and operation
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
F-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 89
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IMO Tier II requirements:
For detailed information see,"Section 5.3.1: Cooling
water system, page 5-29".
IMO: International Maritime Organization
MARPOL 73/78; Revised Annex VI-2008, Regula-
tion 13.
Tier II: NO
x
technical code on control of emission
of nitrogen oxides from diesel engines.
Fuel conditions
Type of gas Natural gas
Methane no.
1)
1)
Exemplary gas composition of natural gas MN 80:
94.80 mol % CH4, 1.03 mol % C2H6, 3.15 mol % C3H8,
0.16 mol % C4H10, 0.02 mol % C5H12, 0.06 mol % CO2,
0.78 mol % N2.
> 80
Pilot fuel DMA, DMZ or DMB
Liquid fuel LHV 42,700 kJ/kg
Table 2-28 Fuel conditions
Engine and operation
2.14.1 Fuel consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Page 2 - 90 51/60DF F-BD
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Engine and operation
2.14.2 Lube oil consumption
D-BB 51/60DF Page 2 - 91
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2.14.2 Lube oil consumption
Engine 51/60DF
975/1,000 kW/cyl.; 500/514 rpm
Specific lube oil consumption:
0.4 g/kWh + 20 %
Note!
As a matter of principle, the lube oil consump-
tion is to be stated as total lubricating oil con-
sumption related to the tabulated ISO full-load
output (see "Section 2.3: Ratings (outputs) and speeds,
page 2-21").
Note!
Operating pressure data without further speci-
fication are given below/above atmospheric
pressure.
2.14.3 Starting air/control air consumption

Total lube oil consumption [kg/h]
1)
1)
Tolerance for warranty +20 %.
No. of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 12V 14V 16V 18V
Speed 500/514 rpm 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2
Table 2-29 Total lube oil consumption 51/60DF
Number of cylinders 6L 7L 8L 9L 12V 14V 16V 18V
Swept volume of engine litre 651 760 868 977 1,303 1,520 1,737 1,955
Air consumption per start
1)
1)
The air consumption per starting manoeuvre/slow turn activation depends on the inertia moment of the unit. The stated air
consumption refers only to the engine. For the electric propulsion an higher air consumption needs to be considered due to
the additional inertia moment of the generator (approx. 50 % increased).
Nm
2)
2)
Nm
3
corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.
2.8 3.2 3.5 3.8 4.8 5.5 6.0 6.7
Air consumption per Jet Assist
activation
3)
3)
The above-mentioned air consumption per Jet Assist activation is valid for a jet duration of 5 seconds. The jet duration may
vary between 3 seconds and 10 seconds, depending on the loading (average jet duration 5 seconds).
4.0 4.0 5.5 5.5 7.9 7.9 7.9 11.3
Air consumption per slow turn
manoevre
1)4)
4)
Required for plants with power management system demanding automatic engine start. The air consumption per slow turn
activation depends on the inertia moment of the unit. This value does not include the needed air consumption for the autom-
ically activated engine start after end of the slow turn manoeuvre.
5.6 6.4 7.0 7.6 9.6 11.0 12.0 13.4
Table 2-30 Starting air consumption 51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.14.4 Charge air blow off amount
Page 2 - 92 51/60DF D-BB
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2.14.4 Charge air blow off amount
Dependend on actual ambient conditions the
amount of charge air that needs to be discharged
by charge air blow off will vary in higher extent.
Stated figures therefore can be seen as informa-
tion for a general layout of the needed blow off line
of the charge air by-pass ("cold compressor by-
pass", flap 4), see "Section 2.2.7: Engine equipment for
various applications, page 2-17" "Figure 2-8: Overview
flaps 51/60DF".

2.14.5 Recalculation of total gas consumption and NO
x
-emissions dependent on
ambient conditions 51/60DF
In accordance to ISO-Standard ISO 3046-1:2002
Reciprocating internal combustion engines - Per-
formance, Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and
lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods
Additional requirements for engines for general
use MAN Diesel & Turbo has specified for gas op-
eration the method for recalculation of total gas
consumption and dependent on ambient condi-
tions. Accordingly a formula for a recalculation of
the NO
x
emission for gas operation dependent on
ambient conditions has been defined.
Details will be clarified during project handling.
Load 100 85 75 50 25 [%]
Q
air blow off
1)
1)
Values for ISO-conditions and per cyl. only for information.
1,000 1,400 1,650 1,200 300 kg/h per cyl.
Table 2-31 Charge air blow off amount which has to be discharged
Engine and operation
2.14.6 Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions
D-BD Page 2 - 93
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2.14.6 Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions
In accordance to ISO-Standard ISO 3046-1:2002 Reciprocating internal combustion engines Performance,
Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods Additional requirements for en-
gines for general use MAN Diesel & Turbo specifies for liquid fuel the method for recalculation of fuel con-
sumption dependent on ambient conditions for single-stage turbocharged engines as follows:
The formula is valid within the following limits:
+ Ambient air temperature 5 C 55 C
+ Charge air temperature before cylinder 25 C 75 C
+ Ambient air pressure 0.885 bar 1.030 bar
Example
Reference values:
b
r
= 200 g/kWh, t
r
= 25 C, t
bar
= 40 C, p
r
= 1.0 bar
At Site:
t
x
= 45 C, t
bax
= 50 C, p
x
= 0.9 bar
= 1+ 0.0006 (45 25) + 0.0004 (50 40) + 0.07 (1.0 0.9) = 1.023
b
x
= x b
r
= 1.023 x 200 = 204.6 g/kWh
( ) ( ) ( )
| = + + +
x r bax bar r x
1 0.0006 t t 0.0004 t t 0.07 p p
= | =
|
x
x r r
b
b b b
Fuel consumption factor
t
bar
Engine type specific reference charge air temperature before cylinder
see Reference conditions" in Fuel oil; lube oil; starting air/control air consumption".
Legend Reference At test run or at site
Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] b
r
b
x
Ambient air temperature [C]
t
r
t
x
Charge air temperature before cylinder [C]
t
bar
t
bax
Ambient air pressure [bar]
p
r
p
x
Engine and operation
2.14.6 Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions
Page 2 - 94 D-BD
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Engine and operation
2.14.7 Aging
D-BB 51/60DF Page 2 - 95
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2.14.7 Aging
The fuel consumption will increase over the run-
ning time of the engine. Proper service can reduce
or eliminate this increase. For dependencies see
"Figure 2-37: Influence from total engine running time and
service intervals on fuel consumption in gas mode" and
"Figure 2-38: Influence from total engine running time and
service intervals on fuel oil consumption in liquid fuel
mode".
Figure 2-37 Influence from total engine running time and service intervals on fuel consumption in gas mode
Engine and operation
2.14.7 Aging
Page 2 - 96 51/60DF D-BB
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Figure 2-38 Influence from total engine running time and service intervals on fuel oil consumption in liquid fuel mode
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 97
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2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion
2.15.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge
air cooler (LT stage)
38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L
Engine output kW 5,850/6,000 6,825/7,000 7,800/8,000 8,775/9,000
Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
Charge air
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
kW
1,920
750
1,490
675

2,235
875
1,740
790

2,555
1,000
1,990
900

2,875
1,125
2,240
1,015
Lube oil cooler
2)
585 460 680 535 780 610 875 685
Jacket cooling 640 535 750 625 855 715 965 800
Water for fuel valves 13 13 16 16 18 18 20 02
Heat radiation (engine) 165 165 195 195 225 225 250 250
Flow rates
3)
HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge
air cooler HT stage)
m
3
/h 70 80 90 100
LT circuit (Lube oil cooler + charge
air cooler LT stage)
85 100 110 125
Lube oil (4 bar at engine inlet) 140 165 190 215
Cooling water fuel nozzles 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5
Table 2-32 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 98 51/60DF E-BD
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Pumps
a) Free-standing
4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 70 80 90 100
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) Depending on plant design
Lube oil (8.0 bar) 140+z 165+z 190+z 215+z
Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar) 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5
MGO/MDO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 4.3 5.0 5.7 6.4
HFO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.3
HFO circulation pump (A 7.0 bar) 4.3 5.0 5.7 6.4
Pilot fuel supply (5.0bar) 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045
b) Attached
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 140
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) 140 (225 alternative available)
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with constant speed
199 199 233 270
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with variable speed
199 199 233 270
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding chapters.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-21" and "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-21".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-29".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the manufacturer.
z = Flushing oil of automatic filter.
Table 2-32 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 99
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2.15.2 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air
cooler (LT stage)
38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 16V 18V
Engine output kW 11,700/
12,000
13,650/
14,000
15,600/
16,000
17,550/
18,000
Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
Charge air
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
kW
3,835
1,500
2,885
1,350
4,475
1,750
3,480
1,575
5,110
2,000
3,980
1,800

5,750
2,250
4,475
2,025
Lube oil cooler
2)
1,170 920 1,360 1,070 1,555 1,225 1,750 1,375
Jacket cooling 1,285 1,070 1,500 1,245 1,715 1,425 1,925 1,600
Water for fuel valves 27 27 31 31 36 36 40 40
Heat radiation (engine) 330 330 390 390 445 445 500 500
Flow rates
3)
HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air
cooler HT stage)
m
3
/h 140 160 180 200
LT circuit (Lube oil cooler + charge air
cooler LT stage)
170 200 220 250
Lube oil (4 bar at engine inlet) 325 370 415 460
Cooling water fuel nozzles 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.3
Table 2-33 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 100 51/60DF E-BD
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Pumps
a) Free-standing
4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 140 160 180 200
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) Depending on plant design
Lube oil (8.0 bar) 325+z 370+z 415+z 460+z
Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar) 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4
MGO/MDO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 8.6 10.0 11.4 12.9
HFO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 4.4 5.2 5.9 6.7
HFO circulation pump (A 7.0 bar) 8.6 10.0 11.4 12.9
Pilot fuel supply (5.0 bar) 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
b) Attached
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 225
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) 225 (550 m/h at 3.4 bar alternative available)
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with constant speed
398 438 466 540
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with variable speed
398 438 466 540
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding chapters.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-21" and "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-21".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-29".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the manufacturer.
z = Flushing oil of automatic filter.
Table 2-33 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 101
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2.15.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler
(LT stage)
38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L
Engine output kW 5,850/
6,000
6,825/
7,000
7,800/
8,000
8,775/
9,000
Speed rpm 500/514
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 37,350 43,550 49,750 55,950
t/h 40.9 47.7 54.5 61.3
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.44
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine)
(t
2
- t
1
= 10 C)
m/h 53,000 62,700 72,300 80,300
Heat radiation (engine) kW 165 195 225 250
Exhaust gas data
2)
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 75,500 88,000 100,500 113,000
Mass flow t/h 42.1 49.1 56.1 63.1
Temperature at turbine outlet C 352
Heat content (190 C) kW 2,030 2,370 2,710 3,050
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar 30
Table 2-34 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 102 51/60DF E-BD
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2.15.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion

1)
For design, see "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system diagram, page 5-45".
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler
(LT stage)
38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L
Engine output kW 5,850/
6,000
6,825/
7,000
7,800/
8,000
8,775/
9,000
Speed rpm 500/514
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 34,300 40,000 45,700 51,500
t/h 37.6 43.8 50.1 56.4
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.03
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine)
(t
2
- t
1
= 10 C)
m/h 53,000 62,700 72,300 80,300
Heat radiation (engine) kW 165 195 225 250
Exhaust gas data
2)
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 69,300 80,800 92,200 103,900
Table 2-35 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF Electric propulsion, gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 103
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Mass flow t/h 38.8 45.2 51.6 58.1
Temperature at turbine outlet C 350
Heat content (190 C) kW 1,850 2,150 2,450 2,800
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
1)
For design, see "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system diagram, page 5-45".
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 2-35 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF Electric propulsion, gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 104 51/60DF E-BD
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2.15.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 16V 18V
W k t u p t u o e n i g n E
4 1 5 / 0 0 5 m p r d e e p S
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
1)
For design, see "Section 6.3.1: Cooling water system, page 6-35".
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 74,600 87,000 99,500 112,000
t/h 81.7 95.3 109.0 122.6
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.44
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) (t
2
-t
1
=10 C) m/h 106,000 125,200 142,900 160,500
Heat radiation (engine) kW 330 390 445 500
Exhaust gas data
2)
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 150,900 176,000 201,300 226,400
Mass flow t/h 84.1 98.1 112.2 126.2
Temperature at turbine outlet C 352
Heat content (190 C) kW 4,050 4,700 5,400 6,100
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
Table 2-36 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode
17,550/
18,000
11,700/
12,000
13,650/
14,000
15,600/
16,000
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 105
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2.15.6 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 16V 18V
W k t u p t u o e n i g n E
4 1 5 / 0 0 5 m p r d e e p S
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
1)
For design, see "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system diagram, page 5-45".
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 68,550 80,000 91,500 102,900
t/h 75.1 87.6 100.2 112.7
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.03
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) (t
2
-t
1
=10 C) m/h 106,000 125,200 142,900 160,500
Heat radiation (engine) kW 330 390 445 500
Exhaust gas data
2)
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 138,600 161,600 184,900 207,700
Mass flow t/h 77.5 90.4 103.4 116.2
Temperature at turbine outlet C 350
Heat content (190 C) kW 3,700 4,350 4,950 5,600
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
Table 2-37 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF Electric propulsion, gas mode
11,700/
12,000
13,650/
14,000
15,600/
16,000
17,550/
18,000
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 106 51/60DF E-BD
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2.15.7 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
985
465
920
430
920
430
640
310
Lube oil cooler
3)
320 340 380 530
Jacket cooling 350 375 390 460
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 130 130 150 180
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
235
43
212
43
205
43
152
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.19 7.59 8.28 8.48
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.42 3.90 3.73 2.57
Table 2-38 Load specific values at ISO conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 107
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 7.39 7.79 8.48 8.68
Temperature at turbine outlet C 330 316 314 335
Heat content (190C) kJ/kWh 1,110 1,050 1,125 1,346
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-38 Load specific values at ISO conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 108 51/60DF E-BD
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2.15.8 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,150
450
1,105
405
1,115
410
870
300
Lube oil cooler
3)
350 370 415 570
Jacket cooling 385 415 430 505
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 100 100 120 140
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
257
49
233
47
224
47
167
44
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.81 7.09 7.75 8.03
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.44 3.77 3.61 2.47
Table 2-39 Load specific values at tropic conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 109
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 7.01 7.29 7.95 8.23
Temperature at turbine outlet C 352 339 336 359
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,220 1,170 1,275 1,495
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-39 Load specific values at tropic conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, liquid fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 110 51/60DF E-BD
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2.15.9 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
771
347
575
319
613
314
290
250
Lube oil cooler
3)
270 300 320 450
Jacket cooling 330 360 375 430
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 130 130 150 180
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
208
43
177
43
165
43
115
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.23 5.96 6.10 6.16
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 3.92 3.24 2.91 1.99
Table 2-40 Load specific values at ISO conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 111
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 6.43 6.16 6.30 6.36
Temperature at turbine outlet C 331 364 374 425
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 980 1,205 1,260 1,622
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, - 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-40 Load specific values at ISO conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
Page 2 - 112 51/60DF E-BD
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2.15.10 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode
975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
895
405
700
400
613
314
300
280
Lube oil cooler
3)
275 290 320 450
Jacket cooling 320 380 390 460
Water for fuel valves 8
Heat radiation (engine) 100 100 115 150
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
243
49
215
46
193
45
135
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.26 6.25 6.11 6.08
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.03 3.39 2.92 1.96
Table 2-41 Load specific values at tropic conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 113
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 6.46 6.45 6.31 3.28
Temperature at turbine outlet C 350 354 373 433
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,120 1,140 1,255 1,670
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, - 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-41 Load specific values at tropic conditions L51/60DF IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP
2.16.1 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air
cooler (LT stage)
38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L
Engine output kW 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000
Speed rpm 514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
Charge air
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
kW
2,070
800
1,695
810
2,410
935
1,975
945
2,755
1,070
2,255
1,080
3,100
1,200
2,540
1,210
Lube oil cooler
2)
585 460 680 535 780 610 875 685
Jacket cooling 640 535 750 625 855 715 965 800
Water for fuel valves 13 13 16 16 18 18 20 20
Heat radiation (engine) 165 165 195 195 225 225 250 250
Flow rates
3)
HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air
cooler HT stage)
m
3
/h 70 80 90 100
LT circuit (Lube oil cooler + charge air
cooler LT stage)
85 100 110 125
Lube oil (4 bar at engine inlet) 140 165 190 215
Cooling water fuel nozzles 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5
Table 2-42 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF CPP, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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Pumps
a) Free-standing
4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 70 80 90 100
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) Depending on plant design
Lube oil (8.0 bar) 140+z 165+z 190+z 215+z
Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar) 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5
MGO/MDO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 4.3 5.0 5.7 6.4
HFO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.3
HFO circulation pump (A 7.0 bar) 4.3 5.0 5.7 6.4
Pilot fuel supply (5.0bar) 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045
b) Attached
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 140
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) 140 (225 alternative available)
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with constant speed
199 199 233 270
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with variable speed
199 199 233 270
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding chapters.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-21" and "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-21".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-29".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the manufacturer.
z = Flushing oil of automatic filter.
Table 2-42 Nominal values for cooler specification L51/60DF CPP, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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2.16.2 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode/gas mode
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before
charge air cooler (LT stage)
38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 16V 18V
Engine output kW 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000
Speed rpm 514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
liquid
fuel
mode
gas
mode
Charge air
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
kW
4,135
1,600
3,385
1,615
4,825
1,870
3,950
1,885
5,515
2,135
4,515
2,155
6,200
2,400
5,075
2,420
Lube oil cooler
2)
1,170 920 1,360 1,070 1,555 1,225 1,750 1,375
Jacket cooling 1,285 1,070 1,500 1,245 1,715 1,425 1,925 1,600
Water for fuel valves 27 27 31 31 36 36 40 40
Heat radiation (engine) 330 330 390 390 445 445 500 500
Flow rates
3)
HT circuit (Jacket cooling +
charge air cooler HT stage)
m
3
/h 140 160 180 200
LT circuit (Lube oil cooler +
charge air cooler LT stage)
170 200 220 250
Lube oil (4 bar at engine
inlet)
325 370 415 460
Cooling water fuel nozzles 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.3
Table 2-43 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF CCP, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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Pumps
a) Free-standing
4)
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 140 160 180 200
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) Depending on plant design
Lube oil (8.0 bar) 325+z 370+z 415+z 460+z
Cooling water fuel nozzles (3.0 bar) 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4
MGO/MDO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 8.6 10.0 11.4 12.9
HFO supply pump (A 7.0 bar) 4.4 5.2 5.9 6.7
HFO circulation pump (A 7.0 bar) 8.6 10.0 11.4 12.9
Pilot fuel supply (5.0 bar) 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
b) Attached
HT circuit cooling water (4.3 bar) m/h 225
LT circuit cooling water (3.0 bar) 225 (550 m/h at 3.4 bar alternative available)
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with constant speed
398 438 466 540
Lube oil (8.0 bar) for application
with variable speed
398 438 466 540
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
You will find further planning datas for the listed subjects in the corresponding chapters.
- Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
- Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine, page
5-21" and "Paragraph H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant, page 5-21".
- Capacities of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see "Section 5.2.3: Prelubrication/postlubrication, page 5-29".
- Capacities of preheating/postcooling pumps see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the manufacturer.
z = Flushing oil of automatic filter.
Table 2-43 Nominal values for cooler specification V51/60DF CCP, liquid fuel mode/gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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2.16.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L
Engine output kW 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000
Speed rpm 514
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
1)
For design, see "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system diagram, page 5-45".
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 38,350 44,750 51,150 57,550
t/h 42.0 49.0 56.0 63.0
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.64
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) (t
2
-t
1
=10 C) m/h 53,000 62,700 72,300 80,300
Heat radiation (engine) kW 165 195 225 250
Exhaust gas data
2)
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 73,250 85,450 97,700 110,000
Mass flow t/h 43.2 50.4 57.6 64.8
Temperature at turbine outlet C 318
Heat content (190 C) kW 1,690 1,970 2,250 2,530
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
Table 2-44 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF CPP, liquid fuel mode
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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2.16.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 6L 7L 8L 9L
Engine output kW 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000
Speed rpm 514
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
1)
For design, see "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system diagram, page 5-45".
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 35,600 41,500 47,500 53,500
t/h 38.5 44.9 51.3 57.8
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.19
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) (t
2
-t
1
=10 C) m/h 53,000 62,700 72,300 80,300
Heat radiation (engine) kW 165 195 225 250
Exhaust gas data
2)
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 69,800 81,400 93,000 104,600
Mass flow t/h 39.7 46.3 52.9 59.5
Temperature at turbine outlet C 340
Heat content (190 C) kW 1,750 2,050 2,350 2,650
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
Table 2-45 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data L51/60DF CPP, gas mode
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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2.16.5 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 16V 18V
Engine output kW 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000
Speed rpm 514
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
1)
For design, see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 76,700 89,500 102,300 115,100
t/h 84.0 98.0 112.0 126.0
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.64
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) (t
2
-t
1
=10 C) m/h 106,000 125,200 142,900 160,500
Heat radiation (engine) kW 330 390 445 500
Exhaust gas data
2)
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 146,500 170,500 195,000 219,500
Mass flow t/h 86.4 100.8 115,2 129.6
Temperature at turbine outlet C 318
Heat content (190 C) kW 3,380 3,940 4,500 5,070
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
Table 2-46 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF CPP, liquid fuel mode
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
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2.16.6 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP

Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Number of cylinders - 12V 14V 16V 18V
Engine output kW 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000
Speed rpm 514
Temperature basis
HT cooling water outlet C 90
LT cooling water charge air cooler inlet 38
1)
1)
For design, see "Paragraph H-001/Preheater, page 5-51".
Lube oil engine inlet 55
Cooling water fuel nozzels inlet 60
Air data
Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 49
Air flow rate m
3
/h 71,300 83,100 95,000 106,900
t/h 77.1 89.9 102.7 115.6
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.19
Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) (t
2
-t
1
=10 C) m/h 106,000 125,200 142,900 160,500
Heat radiation (engine) kW 330 390 445 500
Exhaust gas data
2)
2)
Tolerance: quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Volume flow (temperature turbine outlet) m
3
/h 139,700 162,900 186,300 209,500
Mass flow t/h 79.4 92.6 105.9 119.1
Temperature at turbine outlet C 340
Heat content (190 C) kW 3,550 4,150 4,750 5,350
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure mbar s 30
Table 2-47 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data V51/60DF CPP, gas mode
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 122 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.7 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Constant speed
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, constant speed
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,055
495
985
465
950
450
680
320
Lube oil cooler
3)
320 340 380 530
Jacket cooling 350 375 390 460
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 130 130 150 180
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
243
43
218
43
223
43
144
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.33 7.70 8.28 8.48
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.62 4.09 3.87 2.52
Table 2-48 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, liquid fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 123
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 7.53 7.90 8.48 8.68
Temperature at turbine outlet C 298 283 275 330
Heat content (190C) kJ/kWh 870 785 765 1,300
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-48 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, liquid fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 124 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.8 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Recommended combinator curve
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, recommended combinator curve
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514 514 501 462
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,055
495
985
465
885
415
540
260
Lube oil cooler
3)
320 340 365 475
Jacket cooling 350 375 390 460
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 130 130 150 180
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
243
43
218
43
223
43
144
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.33 7.70 8.21 7.68
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.62 4.09 3.87 2.52
Table 2-49 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, liquid
fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 125
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 7.53 7.90 8.41 7.88
Temperature at turbine outlet C 298 283 286 343
Heat content (190C) kJ/kWh 870 785 880 1,320
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-49 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, liquid
fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 126 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.9 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Constant speed
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, constant speed
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,240
480
1,180
440
1,150
430
925
305
Lube oil cooler
3)
350 370 415 570
Jacket cooling 385 415 430 505
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 100 100 120 140
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
264
49
235
47
240
47
159
44
Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.00 7.18 7.77 8.03
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.64 3.96 3.73 2.41
Table 2-50 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, liquid fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 127
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 7.20 7.38 7.97 8.23
Temperature at turbine outlet C 318 302 302 360
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,015 910 975 1,540
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
2.16.9 The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-50 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, liquid fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 128 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.10 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Liquid fuel mode Recommended combinator curve
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, recommended combinator curve
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514 514 501 462
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,240
480
1,180
440
1,070
395
730
250
Lube oil cooler
3)
350 370 395 510
Jacket cooling 385 415 430 505
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 100 100 110 130
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
264
49
235
47
235
47
168
44
Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.00 7.18 7.84 7.29
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.64 3.96 3.87 2.52
Table 2-51 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, liquid
fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 129
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 7.20 7.38 8.04 7.49
Temperature at turbine outlet C 318 302 320 370
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,015 910 1,140 1,490
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-51 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, liquid
fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 130 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.11 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Constant speed
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, constant speed
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
875
415
710
340
685
325
400
350
Lube oil cooler
3)
270 300 320 450
Jacket cooling 330 360 375 430
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 130 130 150 180
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
226
43
190
43
176
43
131
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.38 6.33 6.67 7.29
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.08 3.43 3.16 2.30
Table 2-52 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, gas mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 131
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 6.58 6.53 6.87 7.49
Temperature at turbine outlet C 321 345 350 372
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 930 1,095 1,180 1,470
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, - 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-52 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, gas mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 132 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.12 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Recommended combinator curve
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, recommended combinator curve
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 30
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514 514 501 462
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
875
415
710
340
635
305
290
260
Lube oil cooler
3)
270 300 305 415
Jacket cooling 330 360 375 430
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 130 130 150 180
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
226
43
190
43
172
43
125
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.38 6.33 6.22 6.28
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.08 3.43 3.06 2.14
Table 2-53 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, gas
mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 133
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 6.58 6.53 6.42 6.48
Temperature at turbine outlet C 321 345 350 393
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 930 1,095 1,110 1,475
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, - 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-53 Load specific values at ISO conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, gas
mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 134 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.13 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Constant speed
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, constant speed
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,015
484
860
425
685
325
410
390
Lube oil cooler
3)
275 290 320 450
Jacket cooling 320 380 390 460
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 100 100 115 150
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
260
49
228
46
204
45
150
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.42 6.62 6.68 7.21
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.19 3.58 3.17 2.27
Table 2-54 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, liquid fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 135
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 6.62 6.82 6.88 7.41
Temperature at turbine outlet C 340 335 349 380
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,070 1,060 1,210 1,520
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-54 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP constant speed, liquid fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Page 2 - 136 51/60DF E-BD
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2.16.14 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Gas mode Recommended combinator curve
1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP, recommended combinator curve
Reference conditions: Tropic
Air temperature C 45
Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38
Air pressure mbar 1,000
Relative humidity % 50
Engine output % 100 85 75 50
rpm 514 514 501 462
Heat to be dissipated
1)
Charge air:
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
2)
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
2)
kJ/kWh
1,015
484
860
425
635
305
300
280
Lube oil cooler
3)
275 290 305 415
Jacket cooling 320 380 390 460
Water for fuel valves 8 8 8 8
Heat radiation (engine) 100 100 115 150
Air data
Temperature of charge air:
After compressor
At charge air cooler outlet
C
260
49
228
46
200
45
145
43
Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.42 6.62 6.23 6.20
Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.19 3.58 3.07 2.11
Table 2-55 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, liquid
fuel mode (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 137
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Exhaust gas data
4)
Mass flow kg/kWh 6.62 6.82 6.43 6.40
Temperature at turbine outlet C 340 335 349 401
Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,070 1,060 1,140 1,510
Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
(maximum)
mbar 30 -
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, -15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification.
These figures are calculated for 7L51/60DF.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerance: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 %.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 2-55 Load specific values at tropic conditions 51/60DF IMO Tier II CPP recommended combinator curve, liquid
fuel mode (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures
Page 2 - 138 51/60DF E-BD
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2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures
1
Operating temperatures
1
Valid for nominal output and nominal speed.
Air Air before compressor > 5 C, max. 45 C
1)
1)
In accordance with power definition. A reduction in power is required at higher temperatures/lower pressures.
Charge Air Charge air before cylinder 43...49 C
2)
2)
Relevant for load > 85 %.
Coolant Engine coolant after engine 90
3)
, max. 95 C
3)
Regulated temperature.
Engine coolant preheater before start > 60 C
Coolant before charge air cooler LT stage 32, load reduction at > 38 C
1)
Coolant nozzle cooling 55...60 C
Lubricating oil Lubricating oil before engine/before turbocharger 50...55, alarm/stop at > 60 C
Lubricating oil preheater before start > 40 C
Fuel MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO (DMB) according ISO 8217-
2010
s 45 C and viscosity before
engine: minimum 1.9 cSt, maxi-
mum 14 cSt
4)
4)
See "Section 4.8: Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram), page 4-39".
HFO according ISO 8217-2010 s 150 C and viscosity before
engine: minimum 1.9 cSt, maxi-
mum 14 cSt, recommended: 12
14 cSt
Preheating (HFO in day tank) > 75 C
Pilot fuel MGO (DMA,DMZ) and MDO (DMB)
according to ISO 8217-2010
s 70 C and viscosity before
engine: min. 4 cSt, max. 11 cSt
Natural Gas Natural Gas before GVU inlet 5
5)
....50C
5)
The temperature- and pressure-dependent dew point of natural gas must always be exceeded to prevent condensation.
Table 2-56 Operating Temperatures
Engine and operation
2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 139
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Operating pressures
Intake Air Air before turbocharger (negative pressure) max. -20 mbar
Starting air/Control air Starting air 15...max. 30 bar
Pilot air 5.5 bar...8 bar
Cylinder Nominal ignition pressure, combustion chamber
Gas mode (at 100 % load, ISO-conditions)
Liquid fuel mode (at 100 % load, ISO-conditions)
Maximum ignition pressure, combustion chamber
155 bar 20 bar
135 bar 5 bar
180 bar
Safety valve (opening pressure) 230 + 7 bar
Crankcase Crankcase pressure max. 3 mbar
Safety valve (opening pressure) 50 mbar
Exhaust Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger (static) max. 30 mbar
1)
1)
At a total exhaust gas back pressure of the designed exhaust gas line of more than 30 mbar the available engine perform-
ance needs to be recalculated.
Coolant Engine coolant and charge air cooler HT 3...4 bar
Charge air cooler LT 2...4 bar
Nozzle cooling water before fuel valves
open system
closed system
2...3 bar
3...5 bar
Lubricating oil Lubrication oil Prelubrication before engine 0.3...0.6 bar
2)
2)
Note! Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C
Lubricating oil before engine 4...5 bar
Lubricating oil before turbocharger 1.5...1.7 bar
Fuel Fuel before engine 6...8 bar
Fuel before engine in case of black out min. 0.6 bar
Differential pressure (engine feed/engine return) > 1 bar
Fuel return, at engine outlet > 2 bar
Maximum pressure variation in front of engine 0.5 bar
Fuel injection valve (opening pressure) 350+10 bar
Fuel injection valve (opening pressure for new springs) 370 bar
Pilot fuel Pilot fuel before engine 7 2 bar
Pilot fuel after engine 0.2...0.4 bar
Natural Gas Natural Gas before GVU inlet min. 5.0 bar, max. 6.0 bar
Table 2-57 Operating pressures
Engine and operation
2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures
Page 2 - 140 51/60DF E-BD
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Variations of the mandatory values can affect the
operation of the engine negative and may cause
rating reduction of the engine.
Exhaust gas back pressure
An increased exhaust gas back pressure
(> 30 mbar) raises the temperature level of the en-
gine and will be considered when calculating a re-
quired derating by adding 2.5 K to the ambient air
temperature for every 10 mbar of the increased
exhaust gas back pressure after turbine.
Note!
Operating pressure data without further speci-
fication are given below/above atmospheric
pressure.
Engine and operation
2.18 Filling volumes and flow resistances
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 141
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2.18 Filling volumes and flow resistances

Water and oil volume of engine
No. of cylinders
6 7 8 9 12 14 16 18
Cooling water approx. litres 470 540 615 685 1,250 1,400 1,550 1,700
Lube oil 170 190 220 240 325 380 435 490
Table 2-58 Water and oil volume of engine
Service tanks Installa-
tion
height
1)
1)
Installation height refers to tank bottom and crankshaft centre line.
Minimum effective capacity
m m
No. of cylinders 6 7 8 9 12 14 16 18
Cooling water cylinder 6 ... 9 1.0 1.5
Required diameter for
expansion pipeline
-
DN50
2)
2)
Cross-secional area should correspond to that of the venting pipes.
Cooling water fuel nozzles 5 ... 8 0.5 0.75
Lube oil
in double bottom
3)
in double bottom
4)
3)
Marine engines with attached lube oil pump.
4)
Marine engines with free-standing lube oil pump; capacity of the run-down lube oil tank included.
-
-
7.5
11.0
8.5
12.5
10.0
14.5
11.0
16.0
14.5
19.5
17.0
22.5
19.5
25.5
22.0
29.0
Run-down lubrication for
engine
5)
5)
Required for marine main engine with free-standing lube oil pump only.
min. 14
3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.0. 5.5 6.0 7.0
Table 2-59 Service tanks capacity
Flow resistance bar
Charge air cooler (HT stage)
1)
1)
Total flow resistance: charge air cooler (HT stage) and cyl-
inder (HT cooling water) need to be added.
0.35 per cooler
Charge air cooler (LT stage)
1)
0.40 per cooler
Cylinder (HT cooling water) 1.0
Fuel nozzles (HT cooling water) 1.5
Table 2-60 Flow resistance
Engine and operation
2.18 Filling volumes and flow resistances
Page 2 - 142 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine and operation
2.19 Internal media systems
I-BC 51/60DF Page 2 - 143
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2.19 Internal media systems
Internal fuel system
Figure 2-39 Internal fuel system
Engine and operation
2.19 Internal media systems
Page 2 - 144 51/60DF I-BC
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Internal cooling water system
Figure 2-40 Internal cooling water system
Engine and operation
2.19 Internal media systems
I-BC 51/60DF Page 2 - 145
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Internal lube oil system
Figure 2-41 Internal lube oil system
Engine and operation
2.19 Internal media systems
Page 2 - 146 51/60DF I-BC
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Internal starting air system
Figure 2-42 Internal starting air system
Engine and operation
2.19 Internal media systems
I-BC 51/60DF Page 2 - 147
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Internal gas system
Figure 2-43 Internal gas system
Engine and operation
2.19 Internal media systems
Page 2 - 148 51/60DF I-BC
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Engine and operation
2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger
J-BB 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 149
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2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger
As described under the Crankcase vent and tank
vent" it is needed to ventilate the engine crankcase
and the turbocharger. For layout of the ventilation
system following statement should serve as a
guide:
Due to normal blow by of the piston ring package
small amounts of gases of the combustion cham-
ber get into the crankcase and carry along oil dust.
The amount of crankcase vent gases is approx.
0.1 % of the engines air flow rate.
The temperature of the crankcase vent gases is
approx. 5 K higher than the oil temperature at
the engines oil inlet.
The density of crankcase vent gases is
1.0 kg/m (assumption for calculation).
Sealing air of the turbocharger additionally needs
to be vented.
The amount of turbocharger sealing air is ap-
prox. 0.2 % of the engines air flow rate.
The temperature of turbocharger sealing air is
approx. 5 K higher than the oil temperature at
the engines oil inlet.
The density of turbocharger sealing air is
1.0 kg/m (assumption for calculation).
Engine and operation
2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger
Page 2 - 150 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF J-BB
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Engine and operation
2.21 Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit
A-BD 32/40DF, 32/40G, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G Page 2 - 151
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2.21 Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit
For perfect dynamic engine performance, the fol-
lowing has to be ensured:
Supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit see
"Table 2-61: Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas
Valve Unit".
Maximum fluctuation of supply gas pressure
200 mbar/s.
As the required supply gas pressure is not only de-
pendent on engine related conditions like the
charge air pressure and accordingly needed gas
pressure at the gas valves, but is also influenced
by the difference pressure of the Gas Valve Unit,
the piping of the plant and the caloric value of the
fuel gas, a project specific layout is needed.
Therefore details must be clarified with MAN
Diesel & Turbo in an early project stage.
Additional note:
To clarify the relevance of the dependencies, "Fig-
ure 2-44: Example for dependencies of the gas pressure"
illustrates that the lower the caloric value of the fuel
gas, the higher the gas pressure must be in order
to achieve the same engine performance.

Figure 2-44 Example for dependencies of the gas pressure
Note!
Operating pressures without further specifica-
tion are below/above atmospheric pressure.
Engine type 32/40DF V35/44G V35/44G TS 32/40G, 51/60DF,
V51/60G
Supply gas at inlet GVU 4...5 bar 6...9 bar 9.5...10.5 bar 5...6 bar
Table 2-61 Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit
Engine output [%]
Required
gas pressure [barg]
Gas with higher caloric value
Gas with lower caloric value
Engine and operation
2.21 Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit
Page 2 - 152 32/40DF, 32/40G, 35/44G, 35/44G TS, 51/60DF, 51/60G A-BD
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Engine and operation
2.22.1 Maximum allowed emission value NOx IMO Tier II
K-BC 51/60DF Page 2 - 153
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2.22 Exhaust gas emission
2.22.1 Maximum allowed emission value NO
x
IMO Tier II
Engine 51/60DF IMO Tier II
1

1
Marine engines are warranted to meet the emission limits given by the International Convention
for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78), Revised Annex VI, revised 2008.
Rated output
Rated speed
kW/cyl.
rpm
975
500
1,000
514
NO
x

1) 2)
IMO Tier II cycle D2/E2/E3
1)
Cycle values as per ISO 8178-4, operating on ISO 8217 DM grade fuel (marine distillate fuel: MGO or MDO), contingent to a
charge air cooling water temperature of max. 32 C at 25 C reference sea water temperature.
2)
Calculated as NO
2
.
D
2
: test cycle for constant speed aux. engine application.
E
2
: test cycle for "constant speed main propulsion application" (including diesel-electric drive and all controllable pitch pro-
peller installations).
g/kWh 10.54
3)
3)
Maximum allowable NO
x
emissions for marine Diesel engines according to IMO Tier II:
130 s n < 2000 44 * n
-0.23
g/kWh (n = rated engine speed in rpm).
10.47
3)
Note!
The engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits will be carried out while factory acceptance test as a
single or a group certification.
Table 2-62 Maximum allowable emission value NOx Engine 51/60DF IMO Tier II
Engine and operation
2.22.2 Smoke emission index 51/60DF IMO Tier II (FSN)
Page 2 - 154 51/60DF K-BC
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2.22.2 Smoke emission index 51/60DF IMO Tier II (FSN)
Valid for all specified fuels and for normal engine
operation.
Limit of visibility is 0.4 FSN.
51/60DF IMO Tier II 975 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 1,000 kW/cyl., 514 rpm
Engine load Smoke emission index (FSN)
Fuel MDO HFO Gas
100 %
0.1 + 0.05 0.2 + 0.1 < 0.1
75 %
0.1 + 0.05 0.2 + 0.1 < 0.1
50 %
0.2 + 0.1 0.3 + 0.2 < 0.1
25 %
0.4 + 0.1 0.55 + 0.2 < 0.1
Table 2-63 Smoke emission index 51/60DF IMO Tier II (FSN)
Engine and operation
2.22.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines
J-BC 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 2 - 155
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2.22.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines
The exhaust gas is composed of numerous con-
stituents which are formed either from the com-
bustion air, the fuel and lube oil used or see "Table
2-64: Exhaust gas constituents for liquid fuel (only for
guidance)" which are chemical reaction products
formed during the combustion process. Only
some of these are to be considered as harmful
substances.
For the typical exhaust gas composition of a MAN
Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engine without any ex-
haust gas treatment devices see "Table 2-64: Ex-
haust gas constituents for liquid fuel (only for guidance)".
Main exhaust gas constituents approx. [% by volume] approx. [g/kWh]
Nitrogen N
2
74.0 76.0 5,020 5,160
Oxygen O
2
11.6 13.2 900 1,030
Carbon dioxide CO
2
5.2 5.8 560 620
Steam H
2
O 5.9 8.6 260 370
Inert gases Ar, Ne, He... 0.9 75
Total > 99.75 7,000
Additional gaseous exhaust gas
constituents considered as pollut-
ants
approx. [% by volume] approx. [g/kWh]
Sulphur oxides SO
x
1)
1)
SO
x
according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 6C, with a sulphur content in the fuel oil of 2.5 % by weight.
0.07 10.0
Nitrogen oxides NO
x
2)
2)
NO
x
according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 7E, total NO
x
emission calculated as NO
2
.
0.07 0.15 8.0 16.0
Carbon monoxide CO
3)
0.006 0.011 0.4 0.8
Hydrocarbons HC
4)
0.1 0.04 0.4 1.2
Total < 0.25 26
Additionally suspended exhaust gas
constituents, PM
5)
approx. [mg/Nm
3
] approx. [g/kWh]
operating on operating on
MGO
6)
HFO
7)
MGO
6)
HFO
7)
Soot (elemental carbon)
8)
50 50 0.3 0.3
Fuel ash 4 40 0.03 0.25
Lube oil ash 3 8 0.02 0.04
Note!
At rated power and without exhaust gas treatment.
Table 2-64 Exhaust gas constituents for liquid fuel (only for guidance)
Engine and operation
2.22.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines
Page 2 - 156 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF J-BC
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Carbon dioxide CO
2
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) is a product of combustion
of all fossil fuels.
Among all internal combustion engines the diesel
engine has the lowest specific CO
2
emission
based on the same fuel quality, due to its superior
efficiency.
Sulphur oxides SO
x
Sulphur oxides (SO
x
) are formed by the combus-
tion of the sulphur contained in the fuel.
Among all systems the diesel process results in
the lowest specific SO
x
emission based on the
same fuel quality, due to its superior efficiency.
Nitrogen oxides NO
x
(NO + NO
2
)
The high temperatures prevailing in the combus-
tion chamber of an internal combustion engine
causes the chemical reaction of nitrogen (con-
tained in the combustion air as well as in some fuel
grades) and oxygen (contained in the combustion
air) to nitrogen oxides (NO
x
).
Carbon monoxide CO
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed during incom-
plete combustion.
In MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines,
optimisation of mixture formation and turbocharg-
ing process successfully reduces the CO content
of the exhaust gas to a very low level.
Hydrocarbons HC
The hydrocarbons (HC) contained in the exhaust
gas are composed of a multitude of various organ-
ic compounds as a result of incomplete combus-
tion.
Due to the efficient combustion process, the HC
content of exhaust gas of MAN Diesel & Turbo
four-stroke diesel engines is at a very low level.
Particulate matter PM
Particulate matter (PM) consists of soot (elemental
carbon) and ash.
3)
CO according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 10.
4)
HC according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 25 A.
5)
PM according to VDI-2066, EN-13284, ISO-9096 or US EPA method 17; in-stack filtration.
6)
Marine gas oil DM-A grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.01 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 1.5 %.
7)
Heavy fuel oil RM-B grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.1 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 4.0 %.
8)
Pure soot, without ash or any other particle-borne constituents.
Engine and operation
2.23.1 Airborne noise
D-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 157
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2.23 Noise
2.23.1 Airborne noise
L51/60DF
Sound pressure level Lp
Measurement
Approximately 20 measuring points at 1 meter
distance from the engine surface are distribut-
ed evenly around the engine according to
ISO 6798. The noise at the exhaust outlet is not
included, but provided separately in the follow-
ing sections.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound pressure level Lp is below
107 dB(A) at 100 % MCR. The octave level di-
agram below represents an envelope of aver-
aged measured spectra for comparable
engines at the testbed and is a conservative
spectrum consequently. No room correction is
performed. The data will change depending on
the acoustical properties of the environment.
Figure 2-45 Airborne noise Sound pressure level Lp, octave level diagram L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.23.1 Airborne noise
Page 2 - 158 51/60DF D-BD
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V51/60DF
Sound pressure level Lp
Measurement
Approximately 20 measuring points at 1 meter
distance from the engine surface are distribut-
ed evenly around the engine according to
ISO 6798. The noise at the exhaust outlet is not
included, but provided separately in the follow-
ing sections.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound pressure level Lp is below
110 dB(A) at 100 % MCR. The octave level di-
agram below represents an envelope of aver-
aged measured spectra for comparable
engines at the testbed and is a conservative
spectrum consequently. No room correction is
performed. The data will change depending on
the acoustical properties of the environment.
Figure 2-46 Airborne noise Sound pressure level Lp, octave level diagram V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.23.2 Intake noise
D-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 159
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2.23.2 Intake noise
L51/60DF
Sound power level Lw
Measurement
The (unsilenced) intake air noise is determined
based on measurements at the turbocharger
test bed and on measurements in the intake
duct of typical engines at the test bed.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound power level Lw of the un-
silenced intake noise in the intake duct is below
150 dB at 100 % MCR. The octave level dia-
gram below represents an envelope of aver-
aged measured spectra for comparable
engines and is a conservative spectrum conse-
quently. The data will change depending on the
acoustical properties of the environment.
Figure 2-47 Unsilenced intake noise - sound power level Lw, octave level diagram L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.23.2 Intake noise
Page 2 - 160 51/60DF D-BD
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V51/60DF
Sound power level Lw
Measurement
The (unsilenced) intake air noise is determined
based on measurements at the turbocharger
test bed and on measurements in the intake
duct of typical engines at the test bed.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound power level Lw of the un-
silenced intake noise in the intake duct is below
150 dB at 100 % MCR. The octave level dia-
gram below represents an envelope of aver-
aged measured spectra for comparable
engines and is a conservative spectrum conse-
quently. The data will change depending on the
acoustical properties of the environment.
Figure 2-48 Unsilenced intake noise Sound power level Lw, octave level diagram V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.23.3 Exhaust gas noise
D-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 161
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2.23.3 Exhaust gas noise
L51/60DF
Sound power level Lw at 100 % MCR
Measurement
The (unsilenced) exhaust gas noise is meas-
ured according to internal MAN guidelines at
several positions in the exhaust duct.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced ex-
haust gas noise in the exhaust pipe is shown at
100 % MCR. The octave level diagram below
represents an envelope of averaged measured
spectra for comparable engines and is a con-
servative spectrum consequently. The data will
change depending on the acoustical properties
of the environment.
Figure 2-49 Unsilenced exhaust gas noise Sound power level Lw, octave level diagram L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.23.3 Exhaust gas noise
Page 2 - 162 51/60DF D-BD
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V51/60DF
Sound power level Lw at 100 % MCR
Measurement
The (unsilenced) exhaust gas noise is meas-
ured according to internal MAN guidelines at
several positions in the exhaust duct.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced ex-
haust gas noise in the exhaust pipe is shown at
100 % MCR. The octave level diagram below
represents an envelope of averaged measured
spectra for comparable engines and is a con-
servative spectrum consequently. The data will
change depending on the acoustical properties
of the environment.
Figure 2-50 Unsilenced exhaust gas noise Sound power level Lw, octave level diagram V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.23.4 Charge air blow off noise
D-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 163
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2.23.4 Charge air blow off noise
Sound power level Lw
Measurement
The (unsilenced) charge air blow off noise is
measured according to DIN 45635, part 47 at
the orifice of a duct.
Throttle body with bore size 135 mm
Expansion of charge air from 3.4 bar to ambi-
ent pressure at 42 C (measured worst case)
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced
charge air blow off noise is approximately
141 dB for the measured operation point.
Figure 2-51 Unsilenced charge air blow off noise Sound power level Lw, octave level diagram
Engine and operation
2.24.1 Torsional vibrations
Page 2 - 164 51/60DF F-BA
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2.24 Vibration
2.24.1 Torsional vibrations
Data required for torsional vibration calculation
MAN Diesel & Turbo calculates the torsional vibra-
tions behaviour for each individual engine plant of
their supply to determine the location and severity
of resonance points. If necessary, appropriate
measures will be taken to avoid excessive stresses
due to torsional vibration. These investigations
cover the ideal normal operation of the engine (all
cylinders are firing equally) as well as the simulated
emergency operation (misfiring of the cylinder ex-
erting the greatest influence on vibrations, acting
against compression). Besides the natural fre-
quencies and the modes also the dynamic re-
sponse will be calculated, normally under
consideration of the 1
st
to 24
th
harmonic of the gas
and mass forces of the engine.
If necessary, a torsional vibration calculation will be
worked out which can be submitted for approval
to a legal authority.
To carry out the torsional vibration calculation fol-
lowing particulars and/or documents are required.
General
Type of propulsion (GenSet)
Maximum power consumption of the driven
machines
Engine
Rated output, rated speed
Kind of engine load
Kind of mounting of the engine (can influence
the determination of the flexible coupling)
Flexible coupling
Make, size and type
Rated torque (Nm)
Possible application factor
Maximum speed (rpm)
Permissible maximum torque for passing
through resonance (Nm)
Permissible shock torque for short-term loads
(Nm)
Permanently permissible alternating torque
(Nm) including influencing factors (frequency,
temperature, mean torque)
Permanently permissible power loss (W) includ-
ing influencing factors (frequency, temperature)
Dynamic torsional stiffness (Nm/rad) including
influencing factors (load, frequency, tempera-
ture), if applicable
Relative damping () including influencing fac-
tors (load, frequency, temperature), if applicable
Moment of inertia (kgm) for all parts of the cou-
pling
Dynamic stiffness in radial, axial and angular di-
rection
Permissible relative motions in radial, axial and
angular direction, permanent and maximum
Engine and operation
2.24.1 Torsional vibrations
F-BA 51/60DF Page 2 - 165
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Alternator
Drawing of the alternator shaft with all lengths
and diameters
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Moment of inertia of the parts mounted to the
shaft (kgm)
Electrical output (kVA) including power factor
cos and efficiency
Or mechanical output (kW)
Complex synchronizing coefficients for idling
and full load in dependence on frequency, ref-
erence torque
Island or parallel mode
Load profile (e.g. load steps)
Frequency fluctuation of the electric grid
Engine and operation
2.24.1 Torsional vibrations
Page 2 - 166 51/60DF F-BA
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Engine and operation
2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (static)
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 2 - 167
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2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (static)
Limit values of masses to be coupled after the engine
Evaluation of permissible theoretical bearing loads
Engine 51/60DF
Figure 2-52 Case A: overhung arrangement Figure 2-53 Case B: rigid coupling
M
max
= F * a = F
3
* x
3
+ F
4
* x
4
F
1
= (F
3
* x
2
+ F
5
* x
1
)/l
F
1
Theoretical bearing force at the external engine bearing
F
2
Theoretical bearing force at the alternator bearing
F
3
Flywheel weight
F
4
Coupling weight acting on the engine, including reset forces
F
5
Rotor weight of the alternator
a Distance between end of coupling flange and centre of outer crankshaft bearing
l Distance between centre of outer crankshaft bearing and alternator bearing
Engine
Distance a Case A Case B
M
max
= F * a F
1 max
mm kNm kN
L51/60DF
530 80
1)
1)
Inclusive of couples resulting from restoring forces of the coupling.
140
V51/60DF
560 105
1)
180
Table 2-65 Example calculation case A and B
Engine and operation
2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (static)
Page 2 - 168 51/60DF E-AJ
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Distance between engine seating surface
and crankshaft centre line:
L51/60DF: 700 mm
V51/60DF: 830 mm
Note!
Changes may be necessary as a result of the
torsional vibration calculation or special serv-
ice conditions.
General effective Note!
Masses which are connected downstream of
the engine in the case of an overhung, resp.
rigidly coupled, arrangement result in addition-
al crankshaft bending stress, which is mirrored
in a measured web deflection during engine in-
stallation.
Provided that the limit values for the masses to
be coupled downstream of the engine (permis-
sible values for Mmax and F1max) are com-
plied with, the permitted web deflections will
not be exceeded during assembly.
Observing these values ensures a sufficiently
long operating time before a realignment of the
crankshaft has to be carried out.
Engine and operation
2.26.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel
E-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 169
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2.26 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)
2.26.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel
Engine 51/60DF
975/1,000 kW/cyl.; 500/514 rpm
Constant speed
Marine main engines
Engine Needed
mini-
mum
total
moment
of iner-
tia
1)
Plant
Engine Maxi-
mum
conti-
nous rat-
ing
Moment
of inertia
engine +
damper
Moment
of inertia
fylwheel
Mass of
flywheel
Cyclic
irregular-
ity
Required
mini-
mum
addi-
tional
moment
of inertia
after fly-
wheel
2)
- [kW] [kgm
2
] [kgm
2
] [kg] - [kgm
2
] [kgm
2
]
n = 500 rpm
6L51/60DF 5,850 2,633 3,102 5,324 580 8,210 2,475
7L51/60DF 6,825 3,412 320 9,580 3,066
8L51/60DF 7,800 3,737 540 10,950 4,111
9L51/60DF 8,775 3,565 760 12,310 5,643
12V51/60DF 11,700 4,624 2,935 4,308 1,500 16,420 8,861
14V51/60DF 13,650 5,196 4,100 19,150 11,019
16V51/60DF 15,600 5,768 3,200 21,890 13,187
18V51/60DF 17,550 6,340 2,000 24,620 15,345
Table 2-66 Moments of inertia/flywheels for plants with electric propulsion Engine 51/60DF (1 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.26.1 Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel
Page 2 - 170 51/60DF E-BD
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For flywheels dimensions see "Section 2.1.12: Power
transmission, page 2-91".
n = 514 rpm
6L51/60DF 6,000 2,633 3,102 5,524 610 7,970 2,235
7L51/60DF 7,000 3,412 320 9,300 2,786
8L51/60DF 8,000 3,737 550 10,620 3,781
9L51/60DF 9,000 3,565 760 11,950 5,283
12V51/60DF 12,000 4,624 2,935 4,308 1,600 15,930 8,371
14V51/60DF 14,000 5,196 4,000 18,590 10,459
16V51/60DF 16,000 5,768 3,200 21,240 12,537
18V51/60DF 18,000 6,340 2,000 23,900 14,625
1)
Needed minimum moment of inertia of engine, flywheel and arrangement after flywheel in total.
2)
Required additional moment of inertia after flywheel to achieve the needed minimum total moment of inertia.
Marine main engines
Engine Needed
mini-
mum
total
moment
of iner-
tia
1)
Plant
Engine Maxi-
mum
conti-
nous rat-
ing
Moment
of inertia
engine +
damper
Moment
of inertia
fylwheel
Mass of
flywheel
Cyclic
irregular-
ity
Required
mini-
mum
addi-
tional
moment
of inertia
after fly-
wheel
2)
- [kW] [kgm
2
] [kgm
2
] [kg] - [kgm
2
] [kgm
2
]
Table 2-66 Moments of inertia/flywheels for plants with electric propulsion Engine 51/60DF (2 of 2)
Engine and operation
2.26.2 Balancing of masses Firing order
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 2 - 171
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2.26.2 Balancing of masses Firing order
Engine L51/60DF
Rotating crank balancy100 %
Static reduced rotating mass per
crank including counterweights
and rotating portion of connecting rod
(for a crank radius r = 300 mm) . . . . . . +1.3 kg
Oscillating mass per cylinder. . . . . . . . 635.5 kg
Connecting rod ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.219
Distance between cylinder centrelines. .820 mm
Firing order: counted from coupling side
Engine Firing
order
Residual external couples
M
rot
[kNm] + M
osc 1st order
[kNm] M
osc 2nd order
[kNm]
Engine speed [rpm] 500
vertical horizontal
6L51/60DF A 0 0
7L51/60DF C 87.5
8L51/60DF B 0
9L51/60DF B 27.1 27.1 148
Engine speed (rpm) 514
6L51/60DF A 0 0
7L51/60DF C 92.4
8L51/60DF B 0
9L51/60DF B 28.6 28.6 156.4
For engines of type 51/60DF the external mass forces are equal to zero.
M
rot
is eliminated by means of balancing weights on resiliently mounted engines.
Table 2-67 Residual external couples Engine L51/60DF
No. of cyl. Firing order Clockwise rotation Counter clockwise rotation
6L A 1-3-5-6-4-2 1-2-4-6-5-3
7L C
1)
1)
Irregular firing order.
1-2-4-6-7-5-3 1-3-5-7-6-4-2
8L B 1-4-7-6-8-5-2-3 1-3-2-5-8-6-7-4
9L B 1-6-3-2-8-7-4-9-5 1-5-9-4-7-8-2-3-6
Table 2-68 Firing order Engine L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.26.2 Balancing of masses Firing order
Page 2 - 172 51/60DF E-AJ
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Engine V51/60DF
Rotating crank balancy............................................ 99 %
Static reduced rotating mass per
crank including counterweights
and rotating portion of connecting rod
(for a crank radius r = 300 mm) . . . . . . +15 kg
Oscillating mass per cylinder. . . . . . . . 635.5 kg
Connecting rod ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.219
Distance between cylinder
centrelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 mm
Vee angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Firing order: counted from coupling side
Engine Firing
order
Residual external couples
M
rot
(kNm) M
osc 1st order
(kNm) M
osc 2nd order
(kNm)
Engine speed (rpm) 500
vertical horizontal vertical horizontal
12V51/60DF A 0 0 0
14V51/60DF C 124.3 69.1
16V51/60DF B 0
18V51/60DF A 2.4 166.3 36.2 73.0 40.6
Engine speed (rpm) 514
12V51/60DF A 0 0 0
14V51/60DF C 131.3 73.0
16V51/60DF B 0
18V51/60DF A 2.5 175.7 38.2 77.2 42.9
For engines of type 51/60DF the external mass forces are equal to zero.
M
rot
is eliminated by means of balancing weights on resiliently mounted engines.
Table 2-69 Residual external couples Engine V51/60DF
No. of cyl. Firing order Clockwise rotation Counter clockwise rotation
12V A A1-B1-A3-B3-A5-B5-A6-B6-A4-B4-
A2-B2
A1-B2-A2-B4-A4-B6-A6-B5-A5-B3-
A3-B1
14V C
1)
1)
Irregular firing order.
A1-B1-A2-B2-A4-B4-A6-B6-A7-B7-
A5-B5-A3-B3
A1-B3-A3-B5-A5-B7-A7-B6-A6-B4-
A4-B2-A2-B1
16V B A1-B1-A4-B4-A7-B7-A6-B6-A8-B8-
A5-B5-A2-B2-A3-B3
A1-B3-A3-B2-A2-B5-A5-B8-A8-B6-
A6-B7-A7-B4-A4-B1
18V A A1-B1-A3-B3-A5-B5-A7-B7-A9-B9-
A8-B8-A6-B6-A4-B4-A2-B2
A1-B2-A2-B4-A4-B6-A6-B8-A8-B9-
A9-B7-A7-B5-A5-B3-A3-B1
Table 2-70 Firing order Engine V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.26.3 Static torque fluctuation
A-BD Page 2 - 173
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2.26.3 Static torque fluctuation
General
The static torque fluctuation is the summation-
taking into account the correct phase-angles of
the torques acting at all cranks around the crank-
shaft axis. These torques are created by the gas
and mass forces acting at the crankpins, with the
crank radius being used as the lever see Static
torque fluctuation and exciting frquencies" in this sec-
tion. An absolutely rigid crankshaft is assumed.
The values T
max
and T
min
listed in the tables rep-
resent a measure for the reaction forces occurring
at the foundation of the engine see "Figure 2-54:
Static torque fluctuation". The static values listed in
the table below in each individual case a dynamic
magnification which is dependent upon the char-
acteristics of the foundation (design and material
thicknesses in way of the foundation, type of
chocking).
The reaction forces generated by the torque fluc-
tuation are the most important excitations trans-
mitted into the foundation in the case of a rigidly or
semi-resiliently mounted engine. Their frequency is
dependent upon speed and cylinder number, and
is also listed in the table of the examples.
In order to avoid local vibration excitations in the
vessel, it must be ensured that the natural fre-
quencies of important part structures (e. g. panels,
bulkheads, tank walls and decks, equipment and
its foundation, pipe systems) have a sufficient
safety margin (if possible 30 %) in relation to this
main excitation frequency.
Figure 2-54 Static torque fluctuation
z Number of cylinders
L Distance between foundation bolts
max min
D
T T
F L z
2

=
Engine and operation
2.26.3 Static torque fluctuation
Page 2 - 174 A-BD
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Engine and operation
2.26.3 Static torque fluctuation
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 2 - 175
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Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies
Example to declare abbreviations
Figure 2-55 Static torque fluctuation Engine L51/60DF
Engine L51/60DF
Engine Output Speed T
n
T
max
T
min
Main exciting components
Order Frequency
1)
1)
Exciting frequency of the main harmonic components.
T
kW rpm kNm kNm kNm - Hz kNm
6L51/60DF 5,850 500 111.7 284.2 22.2 3.0
6.0
25.0
50.0
67.6
61.7
7L51/60DF 6,825 130.3 425.3 -46.6 3.5
7.0
29.2
58.3
211.7
45.5
8L51/60DF 7,800 149.0 406.9 -3.6 4.0
8.0
33.3
66.7
180.0
34.9
9L51/60DF 8,775 167.6 416.7 15.9 4.5
9.0
37.5
75.0
176.8
26.4
6 L51/60DF 6,000 514 111.5 271.9 23.7 3.0
6.0
25.7
51.4
58.3
61.7
7 L51/60DF 7,000 130.0 421.0 -46.9 3.5
7.0
30.0
60.0
211.3
45.5
8 L51/60DF 8,000 148.6 401.7 -3.3 4.0
8.0
34.3
68.5
178.7
34.9
9 L51/60DF 9,000 167.2 412.3 15.3 4.5
9.0
38.5
77.1
176.5
26.4
Table 2-71 Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies Engine L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.26.3 Static torque fluctuation
Page 2 - 176 51/60DF E-AJ
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Example to declare abbreviations
Figure 2-56 Static torque fluctuation Engine V51/60DF
Engine V51/60DF
Engine Output Speed T
n
T
max
T
min
Main exciting components
Order Frequency
1)
1)
Exciting frequency of the main harmonic components.
T
kW rpm kNm kNm kNm rpm Hz kNm
12V51/60DF 11,700 500 223.5 406.3 100.0 3.0
6.0
25.0
50.0
35.0
106.9
14V51/60DF 13,650 260.7 418.9 148.0 3.5
7.0
29.2
58.3
18.5
90.6
16V51/60DF 15,600 297.9 452.4 167.1 4.0
8.0
33.3
66.7
62.5
65.5
18V51/60DF 17,550 335.2 504.5 161.0 4.5
9.0
37.5
75.0
135.3
37.3
12V51/60DF 12,000 514 222.9 399.4 94.7 3.0
6.0
25.7
51.4
30.2
106.8
14V51/60DF 14,000 260.1 415.0 146.6 3.5
7.0
30.0
60.0
18.4
90.6
16V51/60DF 16,000 297.3 449.8 165.8 4.0
8.0
34.3
68.5
62.1
65.6
18V51/60DF 18,000 334.4 501.7 159.3 4.5
9.0
38.5
77.1
135.1
37.3
Table 2-72 Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies Engine V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.27.1 Flywheel arrangement
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 2 - 177
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2.27 Power transmission
2.27.1 Flywheel arrangement
Flywheel with flexible coupling

Figure 2-57 Flywheel with flexible coupling
No. of
cylinders
A
1)
1)
Without torsional limit device.
A
2)
2)
With torsional limit device.
E
1)
E
2)
F
min
F
max
No. of
through
bolts
No. of fit-
ted bolts
mm
12V Dimensions will result from clarification of technical details of
propulsion drive
12 2
14V
16V
18V 14
Table 2-73 Dimensions Power transmission
Engine and operation
2.27.1 Flywheel arrangement
Page 2 - 178 51/60DF E-AJ
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Use for project purposes only!
Final dimensions of flywheel and flexible coupling
will result from clarification of technical details of
drive and from the result of the torsional vibration
calculation. Flywheel diameter must not be
changed!
Arrangement of flywheel, coupling and alternator
Figure 2-58 Example for an arrangement of flywheel, coupling and alternator
Engine and operation
2.28 Arrangement of attached pumps
E-BC 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 179
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2.28 Arrangement of attached pumps
Figure 2-59 Attached pumps L48/60B, L48/60CR, L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.28 Arrangement of attached pumps
Page 2 - 180 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF E-BC
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Figure 2-60 Attached pumps V48/60B, V48/60CR, V51/60DF
Note!
The final arrangement of the lube oil and cool-
ing water pumps will be made due to the in-
quiry or order.
Engine and operation
2.29.1 General requirements for engine foundation
J-BC 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 181
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2.29 Foundation
2.29.1 General requirements for engine foundation
Plate thicknesses
The stated material dimensions are recommenda-
tions, calculated for steel plates. Thicknesses
smaller than these should not be allowed. When
using other materials (e.g. aluminium), a sufficient
margin has to be added.
Top plates
Before or after having been welded in place, the
bearing surfaces should be machined and freed
from rolling scale. Surface finish corresponding to
Ra 3.2 peak-to-valley roughness in the area of the
chocks.
The thickness given is the finished size after ma-
chining.
Downward inclination outwards, not exceeding
0.7 %.
Prior to fitting the chocks, clean the bearing sur-
faces from dirt and rust that may have formed: Af-
ter the drilling of the foundation bolt holes,
spotface the lower contact face normal to the bolt
hole.
Foundation girders
The distance of the inner girders must be ob-
served. We recommend that the distance of the
outer girders (only required for larger types) also be
observed.
The girders must be aligned exactly above and un-
derneath the tank top.
Floor plates
No manholes are permitted in the floor plates in
the area of the box-shaped foundation. Welding is
to be carried out through the manholes in the out-
er girders.
Top plate supporting
Provide support in the area of the frames from the
nearest girder below.
Engine and operation
2.29.1 General requirements for engine foundation
Page 2 - 182 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF J-BC
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Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
K-BA 51/60DF Page 2 - 183
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2.29.2 Rigid seating
Engine L51/60DF
Recommended configuration of foundation
Figure 2-61 Recommended configuration of foundation L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
Page 2 - 184 51/60DF K-BA
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Recommended configuration of foundation

Figure 2-62 Recommended configuration of foundation L51/60DF Number of bolts
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
K-BA 51/60DF Page 2 - 185
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Arrangement of foundation bolt holes

Figure 2-63 Arrangement of foundation bolt holes L51/60DF
Two fitted bolts have to be provided either on star-
board side or portside.
In any case they have to be positioned on the cou-
pling side
Number and position of the stoppers have to be
provided according to the figure above.
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
Page 2 - 186 51/60DF K-BA
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Engine 12V, 14V, 16V51/60DF
Recommended configuration of foundation
Figure 2-64 Recommended configuration of foundation 12V, 14V, 16V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
K-BA 51/60DF Page 2 - 187
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Engine 18V51/60DF
Figure 2-65 Recommended configuration of foundation 18V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
Page 2 - 188 51/60DF K-BA
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Engine V51/60DF
Recommended configuration of foundation Number of bolts
Figure 2-66 Recommended configuration of foundation V51/60DF Number of bolts
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
K-BA 51/60DF Page 2 - 189
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Arrangement of foundation bolt holes
Figure 2-67 Arrangement of foundation bolt holes V51/60DF
Two fitted bolts have to be provided either on star-
board side or portside.
In any case they have to be positioned on the cou-
pling side
Number and position of the stoppers have to be
provided according to the figure above.
Engine and operation
2.29.2 Rigid seating
Page 2 - 190 51/60DF K-BA
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Engine and operation
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
A-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 191
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2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
Engine 51/60DF
Most classification societies permit the use of the
following synthetic resins for chocking Diesel en-
gines:
Chockfast Orange
(Philadelphia Resins Corp. U.S.A)
Epocast 36
(H.A. Springer, Kiel)
MAN Diesel & Turbo accepts engines being
chocked with synthetic resin provided
processing is done by authorised agents of the
above companies.
the classification society responsible has ap-
proved the synthetic resin to be used for a unit
pressure (engine weight + foundation bolt
preloading) of 450 N/cm
2
and a chock temper-
ature of at least 80 C.
The loaded area of the chocks must be dimen-
sioned in a way, that the pressure effected by the
engines dead weight does not exceed 70 N/cm
2
(requirement of some classification societies).
The pre-tensioning force of the foundation bolts
was chosen so that the permissible total surface
area load of 450 N/cm
2
is not exceeded. This will
ensure that the horizontal thrust resulting from the
mass forces is safely transmitted by the chocks.
The shipyard is responsible for the execution and
must also grant the warranty.
Tightening of the foundation bolts only permissible
with hydraulic tensioning device. The point of ap-
plication of force is the end of the thread with a
length of 173 mm. Nuts definitely must not be
tightened with hook spanner and hammer, even
for later inspections.j
Engine and operation
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
Page 2 - 192 51/60DF A-BD
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Lightening of foundation bolts
Figure 2-68 Hydraulic tension device
The tensioning tool with tensioning nut and pres-
sure sleeve are included in the standard scope of
supply of tools for the engine.
Hydraulic tension device Unit L51/60DF V51/60DF
Tool number -
-
009.062
055.125
009.010
021.089
Piston area cm 130.18 72.72
Table 2-74 Hydraulic tension tool 51/60DF
Pretensioning force Unit L51/60DF V51/60DF
Pre-tensioning forcer kN 540 420
Pump pressure required bar 500 700
Setting allowance % 20 20
Calculated screw elongation mm 0.63 0.69
Utilisation of yield point % 60 63.5
Table 2-75 Pre-tension force 51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
A-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 193
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Figure 2-69 Chocking with synthetic resin L51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
Page 2 - 194 51/60DF A-BD
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Figure 2-70 Chocking with synthetic resin 12V, 14V, 16V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
A-BD 51/60DF Page 2 - 195
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Figure 2-71 Chocking with synthetic resin 18V51/60DF
Engine and operation
2.29.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
Page 2 - 196 51/60DF A-BD
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Engine and operation
2.29.4 Resilient seating
L-BC 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 197
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2.29.4 Resilient seating
General
The engines cause dynamic effects on the founda-
tion.
These effects are attributed to the pulsating reac-
tion forces due to the fluctuating torque. Addition-
ally, in engines with certain cylinder numbers these
effects are increased by unbalanced forces and
couples brought about by rotating or reciprocating
masses which Considering their vector sum Do
not equate to zero.
The direct resilient support makes it possible to keep
the foundation practically free from the dynamic
forces, which are generated by every reciprocating
engine and may have harmful effects on the envi-
ronment of the engines under adverse conditions.
Therefore MAN Diesel & Turbo offers two different
versions of the resilient mounting to increase the
comfort.
The inclined resilient mounting was developed espe-
cially for ships with high comfort demands, e.g.
passenger ferries and cruise vessels. This mount-
ing system is characterised by natural frequencies
of the resiliently supported engine being lower
than approx. 18 Hz, so that they are well below
those of the pulsating disturbing variables.
For lower demands of comfort, as e.g. for mer-
chant ships, the conical mounting system was creat-
ed. Because of the stiffer design of the elements
the natural frequencies of the system are clearly
higher than in case of the inclined resilient mount-
ing. The structure-borne-sound isolation is thus
decreased. It is, however still considerably better
than in case of a rigid engine support.
The appropriate design of the resilient support will
be selected in accordance with the demands of
the customer, i.e. it will be adjusted to the special
requirements of each plant.
In both versions the supporting elements will be
connected directly to the engine feet by special
brackets.
The number, rubber hardness and distribution of
the supporting elements depends on:
The weight of the engine
The centre of gravity of the engine
The desired natural frequencies
Where resilient mounting is applied, the following
has to be taken into consideration when designing
a propulsion plant:
1. Resilient mountings always feature several res-
onances resulting from the natural mounting
frequencies. In spite of the endeavour to keep
resonances as far as possible from nominal
speed the lower bound of the speed range free
from resonances will rarely be lower than 70 %
of nominal speed for mountings using inclined
mounts and not lower than 85 % for mountings
using conical mounts. It must be pointed out
that these percentages are only guide values.
The speed interval being free from resonances
may be larger or smaller. These restrictions in
speed will mostly require the deployment of a
controllable pitch propeller.
2. Between the resiliently mounted engine and the
rigidly mounted gearbox or alternator, a flexible
coupling with minimum axial and radial elastic
forces and large axial and radial displacement
capacities must be provided.
3. The pipes to and from the engine must be of
highly flexible type.
4. For the inclined resilient support, provision for
stopper elements has to be made because of
the sea-state-related movement of the vessel.
In the case of conical mounting, these stoppers
are integrated in the element.
Engine and operation
2.29.4 Resilient seating
Page 2 - 198 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF L-BC
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5. In order to achieve a good structure-borne-
sound isolation, the lower brackets used to
connect the supporting elements with the
ship's foundation are to be fitted at sufficiently
rigid points of the foundation. Influences of the
foundation's stiffness on the natural frequen-
cies of the resilient support will not be consid-
ered.
6. The yard must specify with which inclination re-
lated to the plane keel the engine will be in-
stalled in the ship. When calculating the resilient
mounting system, it has to be checked whether
the desired inclination can be realised without
special measures. Additional measures always
result in additional costs.
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
K-BA 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 199
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2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
Engine mounting using inclined sandwich elements
Figure 2-72 Recommended configuration of foundation in-line engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
Page 2 - 200 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BA
0
2
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Figure 2-73 Recommended configuration of foundation in-line engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
K-BA 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 201
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12V, 14V and 16V Engine
Figure 2-74 Recommended configuration of foundation 12V, 14V and 16V engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
Page 2 - 202 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BA
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18 V Engine
Figure 2-75 Recommended configuration of foundation 18 V engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
K-BA 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 203
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Figure 2-76 Recommended configuration of foundation vee-engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
Page 2 - 204 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BA
0
2
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Engine mounting using conical mounts
Figure 2-77 Recommended configuration of foundation in-line engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
K-BA 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 205
0
2
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Figure 2-78 Recommended configuration of foundation in-line engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
Page 2 - 206 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BA
0
2
1
8
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6
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Figure 2-79 Recommended configuration of foundation vee-engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
K-BA 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 2 - 207
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2
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Figure 2-80 Recommended configuration of foundation vee-engine Resilient seating
Engine and operation
2.29.5 Recommended configuration of foundation
Page 2 - 208 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BA
0
2
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Engine and operation
2.29.6 Engine alignment
F-BA Page 2 - 209
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2.29.6 Engine alignment
The alignment of the engine to the attached power
train is crucial for troublefree operation.
Dependent on the plant installation influencing fac-
tors on the alignment might be:
Thermal expansion of the foundations
Thermal expansion of the engine, alternator or
the gearbox
Thermal expansion of the rubber elements in
the case of resilient mounting
The settling behaviour of the resilient mounting
Shaft misalignment under pressure
Necessary axial pre-tensioning of the flex-cou-
pling
Therefore take care that a special alignment calcu-
lation, resulting in alignment tolerance limits will be
carried out.
Follow the relevant working instructions of this
specific engine type. Alignment tolerance limits
must not be exceeded.
Engine and operation
2.29.6 Engine alignment
Page 2 - 210 F-BA
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Page 3 - 1
K
a
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3

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3 Engine automation
Page 3 - 2
K
a
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3

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Engine automation
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
I-AH 51/60DF Page 3 - 3
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3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
Figure 3-1 SaCoS
one
system overview
The monitoring and safety system SaCoS
one
is re-
sponsible for complete engine operation, control,
alarming and safety. All sensors and operating de-
vices are wired to the engine-attached units. The
interface to the plant is done by means of an Inter-
face Cabinet.
During engine installation, only the bus connec-
tions, the power supply and safety-related signal
cables between the Control Unit, Injection Unit
and the Interface/Auxiliary Cabinet are to be laid,
as well as connections to external modules, elec-
trical motors on the engine and parts on site.
Legend
1 Control Unit
2 Injection Unit
3 System Bus
4 Local Operating Panel
5 Interface Cabinet
6 Auxiliary Cabinet
7 Remote Operating Panel (optional)
Engine automation
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
Page 3 - 4 51/60DF I-AH
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The SaCoS
one
design is based on highly reliable
and approved components as well as modules
specially designed for installation on medium
speed engines. The used components are harmo-
nized to an homogenous system.
The system is tested and parameterised in the fac-
tory.
Control Unit
The Control Unit is attached to the engine cu-
shioned against vibration. It includes two identical,
highly integrated Control Modules: one for safety
functions and the other one for engine control and
alarming.
The modules work independently of each other
and collect engine measuring data by means of
separate sensors.
Figure 3-2 Control unit
Injection Unit
The Injection Unit is attached to the engine cu-
shioned against vibration. It includes two identical,
highly integrated injection modules.
The Injection Modules are responsible for speed
control, pilot fuel control and the actuation of the
gas injection valves.
Injection Module I is used for L-engines. At V-en-
gines it is used for bank A.
Injection Module II is used for bank B (only used for
V-engines).
Figure 3-3 Injection unit
Engine automation
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
I-AH 51/60DF Page 3 - 5
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SaCoS
one
System Bus
The SaCoS
one
system bus connects all system
modules. This redundant field bus system pro-
vides the basis of data exchange between the
modules and allows the takeover of redundant
measuring values from other modules in case of a
sensor failure.
SaCoS
one
is connected to the plant by the Gate-
way Module. This module is equipped with decen-
tral input and output channels, as well as different
interfaces for connection to the plant/ship auto-
mation, the Remote Operating Panel and the on-
line service.
Figure 3-4 SaCoS
one
System Bus
Engine automation
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
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Local Operating Panel
The engine is equipped with a Local Operating
Panel cushioned against vibration. This panel is
equipped with a TFT display for visualisation of all
engine operating and measuring data. At the Local
Operating Panel the engine can be fully operated.
Additional hardwired switches are available for rel-
evant functions.
Propulsion engines are equipped with a backup
display (as shown on top of the Local Operating
Panel). Generator engines are not equipped with
this backup display.
Figure 3-5 Local Operating Panel
Engine automation
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
I-AH 51/60DF Page 3 - 7
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Interface Cabinet
The Interface Cabinet is the interface between the
engine electronics and the plant control. It is the
central connecting point for 24 V DC power supply
to the engine from the plant/vessels power distri-
bution.
Besides, it connects the engine safety and control
system with the power management, the propul-
sion control system and other periphery parts.
The supply of the SaCoS
one
subsystems is done
by the Interface Cabinet.
Figure 3-6 Interface Cabinet
Auxiliary Cabinet
The Auxiliary Cabinet is the central connection for
the 400 V AC power supply to the engine from the
plant/vessels power distribution. It includes the
starters for the engine-attached cylinder lube oil
pump(s), the temperature control valves and the
electric high-pressure fuel pump for pilot injection,
as well as the driver unit for the fuel rack actuator.
Figure 3-7 Auxiliary Cabinet
Gas Valve Unit Control Cabinet
The Gas Valve Unit Control Cabinet is a special ex-
tension for operation of the gas valve unit by Sa-
CoS
one
. It is connected to the Interface Cabinet by
one supply and one field bus cable and prevents
the yard from complicated cable works on sepa-
rated cable trays. The unit is to be installed in a
non-hazardous area outside the gas valve unit
room.
Engine automation
3.1 SaCoS
one
system overview
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Remote Operating Panel (optional)
The Remote Operating Panel serves for engine
operation from a control room. The Remote Oper-
ating Panel has the same functions as the Local
Operating Panel.
From this operating device it is possible to transfer
the engine operation functions to a superior auto-
matic system (propulsion control system, power
management).
In plants with integrated automation systems, this
panel can be replaced by IAS.
The panel can be delivered as loose supply for in-
stallation in the control room desk or integrated in
the front door of the Interface Cabinet.
Figure 3-8 Remote Operating Panel (optional)














Engine automation
3.2 Power supply and distribution
I-AH 51/60DF Page 3 - 9
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3.2 Power supply and distribution
The plant has to provide electric power for the au-
tomation and monitoring system. In general, an
uninterrupted 24 V DC power supply is required
for SaCoS
one
.
For the supply of the electronic backup fuel actu-
ator an uninterrupted 230 V AC distribution must
be provided.
Figure 3-9 Supply diagramm
Engine automation
3.2 Power supply and distribution
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Engine automation
3.3 Operation
K-BB 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 3 - 11
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3.3 Operation
Control Station Changeover
The operation and control can be done from both
operating panels. Selection and activation of the
control stations is possible at the Local Operating
Panel. The operating rights can be handed over
from the Remote Operating Panel to another Re-
mote Operating Panel or to an external automatic
system. A handshake is therefore necessary. For
applications with Integrated Automation Systems
(IAS) also the functionality of the Remote Operat-
ing Panel can be taken over by the IAS.
Figure 3-10 Control station changeover
On the screen displays, all the measuring points
acquired by means of can be shown in clearly ar-
ranged drawings and figures. It is not necessary to
install additional speed indicators separately.
Engine automation
3.3 Operation
Page 3 - 12 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BB
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Speed setting
In case of operating with one of the panels, the
engine speed setting is carried out manually by a
decrease/increase switch button. If the operation
is controlled by an external system, the speed set-
ting can be done either by means of binary con-
tacts (e.g. for synchronisation) or by an active 4
20 mA analogue signal alternatively. The signal
type for this is to be defined in the project planning
period.
Operating modes
For alternator applications:
Droop (5-percent speed increase between
nominal load and no load)
For propulsion engines:
Isochronous
Master/Slave Operation for operation of two
engines on one gear box
The operating mode is pre-selected via the
interface and has to be defined during the appli-
cation period.
Details regarding special operating modes on re-
quest.
Engine automation
3.4 Functionality
G-BC 51/60DF Page 3 - 13
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3.4 Functionality
Safety functions
The safety system monitors all operating data of
the engine and initiates the required actions, i.e.
load reduction or engine shutdown, in case any
limit values are exceeded. The safety system is
separated into Control Module and Gateway Mod-
ule. The Control Module supervises the engine,
while the Gateway Module examines all functions
relevant for the security of the connected plant
components.
The system is designed to ensure that all functions
are achieved in accordance with the classification
societies' requirements for marine main engines.
The safety system directly influences the emer-
gency shutdown, the speed control, the Gas Valve
Unit Control Cabinet and the Auxiliary Cabinet.
It is possible to import additional shutdowns and
blockings of external systems in SaCoS
one
.
Load reduction
After the exceeding of certain parameters the clas-
sification societies demand a load reduction to
60%. The safety system supervises these param-
eters and requests a load reduction, if necessary.
The load reduction has to be carried out by an ex-
ternal system (IAS, PMS, PCS). For safety rea-
sons, SaCoS
one
will not reduce the load by itself.
Auto shutdown
Auto shutdown is an engine shutdown initiated by
any automatic supervision of either engine internal
parameters or above mentioned external control
systems. If an engine shutdown is triggered by the
safety system, the emergency stop signal has an
immediate effect on the emergency shutdown de-
vice, and the speed control. At the same time the
emergency stop is triggered, SaCoS
one
issues a
signal resulting in the alternator switch to be
opened.
Emergency stop
Emergency stop is an engine shutdown initiated
by an operators manual action, like pressing an
emergency stop button.
Engine shutdown
If an engine shutdown is triggered by the safety
system, the shutdown signal is carried out by ac-
tivating the emergency stop valve and by a pneu-
matic shut-off of the common rail pilot fuel, the
block-and-bleed gas valves and the conventional
fuel pumps.
At the same time the emergency stop is triggered,
SaCoS
one
requests to open the generator switch.
Overspeed protection
The engine speed is monitored in both Control
Modules independently. In case of overspeed
each Control Module actuates the shutdown de-
vice via a separate hardware channel.
Override
Only during operation in Diesel mode safety ac-
tions can be suppressed by the override function.
In gas mode, if override is selected, an automatic
changeover to Diesel mode will be performed. The
override has to be selected before a safety action
is actuated. The scope of parameters prepared for
override is different and depends on the chosen
classification society. The availability of the over-
ride function depends on the application.
Alarming
The alarm function of SaCoS
one
supervises all nec-
essary parameters and generates alarms to indi-
cate discrepancies when required. The alarm
functions are likewise separated into Control Mod-
ule and Gateway Module. In the Gateway Module
the supervision of the connected external systems
takes place. The alarm functions are processed in
an area completely independent of the safety sys-
tem area in the Gateway Module.
Engine automation
3.4 Functionality
Page 3 - 14 51/60DF G-BC
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Self-monitoring
SaCoS
one
carries out independent self-monitoring
functions. Thus, for example, the connected sen-
sors are checked constantly for function and wire
break. In case of a fault, SaCoS
one
reports the oc-
curred malfunctions in single system components
via system alarms.
Speed control
The engine speed control is realised by software
functions of the Control Module/alarm and the In-
jection Modules. Engine speed and crankshaft
turn angle indication is carried out by means of re-
dundant pick ups at the gear drive.
Load distribution - multi engine and master slave plants
With electronic governors, the load distribution is
carried out by speed droop, isochronously by
loadsharing lines or by master/slave operation.
Load limit curves
Start fuel limiter
Charge-air pressure dependent fuel limiter
Torque limiter
Jump-rate limiter
Remarks
In case of controllable pitch propeller (CPP) units
with combinator mode the combinator curves
must be sent to MAN Diesel & Turbo for assess-
ment in the design stage. If load control systems
of the CPP-supplier are used, the load control
curve is to be sent to MAN Diesel & Turbo, in order
to check whether it is below the load limit curve of
the engine.
Control
SaCoS
one
controls all engine-internal functions, as
well as external components, for example:
Start/stop sequences
- Request of lube oil and cooling water
pumps.
- Monitoring of the prelubrication and post-
cooling period.
- Monitoring of the acceleration period.
Fuel changeover
- Release of the gas operating mode
- Control of the switch-over from one fuel type
to another.
- Fuel injection flow is controlled by the speed
governor.
Control station switch-over
Switch-over from local operation in the engine
room to remote control from the engine control
room.
Knock control
For the purpose of knock recognition, a special
evaluation unit is fitted to the engine and connect-
ed to the engine control via the CAN bus.
Air-fuel ratio control
For air-fuel ratio control, part of the charge air is re-
routed via a bypass flap. The exhaust gas temper-
ature upstream of the turbine, as well as
characteristic fields stored in the engine control,
are used for control purposes. The air-fuel ratio
control is only active in gas operating mode. In
Diesel operating mode, the flap remains closed.
Control of the gas valve unit
The gas pressure at the engine inlet is specified by
the engine control and regulated by the gas valve
unit. The main gas valves are activated by the en-
gine control system. Prior to every engine start
and switch-over to the gas operating mode re-
spectively, the block-and-bleed valves are
checked for tightness (see also "Section: Fuel oil sys-
tem").
Engine automation
3.4 Functionality
G-BC 51/60DF Page 3 - 15
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Figure 3-11 Schematic drawing of engine control
External control functions:
Electrical lubricating oil pump
Electrical driven HT cooling water pump
Electrical driven LT cooling water pump
Nozzle cooling water module
HT preheating unit
Clutches
The scope of control functions depends on plant
configuration and must be coordinated during the
project engineering phase.
Engine automation
3.4 Functionality
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Starters
For engine-attached pumps and motors the start-
ers are installed in the auxiliary cabinet. Starters for
external pumps and consumers are not included
in the SaCoS
one
scope of supply generally.
Media Temperature Control
Various media flows must be controlled to ensure
trouble-free engine operation.
The temperature controllers are available as soft-
ware functions inside the gateway module of Sa-
CoS
one
. The temperature controllers are operated
by the displays at the operating panels as far as it
is necessary. From the Interface Cabinet the relays
actuate the control valves.
- The cylinder cooling water (HT) temperature
control is equipped with performance-relat-
ed feed forward control, in order to guaran-
tee the best control accuracy possible
(please refer also "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water
system diagram, page 5-45").
- The low temperature (LT) cooling water tem-
perature control works similarly to the HT
cooling water temperature control and can
be used if the LT cooling water system is de-
signed as one individual cooling water sys-
tem per engine.
In case several engines are operated with a
combined LT cooling water system, it is nec-
essary to use an external temperature con-
troller.
This external controller must be mounted
on the engine control room desk and is to be
wired to the temperature control valve
(please refer also "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water
system diagram, page 5-45").
- The charge-air temperature control is de-
signed identically with the HT cooling water
temperature control.
The cooling water quantity in the LT part of
the charge-air cooler is regulated by the
charge air temperature control valve (please
refer also "Section 5.3.1: Cooling water system
diagram, page 5-45").
- The design of the lube oil temperature con-
trol depends on the engine type. It is de-
signed either as a thermostatic valve (wax-
cartridge type) or as an electric driven con-
trol valve with electronic control similar to the
HT temperature controller. Please refer also
"Section 6.2: Lube oil system, page 6-5").
Engine automation
3.5 Interfaces
G-BC 51/60DF Page 3 - 17
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3.5 Interfaces
Data Bus Interface (Machinery Alarm System)
This interface serves for data exchange to ship
alarm systems, integrated automation systems
(IAS) or superior power plant operating systems.
The interface is actuated with MODBUS protocol
and is available as:
Ethernet interface (MODBUS over TCP) (cable
length <= 100 m), or as
serial interface (MODBUS RTU) RS422/RS485,
Standard 5 wire.
Only if the Ethernet interface is used, the transfer
of data can be handled with timestamps from Sa-
CoS
one
.
The status messages, alarms and safety actions
generated in the system can be transferred.
All measuring values acquired by SaCoS
one
are
available for transfer.
Generator Control
Hardwired interface, used for example for syn-
chronisation, load indication, etc.
Power Management
Hardwired interface, for remote start/stop, load
setting, fuel mode selection, etc.
Propulsion Control System
Standardized hardwired interface including all sig-
nals for control and safety actions between
SaCoS
one
and the propulsion control system.
Others
In addition, interfaces to auxiliary systems are
available, such as:
nozzle cooling water module
HT preheating unit
electric driven pumps for lube oil, HT- and LT
cooling water
clutches
gearbox
propulsion control system
On request, additional hardwired interfaces can be
provided for special applications.
Cables Scope of supply
The bus cables between engine and interface are
scope of the MAN Diesel SE supply.
The control cables and power cables are not
included in the scope of the MAN Diesel SE
supply. This cabling has to be carried out by
the customer.
Engine automation
3.5 Interfaces
Page 3 - 18 51/60DF G-BC
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System block diagram
Figure 3-12 Automation overview - system block diagram
Engine automation
3.6 Technical data
I-AH 51/60DF Page 3 - 19
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3.6 Technical data
Interface Cabinet
Design:
Floor-standing cabinet
Cable entries from below through cabinet base
Accessible by front doors
Doors with locks
Opening angle: 90
MAN Standard color light grey (RAL7035)
Weight: approx. 300 kg
Dimensions: 1200 x 2100 x 400 mm*
* width x height x depth (including base)
Degree of protection: IP54.
Environmental Conditions:
Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Vibrations < 0.7 g.
Auxiliary Cabinet
Design:
Floor-standing cabinet
Cable entries from below
Accessible by front doors
Doors with locks
Opening angle: 90
Standard colour light grey (RAL7035)
Weight: app. 300 kg
Dimensions: 1200 x 2100 x 400 mm*
* width x height x depth (including base)
Degree of protection: IP54.
Environmental Conditions:
Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Vibrations: < 0.7 g.
Gas Valve Unit Control Cabinet
Design:
Wall mounted cabinet
Cable entries from below
Accessible by front door
Door with locks
Opening angle: 90
Standard colour light grey (RAL7035)
Weight: app. 40 kg
Dimensions: 500 x 500 x 300 mm*
* width x height x depth (including base)
Degree of protection: IP54.
Environmental Conditions:
Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Vibrations: < 0.7g.
Engine automation
3.6 Technical data
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Remote Operating Panel (optional)
Design:
Panel for control desk installation with 3 m ca-
ble to terminal bar for installation inside control
desk
Front color: white aluminium (RAL9006)
Weight: 15 kg
Dimensions: 370 x 480 x 150 mm*
* width x height x depth (including base)
Degree of protection: IP23.
Environmental Conditions:
Ambient air temperature: +5 C to +55 C
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Vibrations: < 0.7 g.
Electrical own consumption
Consumer Supply system Remarks
Pn
(kVA)
Ub
(V)
F
(Hz)
Phase Fuse/
Starter
by yard
-
SaCoS
one
Interface Cabinet 0.9
1)

1.2
2)

1)
9 L51/60DF
2)
18 V51/60DF
24 DC +/- 50A
1)
63A
2)
Power supply from ship battery
distribution
(two line redundant power
supply)
SaCoS
one
Interface Cabinet 2.3 230 50/60 AC 1 10A Cabinet illumination, socket,
anticondensation heater
SaCoS
one
auxiliary cabinet 3.0 230 50/60 AC 1 16A Temperature regulating valve
drive for HT cooling water, lube
oil, charge air. Cabinet illumina-
tion, socket, anticondensation
heater
SaCoS
one
auxiliary cabinet 1.5 230 50/60 AC 1 16A Battery buffered supply
according to class req. for
electronic speed governors.
SaCoS
one
auxiliary cabinet 20
1)
28
2) 400-480
50/60 AC 3 50A
1)
63A
2)
High pressure fuel pump, cylin-
der lubrication, fuel rack actua-
tor, turning gear.
Table 3-1 Electrical own consumption
Engine automation
3.7 Installation requirements
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3.7 Installation requirements
Location
The Interface Cabinet and the auxiliary cabinet are
designed for installation in non-hazardous areas.
The cabinets must be installed at a location suita-
ble for service inspection.
Do not install the cabinets close to heat-generat-
ing devices.
In case of installation at walls, the distance be-
tween the cabinets and the wall has to be at least
100 mm in order to allow air convection.
Regarding the installation in engine rooms, the
cabinets should be supplied with fresh air by the
engine room ventilation through a dedicated venti-
lation air pipe near the engine.
Note!
If the restrictions for ambient temperature can
not be kept, the cabinets must be ordered with
an optional air condition system.
Ambient air conditions
For restrictions of ambient conditions, please refer
to "Section 2.2.6: Technical Data, page 2-123".
Cabling
The interconnection cables between the engine
and the interface/auxiliary cabinet have to be in-
stalled according to the rules of electromagnetic
compatibility. Control cables and power cables
have to be routed in separate cable ducts.
The cables for the connection of sensors and ac-
tuators which are not mounted on the engine are
not included in the scope of MAN Diesel SE sup-
ply. Shielded cables have to be used for the ca-
bling of sensors. For electrical noise protection, an
electric ground connection must be made from
the cabinets to the hull of the ship.
All cabling between the Interface Cabinet, auxi-li-
ary cabinet and the controlled device is scope of
yard supply.
The cabinets are equipped with spring loaded ter-
minal clamps. All wiring to external systems
should be carried out without conductor sleeves.
The redundant CAN cables are MAN Diesel scope
of supply. If the customer provides these cables,
the cable must have a characteristic impedance of
120 O.
Maximum cable lengths
Installation Works
During the installation period the yard has to pro-
tect the cabinets against water, dust and fire. It is
not allowed to do any welding near the cabinets.
The cabinets have to be fixed to the floor by
screws.
If it is inevitable to do welding near the cabinets,
the cabinets and panels have to be protected
against heat, electric current and electromagnetic
influences. To guarantee protection against cur-
rent, all of the cabling must be disconnected from
the affected components.
The installation of additional components inside
the cabinets is only allowed after approval by the
responsible project manager of MAN Diesel SE.
Connection max. cable length
Cables between engine and
Interface Cabinet
s 60 m
Cables between engine and aux-
iliary cabinet
s 100 m
MODBUS cable between Inter-
face Cabinet and ship alarm sys-
tem (only for Ethernet)
s 100 m
Cable between Interface Cabinet
and Remote Operating Panel
s100 m
Table 3-2 Maximum cable length
Engine automation
3.7 Installation requirements
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4 Specification for engine supplies
Page 4 - 2
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Specification for engine supplies
4.1.1 Lubricating oil
A-BD 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 3
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4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies Dual-fuel engines
Temperatures and pressures stated in Planning
data" must be considered.
4.1.1 Lubricating oil
The selection is mainly affected by the used fuel
grade.
Selection of the lubricating oil must be in accord-
ance with "Section 4.2: Specification for lubricating oil
for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF,
page 4-7", where it distinguishes between following
operation modes:
Pure gas operation (> 2,000 h)
Pure diesel operation or alternating gas/diesel
operation
Pure heavy fuel oil operation (> 2,000 h)
Alternating gas/heavy oil operation
A base number (BN) that is too low is critical due
to the risk of corrosion. A base number that is too
high is, could lead to deposits/sedimentation and
takes the risk of self ignition/knocking in gas
mode.
In general DF engines would be assigned to the
operating mode "Alternating gas/heavy oil opera-
tion". The aim of the lubricating oil concept for flex-
ible fuel operation is to keep the BN of the
lubricating oil between 20 and 30 mg KOH/g. The
BN should not be less than 20 mg KOH/g with
HFO operation and the BN should not be more
then 30 mg KOH/g with gas operation.
Therefore it is recommended to use two lube oil
storage tanks with BN20 (for gas mode) and BN40
(for HFO operation). First filling on lube oil servcie
tank to be done with BN30 (mixture of both lube
oils). During gas operation the specific lube oil
consumption is replenished with BN20. During
HFO operation the specific lube oil consumption is
replenished with BN40.
The oils used (BN20 and BN40) must be of the
same brand without fail (same supplier). This en-
sures that the oils are fully compatible with each
other.
Please be aware that a change from HFO to
MDO/MGO as main fuel for an extended period
will demand a change of the lube oil accordindly.
Main fuel Lube oil type Viscosity
class
Base No. (BN)
Gas
(+MDO/MGO for ignition only)
Doped (HD) + additives SAE 40 6 12 mg KOH/g Depends on
sulphur con-
tent
MGO (class DMA or MDZ) 12 20 mg KOH/g
MDO (ISO-F-DMB) 12 20 mg KOH/g
HFO Medium-alkaline + addi-
tives
30 40 mg KOH/g
Table 4-1 Main fuel/lube oil type
Specification for engine supplies
4.1.2 Operation with gaseous fuel
Page 4 - 4 35/44DF, 51/60DF A-BD
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4.1.2 Operation with gaseous fuel
In gas mode, natural gas is to be used according
to the qualities mentioned in the relevant section.
If the engine is operated with liquid fuel, the gas
valves and gas supply pipes are to be purged and
vented.
4.1.3 Operation with liquid fuel
The engine is designed for operation with HFO,
MDO (DMB) and MGO (DMA, DMZ) according to
ISO8217-2010 in the qualities quoted in the rele-
vant sections.
Additional requirements for HFO before engine:
Water content before engine: max. 0.2 %
Al + Si content before engine: max 15 mg/kg
Engine operation with MGO (DMA, DMZ) according to
ISO 8217-2010, viscosity > 2 cSt at 40 C
A) Short-term operation, max. 72 hours
Engines that are normally operated with heavy fu-
el, can also be operated with MGO (DMA/DMZ) for
short periods.
Boundary conditions:
Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA/DMZ) and
a viscosity of > 2 cSt at 40 C
MGO-operation maximum 72 hours within a
two week period (cumulative with distribution
as required)
Fuel oil cooler switched on and fuel oil temper-
ature before engine s 45 C. In general the min-
imum viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must
not be undershoot!
B) Long-term (> 72h) or continuous operation
For long-term (> 72h) or continuous operation with
MGO (DMA, DMZ), viscosity > 2 cst at 40 C, spe-
cial engine- and plant-related planning prerequi-
sites must be set and special actions are
necessary during operation.
Following features are required on engine side:
In case of conventional injection system, injec-
tion pumps with sealing oil system, which can
be activated and cut off manually, are neces-
sary
Following features are required on plant side:
Layout of fuel system to be adapted for low-vis-
cosity fuel (capacity and design of fuel supply
and booster pump)
Cooler layout in fuel system for a fuel oil tem-
perature before engine of s 45 C
Nozzle cooling system with possibility to be
turned off and on during engine operation
Boundary conditions for operation:
Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA, DMZ) and
a viscosity of > 2 cSt at 40 C
Fuel oil cooler activated and fuel oil temperature
before engine s 45 C. In general the minimum
viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must not be
undershoot!
Inlet valve lubrication turned on
In case of conventional injection system, seal-
ing oil of injection pumps activated
Nozzle cooling system switched off
Continuous operation with MGO (DMA, DMZ):
Lube oil for diesel operation (BN10-BN16) has
to be used
Operation with heavy fuel oil of a sulphur content of
< 1,5 %
Previous experience with stationary engines using
heavy fuel of a sulphur content of < 1 % or even
0.2 % does not show any restriction in the utilisa-
tion of these fuels, provided that the combustion
properties are not affected negatively.
This may well change if in the future new methods
are developed to produce low sulphur-containing
heavy fuels.
Specification for engine supplies
4.1.4 Pilot fuel
A-BD 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 5
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If it is intended to run continuously with low sul-
phur-containing heavy fuel, lube oil with a low BN
(BN30) has to be used. This is needed, in spite of
experiences that engines has been proven to be
very robust regard to the continuous usage of the
standard lubrication oil (BN40) for this purpose.
Instruction for minimum admissible fuel temperature
In general the minimum viscosity before engine
of 1.9 cSt must not be undershoot.
The fuel specific characteristic values pour
point and cold filter plugging point have to be
observed to ensure pumpability respectively fil-
terability of the fuel oil.
Fuel temperatures of approximately minus
10 C and less have to be avoided, due to tem-
porarily embrittlement of seals used in the en-
gines fuel oil system and as a result their
possibly loss of function.
4.1.4 Pilot fuel
For ignition in gas mode, a small amount of Pi-
lot fuel is required. MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO
(DMB) are approved as Pilot fuel at the engine
51/60DF. Only MGO (DMA, DMZ) is approved
as Pilot fuel at the engine 35/44DF. Quality as
mentioned in "Section 4.5: Specification for diesel oil
(MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines, page 4-21".
Pilot fuel is to be used during operation with liq-
uid fuel too, for cooling the injector needles.
If the main injection system is operated with
"sealing oil" (= lube oil) at the main injection
pumps (while DMA, DMZ or DMB operation),
the leakage fuel will be contaminated by lube
oil. This leakage must not be used in the pilot
fuel system and has to be disposed, due to al-
ready small amounts of lube oil will destroy the
main components of the pilot fuel injection sys-
tem!
A filtering of the pilot fuel has to be provided to
achive cleanliness level 12/9/6 according to
ISO 4406.
4.1.5 Engine cooling water
The quality of the engine cooling water required in
relevant section has to be ensured.
4.1.6 Intake air
The quality of the intake air as stated in the rele-
vant sections has to be ensured.
4.1.7 Inert gas
After ending gas mode, all relevant gas installions
are to be purged and vented to ensure gas free,
non-explosive conditions in the pipes and valves.
The quality of inert gases required for purging has
to be ensured as mentioned in the relevant sec-
tion.
Nozzle cooling system activation
Kind of fuel activated
MGO (DMA, DMZ) no, see "Paragraph: Operation
with liquid fuel, page 4-4"
MDO (DMB) no
HFO yes
Gas yes
Table 4-2 Nozzle cooling system activation
Specification for engine supplies
4.1.7 Inert gas
Page 4 - 6 35/44DF, 51/60DF A-BD
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Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
I-BC L35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 7
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4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines
35/44DF, 51/60DF
The specific output achieved by modern diesel en-
gines combined with the use of fuels that satisfy
the quality requirements more and more frequently
increase the demands on the performance of the
lubricating oil which must therefore be carefully se-
lected.
Doped lubricating oils (HD oils) have a proven
track record when it comes to the lubrication of
the drive, cylinder, turbocharger and cooling the
piston. Doped lubricating oils contain additives
that, among other things, ensure dirt holding ca-
pability, clean the engine and neutralise the acidic
products of combustion.
Only lubricating oils that have been approved by
MAN Diesel & Turbo SE may be used. These are
listed in "Table 4-3: Base oils Target values".
Specifications
Base oil
The base oil (compounded lubricating oil = base oil
+ additives) must have a narrow distillation range
and be refined using modern methods. If it con-
tains paraffins, they must not impair the thermal
stability or oxidation stability.
The base oil must comply with the limit values in
"Table 4-3: Base oils Target values", particularly in
terms of its resistance to ageing.
Evaporation tendency
The evaporation tendency must be as low as pos-
sible as otherwise the oil consumption is adversely
affected.
Additives
The additives must be dissolved in the oil and their
composition must ensure that as little ash as pos-
sible remains following combustion.
The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not
met, it is likely the rate of deposition in the com-
bustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the
outlet valves and at the turbocharger inlet housing.
Hard additive ash promotes pitting of the valve
seats and causes the valves to burn out, it also in-
creases mechanical wear.
Additives must not increase the rate at which the
filter elements in the active or used condition are
blocked.
Lubricating oil additives
The use of other additives with the lubricating oil,
or the mixing of different brands (oils by different
manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
the performance of the existing additives which
have been carefully harmonised with each another
and also specifically tailored to the basic oil.
Properties/Characteristics Unit Test method Limit value
Make-up - - Ideally paraffin based
Low-temperature behaviour, still flowable C ASTM D 2500 15
Flash point (Cleveland) ASTM D 92 > 200
Ash content (oxidised ash) Weight% ASTM D 482 < 0.02
Coke residue (according to Conradson) ASTM D 189 < 0.50
Table 4-3 Base oils Target values
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
Page 4 - 8 L35/44DF, 51/60DF I-BC
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Speed govenor
Multipurpose oil 5W40 should ideally be used in
mechanical-hydraulic controllers with a separate
oil sump, unless the technical documentation for
the speed governor specifies otherwise. If this oil
is not available when filling, 15W40 oil can be used
instead in exceptional cases. In this case, it makes
no difference whether synthetic or mineral-based
oils are used.
The military specification for these oils is O-236.
The oil quality prescribed by the manufacturer
must be used for the remaining engine system
components.
Selection of lubricating oils/warranty
The majority of mineral oil companies are in close
regular contact with engine manufacturers and
can therefore provide information on which oil in
their specific product range has been approved by
the engine manufacturer for the particular applica-
tion. Irrespective of the above, lubricating oil man-
ufacturers are liable in any case for the quality and
characteristics of their products. If you have any
questions, we will be happy to provide you with
further information.
Oil during operation
There are no prescribed oil change intervals for
MAN Diesel & Turbo medium speed engines. The
oil properties must be regularly analysed. The oil
can be used for as long as the oil properties re-
main within the defined limit values (see "Table 4-5:
Limit values for lubricating oils during operation (pure gas
operation)", "Table 4-7: Limit values for lubricating oils
during operation (diesel oil/gas oil)", "Table 4-10: Limit
values for lubricating oil during operation (pure heavy fuel
oil operation)" and "Table 4-12: Limit values for lubricat-
ing oil during operation (alternating gas/heavy fuel oil op-
eration)"). An oil sample must be analysed every 1
3 months (see maintenance schedule).
Safety/environmental protection
If operating fluids are not handled correctly this
can pose a risk to health, safety and environment.
The corresponding manufacturers instructions
must be followed.
Analyses
We can analyse lubricating oil for customers at our
laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
Operating modes
The 35/44DF and the 51/60DF engines are char-
acterised by extremely high flexibility as it can run
on gas, diesel and heavy fuel oil (HFO).
Every fuel places different demands on the lubri-
cating oil. To ensure that the right lubricating oil is
found for the application concerned, four different
operating modes have been identified:
1. Pure gas operation (> 2,000 h)
2. Pure diesel operation or alternating gas/diesel
operation
3. Pure heavy fuel oil operation (> 2,000 h)
4. Alternating gas/heavy oil operation
Ageing tendency following 100 hours of
heating up to 135C
- MAN ageing
oven
1)
-
Insoluble n-heptane Weight% ASTM D 4055
or DIN 51592
< 0.2
Evaporation loss Weight% - < 2
Spot test (filter paper) - MAN Diesel &
Turbo test
Precipitation of resins or asphalt-
like ageing products must not be
identifiable.
1)
Works own method.
Properties/Characteristics Unit Test method Limit value
Table 4-3 Base oils Target values
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
I-BC L35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 9
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Lubricating oil for exclusive gas operation
A special lubricating oil for gas engines with a low
ash content must be used in engines that operate
for longer than 2,000 hours using gas. The sul-
phate ash content must not exceed 1 %.
Only lubricating oils approved by MAN Diesel &
Turbo SE may be used. These are specified in "Ta-
ble 4-4: Approved lubricating oils for gas-operated MAN
Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines".
Manufacturer Base Number approx. 6 [mgKOH/g]
FINA Gas engine oil 405
MOBIL Pegasus 710
Pegasus 805
SHELL Mysella LA 40j
Mysella S3 N
CHEVRON (TEXACO, CALTEX) Geotex LA 40
Table 4-4 Approved lubricating oils for gas-operated MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines
- Limit value Method
Viscosity at 40 C 100 190 mm
2
/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445
Base number (BN) min. 3 mg KOH/g ISO 3771
Water content max. 0.2 % ISO 3733 or ASTM D 144
Total acid number (TAN) max. 2.5 mg KOH/g
higher than fresh oil TAN
ASTM D 664
Oxidation max. 20 Abs/cm DIN 51453
Table 4-5 Limit values for lubricating oils during operation (pure gas operation)
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
Page 4 - 10 L35/44DF, 51/60DF I-BC
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Lubricating oil for diesel operation or alternating gas/diesel operation
A lubricating oil with a higher BN (10 16 mg
KOH/g is recommended due to the sulphur con-
tent of the fuel in dual-fuel engines that are exclu-
sively operated with diesel oil, are operated more
than 40 % of the time with diesel oil or are operat-
ed for more than 500 hours a year using diesel
with an extremely high sulphur content S > 0.5 %).
Neutralisation capacity
The neutralisation capacity (ASTM D 2896) must
be so high that the acidic products which result
during combustion are neutralised. The reaction
time of the additives must be matched to the proc-
ess in the combustion chamber.
Approved lubrication oils SAE 40
Manufacturer Base Number 10 16
1)
[mgKOH/g]
1)
If marine diesel fuel with a very high sulphur content of 1.5 up to 2.0 % by weight is used, a base number (BN) of approx. 20
must be selected.
AGIP Cladium 120 - SAE 40
Sigma S SAE 40
2)
2)
With a sulphur content of less than 1 %.
BP Energol DS 3-154
CASTROl Castrol MLC 40
Castrol MHP 154
Seamax Extra 40
CHEVRON
(Texaco, Caltex)
Taro 12 XD 40
Delo 1000 Marine SAE 40
Delo SHP40
EXXON MOBIL Exxmar 12 TP 40
Mobilgard 412/MG 1SHC
Mobilgard ADL 40
Delvac 1640
PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-410,
Marbrax CCD-415
Q8 Mozart DP40
REPSOL Neptuno NT 1540
SHELL Gadinia 40
Gadinia AL40
Sirius X40
2)
Rimula R3+40
2)
STATOIL MarWay 1540
MarWay 1040
2)
TOTAL LUBMARINE Caprano M40
Disola M4015
Table 4-6 Approved lubricating oils for gas oil and diesel oil-operated MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
I-BC L35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 11
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Lubricating oil for pure heavy fuel oil operation
Lubricating oils of medium alkalinity must be used
for engines that run on HFO. HFO engines must
not be operated with lubricating oil for gas en-
gines. Oils of medium alkalinity contain additives
that, among other things, increase the neutralisa-
tion capacity of the oil and facilitate high solubility
of fuel components.
Cleaning effect
The cleaning effect must be strong enough to en-
sure that combustion-related carbon deposits and
tarry residues do not form. The lubricating oil must
prevent fuel-related deposits.
Dispersion capability
The selected dispersion capability must be such
that commercially-available lubricating oil cleaning
systems can remove harmful contaminants from
the oil used, i.e. the oil must possess good filtering
properties and separability.
Neutralisation capability
The neutralisation capability (ASTM D 2896) must
be high enough to neutralise the acidic products
produced during combustion. The reaction time of
the additive must be harmonised with the process
in the combustion chamber.
Information on selecting a suitable BN is provided
in "Table 4-8: Selecting the base number (BN)".
- Limit value Method
Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm
2
/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445
Base Number (BN) at least 50 % of fresh oil ISO 3771
Flash Point (PM) at least 185 C ISO 2719
Water Content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for brief periods) ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744
n-Heptane insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316
Metal Content depends on engine type and operating condi-
tions
-
Guide value only
Fe
Cr
Cu
Pb
Sn
Al
max. 50 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 15 ppm
max. 20 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 20 ppm
-
Table 4-7 Limit values for lubricating oils during operation (diesel oil/gas oil)
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
Page 4 - 12 L35/44DF, 51/60DF I-BC
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Approximate BN
(mg KOH/g oil)
Engines/Operating conditions
20 Marine diesel oil (MDO) with a poor quality (ISO-F-DMC) or heavy fuel oil with a sulphur content of
less than 0.5 %.
30 For exclusive HFO operation only with sulphur content < 1.5%.
40 For exclusive HFO operation in general, providing the sulphur content is > 1.5 %.
50 If BN 40 is not sufficient in terms of oil service life or maintaining engine cleanliness (high sulphur
content in fuel, extremely low lubricating oil consumption).
Table 4-8 Selecting the base number (BN)
Manufacturer Base Number [mgKOH/g]
20 30 40 50
AEGEAN - Alfamar 430 Alfamar 440 Alfamar 450
AGIP - Cladium 300 Cladium 400 -
BP Energol IC-HFX 204 Energol IC-HFX 304 Energol IC-HFX 404 Energol IC-HFX 504
CASTROL TLX Plus 204 TLX Plus 304 TLX Plus 404 TLX Plus 504
CEPSA - Troncoil 3040 Plus Troncoil 4040 Plus Troncoil 5040 Plus
CHEVRON
(TEXACO, CALTEX)
Taro 20DP40
Taro 20DP40X
Taro 30DP40
Taro 30DP40X
Taro 40XL40
Taro 40XL40X
Taro 50XL40
Taro 50XL40X
LUKOIL Navigo
TPEO 20/40
Navigo
TPEO 30/40
Navigo
TPEO 40/40
Mobilgard M50
PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-420 Marbrax CCD-430 Marbrax CCD-440 -
REPSOL Neptuno NT 2040 Neptuno NT 3040 Neptuno NT 4040 -
SHELL Argina S 40 Argina T 40 Argina X40 Argina XL40
TOTAL Lubmarine - Aurelia XL 4030
Aurelia TI 4030
Aurelia XL 4040
Aurelia TI 4040
Aurelia XL 4055
Aurelia TI 4055
Table 4-9 Approved lubricating oils for heavy fuel oil-operated MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
I-BC L35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 13
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Alternating gas/heavy oil operation
As already explained above, when operating with
heavy fuel oil (HFO) a lubricating oil with a high
base number (BN) its required so as to ensure the
neutralisation of acidic combustion products and
also a strong cleaning action to counter the effects
of the fuel components (prevention of deposits).
This high neutralisation capacity (BN) is accompa-
nied by a high ash content of the lubricating oil.
Ash from the lubricating oil can accumulate in the
combustion chamber and exhaust-gas system.
Ash from unburned BN additives in particular can
accumulate in the combustion chamber. In gas
engines, these kind of deposits can act as "hot
spots" at which the gas-oil mixture ignites at the
wrong time thus causing knocking.
The 51/60DF engine has been proven to have an
exceptionally low sensitivity to lubricating oils with
a high ash content. Long-term gas operation us-
ing lubricating oil with BN 30 has given no cause
for concern.
The aim of the lubricating oil concept of flexible fuel
operation is to keep the BN of the lubricating oil
between 20 and 30 mg KOH/g. The BN should
not be less than 20 with HFO operation and the
BN should not be more then 30 with the gas op-
eration. The can be achieved by using two oils
when refilling. Oil with BN 40 is refilled during HFO
operation and oil with BN 20 is refilled during gas
operation. Initial filling is carried out using an oil
with BN 30 which can be produced by blending
oils with BN 20 and BN 40 in the engine. The oils
used (BN 20 and BN 40) must be of the same
brand without fail (same supplier). This ensures
that the oils are fully compatible with one another.
If during pure HFO operation only oil with a sulphur
content of less than 1.5 % is used for alternating
operation, it is recommended that oil with BN 40 is
replaced by oil with BN 30.
-
Limit value Method
Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm
2
/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445
Base Number (BN) BN with at least 50% fresh oil ISO 3771
Flash Point (PM) at least 185 C ISO 2719
Water Content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for prief periods ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744
n-Heptan insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316
Metal Content depends on engine type and operating condi-
tion
-
Guide value only
Fe
Cr
Cu
Pb
Sn
Al
max. 50 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 15 ppm
max. 20 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 20 ppm
-
Table 4-10 Limit values for lubricating oil during operation (pure heavy fuel oil operation)
Specification for engine supplies
4.2 Specification for lubricating oil for operation of dual-fuel engines 35/44DF, 51/60DF
Page 4 - 14 L35/44DF, 51/60DF I-BC
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Manufacturer Base Number [mgKOH/g]
20 30 40
AGIP - Cladium 300 Cladium 400
BP Energol IC-HFX 204 Energol IC-HFX 304 Energol IC-HFX 404
CASTROL TLX Plus 204 TLX Plus 304 TLX Plus 404
CEPSA - Troncoil 3040 Plus Troncoil 4040 Plus
CHEVRON
(TEXACO, CALTEX)
Taro 20DP40 Taro 30DP40 Taro 40XL 40
EXXON MOBIL - Mobilgard M 430
EXXMAR 30 TP 40
Mobilgard M 440
EXXMAR 40 TP 40
PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-420 Marbrax CCD-430 Marbrax CCD-440
REPSOL Neptuno NT 2040 Neptuno NT 3040 Neptuno NT 4040
SHELL Argina S 40 Argina T 40 Argina X40
TOTAL Lubmarine Aurelia XL 4025 Aurelia XL 4030
Aurelia TI 4030
Aurelia XL 4040
Aurelia TI 4040
Table 4-11 Approved lubricating oils for MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines (alternating gas/heavy fuel oil operation)
- Limit value Method
Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm
2
/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445
Base Number (BN) 20 30 mgKOH/g ISO 3771
Flash Point (PM) At least 185 C ISO 2719
Water Content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for brief periods ) ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744
n-Heptan insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316
Metal content depends on engine type and operating condi-
tion
-
Guide value only
Fe
Cr
Cu
Pb
Sn
Al
max. 50 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 15 ppm
max. 20 ppm
max. 10 ppm
max. 20 ppm
-
Table 4-12 Limit values for lubricating oil during operation (alternating gas/heavy fuel oil operation)
Specification for engine supplies
4.3.1 Gas types and gas quality
C-BC Page 4 - 15
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4.3 Natural gas specification
4.3.1 Gas types and gas quality
Natural gas is obtained from a wide range of
sources. They can be differentiated not only in
terms of their composition and processing, but
also their energy content and the calorific value.
Combustion in engines places special demands
on the quality of the gas composition.
The following section explains the most important
gas properties.
Requirement for natural gas
The gas should:
Comply with the general applicable specifica-
tions for natural gas, as well as with specific re-
quirements indicated in "Table 4-14: Requirements
for natural gas".
Be free of dirt, dry and cooled (free of water, hy-
drocarbon condensate and oil) when fed to the
engine. If the dirt concentration is higher than
50 mg/Nm
3
, a gas filter must be installed up-
stream of the supply system.
You can check the gas quality using a gas analys-
er.
Measures
In the gas distribution systems of different cities
that are supplied by a central natural gas pipeline,
if not enough natural gas is available at peak times,
a mixture of propane, butane and air is added to
the natural gas in order to keep the calorific value
of Wobbe index constant. Although this does not
actually change the combustion characteristics for
gas burners in relation to natural gas, the methane
number is decisive in the case of turbocharged
gas engines. It falls drastically when these kind of
additions are made.
To protect the engine against damage in such cas-
es, the MAN Diesel & Turbo gas engines are pro-
vided with antiknock control.
Methane number
The most important prerequisite that must be met
by the gas used for combustion in the gas engine
is knock resistance. The reference for this evalua-
tion is pure methane which is extremely knock-re-
sistant and is therefore the name used for the
evaluation basis:
Methane number (MN)
Pure methane contains the methane number 100;
hydrogen was chosen as the zero reference point
for the methane number series as it is extremely
prone to knocking. See "Table 4-13: Antiknock char-
acteristic and methane number".
However, pure gases are very rarely used as fuel in
engines. These are normally natural gases that
also contain components that are made up of high
quality hydrocarbons in addition to knock-resist-
ant methane and often significantly affect the
methane number. It is clearly evident that the pro-
pane and butane components of natural gas re-
duce the anti-knock characteristic. In contrast,
inert components, such as N
2
and CO
2
, increase
the anti-knock characteristic. This means that
methane numbers higher than 100 are also possi-
ble.
Specification for engine supplies
4.3.1 Gas types and gas quality
Page 4 - 16 C-BC
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Anti-knock characteristic of different gases ex-
pressed as methane number (MN)
Determining the methane number
MAN Diesel & Turbo can determine the gas meth-
ane number with high precision by analysing the
gas chemistry.
The gas analysis should contain the following
components in vol. % or mol %:
Carbon dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CO
2
Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N
2
Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O
2
Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H
2
Carbon monoxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CO
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H
2
O
Hydrogen sulfide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H
2
S
Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CH
4
Ethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C
2
H
6
Propane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C
3
H
8
I-butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-C
4
H
10
N-butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n-C
4
H
10
Higher Hydrocarbons
Ethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C
2
H
4
Propylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C
3
H
6
The sum of the individual components must be
100 %.
Gas Methane No.
(MN)
Hydrogen 0.0
N-butane 99 % 2.0
Butane 10.5
Butadiene 11.5
Ethylene 15.5
-butylene 20.0
Propylene 20.0
Isobutylene 26.0
Propane 35.0
Ethane 43.5
Carbon monoxide 73.0
Natural gas 70.0 96.0
Natural gas +8 % N
2
92.0
Natural gas + 8 % CO
2
95.0
Pure methane 100.0
Natural gas +15 % CO
2
104.4
Natural gas +40 % N
2
105.5
Table 4-13 Antiknock characteristic and methane number
Specification for engine supplies
4.3.2 Fuel specification for natural gas
C-BC Page 4 - 17
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4.3.2 Fuel specification for natural gas
The fuel at the inlet of the gas engine's Gas Valve
Unit must meet the following specification.
One Nm is the equivalent to one cubic metre of
gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.
If the gas' methane number is less than 70
(V35/44G, 35/44DF) or less than 80 (32/40G,
32/40DF, 51/60DF, V51/60G), the engine perform-
ance may need to be reduced and the injection or
ignition may need to be adjusted. If the gas' meth-
ane number is less than 65 (V35/44G, 35/44DF) or
less than 60 (32/40G, 32/40DF, 51/60DF,
V51/60G), it may not be used.
Fuel Natural gas
Unit 32/40DF
32/40G
35/44DF
V35/44G
51/60DF
V51/60G
Calorific value (LHV) min. kJ/Nm 32,400 28,000
Methane number - - 80
Hydrogen sulphide content (H
2
S) max. mg/Nm 5
Total sulphur content mg/Nm 30
Particle concentration mg/Nm 50
Particle size m 10
Total fluoride content mg/Nm 5
Total chlorine content mg/Nm 10
Table 4-14 Requirements for natural gas
Specification for engine supplies
4.3.2 Fuel specification for natural gas
Page 4 - 18 C-BC
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Specification for engine supplies
4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)
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4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)
Diesel oil
Other designations
Gas oil, marine gas oil (MGO), diesel oil
Gas oil is a crude oil medium distillate and must
therefore not contain any residual materials.
Military specification
Diesel oils that satisfy specification F-75 or F-76
may be used.
Specification
The suitability of the fuel depends on whether it
has the properties defined in this specification
(based on its composition in the as-delivered
state).
The DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-2010 (Class DMA
or Class DMZ) and standards have been exten-
sively used as the basis when defining these prop-
erties. The properties correspond to the test
procedures stated.
Properties Unit Test procedure Typical value
Density at 15 C kg/m
3
ISO 3675 > 820.0
s 890.0
Kinematic viscosity at 40 C mm
2
/s (cSt) ISO 3104 > 2
s 6.0
Filterability
1)
in summer and
in winter
C DIN EN 116
s 0
s 12
Flash point in closed cup ISO 2719 > 60
Sediment content (extraction method) weight % ISO 3735 s 0.01
Water content volume % ISO 3733 s 0.05
Sulphur content weight % ISO 8754 s 1.5
Ash ISO 6245 s 0.01
Coke residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 s 0.10
Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 < 2
Table 4-15 Diesel fuel (MGO) Properties that must be complied with
Specification for engine supplies
4.4 Specification for gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)
Page 4 - 20 E-BB
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Additional information
Use of diesel oil
If distillate intended for use as heating oil is used
with stationary engines instead of diesel oil (EL
heating oil according to DIN 51603 or Fuel no. 1 or
no. 2 according to ASTM D 396), the ignition be-
haviour, stability and behaviour at low tempera-
tures must be ensured; in other words the
requirements for the filterability and cetane
number must be satisfied.
Viscosity
To ensure sufficient lubrication, a minimum viscos-
ity must be ensured at the fuel delivery pump. The
maximum temperature required to ensure that a
viscosity of more than 1.9 mm
2
/s is maintained
upstream of the fuel delivery pump depends on
the viscosity of the fuel. In any case the tempera-
ture of the fuel upstream of the injection pump
must not exceed 45 C.
Lubricity
The lubricity of diesel fuel is normally sufficient. The
desulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lu-
bricity. If the sulphur content is extremely low
(< 500 ppm or 0.05 %), the lubricity may no longer
be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sul-
phur content, you should therefore ensure that
their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if the lu-
bricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not ex-
ceed 520 m.
You can ensure that these conditions will be met
by using motor vehicle diesel fuel in accordance
with EN 590 as this characteristic value is an inte-
gral part of the specification.
Improper handling of fuels
If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
danger to health, safety and the environment. The
relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
must be observed.
Analyses
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
Total acid number mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5
Oxidation stability g/m
3
ISO 12205 < 25
Lubricity
(wear scar diameter)
m ISO 12156-1 < 520
Cetane number or cetane index - ISO 5165 > 40
Copper strip test - ISO 2160 s 1
Other specifications:
British Standard BS MA 100-1987 - - M1
ASTM D 975 - - 1D/2D
1)
The process for determining the filterability in accordance with DIN EN 116 is similar to the process for determining the cloud
point in accordance with ISO 3015.
Properties Unit Test procedure Typical value
Table 4-15 Diesel fuel (MGO) Properties that must be complied with

Specification for engine supplies


4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines
I-BC 32/40DF, 51/60DF Page 4 - 21
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4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines
Marine diesel oil (MDO)
Other designations
Diesel fuel oil, diesel oil, marine diesel fuel.
Origin
Marine diesel oil (MDO) is supplied as heavy distil-
late (designation ISO-F-DMB). MDO is manufac-
tured from mineral oil and must be free of organic
acids.
Marine gas oil (MGO)
Other designations
Gas oil, high speed diesel, diesel oil.
Origin
Heating oil with quality E11 (DIN 51603) or fuel no.
1 or no. 2 in accordance with ASTM D 396 can
also be used providing the properties in the follow-
ing table, especially the ignition properties, are
complied with.
Specification
The suitability of a fuel depends on the design of
the engine and the available cleaning options as
well as compliance with the properties in the fol-
lowing table that refer to the as-delivered condition
of the fuel.
These properties are essentially defined in the
standards ISO 8217-1996, EN590 and CIMAC-
2003. These properties were ascertained using
the testing procedures listed in "Table 4-16: Diesel
fuel (MGO) properties that must be complied with".
Additional information
MGO and MDO (DMB) are pure distillates of crude
oil and must not contain residual materials and or-
ganic or inorganic acids.
During transshipment and transfer, MDO is han-
dled in the same manner as residual oil. This
means that it is possible for the oil to be mixed with
highviscosity fuel or interfuel with the remnants of
these types of fuels in the bunker ship, for example
which could significantly impair the properties of
the oil.
The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO used
lubricating oil, old oil). Fuel is considered as con-
taminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur:
Ca > 30 ppm and Zn > 15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm
and P > 15 ppm.
The pour point specifies the temperature at which
the oil no longer flows. The lowest temperature of
the fuel in the system should be roughly 10 C
above the pour point to ensure that the required
pumping characteristics are maintained.
Seawater causes the fuel system to corrode and
also leads to hot corrosion of the exhaust valves
and turbocharger. Seawater also causes insuffi-
cient atomisation and therefore poor mixture for-
mation accompanied by a high proportion of
combustion residues.
Solid foreign matter increase mechanical wear and
formation of ash in the cylinder space.
Analyses
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
Improper handling of operating fluids
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can
pose a danger to health, safety and the environ-
ment. The relevant safety information by the sup-
plier of operating fluids must be observed.
Specification for engine supplies
4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines
Page 4 - 22 32/40DF, 51/60DF I-BC
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Specification for pilot fuel
Properties Unit Test procedure Typical value
Density at 15C kg/m
3
ISO 3675 > 820.0
s 890.0
Kinematic viscosity at 40C mm
2
/s (cSt) ISO 3104 > 2.0
s 6.0
Filterability
1)
in summer and
in winter
1)
The process for determining the filter capability according to DIN EN116 is similar to the procedure used to determine the
cloud point according to ISO 3015.
C
C
DIN EN 116
DIN EN 116
s 0
s -12
Flash point in closed cup C ISO 2719 > 60
Sediment content (extraction method) weight % ISO 3735 s 0.01
Water content vol. % ISO 3733 s 0.05
Sulphur content weight % ISO 8754 s 1.5
Ash ISO 6245 s 0.01
Coke residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 s 0.10
Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 < 2
Acid number mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5
Oxidation stabiliy g/m
3
ISO 12205 < 25
Lubricity
(wear scar diameter)
m ISO 12156-1 < 520
Cetane number or cetane index - ISO 5165 > 40
Copper strip test ISO 2160 s 1
Other specifications:
British Standard BS MA 1001987 - - Class M1
ASTM D 975 - - 1D/2D
Table 4-16 Diesel fuel (MGO) properties that must be complied with
Specification for engine supplies
4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines
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Properties Unit Test procedure Designation
typical value
ISO-F specification - - DMB
Density at 15C kg/m
3
ISO 3675 900
Kinematic viscosity at 40C mm
2
/s (cSt) ISO 3104 > 2.0
< 11
Pour point (winter quality) C ISO 3016 < 0
Pour point (summer quality) < 6
Flash point (Pensky Martens) ISO 2719 > 60
Total sediment content weight % ISO CD 10307 0.10
Water content vol. % ISO 3733 < 0.3
Sulphur content weight % ISO 8754 < 2.0
Ash content ISO 6245 < 0.01
Carbone residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 < 0.30
Cetane number or cetane index - ISO 5165 > 35
Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 < 2
Acid value mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5
Oxidation resistance g/m
3
ISO 12205 < 25
Lubricity
(wear scar diameter)
m ISO 12156-1 < 520
Copper strip test - ISO 2160 < 1
Other specifications:
British Standard BS MA 1001987 - - Class M2
ASTM D 975 - - 2D
ASTM D 396 - - No. 2
Table 4-17 Marine diesel oil (MDO) characteristic values to be adhered to
Specification for engine supplies
4.5 Specification for diesel oil (MGO, MDO) as pilot fuel for DF engines
Page 4 - 24 32/40DF, 51/60DF I-BC
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Specification for engine supplies
4.6 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)
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4.6 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)
Marine diesel oil
Other designations
Marine diesel oil, marine diesel fuel
Origin
Marine diesel oil (MDO) is supplied as heavy distil-
late (designation ISO-F-DMB) exclusively for ma-
rine applications. MDO is manufactured from
crude oil and must be free of organic acids and
non-mineral oil products.
Specification
The suitability of fuel depends on the design of the
engine and the available cleaning options, as well
as compliance with the properties in the following
table that refer to the as-delivered condition of the
fuel.
The properties are essentially defined using the
ISO 8217-2010 standard as the basis. The prop-
erties have been specified using the stated test
procedures.
Properties Unit Test method Designation
ISO-F specification - - DMB
Density at 15 C kg/m
3
ISO 3675 900
Kinematic viscosity at 40 C mm
2
/s = cSt ISO 3104 > 2.0
< 11
Pour point (winter quality) C ISO 3016 < 0
Pour point (summer quality) < 6
Flash point (Pensky Martens) ISO 2719 > 60
Total sediment content % by weight ISO CD 10307 0.10
Water content % by volume ISO 3733 < 0.3
Sulphur content % by weight ISO 8754 < 2.0
Ash content ISO 6245 < 0.01
Carbon residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 < 0.30
Cetane number or cetane index - ISO 5165 > 35
Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 < 2
Acid value mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5
Oxidation resistance g/m
3
ISO 12205 < 25
Lubricity
(wear scar diameter)
m ISO 12156-1 < 520
Copper strip test - ISO 2160 < 1
Other specifications:
British Standard BS MA 100-1987 - - Class M2
ASTM D 975 - - 2D
ASTM D 396 - - No. 2
Table 4-18 Marine diesel oil (MDO) Characteristic values to be adhered to

Specification for engine supplies


4.6 Specification for diesel oil (MDO)
Page 4 - 26 J-BA
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Additional information
During transshipment and transfer, MDO is han-
dled in the same manner as residual oil. This
means that it is possible for the oil to be mixed with
high-viscosity fuel or heavy fuel oil with the rem-
nants of these types of fuels in the bunker ship, for
example that could significantly impair the prop-
erties of the oil.
Lubricity
Normally, the lubricating ability of diesel fuel oil is
sufficient to operate the fuel injection pump. Des-
ulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lubric-
ity. If the sulphur content is extremely low
(< 500 ppm or 0.05 %), the lubricity may no longer
be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sul-
phur content, you should therefore ensure that
their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if the lu-
bricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not ex-
ceed 520 m.
The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO (used
lubricating oil, old oil)). Fuel is considered as con-
taminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur:
Ca > 30 ppm and Zn > 15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm
and P > 15 ppm.
The pour point specifies the temperature at which
the oil no longer flows. The lowest temperature of
the fuel in the system should be roughly 10 C
above the pour point to ensure that the required
pumping characteristics are maintained.
A minimum viscosity must be observed to ensure
sufficient lubrication in the fuel injection pumps.
The temperature of the fuel must therefore not ex-
ceed 45 C.
Seawater causes the fuel system to corrode and
also leads to hot corrosion of the exhaust valves
and turbocharger. Seawater also causes insuffi-
cient atomisation and therefore poor mixture for-
mation accompanied by a high proportion of
combustion residues.
Solid foreign matter increase mechanical wear and
formation of ash in the cylinder space.
We recommend the installation of a separator up-
stream of the fuel filter. Separation temperature
40 50 C. Most solid particles (sand, rust and
catalyst particles) and water can be removed, and
the cleaning intervals of the filter elements can be
extended considerably.
Improper handling of fuels
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can
pose a danger to health, safety and the environ-
ment. The relevant safety information by the sup-
plier of operating fluids must be observed.
Analyses
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.

Specification for engine supplies


4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
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4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Prerequisites
MAN four-stroke diesel engines can be operated
with any heavy fuel oil obtained from crude oil that
also satisfies the requirements in "Table 4-19: The
fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for
heavy fuel oil" providing the engine and fuel
processing system have been designed accord-
ingly. To ensure that the relationship between the
fuel, spare parts and repair/maintenance costs re-
mains favourable at all times, the following points
should be observed.
Heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Origin/Refinery process
The quality of the heavy fuel oil largely depends on
the quality of crude oil and on the refining process
used. This is why the properties of heavy fuel oils
with the same viscosity may vary considerably de-
pending on the bunker positions. Heavy fuel oil is
normally a mixture of residual oil and distillates.
The components of the mixture are normally ob-
tained from modern refinery processes, such as
Catcracker or Visbreaker. These processes can
adversely affect the stability of the fuel as well as
its ignition and combustion properties. The
processing of the heavy fuel oil and the operating
result of the engine also depend heavily on these
factors.
Bunker positions with standardised heavy fuel oil
qualities should preferably be used. If oils need to
be purchased from independent dealers, also en-
sure that these also comply with the international
specifications. The engine operator is responsible
for ensuring that suitable heavy fuel oils are cho-
sen.
Specifications
Fuels intended for use in an engine must satisfy
the specifications to ensure sufficient quality. The
limit values for heavy fuel oils are specified in "Table
4-19: The fuel specifications and corresponding charac-
teristics for heavy fuel oil".
The entries in the last column of "Table 4-19: The fuel
specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy
fuel oil" provide important background information
and must therefore be observed.
Different international specifications exist for heavy
fuel oils. The most important specifications are ISO
8217-2010 and CIMAC-2003, which are more or
less identical. The ISO 8217 specification is shown
in "Figure 4-1: ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel
oil" and "Figure 4-2: ISO 8217-2010 specification for
heavy fuel oil (continued)". All qualities in these spec-
ifications up to K700 can be used, providing the
fuel preparation system has been designed ac-
cordingly. To use any fuels, which do not comply
with these specifications (e.g. crude oil), consulta-
tion with Technical Service of MAN Diesel &
Turbo SE in Augsburg is required. Heavy fuel oils
with a maximum density of 1,010 kg/m
3
may only
be used if up-to-date separators are installed.
Important
Even though the fuel properties specified in "Table
4-19: The fuel specifications and corresponding charac-
teristics for heavy fuel oil" satisfy the above require-
ments, they probably do not adequately define the
ignition and combustion properties and the stabil-
ity of the fuel. This means that the operating be-
haviour of the engine can depend on properties
that are not defined in the specification. This par-
ticularly applies to the oil property that causes for-
mation of deposits in the combustion chamber,
injection system, gas ducts and exhaust gas sys-
tem. A number of fuels have a tendency towards
incompatibility with lubricating oil which leads to
deposits being formed in the fuel delivery pump
that can block the pumps. It may therefore be nec-
essary to exclude specific fuels that could cause
problems.
Blends
The addition of engine oils (old lubricating oil,
ULO used lubricating oil) and additives that are
not manufactured from mineral oils, (coal-tar oil,
for example), and residual products of chemical or
other processes such as solvents (polymers or
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Page 4 - 28 D-BC
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chemical waste) is not permitted. Some of the rea-
sons for this are as follows: abrasive and corrosive
effects, unfavourable combustion characteristics,
poor compatibility with mineral oils and, last but
not least, adverse effects on the environment. The
order for the fuel must expressly state what is not
permitted as the fuel specifications that generally
apply do not include this limitation.
If engine oils (old lubricating oil, ULO used lubri-
cating oil) are added to fuel, this poses a particular
danger as the additives in the lubricating oil act as
emulsifiers that cause dirt, water and catfines to
be transported as fine suspension. They therefore
prevent the necessary cleaning of the fuel. In our
experience (and this has also been the experience
of other manufacturers), this can severely damage
the engine and turbocharger components.
The addition of chemical waste products (sol-
vents, for example) to the fuel is prohibited for en-
vironmental protection reasons according to the
resolution of the IMO Marine Environment Protec-
tion Committee passed on 1st January 1992.
Leaked oil collector
Leak oil collectors that act as receptacles for leak
oil, and also return and overflow pipes in the lube
oil system, must not be connected to the fuel tank.
Leak oil lines should be emptied into sludge tanks.
Viscosity
(at 50 C)
mm
2
/s
(cSt)
max. 700 See "Paragraph: Viscosity/injection viscosity, page 4-32"
Viscosity
(at 100 C)
55 See "Paragraph: Viscosity/injection viscosity, page 4-32"
Density
(at 15 C)
g/ml 1.010 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-32"
Flash point C min. 60 See "Paragraph: Flash point (ASTM D 93), page 4-34"
Pour point
(summer)
max. 30 See "Paragraph: Low temperature behaviour
(ASTM D 97), page 4-34", "Paragraph: Pump characteris-
tics, page 4-34"
Pour point (winter) 30 See "Paragraph: Low temperature behaviour
(ASTM D 97), page 4-34", "Paragraph: Pump characteris-
tics, page 4-34"
Carbon residues
(Conradson)
Weight
%
max. 20 See "Paragraph: Combustion properties, page 4-35"
Sulphur content 5 or
legal requirements
See "Paragraph: Sulphuric acid corrosion, page 4-37"
Ash
content
0.15 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-32"
Vanadium content mg/kg 450 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-32"
Water
content
Vol-
ume%
0.5 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-32"
Sediment (potential) Weight
%
0.1 -
Table 4-19 The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil (1 of 2)
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
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Aluminium and sili-
cium content (total)
mg/kg max. 60 See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-32"
Total acid number mg
KOH/g
2.5 -
Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg 2 -
Used lubricating oil
(ULO)
mg/kg - The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO (used
lubricating oil, old oil)). Fuel is considered as con-
taminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur: Ca > 30 ppm and Zn >
15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm and P > 15 ppm.
Asphalt content Weight
%
2/3 of carbon res-
idue (according to
Conradson)
See "Paragraph: Combustion properties, page 4-35"
Sodium content mg/kg Sodium< 1/3
vanadium,
sodium< 100
See "Paragraph: Heavy fuel oil processing, page 4-32"
The fuel must be free of admixtures that cannot be obtained from mineral oils, such as vegetable or coal-tar oils.
It must also be free of tar oil and lubricating oil (old oil), and also chemical waste products such as solvents or
polymers.
Table 4-19 The fuel specifications and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil (2 of 2)
Specification for engine supplies
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Figure 4-1 ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel oil
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
D-BC Page 4 - 31
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Figure 4-2 ISO 8217-2010 specification for heavy fuel oil (continued)
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Page 4 - 32 D-BC
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Additional information
The purpose of the following information is to
show the relationship between the quality of heavy
fuel oil, heavy fuel oil processing, engine operation
and operating results more clearly.
Selection of heavy fuel oil
Economic operation with heavy fuel oil within the
limit values (see "Table 4-19: The fuel specifications
and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil") is
possible under normal operating conditions, pro-
vided the system is working properly and regular
maintenance is carried out. If these requirements
are not satisfied, shorter maintenance intervals,
higher wear and a greater need for spare parts is
to be expected. The required maintenance inter-
vals and operating results determine which quality
of heavy fuel oil should be used.
It is an established fact that the price advantage
decreases as viscosity increases. It is therefore not
always economical to use the fuel with the highest
viscosity as in many cases the quality of this fuel
will not be the best.
Viscosity/injection viscosity
Heavy fuel oils with a high viscosity may be of an
inferior quality. The maximum permissible viscosity
depends on the preheating system installed and
the capacity (flow rate) of the separator.
The prescribed injection viscosity of
12 14 mm
2
/s (for GenSets, 23/30H and
28/32H: 12 18 cSt) and corresponding fuel tem-
perature upstream of the engine must be ob-
served. This is the only way to ensure efficient
atomisation and mixture formation and therefore
low-residue combustion. This also prevents me-
chanical overloading of the injection system. For
the prescribed injection viscosity and/or required
fuel oil temperature upstream of the engine, refer
to the viscosity temperature diagram.
Heavy fuel oil processing
Whether or not problems occur when the engine
is in operation depends on how carefully the heavy
fuel oil has been processed. Particular care should
be taken to ensure that highly-abrasive inorganic
foreign matter (catalyst particles, rust, sand) are ef-
fectively removed. Experience in practice has
shown that wear as a result of abrasion in the en-
gine increases considerably if the aluminium and
silicium content is higher than 15 mg/kg.
Viscosity and density influence the cleaning effect.
This must be taken into account when designing
and making adjustments to the cleaning system.
Settling tank
The heavy fuel oil is pre-cleaned in the settling
tank. The longer the fuel remains in the tank and
the lower the viscosity of the heavy fuel oil is, the
more effective the pre-cleaning process will be
(maximum preheating temperature of 75 C to
prevent asphalt forming in the heavy fuel oil). A set-
tling tank is sufficient for heavy fuel oils with a vis-
cosity of less than 380 mm
2
/s at 50 C. If the
heavy fuel oil has a high concentration of foreign
matter or if fuels in accordance with
ISO-F-RMG 380/500/700 or RMK 380/500/700
are to be used, two settling tanks will be required
one of which must be sized for 24-hour operation.
Before the content is moved to the service tank,
water and sludge must be drained from the set-
tling tank.
Separators
A separator is particularly suitable for separating
material with a higher specific density water, for-
eign matter and sludge, for example. The separa-
tors must be self-cleaning (i. e. the cleaning
intervals must be triggered automatically). Only
separators in the new generation may be used.
They are extremely effective throughout a wide
density range with no changeover required and
can separate water from heavy fuel oils with a den-
sity of up to 1.01 g/ml at 15 C.
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
D-BC Page 4 - 33
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For the prerequisites that must be met by the sep-
arator see "Table 4-20: Obtainable contents of foreign
matter and water (after separation)". These limit values
are used by manufacturers as the basis for dimen-
sioning the separator and ensure compliance.
The manufacturer's specifications must be com-
plied with to maximise the cleaning effect.

The separators must be arranged according to the
manufacturers' current recommendations (Alpha-
Laval and Westfalia). The density and viscosity of
the heavy fuel oil in particular must be taken into
account. If separators by other manufacturers are
used, MAN Diesel & Turbo should be consulted.
If processing is carried out in accordance with the
MAN Diesel & Turbo specifications and the correct
separators are chosen, it may be assumed that
the results (see "Table 4-20: Obtainable contents of for-
eign matter and water (after separation)") for inorganic
foreign matter and water in the heavy fuel oil will be
achieved at the engine inlet.
Results obtained during operation in practie
show that the wear occurs as a result of abrasion
in the injection system and the engine will remain
within acceptable limits if these values are com-
plied with. In addition, an optimum lubricating oil
treatment process must be ensured.
Application in ships and station-
ary use: parallel installation
1 Separator for 100 % flow rate
1 Separator (reserve) for 100 %
flow rate
Figure 4-3 Heavy fuel oil cleaning/separator arrangement
Definition Particle size Quantity
Inorganic foreign matter
including catalyst particles
< 5 m < 20 mg/kg
Al+Si content - < 15 mg/kg
Water content - < 0.2 % by volume %
Table 4-20 Obtainable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation)
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Page 4 - 34 D-BC
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Water
It is particularly important to ensure that the water
separation process is as thorough as possible as
the water is present in the form of large droplets,
and not as a finely distributed emulsion. In this
form, water also promotes corrosion and sludge
formation in the fuel system and therefore impairs
the supply, atomisation and combustion of the
heavy fuel oil. If the water absorbed in the fuel is
seawater, harmful sodium chloride and other salts
dissolved in this water will enter the engine.
The sludge containing water must be removed
from the settling tank before the separation proc-
ess starts, and must also be removed from the
service tank at regular intervals. The tank's ventila-
tion system must be designed in such a way that
condensate cannot flow back into the tank.
Vanadium/sodium
If the vanadium/sodium ratio is unfavourable, the
melting point of the heavy fuel oil ash may fall in the
operating range of the exhaust-gas valve which
can lead to high-temperature corrosion. Most of
the water and water-soluble sodium compounds it
contains can be removed by pre-cleaning the
heavy fuel oil in the settling tank and in the separa-
tors.
The risk of high-temperature corrosion is low if the
sodium content is one third of the vanadium con-
tent or less. It must also be ensured that sodium
does not enter the engine in the form of seawater
in the intake air.
If the sodium content is higher than 100 mg/kg,
this is likely to result in a higher quantity of salt de-
posits in the combustion chamber and exhaust
gas system. This will impair the function of the en-
gine (including the suction function of the turbo-
charger).
Under certain conditions, high-temperature corro-
sion can be prevented by using a fuel additive that
increases the melting point of the heavy fuel oil ash
(see "Paragraph: Additives to heavy fuel oils, page
4-37").
Ash
Fuel ash consists for the greater part of vanadium
oxide and nickel sulphate (see "Paragraph: Vanadi-
um/sodium, page 4-34"). Heavy fuel oils that produce
a high quantity of ash in the form of foreign matter,
e. g. sand, corrosion compounds and catalyst
particles, accelerate mechanical wear in the en-
gine. Catalyst particles produced as a result of the
catalytic cracking process may be present in
heavy fuel oils. In most cases, these are aluminium
silicate particles that cause a high degree of wear
in the injection system and the engine. The alumin-
ium content determined, multiplied by a factor of
between 5 and 8 (depending on the catalytic
bond), is roughly the same as the proportion of
catalyst remnants in the heavy fuel oil.
Homogeniser
If a homogeniser is used, it must never be installed
between the settling tank and separator as other-
wise it will not be possible to ensure satisfactory
separation of harmful contaminants, particularly
seawater.
Flash point (ASTM D 93)
National and international transportation and stor-
age regulations governing the use of fuels must be
complied with in relation to the flash point. In gen-
eral, a flash point of above 60 C is prescribed for
diesel engine fuels.
Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D 97)
The pour point is the temperature at which the fuel
is no longer flowable (pumpable). As the pour
point of many low-viscosity heavy fuel oils is higher
than 0 C, the bunker facility must be preheated,
unless fuel in accordance with RMA or RMB is
used. The entire bunker facility must be designed
in such a way that the heavy fuel oil can be pre-
heated to around 10 C above the pour point.
Pump characteristics
If the viscosity of the fuel is higher than
1,000 mm
2
/s (cST), or the temperature is not at
least 10 C above the pour point, pumping prob-
lems will occur. For further information see "Para-
graph: Low temperature behaviour (ASTM D 97), page
4-34".
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
D-BC Page 4 - 35
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Combustion properties
If the proportion of asphalt is more than two thirds
of the coke residue (Conradson), combustion may
be delayed which in turn may increase the forma-
tion of combustion residues, leading to such as
deposits on and in the injection nozzles, large
amounts of smoke, low output, increased fuel
consumption and a rapid rise in ignition pressure
as well as combustion close to the cylinder wall
(thermal overloading of lubricating oil film). If the ra-
tio of asphalt to coke residues reaches the limit
0.66, and if the asphalt content exceeds 8 %, the
risk of deposits forming in the combustion cham-
ber and injection system is higher. These problems
can also occur when using unstable heavy fuel
oils, or if incompatible heavy fuel oils are mixed.
This would lead to an increased deposition of as-
phalt (see "Paragraph: Compatibility, page 4-37").
Ignition quality
Nowadays, to achieve the prescribed reference
viscosity, cracking-process products are used as
the low viscosity ingredients of heavy fuel oils al-
though the ignition characteristics of these oils
may also be poor. The cetane number of these
compounds should be > 35. If the proportion of
aromatic hydrocarbons is high (more than 35 %),
this also adversely affects the ignition quality.
The ignition delay in heavy fuel oils with poor igni-
tion characteristics is longer and combustion is
also delayed which can lead to thermal overload-
ing of the oil film at the cylinder liner and also high
cylinder pressures. The ignition delay and accom-
panying increase in pressure in the cylinder are
also influenced by the end temperature and com-
pression pressure, i. e. by the compression ratio,
the charge-air pressure and charge-air tempera-
ture.
The disadvantages of using fuels with poor ignition
characteristics can be limited by preheating the
charge air in partial load operation and reducing
the output for a limited period. However, a more
effective solution is a high compression ratio and
operational adjustment of the injection system to
the ignition characteristics of the fuel used, as is
the case with MAN Diesel & Turbo piston engines.
The ignition quality is one of the most decisive
properties of the fuel. This value does not appear
in the international specifications because a
standardised testing method has only recently be-
come available and not enough experience has
been gathered at this point to determine limit val-
ues. The parameters, such as the calculated car-
bon aromaticity index (CCAI), are therefore aids
derived from quantifiable fuel properties. We have
established that this method is suitable for deter-
mining the approximate ignition quality of the
heavy fuel oil used.
A testing instrument has been developed based
on the constant volume combustion method (fuel
combustion analyser FCA) and is currently being
tested by a series of testing laboratories. The in-
strument measures the ignition delay to determine
the ignition quality of a fuel and the measurement
obtained is converted into an instrument specific
cetane number (FIA-CN or EC). It has been estab-
lished that in some cases heavy fuel oils with a low
FIA cetane number or ECN number can cause op-
erating problems.
As the liquid components of the heavy fuel oil de-
cisively influence its ignition quality, flow properties
and combustion quality, the bunker operator is re-
sponsible for ensuring that the quality of heavy fuel
oil delivered is suitable for the diesel engine (see
"Figure 4-4: Nomogram for the determination of CCAI
Assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types").
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Page 4 - 36 D-BC
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Figure 4-4 Nomogram for the determination of CCAI Assignment of CCAI ranges to engine types
The CCAI can be calculated using the following formula:
CCAI = D 141 log log (V + 0.85) 81
Legend
V Viscosity mm/s (cSt) at 50 C
D Density [kg/m] at 15 C
CCAI Calculated carbon aromaticity index
A Normal operating conditions
B Ignition properties may be poor that adjustment of engine or engine or engine operating conditions are required
C Problems that have been identified may lead to engine damage, even after a short period of operation.
1 Engine type
2 The CCAI is obtained from the straight line through the density and viscosity of the heavy fuel oils.
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
D-BC Page 4 - 37
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Sulphuric acid corrosion
The engine should be operated at the cooling wa-
ter temperatures prescribed in the operating
handbook for the relevant load. If the temperature
of the components that are exposed to acidic
combustion products is below the acid dew point,
acid corrosion can no longer be effectively pre-
vented, even if alkaline lubricating oil is used.
The BN values specified in Specification for lubricat-
ing oil (SAE 40) Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)"
are sufficient, providing the quality of lubricating oil
and engine's cooling system satisfy the require-
ments.
Compatibility
The supplier must guarantee that the heavy fuel oil
is homogeneous and remains stable, even once
the standard storage period has elapsed. If differ-
ent bunker oils are mixed, this can lead to separa-
tion and associated sludge formation in the fuel
system during which large quantities of sludge ac-
cumulate in the separator that block filters, prevent
atomisation and a large amount of residue as a re-
sult of combustion.
This is due to incompatibility or instability of the
oils. As much of the heavy fuel oil in the storage
tank as possible should therefore be removed be-
fore bunkering again to prevent incompatibility.
Blending heavy fuel oil
If heavy fuel oil for the main engine is blended with
gas oil (MGO) to obtain the required quality or vis-
cosity of heavy fuel oil, it is extremely important
that the components of these oils are compatible
(see "Paragraph: Compatibility, page 4-37").
Additives to heavy fuel oils
MAN Diesel & Turbo engines can be operated
economically without additives. It is up to the cus-
tomer to decide whether or not the use of addi-
tives is beneficial. The supplier of the additive must
guarantee that the engine operation will not be im-
paired by using the product.
The use of heavy fuel oil additives during the war-
ranty period must be avoided as a basic principle.
Additives that are currently used for diesel en-
gines, as well as their probable effects on the en-
gine's operation, are summarised in the "Table 4-
21: Additives to heavy fuel oils Classification/ effects",
together with their supposed effect on engine op-
eration.
Heavy fuel oils with low sulphur content
From the point of view of an engine manufacturer,
a lower limit for the sulphur content of heavy fuel
oils does not exist. We have not identified any
problems attributable to sulphur content in the
low-sulphur heavy fuel oils currently available on
the market. This situation may change in future if
new methods are used for the production of low-
sulphur heavy fuel oil (desulphurisation, new
blending components). MAN Diesel & Turbo will
monitor developments and inform its customers if
required.
If the engine is not always operated with low-sul-
phur heavy fuel oil, a corresponding lubricating oil
for the fuel with the highest sulphur content must
be selected.
Improper handling of fuels
If fuels are improperly handled, this can pose a
danger to health, safety and the environment. The
relevant safety information by the fuel supplier
must be observed.
Precombustion
additives
Dispersing agents/stabilisers
Emulsion breakers
Biocides
Combustion addi-
tives
Combustion catalysts (fuel savings,
emissions)
Post-combustion
additives
Ash modifier (hot corrosion)
Soot removers (exhaust-gas sys-
tem)
Table 4-21 Additives to heavy fuel oils Classification/
effects
Specification for engine supplies
4.7 Specification for heavy fuel oil (HFO)
Page 4 - 38 D-BC
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Tests
Sampling
To check whether the specification provided
and/or the necessary delivery conditions are com-
plied with, we recommend you retain at least one
sample of every bunker oil (at least for the duration
of the engine's warranty period). To ensure that
representative samples are taken of the bunker oil,
a sample should be taken from the transfer line
when starting up, halfway through the operating
period and at the end of the bunker period. Sam-
ple Tec" by MarTec in Hamburg is a suitable test-
ing instrument which can be used to take samples
on a regular basis during bunkering.
Analysis of samples
Our department for fuels and lubricating oils
(Augsburg factory, EQC department) will be
pleased to provide further information on request.
We can analyse fuel for customers at our laborato-
ry. A 0.5 l sample is required for the test.
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)
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4.8 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)
Explanations of viscosity-temperature diagram
Figure 4-5 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)
In the diagram, the fuel temperatures are shown
on the horizontal axis and the viscosity is shown
on the vertical axis.
The diagonal lines correspond to viscosity-tem-
perature curves of fuels with different reference
viscosities. The vertical viscosity axis in
mm
2
/s (cSt) applies for 40 and 50 C.
Specification for engine supplies
4.8 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram)
Page 4 - 40 E-BB
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Determining the viscosity-temperature curve and the
required preheating temperature
Example: Heavy fuel oil of 180 mm
2
/s at 50 C.
A heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of 180 mm
2
/s at
50 C can reach a viscosity of 1,000 mm
2
/s at
24 C (line e) this is the maximum permissible
viscosity at which the pump can still deliver the fu-
el.
When the last preheating appliance is a state-of-
the-art appliance with 8 bar saturated steam, this
achieves a heavy fuel oil temperature of 152 C. At
high temperatures there is a danger of deposits
forming in the preheating system that could re-
duce the heating output and lead to thermal over-
loading of the heavy fuel oil. In this case asphalt
forms, i. e. quality is adversely affected.
The heavy fuel oil lines between the outlet of the
last preheating system and the injection valve
must be suitably insulated to limit the maximum
drop in temperature to 4 C. This is the only way
to achieve the necessary injection viscosity of
14 mm
2
/s for heavy fuel oils with a reference vis-
cosity of 700 mm
2
/s at 50 C (the maximum vis-
cosity as defined in the international specifications
such as ISO CIMAC or British Standard). If the
heavy fuel oil being used has a lower reference vis-
cosity, the injection viscosity should ideally be
12 mm
2
/s to improve the atomisation of heavy fuel
oil and in turn reduce combustion residues.
The delivery pump must be designed to handle a
heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of up to
1,000 mm
2
/s. The pour point of the heavy fuel oil
determines whether or not it can be pumped. The
engineering design of the bunker system must al-
low for the heavy fuel oil to be heated up to a tem-
perature which is roughly 10 C higher than the
pour point.
Note!
The viscosity of gas oil or diesel fuel (marine
diesel oil) upstream of the engine must be at
least 1.9 mm
2
/s. If the viscosity is too low, this
may cause seizing of the pump plunger or noz-
zle needle valves as a result of insufficient lu-
brication.
This can be avoided by monitoring the tempera-
ture of the fuel. Although the maximum permissi-
ble temperature depends on the viscosity of the
fuel, it must never exceed the following values:
45 C at the most with DMA and DMB
60 C at the most with RMA
A fuel cooler must therefore be installed.
For operation with special fuels (not according to
ISO8217-2010) like "Arctic Diesel" or "DMX" con-
sult the technical service of MAN Diesel & Turbo in
Augsburg. In this case, please provide exact fuel
specification.
Prescribed injection vis-
cosity in mm
2
/s
Required temperature
of heavy fuel oil at
engine inlet
1)
in C
1)
The drop in temperature between the last preheating appli-
ance and the fuel injection pump is not taken into account
in these figures.
> 12 126 (line c)
s 14 119 (line d)
Table 4-22 Determination of the viscosity-temperature
curve and the preheating temperature
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
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4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
Preliminary remarks
As well as fuel and lubricating oil the engine cool-
ing water has to be selected, handled and
checked really careful. Lack of caution may cause
corrosion, erosion and cavitation to the pumps
and piping of cooling water circuits. Deposits ob-
struct the transfer of heat and can cause thermal
overloading of the cooled parts. The system must
be treated with an anticorrosive agent before
bringing it into operation for the first time. The con-
centrations prescribed by the engine manufactur-
er must always be observed during subsequent
operation. The above especially applies if a chem-
ical additive is added.
Requirements
Limit values
The properties of untreated cooling water must
correspond to the following limit values:
Testing equipment
The MAN Diesel & Turbo water testing equipment
incorporates devices that determine the water
properties referred to above in a straightforward
manner. The manufacturers of anticorrosive
agents also supply user-friendly testing equip-
ment. For information on monitoring cooling water,
see "4.10: Cooling water inspecting".
Additional information
Distillate
If distilled water (from a freshwater generator, for
example) or fully desalinated water (from ion ex-
change or reverse osmosis) is available, this
should ideally be used as the engine cooling water.
These waters are free of lime and salts which
means that deposits that could interfere with the
transfer of heat to the cooling water, and therefore
also reduce the cooling effect, cannot form. How-
ever, these waters are more corrosive than normal
hard water as the thin film of lime scale that would
otherwise provide temporary corrosion protection
does not form on the walls. This is why distilled
water must be handled particularly carefully and
the concentration of the additive must be regularly
checked.
Hardness
The total hardness of the water is the combined
effect of the temporary and permanent hardness.
The proportion of calcium and magnesium salts is
of overriding importance. The temporary hardness
is determined by the carbonate content of the cal-
cium and magnesium salts. The permanent hard-
ness is determined by the amount of remaining
calcium and magnesium salts (sulphates). The
temporary (carbonate) hardness is the critical fac-
tor that determines the extent of limescale deposit
in the cooling system.
Water with a total hardness of > 10dGH must be
mixed with distilled water or softened. Subsequent
hardening of extremely soft water is only neces-
sary to prevent foaming if emulsifiable slushing oils
are used.
Damage to the cooling water system
Corrosion
Corrosion is an electrochemical process that can
widely be avoided by selecting the correct water
Properties/ charac-
teristic
Properties Unit
Water type Distillate or freshwater,
free of foreign matter
-
Total hardness max. 10 dH
1)
1)
1 dH (German hardness)
10 mg CaO in 1 litre of water
17.9 mg CaCO
3
/l
0.357 mval/l
0.179 mmol/l
pH value 6.5 8 -
Chloride ion content max. 50 mg/l
2)
2)
1 mg/l 1 ppm
Table 4-23 Cooling water Properties to be observed
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
Page 4 - 42 D-BC
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quality and by carefully handling the water in the
engine cooling system.
Flow cavitation
Flow cavitation can occur in areas in which high
flow velocities and high turbulence is present. If
the steam pressure is reached, steam bubbles
form and subsequently collapse in high pressure
zones which causes the destruction of materials in
constricted areas.
Erosion
Erosion is a mechanical process accompanied by
material abrasion and the destruction of protective
films by solids that have been drawn in, particularly
in areas with high flow velocities or strong turbu-
lence.
Stress corrosion cracking
Stress corrosion cracking is a failure mechanism
that occurs as a result of simultaneous dynamic
and corrosive stress. This may lead to cracking
and rapid crack propagation in water-cooled, me-
chanically-loaded components if the cooling water
has not been treated correctly.
Processing of engine cooling water
Formation of a protective film
The purpose of treating the engine cooling water
using anticorrosive agents is to produce a contin-
uous protective film on the walls of cooling surfac-
es and therefore prevent the damage referred to
above. In order for an anticorrosive agent to be
100 % effective, it is extremely important that un-
treated water satisfies the requirements in "Para-
graph: Requirements, page 4-41".
Protective films can be formed by treating the
cooling water with an anticorrosive chemical or an
emulsifiable slushing oil.
Emulsifiable slushing oils are used less and less
frequently as their use has been considerably re-
stricted by environmental protection regulations,
and because they are rarely available from suppli-
ers for this and other reasons.
Treatment prior to initial commissioning of engine
Treatment with an anticorrosive agent should be
carried out before the engine is brought into oper-
ation for the first time to prevent irreparable initial
damage.
Note!
The engine must not be brought into operation
without treating the cooling water first.
Additives for cooling water
Only the additives approved by MAN Diesel &
Turbo and listed in "Table 4-24: Nitrite-containing
chemical additives" up to "Table 4-27: Anti-freeze solu-
tions with slushing properties" may be used.
Required approval
A cooling water additive may only be permitted for
use if tested and approved as per the latest direc-
tives of the ICE Research Association (FVV) "Suit-
ability test of internal combustion engine cooling
fluid additives. The test report must be obtainable
on request. The relevant tests can be carried out
on request in Germany at the staatliche Material-
prfanstalt (Federal Institute for Materials Re-
search and Testing), Abteilung Oberflchentechnik
(Surface Technology Division), Grafenstrae 2 in
D-64283 Darmstadt.
Once the cooling water additive has been tested
by the FVV, the engine must be tested in the sec-
ond step before the final approval is granted.
Only in closed circuits
Additives may only be used in closed circuits
where no significant consumption occurs, apart
from leaks or evaporation losses.
Chemical additives
Sodium nitrite and sodium borate based additives
etc. have a proven track record. Galvanised iron
pipes or zinc sacrificial anodes must not be used
in cooling systems. This corrosion protection is not
required due to the prescribed cooling water treat-
ment and electrochemical potential reversal can
occur due to the cooling water temperatures
which are normally present in engines nowadays.
If necessary, the pipes must be deplated.
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
D-BC Page 4 - 43
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Slushing oil
This additive is an emulsifiable mineral oil with add-
ed slushing ingredients. A thin film of oil forms on
the walls of the cooling system. This prevents cor-
rosion without interfering with the transfer of heat
and also prevents limescale deposits on the walls
of the cooling system.
The significance of emulsifiable corrosion-slushing
oils is fading. Oil-based emulsions are rarely used
nowadays for environmental protection reasons
and also because stability problems are known to
occur in emulsions.
Anti-freeze agents
If temperatures below the freezing point of water in
the engine cannot be excluded, an anti-freeze so-
lution that also prevents corrosion must be added
to the cooling system or corresponding parts.
Otherwise, the entire system must be heated. (Mil-
itary specification: Sy-7025).
Sufficient corrosion protection can be provided by
adding the products listed in "Table 4-27: Anti-freeze
solutions with slushing properties" while observing the
prescribed concentration. This concentration pre-
vents freezing at temperatures down to 22 C.
However, the quantity of anti-freeze solution actu-
ally required always depends on the lowest tem-
peratures that are to be expected at the place of
use.
Anti-freezes are generally based on ethylene gly-
col. A suitable chemical anticorrosive agent must
be added if the concentration of the anti-freeze so-
lution prescribed by the user for a specific applica-
tion does not provide an appropriate level of
corrosion protection, or if the concentration of
anti-freeze solution used is lower due to less strin-
gent frost protection requirements and does not
provide an appropriate level of corrosion protec-
tion. For information on the compatibility of the
anti-freeze solution with the anticorrosive agent
and the required concentrations, contact the man-
ufacturer. As regards the chemical additives indi-
cated in "Table 4-24: Nitrite-containing chemical
additives" their compatibility with ethylene glycol-
based antifreezes has been proved. Anti-freeze
solutions may only be mixed with one another with
the consent of the manufacturer, even if these so-
lutions have the same composition.
Before an anti-freeze solution is used, the cooling
system must be thoroughly cleaned.
If the cooling water contains an emulsifiable slush-
ing oil, anti-freeze solution must not be added as
otherwise the emulsion would break up and oil
sludge would form in the cooling system.
Observe the applicable environmental protection
regulations when disposing of cooling water con-
taining additives. For more information, consult the
additive supplier.
Biocides
If you cannot avoid using a biocide because the
cooling water has been contaminated by bacteria,
observe the following steps:
You must ensure that the biocide to be used is
suitable for the specific application.
The biocide must be compatible with the seal-
ing materials used in the cooling water system
and must not react with these.
The biocide and its decomposition products
must not contain corrosion-promoting compo-
nents. Biocides whose decomposition prod-
ucts contain chloride or sulphate ions are not
permitted.
Biocides that cause foaming of the cooling wa-
ter are not permitted.
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
Page 4 - 44 D-BC
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Prerequisite for effective use of an anticorrosive agent
Clean cooling system
As contamination significantly reduces the effec-
tiveness of the additive, the tanks, pipes, coolers
and other parts outside the engine must be free of
rust and other deposits before the engine is start-
ed up for the first time and after repairs are carried
out on the pipe system. The entire system must
therefore be cleaned with the engine switched off
using a suitable cleaning agent (see "Section 4.11:
Cooling water system cleaning, page 4-51").
Loose solid matter in particular must be removed
by flushing the system thoroughly as otherwise
erosion may occur in locations where the flow ve-
locity is high.
The cleaning agents must not corrode the seals
and materials of the cooling system. In most cas-
es, the supplier of the cooling water additive will be
able to carry out this work and, if this is not possi-
ble, will at least be able to provide suitable prod-
ucts to do this. If this work is carried out by the
engine operator, he should use the services of a
specialist supplier of cleaning agents. The cooling
system must be flushed thoroughly following
cleaning. Once this has been done, the engine
cooling water must be treated immediately with
anticorrosive agent. Once the engine has been
brought back into operation, the cleaned system
must be checked for leaks.
Regular checks of the cooling water condition and cooling
water system
Treated cooling water may become contaminated
when the engine is in operation, which causes the
additive to loose some of its effectiveness. It is
therefore advisable to regularly check the cooling
system and the cooling water condition. To deter-
mine leakages in the lube oil system, it is advisable
to carry out regular checks of water in the com-
pensating tank. Indications of oil content in water
are, e.g. discolouration or a visible oil film on the
surface of the water sample.
The additive concentration must be checked at
least once a week using the test kits specified by
the manufacturer. The results must be document-
ed.
Note!
The chemical additive concentrations shall not
be less than the minimum concentrations indi-
cated in "Table 4-24: Nitrite-containing chemical addi-
tives".
Excessively low concentrations can promote cor-
rosion and must be avoided. If the concentration
is slightly above the recommended concentration
this will not result in damage. Concentrations that
are more than twice the recommended concentra-
tion should be avoided.
Every 2 to 6 months send a cooling water sample
to an independent laboratory or to the engine
manufacturer for integrated analysis.
Emulsifiable anticorrosive agents must generally
be replaced after abt. 12 months according to the
supplier's instructions. When carrying this out, the
entire cooling system must be flushed and, if nec-
essary, cleaned. Once filled into the system, fresh-
water must be treated immediately.
If chemical additives or anti-freeze solutions are
used, cooling water should be replaced after 3
years at the latest.
If there is a high concentration of solids (rust) in the
system, the water must be completely replaced
and entire system carefully cleaned.
Deposits in the cooling system may be caused by
fluids that enter the cooling water, or the break up
of emulsion, corrosion in the system and limescale
deposits if the water is very hard. If the concentra-
tion of chloride ions has increased, this generally
indicates that seawater has entered the system.
The maximum specified concentration of 50 mg
chloride ions per kg must not be exceeded as oth-
erwise the risk of corrosion is too high. If exhaust
gas enters the cooling water, this may lead to a
sudden drop in the pH value or to an increase in
the sulphate content.
Water losses must be compensated for by filling
with untreated water that meets the quality re-
quirements specified in this section in "Paragraph:
Requirements, page 4-41". The concentration of the
anticorrosive agent must subsequently be
checked and adjusted if necessary.
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
D-BC Page 4 - 45
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Subsequent checks of cooling water are especial-
ly required if the cooling water had to be drained
off in order to carry out repairs or maintenance.
Protective measures
Anticorrosive agents contain chemical com-
pounds that can pose a risk to health or the envi-
ronment if incorrectly used. Comply with the
directions in the manufacturer's material safety
data sheets.
Avoid prolonged direct contact with the skin.
Wash hands thoroughly after use. If larger quanti-
ties spray and/or soak into clothing, remove and
wash clothing before wearing it again.
If chemicals come into contact with your eyes,
rinse them immediately with plenty of water and
seek medical advice.
Anticorrosive agents are generally harmful to the
water cycle. Observe the relevant statutory re-
quirements for disposal.
Auxiliary engines
If the same cooling water system used in a MAN
Diesel & Turbo two-stroke main engine is used in
a marine engine of type 16/24, 21/31, 23/30H,
27/38 or 28/32H, the cooling water recommenda-
tions for the main engine must be observed.
Analysis
We analyse cooling water for our customers in our
chemical laboratory. A 0.5 l sample is required for
the test.
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
Page 4 - 46 D-BC
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Permissible cooling water additives
Nitrite-containing chemical additives

Manufacturer Product designation Initial
dosing
per
1,000 l
Minimum concentration ppm
Product Nitrite
(NO
2
)
Na-Nitrite
(NaNO
2
)
Drew Marine
One Drew Plaza
Boonton
New Jersey 07005
USA
Liquidewt
Maxigard
15 l
40 l
15,000
40,000
700
1,330
1,050
2,000
Wilhelmsen (Unitor)
KJEMI-Service A.S.
P.O.Box 49/Norway
3140 Borgheim
Rocor NB Liquid
Dieselguard
21.5 l
4.8 kg
21,500
4,800
2,400
2,400
3,600
3,600
Nalfleet Marine
Chemicals
P.O.Box 11
Northwich
Cheshire CW8DX, U.K.
Nalfleet EWT Liq
(9-108)
Nalfleet EWT 9-111
Nalcool 2000
3 l
10 l
30 l
3,000
10,000
30,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,500
1,500
1,500
Nalco Nalcool 2000
TRAC 102
TRAC 118
30 l
30 l
3 l
30,000
30,000
3,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,500
1,500
1,500
Maritech AB
P.O.Box 143
S-29122 Kristianstad
Marisol CW 12 l 12,000 2,000 3,000
Uniservice
Via al Santuario di N.S.
della Guardia 58/A
16162 Genova, Italy
N.C.L.T.
Colorcooling
12 l
24 l
12,000
24,000
2,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
Marichem Marigases
64 Sfaktirias Street
18545 Piraeus, Greece
D.C.W.T
Non-Chromate
48 l 48,000 2,400 -
Marine Care
3144 NA Maasluis
The Netherlands
Caretreat 2 16 l 16,000 4,000 6,000
Vecom
Schlenzigstrae 7
21107 Hamburg
Germany
Cool Treat NCLT 16 l 16,000 4,000 6,000
Table 4-24 Nitrite-containing chemical additives
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
D-BC Page 4 - 47
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Nitrite-free additives (chemical additives)

Emulsifiable slushing oils
Manufacturer Product designation Initial dosing
per 1,000 l
Minimum concentration
Arteco
Technologiepark
Zwijnaarde 2
B-9052 Gent, Belgium
Havoline XLI 75 l 7.5 %
Total Lubricants
Paris, France
WT Supra 75 l 7.5 %
Q8 Oils Q8 Corrosion Inhibitor
Long-Life
75 l 7.5 %
Table 4-25 Chemical additives Nitrite free
Manufacturer Product
(Designation)
BP Marine, Breakspear Way,
Hemel Hempstead,
Herts HP2 4UL
Diatsol M
Fedaro M
Castrol Int.
Pipers Way
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK
Solvex WT 3
Deutsche Shell AG
berseering 35
22284 Hamburg, Germany
Oil 9156
Table 4-26 Emulsifiable slushing oils
Specification for engine supplies
4.9 Specification for engine cooling water
Page 4 - 48 D-BC
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Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties
Manufacturer Product
(Designation)
Minimum
concentration
BASF
Carl-Bosch-Str.
67063 Ludwigshafen, Rhein
Germany
Glysantin G 48
Glysantin 9313
Glysantin G 05
35 %
Castrol Int.
Pipers Way
Swindon SN3 1RE, UK
Antifreeze NF, SF
BP, Britannic Tower
Moor Lane
London EC2Y 9B, UK
Anti-frost X2270A
Deutsche Shell AG
berseering 35
22284 Hamburg
Germany
Glycoshell
Mobil Oil AG
Steinstrae 5
20095 Hamburg
Germany
Frostschutz 500
Arteco/Technologiepark
Zwijnaarde 2
B-9052 Gent
Belgium
Havoline XLC
Total Lubricants
Paris, France
Glacelf Auto Supra
Total Organifreeze
Table 4-27 Anti-freeze solutions with slushing properties
Specification for engine supplies
4.10 Cooling water inspecting
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4.10 Cooling water inspecting
Summary
Acquire and check typical values of the operating
media to prevent or limit damage.
The freshwater used to fill the cooling water cir-
cuits must satisfy the specifications. The cooling
water in the system must be checked regularly in
accordance with the maintenance schedule.
The following work/steps is/are necessary:
Acquisition of typical values for the operating fluid,
evaluation of the operating fluid and checking the
concentration of the anticorrosive agent.
Tools/equipment required
Equipment for checking the freshwater quality
The following equipment can be used:
The MAN Diesel & Turbo water testing kit, or simi-
lar testing kit, with all necessary instruments and
chemicals that determine the water hardness, pH
value and chloride content (obtainable from MAN
Diesel & Turbo or Mar-Tec Marine, Hamburg).
Equipment for testing the concentration of additives
When using chemical additives:
Testing equipment in accordance with the suppli-
er's recommendations. Testing kits from the sup-
plier also include equipment that can be used to
determine the freshwater quality.
Testing the typical values of water
Short specification
Testing the concentration of anticorrosive agents
Short specification
Typical
value/property
Water for filling
and refilling
(without addi-
tive)
Circulating
water
(with addi-
tive)
Water type Freshwater, free
of foreign matter
Treated cool-
ing water
Total hardness s 10 dGH
1)
1)
dH = German hardness
1 dH = 10 mg/l CaO
= 17.9 mg/l CaCO
=0.179 mmol/l
s 10 dGH
1)
pH value 6.5 8 at 20 C > 7.5 at 20 C
Chloride ion
content
s 50 mg/l s 50 mg/l
2)
2)
1 mg/l = 1 ppm
Table 4-28 Quality specifications for cooling water
(abbreviated version)
Anticorro-
sive agent
Concentration
Chemical
additives
According to the quality specification, see
"Section 4.9: Specification for engine cooling
water, page 4-41".
Anti-freeze
agents
According to the quality specification, see
"Section 4.9: Specification for engine cooling
water, page 4-41".
Table 4-29 Concentration of the cooling water additive
Specification for engine supplies
4.10 Cooling water inspecting
Page 4 - 50 J-BB
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Testing the concentration of chemical additives
The concentration should be tested every week,
and/or according to the maintenance schedule,
using the testing instruments, reagents and in-
structions of the relevant supplier.
Chemical slushing oils can only provide effective
protection if the right concentration is precisely
maintained. This is why the concentrations recom-
mended by MAN Diesel & Turbo (quality specifica-
tions in "Section 4.9: Specification for engine cooling
water, page 4-41") must be complied with in all cas-
es. These recommended concentrations may be
other than those specified by the manufacturer.
Testing the concentration of anti-freeze agents
The concentration must be checked in accord-
ance with the manufacturer's instructions or the
test can be outsourced to a suitable laboratory. If
in doubt, consult MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Regular water samplings
Small quantities of lubricating oil in cooling water
can be found by visual check during regular water
sampling from the expansion tank.
Testing
We test cooling water for customers in our labora-
tory. To carry out the test, we will need a represent-
ative sample of abt. 0.5 l.
Specification for engine supplies
4.11 Cooling water system cleaning
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4.11 Cooling water system cleaning
Summary
Remove contamination/residue from operating flu-
id systems, ensure/reestablish operating reliability.
Cooling water systems containing deposits or
contamination prevent effective cooling of parts.
Contamination and deposits must be regularly
eliminated.
This comprises the following:
Cleaning the system and, if required, removal of
limescale deposits, flushing the system.
Cleaning
The cooling water system must be checked for
contamination at regular intervals. Cleaning is re-
quired if the degree of contamination is high. This
work should ideally be carried out by a specialist
who can provide the right cleaning agents for the
type of deposits and materials in the cooling cir-
cuit. The cleaning should only be carried out by
the engine operator if this cannot be done by a
specialist.
Oil sludge
Oil sludge from lubricating oil that has entered the
cooling system or a high concentration of anticor-
rosive agents can be removed by flushing the sys-
tem with freshwater to which some cleaning agent
has been added. Suitable cleaning agents are list-
ed alphabetically in "Table 4-30: Cleaning agents for
removing oil sludge". Products by other manufactur-
ers can be used providing they have similar prop-
erties. The manufacturer's instructions for use
must be strictly observed.
Lime and rust deposits
Lime and rust deposits can form if the water is es-
pecially hard or if the concentration of the anticor-
rosive agent is too low. A thin lime scale layer can
be left on the surface as experience has shown
that this protects against corrosion. However,
limescale deposits with a thickness of more than
0.5 mm obstruct the transfer of heat and cause
thermal overloading of the components being
cooled.
Rust that has been flushed out may have an abra-
sive effect on other parts of the system, such as
the sealing elements of the water pumps. Together
with the elements that are responsible for water
hardness, this forms what is known as ferrous
sludge which tends to gather in areas where the
flow velocity is low.
Products that remove limescale deposits are gen-
erally suitable for removing rust. Suitable cleaning
agents are listed alphabetically in "Table 4-31: Clean-
ing agents for removing limescale and rust deposits".
Products by other manufacturers can be used
providing they have similar properties. The manu-
facturer's instructions for use must be strictly ob-
served. Prior to cleaning, check whether the
cleaning agent is suitable for the materials to be
cleaned.
Manufacturer Product Concentration Duration of cleaning proce-
dure/temperature
Drew HDE-777 4 5 % 4 h at 50 60 C
Nalfleet MaxiClean 2 2 5 % 4 h at 60 C
Unitor Aquabreak 0.05 0.5 % 4 h at ambient temperature
Vecom Ultrasonic
Multi Cleaner
4 % 12 h at 50 60 C
Table 4-30 Cleaning agents for removing oil sludge
Specification for engine supplies
4.11 Cooling water system cleaning
Page 4 - 52 J-BB
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The products listed in "Table 4-31: Cleaning agents for
removing limescale and rust deposits" are also suitable
for stainless steel.
In emergencies only
Hydrochloric acid diluted in water or aminosul-
phonic acid may only be used in exceptional cases
if a special cleaning agent that removes limescale
deposits without causing problems is not availa-
ble. Observe the following during application:
Stainless steel heat exchangers must never be
treated using diluted hydrochloric acid.
Cooling systems containing non-ferrous metals
(aluminium, red bronze, brass, etc.) must be
treated with deactivated aminosulphonic acid.
This acid should be added to water in a con-
centration of 3 5 %. The temperature of the
solution should be 40 50 C.
Diluted hydrochloric acid may only be used to
clean steel pipes. If hydrochloric acid is used as
the cleaning agent, there is always a danger
that acid will remain in the system, even when
the system has been neutralised and flushed.
This residual acid promotes pitting. We there-
fore recommend you have the cleaning carried
out by a specialist.
The carbon dioxide bubbles that form when limes-
cale deposits are dissolved can prevent the clean-
ing agent from reaching boiler scale. It is therefore
absolutely necessary to circulate the water with
the cleaning agent to flush away the gas bubbles
and allow them to escape.
The length of the cleaning process depends on the
thickness and composition of the deposits. Values
are provided for orientation in "Table 4-30: Cleaning
agents for removing oil sludge".
Following cleaning
The cooling system must be flushed several times
once it has been cleaned using cleaning agents.
Replace the water during this process. If acids are
used to carry out the cleaning, neutralise the cool-
ing system afterwards with suitable chemicals
then flush. The system can then be refilled with
water that has been prepared accordingly.
Note!
Start the cleaning operation only when the en-
gine has cooled down. Hot engine compo-
nents must not come into contact with cold
water. Open the venting pipes before refilling
the cooling water system. Blocked venting
pipes prevent air from escaping which can
lead to thermal overloading of the engine.
Safety/environmental protection
The products to be used can endanger health and
may be harmful to the environment.
Follow the manufacturer's handling instructions
without fail.
The applicable regulations governing the disposal
of cleaning agents or acids must be observed.
Manufacturer Product Concentration Duration of cleaning proce-
dure/temperature
Drew SAF-Acid
Descale-IT
Ferroclean
5 10 %
5 10 %
10 %
4 h at 60 70 C
4 h at 60 70 C
4 24 h at 60 70 C
Nalfleet Nalfleet 9 068 5 % 4 h at 60 75 C
Unitor Descalex 5 10 % 4 6 h at approx. 60 C
Vecom Descalant F 3 10 % Approx. 4 h at 50 60 C
Table 4-31 Cleaning agents for removing limescale and rust deposits
Specification for engine supplies
4.12 Specification for intake air (combustion air)
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4.12 Specification for intake air (combustion air)
General
The quality and condition of intake air (combustion
air) have a significant effect on the engine output,
wear and emissions of the engine. In this regard,
not only are the atmospheric conditions extremely
important, but also contamination by solid and
gaseous foreign matter.
Mineral dust in the intake air increases wear.
Chemicals and gases promote corrosion.
This is why effective cleaning of intake air (com-
bustion air) and regular maintenance/ cleaning of
the air filter are required.
When designing the intake air system, the maxi-
mum permissible overall pressure drop (filter, si-
lencer, pipe line) of 20 mbar must be taken into
consideration.
Exhaust turbochargers for marine engines are
equipped with silencers enclosed by a filter mat as
a standard. The quality class (filter class) of the fil-
ter mat corresponds to the G3 quality in accord-
ance with EN779.
Requirements
Liquid fuel engines: As minimum, inlet air (combus-
tion air) must be cleaned by a G3 class filter as per
EN779, if the combustion air is drawn in from in-
side (e.g. from the machine room/engine room). If
the combustion air is drawn in from outside, in the
environment with a risk of higher inlet air contami-
nation (e.g. due to sand storms, due to loading
and unloading grain cargo vessels or in the sur-
roundings of cement plants), additional measures
must be taken. This includes the use of pre-sepa-
rators, pulse filter systems and a higher grade of
filter efficiency class at least up to M5 according to
EN779.
Gas engines and dual-fuel engines: As minimum, in-
let air (combustion air) must be cleaned by a G3
class filter as per EN779, if the combustion air is
drawn in from inside (e.g. from machine room/en-
gine room). Gas engines or dual-fuel engines must
be equipped with a dry filter. Oil bath filters are not
permitted because they enrich the inlet air with oil
mist. This is not permissible for gas operated en-
gines because this may result in engine knocking.
If the combustion air is drawn in from outside, in
the environment with a risk of higher inlet air con-
tamination (e.g. due to sand storms, due to load-
ing and unloading grain cargo vessels or in the
surroundings of cement plants) additional meas-
ures must be taken. This includes the use of pre-
separators, pulse filter systems and a higher grade
of filter efficiency class at least up to M5 according
to EN779.
In general, the following applies:
The inlet air path from air filter to engine shall be
designed and implemented airtight so that no false
air may be drawn in from the outdoor.
The concentration downstream of the air filter
and/or upstream of the turbocharger inlet must
not exceed the following limit values.
Specification for engine supplies
4.12 Specification for intake air (combustion air)
Page 4 - 54 E-BD
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Note!
Intake air shall not contain any flammable gas-
es. Make sure that the combustion air is not
explosive and is not drawn in from the ATEX
Zone.
Properties Typical value Unit
1)
1)
One Nm
3
corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 0 C and 101.32 kPa.
Particle size < 5 m: minimum 90 % of the particle number
Particle size < 10 m: minimum 98 % of the particle number
Dust (sand, cement, CaO, Al
2
O
3
etc.) max. 5 mg/Nm
3
Chlorine max. 1.5
Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
) max. 1.25
Hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S) max. 5
Salt (NaCl) max. 1
Table 4-32 Intake air (combustion air) Typical values to be observed
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5 Engine supply systems
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Engine supply systems
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions
K-BC 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 3
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5.1 Basic principles for pipe selection
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions
The external piping systems are to be installed and
connected to the engine by the shipyard or by the
plant engineering company for a power plant.
The design of the piping has to take into account
the maximum allowed pressure losses, the recom-
mended flow rates, the requirements of the instal-
lations (e.g. pumps, valves), the limitations of the
piping material (e.g. erosion and corrosion resist-
ance) and secondary effects (e.g. noise).
Therefore, depending on specific conditions of
piping systems, it may be necessary to adopt even
lower flow rates as stated in the table below.
Generally it is not recommended to adopt higher
flow rates.

- Recommended flow rates (m/s)
Suction side Delivery side
Fresh water (cooling water) 1.0 2.0 2.0 3.5
Lube oil 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5
Sea water 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.5
Diesel fuel 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Heavy fuel oil 0.3 0.8 1.0 1.8
Natural gas (<5 bar) - 5 10
Natural gas (>5 bar) - 20 30
Pressurized air for control air system - 2 10
Pressurized air for starting air system - 25 30
Intake air 20 25
Exhaust gas 40
Table 5-1 Recommended flow rates
Engine supply systems
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions
Page 5 - 4 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF K-BC
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Specication of materials for piping
General
The properties of the piping shall conform to in-
ternational standards, e.g. DIN EN 10208, DIN
EN 10216, DIN EN 10217 or DIN EN 10305,
DIN EN 13480-3.
For piping, black steel pipe should be used;
stainless steel shall be used where necessary.
Outer surface of pipes need to be primed and
painted according to the specication for sta-
tionary power plants consider Q10.09028-
5013.
The pipes are to be sound, clean and free from
all imperfections. The internal surfaces must be
thoroughly cleaned and all scale, grit, dirt and
sand used in casting or bending removed. No
sand is to be used as packing during bending
operations. For further instructions regarding
stationary power plants please also consider
Q10.09028-2104.
In the case of pipes with forged bends care is
to be taken that internal surfaces are smooth
and no stray weld metal left after joining.
Please see the instructions in our Work card
6682000.16-01E for cleaning of steel pipes be-
fore tting together with the Q10.09028-2104
for stationary power plants.
LT-, HT- and nozzle cooling water pipes
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system as all additives contained in
the engine cooling water attack zinc.
Moreover, there is the risk of the formation of local
electrolytic element couples where the zinc layer
has been worn off, and the risk of aeration corro-
sion where the zinc layer is not properly bonded to
the substrate.
Proposed material (EN)
P235GH, E235, X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
Fuel oil pipes, Lube oil pipes
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system as acid components of the
fuel may attack zinc.
Proposed material (EN)
E235, P235GH, X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
Starting air/control air pipes
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system.
Proposed material (EN)
E235, P235GH, X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
Urea pipes (for SCR only)
Galvanised steel pipe, brass and copper compo-
nents must not be used for the piping of the sys-
tem.
Proposed material (EN)
X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
K-BC 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 5
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5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
Arrangement of hoses on resiliently mounted engine
Flexible pipe connections become necessary to
connect resilient mounted engines with external
piping systems. They are used to compensate the
dynamic movements of the engine in relation to
the external piping system. For information about
the origin of the dynamic engine movements, their
direction and identity in principle see "Table 5-2: Ex-
cursions of the in-line engines" and "Table 5-3: Excur-
sions of the V-engines".
Note!
The above entries are approximate values
(10 %); they are valid for the standard design
of the mounting.
Assumed sea way movements: Pitching 7.5/
rolling 22.5.
- Engine rotations unit Coupling displacements
unit
Exhaust flange
(at the turbocharger)
mm mm
Axial
R
X
Cross
direction
R
Y
Vertical
R
Z
Axial
X
Cross
direction
Y
Vertical
Z
Axial
X
Cross
direction
Y
Vertical
Z
O
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Pitching 0.0 0.026 0.0 0.95 0.0 1.13 2.4 0.0 1.1
Rolling 0.22 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 0.35 0.3 16.2 4.25
Engine torque 0.045
(CCW)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.35 (to
Cntrl. Side)
0.0 0.0 2.9 (to
Cntrl. Side)
0.9
Vibration during
normal operation
(0.003) ~0.0 ~0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.08
Run out
resonance
0.053 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.64 0.0 0.0 3.9 1.1
Table 5-2 Excursions of the in-line engines
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
Page 5 - 6 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BC
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Note!
The above entries are approximate values
(10 %); they are valid for the standard design
of the mounting.
Assumed sea way movements: Pitching 7.5/
rolling 22.5.
The conical mounts (RD214B/X) are fitted with
internal stoppers (clearances:
lat
= 3 mm,

vert
= 4 mm); these clearances will not be
completely utilized by the above loading cas-
es.
- Engine rotations unit Coupling displacements unit Exhaust flange
(at the turbocharger)
mm mm
Axial
R
x
Cross
direction
R
y
Vertical
R
z
Axial
X
Cross
direction
Y
Vertical
Z
Axial
X
Cross
direction
Y
Vertical
Z
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Pitching 0.0 0.066 0.0 1.7 0.0 3.4 5.0 0.0 2.6
Rolling 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.54 0.0 21.2 5.8
Engine
torque
0.07 0.0 0.0 0.0 +0.59
(to A bank)
0.0 0.0 +4.2
(to A bank)
1.37
(A-TC)
Vibration
during
normal
operation
(0.004) ~0.0 ~0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.04 0.11 0.1
Run out
reso-
nance
0.052 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.64 0.0 0.1 3.6 1.0
Table 5-3 Excursions of the V-engines
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
K-BC 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 7
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Figure 5-1 Coordinate system
Generally flexible pipes (rubber hoses with steel in-
let, metal hoses, PTFE-corrugated hose-lines,
rubber bellows with steel inlet, steel bellows, steel
compensators) are nearly unable to compensate
twisting movements. Therefore the installation di-
rection of flexible pipes must be vertically (in Z-di-
rection) if ever possible. An installation in
horizontal-axial direction (in X-direction) is not per-
mitted; an installation in horizontal-lateral (Y-direc-
tion) is not recommended.
Flange and screw connections
Flexible pipes delivered loosely by MAN Diesel &
Turbo are fitted with flange connections, for sizes
with DN32 upwards. Smaller sizes are fitted with
screw connections. Each flexible pipe is delivered
complete with counterflanges or, those smaller
than DN32, with weld-on sockets.
Arrangement of the external piping system
Shipyard's pipe system must be exactly arranged
so that the flanges or screw connections do fit
without lateral or angular offset. Therefore it is rec-
ommended to adjust the final position of the pipe
connections after engine alignment is completed.
Figure 5-2 Arrangement of pipes in system
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
Page 5 - 8 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BC
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Installation of hoses
In the case of straight-line-vertical installation, a
suitable distance between the hose connections
has to be chosen, so that the hose is installed with
a sag. The hose must not be in tension during op-
eration. To satisfy correct sag in a straight-line-ver-
tically installed hose, the distance between the
hose connections (hose installed, engine stopped)
has to be approx. 5 % shorter than the same dis-
tance of the unconnected hose (without sag).
In case it is unavoidable (this is not recommended)
to connect the hose in lateral-horizontal direction
(Y-direction) the hose must be installed preferably
with a 90 arc. The minimum bending radii, speci-
fied in our drawings, are to be observed.
Never twist the hoses during installation. Turnable
lapped flanges on the hoses avoid this.
Where screw connections are used, steady the
hexagon on the hose with a wrench while fitting
the nut.
Comply with all installation instructions of the hose
manufacturer.
Depending on the required application rubber
hoses with steel inlet, metal hoses or PTFE-corru-
gated hose lines are used.
Installation of steel compensators
Steel compensators are used for hot media, e. g.
exhaust gas. They can compensate movements in
line and transversal to their centre line, but they are
absolutely unable to compensate twisting move-
ments. Compensators are very stiff against tor-
sion. For this reason all kind of steel compensators
installed on resilient mounted engines are to be in-
stalled in vertical direction.
Note!
Exhaust gas compensators are also used to
compensate thermal expansion. Therefore ex-
haust gas compensators are required for all
type of engine mountings, also for semi-resil-
ient or rigid mounted engines. But in these
cases the compensators are quite shorter, they
are designed only to compensate the thermal
expansions and vibrations, but not other dy-
namic engine movements.
Angular compensator for fuel oil
The fuel oil compensator, to be used for resilient
mounted engines, can be an angular system com-
posed of three compensators with different char-
acteristics. Please observe the installation
instruction indicated on the specific drawing.
Supports of pipes
The flexible pipe must be installed as near as pos-
sible to the engine connection.
On the shipside, directly after the flexible pipe, the
pipe is to be fixed with a sturdy pipe anchor of
higher than normal quality. This anchor must be
capable to absorb the reaction forces of the flexi-
ble pipe, the hydraulic force of the fluid and the dy-
namic force
Example for the axial force of a compensator to be
absorbed by the pipe anchor:
Hydraulic force
= (Cross section area of the compensator) x
(Pressure of the fluid inside)
Reaction force
= (Spring rate of the compensator) x (Displace-
ment of the comp.)
Axial force
= (Hydraulic force) + (Reaction force)
Additionally a sufficient margin has to be included
to account for pressure peaks and vibrations.
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
K-BC 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 9
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Figure 5-3 Installation of hoses
Engine supply systems
5.1.2 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines
Page 5 - 10 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF K-BC
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Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels
D-BD Page 5 - 11
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5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels
Figure 5-4 Diagram condensate amount
The amount of condensate precipitated from the
air can be quite large, particularly in the tropics. It
depends on the condition of the intake air (temper-
ature, relative air humidity) in comparison to the
charge air after charge air cooler (pressure, tem-
perature).
In addition the condensed water quantity in the
engine needs to be minimized. This is achieved by
controlling the charge air temperature.
Determining the amount of condensate:
First determine the point I of intersection in the left
side of the diagram (intake air) between the corre-
sponding relative air humidity curve and the ambi-
ent air temperature.
Secondly determine the point II of intersection in
the right side of the diagram (charge air) between
the corresponding charge air pressure curve and
the charge air temperature.
Note that charge air pressure as mentioned in En-
gine and operation Planning data" is shown in abso-
lute pressure.
At both points of intersection read out the values
[g water/kg air] on the vertically axis.
The intake air water content I minus the charge air
water content II is the condensate amount A which
will precipitate. If the calculations result is negative
no condensate will occur.
For an example see "Figure 5-4: Diagram condensate
amount": Intake air water content 30 g/kg minus
26 g/kg = 4 g of water/kg of air will precipitate.
To calculate the condensate amount during filling
of the starting air vessel just use the 30 bar curve
in a similar procedure.
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels
Page 5 - 12 D-BD
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Example to determine the amount of water accumulating in the charge-air pipe
Parameter Unit Value
Engine output (P) kW 9,000
Specific air flow (le) kg/kWh 6.9
Ambient air condition (I):Ambient air temperature
Relative air humidity
C
%
35
80
Charge air condition (II):Charge air temperature after cooler
Charge air pressure (overpressure)
C
bar
56
3.0
Solution acc. to above diagram: Unit Value
Water content of air according to point of intersection (I) kg of water/kg of air 0.030
Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (II) kg of water/kg of air 0.026
The difference between (I) and (II) is the condensed water amount (A)
A= I II = 0.030 0.026 = 0.004 kg of water/kg of air
Total amount of condensate Q
A
:
Q
A
= A x le x P
Q
A
= 0.004 x 6.9 x 9,000 = 248 kg/h
Table 5-4 Determining the condensate amount in the charge air pipe
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels
D-BD Page 5 - 13
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Example to determine the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel
Parameter Unit Value
Volumetric capacity of tank (V) litre
m
3
3,500
3.5
Temperature of air in starting air vessel (T) C
K
40
313
Air pressure in starting air vessel (p
above atmosphere
)
Air pressure in starting air vessel (p
absolute
)
bar
bar
30
31
31 x 10
5
Gas constant for air (R)
287
Ambient air temperature C 35
Relative air humidity % 80
Weight of air in the starting air vessel is calculated as follows:
Solution acc. to above diagram:
Water content of air according to point of intersection (I) kg of water/kg of air 0.030
Maximum water content of air according to point of intersection (III) kg of water/kg of air 0.002
The difference between (I) and (III) is the condensed water amount (B)
B = I III
B= 0.030 0.002 = 0.028 kg of water/kg of air
Total amount of condensate in the vessel Q
B
:
Q
B
= m x B
Q
B
= 121 * 0.028 = 3.39 kg
Table 5-5 Determining the condensate amount in the compressed air vessel
N
m
2
-------
Nm
kgxK
--------------
m
p V
R T
-------------
31 10
5
3 5 ,
287 313
------------------------------------ 121 kg = = =
Engine supply systems
5.1.3 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels
Page 5 - 14 D-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
H-AI 51/60DF Page 5 - 15
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5.2 Lube oil system
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
Lube oil diagrams please see overleaf!
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
Page 5 - 16 51/60DF H-AI
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Figure 5-5 Lube oil system - service pump attached
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
H-AI 51/60DF Page 5 - 17
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Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
Page 5 - 18 51/60DF H-AI
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Figure 5-6 Lube oil system - service pump electrically driven
Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
H-AI 51/60DF Page 5 - 19
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Engine supply systems
5.2.1 Lube oil system diagram
Page 5 - 20 51/60DF H-AI
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Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
C-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 21
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5.2.2 Lube oil system description
The diagrams represent the standard design of ex-
ternal lube oil service systems, with a combination
of engine mounted and detached, freestanding,
lube oil pump(s).
The internal lubrication of the engine and the tur-
bocharger is provided with a force-feed lubrication
system.
The lubrication of the cylinder liners is designed as
a separate system attached to the engine but
served by the inner lubrication system.
In multi-engine plants, for each engine a separate
lube oil system is required.
For dual-fuel engines (gas-diesel engines) a sup-
plement will explain additional specific require-
ments.
T-001/Service tank
The main purpose for the service tank is to sepa-
rate air and particles from the lube oil, before being
pumped back to the engine. For the design of the
service tank the class requirements have to be
taken in consideration. For design requirements of
MAN Diesel & Turbo see "Section 5.2.5: Lube oil serv-
ice tank, page 5-35".
H-002/Lube oil heater Single main engine
The lube oil in the service tank and the system
shall be heated up to 40 C prior to the engine
start. A constant circulation of the lube oil with the
stand-by pump is not recommended.
H-002/Lube oil heating Multi-engine plant
The lube oil in the tank and the system shall be
heated up to 40 C during stand-by mode of
one engine. A constant circulation through the
separate heater is recommended with a small
priming pump.
Suction pipes
Suction pipes must be installed with a steady
slope and dimensioned for the total resistance (in-
cl. pressure drop for suction filter) not exceeding
the pump suction head. A non-return flap must be
installed close to the lube oil tank in order to pre-
vent the lube oil backflow when the engine has
been shut off. For engine mounted pumps this
non-return flap must be by-passed by a relief valve
(PSV-004, DN50) to protect the pump seals
against high pressure because of counter rotation
(during shut down).
FIL-004/Suction strainer
The suction strainer protect the lube oil pumps
against larger dirt particles that may have accumu-
lated in the tank. It is recommended to use a cone
type strainer with a mesh size of 1.5 mm. Two ma-
nometer installed before and after the strainer indi-
cate when manual cleaning of filter becomes
necessary, which should preferably be done in
port.
P-001/P-074/Lube oil pumps
For ships with a single main engine drive it is pref-
erable to design the lube oil system with a combi-
nation of an engine driven lube oil pump
(P-001) and an electrically driven stand-by pump
(P-074) (100 % capacity).
For ships with more than one main engine the
electrically driven pump can be dimensioned
smaller, to be used as a priming pump only.
As long as the installed stand-by pump is provid-
ing 100 % capacity of the operating pump, the
class requirement to have an operating pump in
spare on board, is fulfilled.
The main advantages for an engine-driven lube oil
pump are:
Reduced power demand for GenSet/PTO for
normal operation.
Continuous lube oil supply during blackout and
emergency stop for engine run-out.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
Page 5 - 22 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF C-BD
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In general additional installations are to be consid-
ered for different pump arrangements:
To comply with the rules of classification socie-
ties.
To ensure continuous lube oil supply during
blackout and emergency stop for engine run-
out.
For required pump capacities see "Section: Planning
data for emission standard IMO Tier II".
In case of unintended engine stop (e.g. blackout)
the post lubrication must be started as soon as
possible (latest within 20 min) after the engine has
stopped and must persist for minimum 15 min.
This is required to cool down the bearings of T.C.
and hot inner engine components.
HE-002/Lube oil cooler
Dimensioning
Heat data, flow rates and tolerances are indicated
in "Section: Planning data for emission standard
IMO Tier II".
On the lube oil side the pressure drop shall not ex-
ceed 1.1 bar.
TCV-001/Temperature control valve
The valve is to regulate the inlet oil temperature of
the engine. The control valve can be executed with
wax-type thermostats.
Lube oil treatment
The treatment of the circulating lube oil can be di-
vided into two major functions:
Removal of contaminations to keep up the lube
oil performance.
Retention of dirt to protect the engine.
The removal of combustion residues, water and
other mechanical contaminations is the major task
of separators/centrifuges (CF-001) installed in by-
pass to the main lube oil service system of the en-
gine. The installation of a separator per engine is
recommended to ensure a continuous separation
during engine operation.
The system integrated filters protect the diesel en-
gine in the main circuit retaining all residues which
may cause a harm to the engine. Depending on
the filter design, the collected residues are to be
removed from the filter mesh by automatic back
flushing, manual cleaning or changing the filter
cartridge. The retention capacity of the installed fil-
ter should be as high as possible.
For selection of an applicable filter arrangement,
the customer request for operation and mainte-
nance, as well as the class requirements, have to
be taken in consideration.
Type of Engine Set point
lube oil inlet
temperature
Type of temper-
ature control
valve
1)
1)
Full open temperature of wax/copper elements must be =
set point.
32/40 65 C Thermostatic con-
trol valve (wax/cop-
per elements) or
electrically actuated
control valve (inter-
face to engine con-
trol)
32/44CR
48/60B,
48/60CR
55 C
51/60DF
Table 5-8 Temperature control valve
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
C-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 23
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Arrangement principles for lube oil filters
FIL-001/FIL-002
Depending on engine type, the number of installed
main engines in one plant and on the safety stand-
ard wanted by the customer, different arrange-
ment principles for the filters FIL-001/FIL-002 are
possible:
FIL-001/Automatic filter
The automatic back washing filter is to be installed
as a main filter. The back washing/flushing of the
filter elements has to be arranged in a way that
lube oil flow and pressure will not be affected. The
flushing discharge (oil/sludge mixture) is led to the
service tank. Via suction line into a separator the
oil will be permanently bypass cleaned. This pro-
vides an efficient final removal of deposits. (See
"Section 5.2.5: Lube oil service tank, page 5-35").
As state-of-the-art, automatic filter types are rec-
ommended to be equipped with an integrated
second filtration stage. This second stage protects
the engine from particles which may pass the first
stage filter elements in case of any malfunction. If
the lube oil system is equipped with a two-stage
automatic filter, additional indicator filter FIL-002
can be avoided. In case of an automatic filter
mounted on engine, an indicator filter cannot be
installed, so the second filter stage inside auto-
matic filter is essential. As far as the automatic filter
is installed without any additional filters down-
stream, before the engine inlet, the filter has to be
installed as close as possible to the engine (see
"Table 5-9: Arrangement principles for lube oil filters"). In
that case the pipe section between filter and en-
gine inlet must be closely inspected before instal-
lation. This pipe section must be divided and
flanges have to be fitted so that all bends and
Engine type FIL 001
automatic filter
continuous flushing
FIL 001
automatic filter
intermittent flushing
FIL 002
duplex filter
as indicator filter
32/44CR incl. 2. filter stage
engine mounted
- not required
32/40
48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF
incl. 2. filter stage
installed close to the engine
- not required
- possible with or w/o bypass
mounted close to the engine
required
mounted downstream FIL 001
It is allways recommended to install one separator in partial flow of each engine.
Filter design has to be approved by MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Table 5-9 Arrangement principles for lube oil filters
Engine type Application Location of
FIL001
Type of lube oil automatic filter FIL001
Continuous flushing
type
Intermittent flushing
type
32/44CR Single-main-engine-plant
Multi-main-engine-plant
Engine mounted 30 m 1st filter stage
50 m 2nd filter stage
-
32/40, 48/60B,
48/60CR, 51/60DF
Single-main-engine-plant
Multi-main-engine-plant
Engine room
Close to engine
34 m 1st filter stage
80 m 2nd filter stage
34 m
(Without 2nd filter stage,
double filter 60 m required)
Table 5-10 Automatic filter
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
Page 5 - 24 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF C-BD
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welding seams can be inspected and cleaned pri-
or to final installation.
Differential pressure gauges have to be installed,
to protect the filter cartridges and to indicate clog-
ging condition of the filter. A high differential pres-
sure has to be indicated as an alarm.
For filter mesh sizes see "Table 5-10: Automatic fil-
ter".
V-001/Shut-off valve
This shut-off valve is only to be provided for single-
engine plants. The valve is closed during normal
operation. In case the lube oil automatic filter
FIL-001 has to be taken out of operation, the valve
can be opened and the automatic filter shut off.
Consequently, the automatic filter is by-passed.
The lube oil indicator filter FIL-002 temporarily
takes over the task of the automatic filter. In case
of a two-stage automatic filter without a following
indicator filter, there is no by-pass required. Engine
can run for max. 72 hours with the second filter
stage, but has to be stopped after. This measure
ensures that disturbances in backwashing do not
result in a complete failure of filtering and that the
main stream filter can be cleaned without inter-
rupting filtering.
FIL-002/Indicator filter
The indicator filter is a duplex filter, which must be
cleaned manually. It must be installed down-
stream of the automatic filter, as close as possible
to the engine. The pipe section between filter and
engine inlet must be closely inspected before in-
stallation. This pipe section must be divided and
flanges have to be fitted so that all bends and
welding seams can be inspected and cleaned pri-
or to final installation.
In case of a two-stage automatic filter, the installa-
tion of an indicator filter can be avoided. Custom-
ers who want to fulfil a higher safety level, are free
to mount an additional duplex filter close to the en-
gine.

The indicator filter protects the engine also in case
of malfunctions of the automatic filter. The moni-
toring system of the automatic filter generates an
alarm signal to alert the operating personnel. A
maintenance of the automatic filter becomes nec-
essary. For this purpose the lube oil flow thought
the automatic filter has to be stopped. Single-
main-engine-plants can continue to stay in opera-
tion by by-passing the automatic filter. Lube oil can
still be filtrated sufficiently in this situation by only
using the indicator filter.
In multi-engine-plants, where it is not possible to
by-pass the automatic filter without loss of lube oil
Type of Engine Lube oil indicator filter FIL-002
32/44CR 32/40,
48/60B, 48/60CR
51/60DF
32/40,
48/60B, 48/60CR,
51/60DF
Application Single-main-engine-plant
Multi- main-engine-plant
Single-main-engine-plant
Multi- main-engine-plant
Single-main-engine-plant
Multi-main-engine-plant
Requirement for indicator filter Indicator filter not required Indicator filter not required To be installed in the
external piping system close
to the engine
Explanation of requirement Because the engine
mounted automatic filter
FIL 001 is of continuous
flushing type incl. 2
nd
filter
stage
If the installed automatic fil-
ter FIL 001 is of continuous
flushing type incl. 2
nd
filter
stage
If the installed automatic fil-
ter FIL 001 is of intermittent
flushing type if the 2nd filter
stage is missed
Max. mesh width (absolute) - 60 m
Table 5-11 Indicator filter
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
C-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 25
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filtration, the affected engine has to be stopped in
this situation.
The design of the indicator filter must ensure that
no parts of the filter can become loose and enter
the engine.
The drain connections equipped with shut-off fit-
tings in the two chambers of the indicator filter re-
turns into the leak oil tank (T-006). Draining will
remove the dirt accumulated in the casing and
prevents contamination of the clean oil side of the
filter. For filter mesh sizes and surface loads see
"Table 5-11: Indicator filter".
Indication and alarm of filters
The automatic filter FIL-001, the indicator duplex
filter FIL-002 and the suction strainer
FIL-004 are equipped with local visual differential
pressure indicators. The filter FIL-001 and the filter
FIL-002 are additionally equipped with differential
pressure switches. The switches are used for pre-
alarm and main alarm. The alarms of the automatic
filter and indicator/duplex filter are processed in
the engine control and safety system and are avail-
able for the ship alarm system.
CF-001/Separator
The lube oil is intensively cleaned by separation in
the by-pass thus relieving the filters and allowing
an economical design.
The separator should be of the self- cleaning type.
The design is to be based on a lube oil quantity of
1.0 l/kW. This lube oil quantity should be cleaned
within 24 hours at:
HFO-operation 6 7 times
MDO-operation 4 5 times
Dual-fuel engines operating on gas
(+MDO/MGO for ignition only) 4 5 times
The formula for determining the separator flow
rate (Q) is:
With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator
has to be selected according to the evaluation ta-
Differential pressure between filter inlet and outlet (dp)
dp switch with lower set point is active dp switch with higher
set point is active
Automatic fil-
ter FIL-001
Intermittent flush-
ing type
This dp switch has to be installed twice if an intermittent
flushing filter is used. The first switch is used for the filter
control; it will start the automatic flushing procedure.
The second switch is adjusted at the identical set point
as the first. Once the second switch is activated, and
after a time delay of approx. 3 min, the dp pre-alarm "fil-
ter is polluted" is generated. The time delay becomes
necessary to effect the automatic flushing procedure
before and to evaluate its effect.
The dp main alarm "filter fail-
ure" is generated immedi-
ately. If the main alarm is still
active after 30 min, the
engine output power will be
reduced automatically.
Continuous flush-
ing type
The dp pre-alarm: "Filter is polluted" is generated imme-
diately
Duplex/Indi-
cator filter
FIL-002
Table 5-12 Indication and alarm of filters
Q Separator flow rate l/h
P Total engine output kW
n HFO= 7, MDO= 5, MGO= 5, Gas(+MDO/MGO for
ignition only) = 5
1,0 P n
Q
24

=
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
Page 5 - 26 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF C-BD
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ble of the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo
strictly recommend to use evaluation tables ac-
cording to a "certified flow rate" (CFR). The sepa-
rator rating stated by the manufacturer should be
higher than the flow rate (Q) calculated according
to the above formula.
Separator equipment
The preheater H-002 must be able to heat the oil
to 95 C and the size is to be selected accordingly.
In addition to a PI-temperature control, which
avoids a thermal overloading of the oil, silting of
the preheater must be prevented by high turbu-
lence of the oil in the preheater.
Control accuracy 1 C.
Cruise ships in arctic waters require larger pre-
heaters. In this case the size of the preheater must
be calculated with a At of 60 K.
The freshwater supplied must be treated as spec-
ified by the separator supplier.
The supply pumps shall be of the free-standing
type, i.e. not mounted on the separator and are to
be installed in the immediate vicinity of the lube oil
service tank.
This arrangement has three advantages:
Suction of lube oil without causing cavitation.
The lube oil separator need not be installed in
the vicinity of the service tank but can be
mounted in the separator room together with
the fuel oil separators.
Better matching of the capacity to the required
separator throughput.
As a reserve for the lube oil separator, the use of
the MDO separator is admissible. For reserve op-
eration the MDO separator must be converted ac-
cordingly. This includes the pipe connection to the
lube oil system which must not be implemented
with valves or spectacle flanges. The connection is
to be executed by removable change-over joints
that will definitely prevent MDO from getting into
the lube oil circuit. See also rules and regulations
of classification societies.
PCV-007/Pressure control valve
By use of the pressure control valve, a constant
lube oil pressure before the engine is adjusted.
The pressure control valve is installed upstream of
the lube oil cooler. The installation position is to be
observed. By spilling off exceeding lube oil quanti-
ties upstream of the major components these
components can be sized smaller. The return pipe
(spilling pipe) from the pressure control valve re-
turns into the lube oil service tank.
The measurement point of the pressure control
pipe is connected directly to the engine in order to
measure the lube oil pressure at the engine. In this
way the pressure losses of filters, pipes and cooler
are compensated automatically (see "Section 5.2.6:
Pressure control valve, page 5-39").
TR-001/Condensate trap
The condensate traps required for the vent pipes
of the turbocharger, the engine crankcase and the
service tank must be installed as close as possible
to the vent connections. This will prevent conden-
sate water, which has formed on the cold venting
pipes, to enter the engine or service tank.
See "Section: Lube oil system Crankcase vent and tank
vent".
T-006/Leakage oil tank
Leaked fuel and the dirty oil drained from the lube
oil filter casings is collected in this tank. It is to be
emptied into the sludge tank. The content must
not be added to the fuel. It is not permitted to add
lube oil to the fuel.
Alternatively, separate leakage oil tanks for fuel
and lube oil can be installed.
P-012 Transfer pump
The transfer pump supplies fresh oil from the lube
oil storage tank to the operating tank. Starting and
stopping of the pump should preferably be done
automatically by float switches fitted in the tank.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
C-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 27
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P-075/Cylinder lube oil pump
The pump fitted to the engine is driven by an elec-
tric motor (asynchronous motor
380 420 V/50 Hz or 380 460 V/60 Hz three-
phase AC with pole changing).
For the cylinder lubrication MAN Diesel & Turbo
will supply a Control Unit inclusive a pump contac-
tor, with a power consumption of about 0.5 kW for
pump, control and heating.
This value must be doubled for V-engines, as two
Control Units (one for each row) are supplied in
one cabinet.
Withdrawal points for samples
Points for drawing lube oil samples are to be pro-
vided upstream and downstream of the filters and
the separator, to verify the effectiveness of these
system components.
Piping system
It is recommended to use pipes according to the
pressure class PN 10.
Engine supply systems
5.2.2 Lube oil system description
Page 5 - 28 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF C-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication
A-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 29
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5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication
Prelubrication
The prelubrication oil pump must be switched on
at least 5 minutes before engine start. The prelu-
brication oil pump serves to assist the engine at-
tached main lube oil pump, until this can provide a
sufficient flow rate.
Pressure before engine . . . . . . . 0.3 0.6 barg
Oil temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . min. 40 C
Note!
Above mentioned pressure must be ensured
also up to the highest possible lube oil temper-
ature before the engine.
Postlubrication
The prelubrication oil pumps are also to be used
for postlubrication when the engine is stopped.
Postlubrication is effected for a period of 15 min.
Engine
type
Prelubrication/postlubrication pumps Minimum needed delivery rates (m
3
/h)
Note!
Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C. Consider additional exter-
nal automatic lube oil filter by adding to minimum delivery rates 1/2 of its nominal flushing amount.
No. of cylinders
6L 7L 8L 9L 10L 12V 14V 16V 18V 20V
32/40 24 26 29 31 - 36 40 44 49 -
32/44CR 26 29 31 34 36 37 41 46 50 54
32/44K 26 29 31 34 36 - - - - -
35/44DF 18 20 23 25 28 30 35 40 45 50
48/60B,
48/60CR
48/60TS
35 41 47 53 -
-
70 82 93 105 -
-
51/60DF 35 41 47 53 - 70 82 93 105 -
Table 5-13 Delivery rates of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps
Engine supply systems
5.2.3 Prelubrication/postlubrication
Page 5 - 30 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF A-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets
D-AF 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 31
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5.2.4 Lube oil outlets
Lube oil drain
Two connections for oil drain pipes are located on
both ends of the engine oil sump, except for
L48/60 with flexible engine mounting with one
drain arranged in the middle of each side.
For an engine installed in the horizontal position,
two oil drain pipes are required, one at the cou-
pling end and one at the free end.
If the engine is installed in an inclined position,
three oil drain pipes are required, two at the lower
end and one at the higher end of the engine oil
sump.
The drain pipes must be kept short. The slanted
pipe ends must be immersed in the oil, so as to
create a liquid seal between crankcase and tank.
Expansion joints
At the connection of the oil drain pipes to the serv-
ice tank, expansion joints are required.
Shut-off butterfly valves
If for lack of space, no cofferdam can be provided
underneath the service tank, it is necessary to in-
stall shut-off butterfly valves in the drain pipes. If
the ship should touch ground, these butterfly
valves can be shut via linkages to prevent the in-
gress of seawater through the engine.
Drain pipes, shut-off butterfly valves with linkages,
expansion joints, etc. are not supplied by the en-
gine builder.
Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets
Page 5 - 32 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF D-AF
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Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets
L-BA 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 33
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Lube oil outlets Drawings
Figure 5-7 Lube oil outlets in-line engine
Engine supply systems
5.2.4 Lube oil outlets
Page 5 - 34 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF L-BA
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Figure 5-8 Lube oil outlets V-type engine
Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank
I-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 35
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5.2.5 Lube oil service tank
The lube oil service tank is to be arranged over the
entire area below the engine, in order to ensure
uniform vertical thermal expansion of the whole
engine foundation.
To provide for adequate degassing, a minimum
distance is required between tank top and the
highest operating level. The low oil level should still
permit the lube oil to be drawn in free of air if the
ship is pitching severely
5 longitudinal inclination for
ship's lengths > 100 m
7.5 longitudinal inclination for
ship's lengths < 100 m
A well for the suction pipes of the lube oil pumps
is the preferred solution.
The minimum quantity of lube oil for the engine is
1.0 litre/kW. This is a theoretical factor for perma-
nent lube-oil-quality control and the decisive factor
for the design of the by-pass cleaning. The lube oil
quantity, which is actually required during opera-
tion, depends on the tank geometry and the vol-
ume of the system (piping, system components),
and may exceed the theoretical minimum quantity
to be topped up. The low-level alarm in the service
tank is to be adjusted to a height, which ensures
that the pumps can draw in oil, free of air, at the
longitudinal inclinations given above. The position
of the oil drain pipes extending from the engine oil
sump and the oil flow in the tank are to be selected
so as to ensure that the oil will remain in the service
tank for the longest possible time for degassing.
Draining oil must not be sucked in at once.
The man holes in the floor plates inside the service
tank are to be arranged so as to ensure sufficient
flow to the suction pipe of the pump also at low
lube oil service level.
The tank has to be vented at both ends, according
to "Section: Engine supply systems Crankcase vent and
tank vent".
Lube oil preheating
Preheating the lube oil to 40 C is effected by the
preheater of the separator via the free-standing
pump. The preheater must be enlarged in size if
necessary, so that it can heat the content of the
service tank to 40 C, within 4 hours.
Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank
Page 5 - 36 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF I-BB
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Figure 5-9 Lube oil service tank_1
Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank
I-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 37
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Figure 5-10 Lube oil service tank_2
Engine supply systems
5.2.5 Lube oil service tank
Page 5 - 38 32/40, 32/44CR, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF I-BB
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Engine supply systems
5.2.6 Pressure control valve
K-BA 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 39
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5.2.6 Pressure control valve
Figure 5-11 Example: Pressure control valve installation
Engine supply systems
5.2.6 Pressure control valve
Page 5 - 40 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF K-BA
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Engine supply systems
5.2.7 Lube oil filter
I-BC 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 41
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5.2.7 Lube oil filter
Lube oil automatic filter
Figure 5-12 Example: Lube oil automatic filter
Engine supply systems
5.2.7 Lube oil filter
Page 5 - 42 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF I-BC
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Lube oil double filter
Figure 5-13 Example: Lube oil double filter
Engine supply systems
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent
E-BC 51/60DF Page 5 - 43
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5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent
Vent pipes
The vent pipes from engine crankcase, turbo-
charger and lube oil service tank are to be ar-
ranged according to the sketch. The required
nominal diameters ND are stated in the chart fol-
lowing the diagram.
Notes!
All venting openings as well as open pipe ends are
to be equipped with flame breakers.
Condensate trap overflows are to be connected via
siphone to drain pipe.
Specific requirements of the classification socie-
ties are to be strictly observed.
Figure 5-14 Crankcase vent and tank vent
Legend
1 Connection crankcase vent
2 Connection turbocharger vent
3 Connection turbocharger drain
4 Lubricating oil service tank
5 Condensate trap, continuously open
Engine Nominal Diameter ND (mm)
A B C D
6 L, 7 L51/60DF 100 100 65 125
8 L, 9 L51/60DF 100 100 80 125
12 V, 14 V51/60DF 100 125 100 150
16 V, 18 V51/60DF 100 125 125 200
Table 5-14 Pipe diameters for tank - and crankcase vent
Engine supply systems
5.2.8 Crankcase vent and tank vent
Page 5 - 44 51/60DF E-BC
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Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 45
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5.3 Water systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram

Figure 5-15 Cooling water system diagram Single engine plant
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
Page 5 - 46 51/60DF E-BD
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Legend
Components
1,2FIL-019 Sea water filter Heat exchanger fo heat recovery
1,3FIL-021 Strainer of commissioning MOD-004 Preheating module
H-020 Preheater main engine MOD-005 Nozzle cooling module
1HE-002 Lube oil cooler 1MOV-002 HT cooling water temperature control
valve
1,2HE-003 Cooler HT/sea water 1MOV-003 CATCO
HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler MOV-016 LT cooling water temperature control
valve
HE-007 Diesel oil coolers (quantity accord-
ing to plant)
1P-002 Pump for HT cooling water (engine
driven)
1HE-008 Charge air cooler (stage 2) 2P-002 Pump for for HT cooling water (free
standing)
1HE-010 Charge air cooler (stage 1) 1,2P-062 Sea water pump
HE-022 Governor oil cooler (depending on
plant)
1P-076 Pump for LT cooling water (engine
driven)
1,2HE-024 Cooler LT/sea water 2P-076 Pump for LT cooling water (free stand-
ing)
HE-025 Diesel oil coolers (quantity accord-
ing to plant)
T-002 Cooling water expansion tank HT
HE-029 Generator cooler (depending on
plant)
T-075 Cooling water expansion tank LT
HE-032/HE-026 Fresh water generator TC Temperature control by SaCoS
one
Major cooling water engine connections
3172 Reserve (for external HT pump) 4148 Compressor wheel cooling outlet
3171/3199 Inlet/outlet HT cooling water 4173/4190 Inlet/outlet LT pump
3471/3499 Inlet/outlet nozzle cooling 4171/4199 Inlet/outlet charge air cooler (stage 2)
3572/3587 Inlet/outlet governor cooler
(depending on plant)
Drains and ventings are not shown
Connections to the nozzle cooling water module
N1, N2 Return/feeding of engine nozzle
cooling water
N3, N4 Inlet/outlet LT cooling water
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 47
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Figure 5-16 Cooling water system diagram Twin engine plant
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
Page 5 - 48 51/60DF E-BD
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Legend
Components
1,2FIL-019 Sea water filter 1,2MOD-004 Preheating module
1,2,3FIL-021 Strainer of commissioning MOD-005 Nozzle cooling module
1,2H-020 Preheater main engine 1,2MOV-002 HT cooling water temperature control
valve
1,2HE-002 Lube oil cooler 1,2MOV-003 CATCO
1,2HE-003 Cooler HT/sea water MOV-016 LT cooling water temperature control
valve
HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler 1,3P-002 Pump for HT cooling water (engine
driven)
HE-007 Diesel oil coolers (quantity accord-
ing to plant)
2,4P-002 Pump for for HT cooling water (free
standing)
1,2HE-008 Charge air cooler (stage 2) 1,2P-062 Sea water pump
1,2HE-010 Charge air cooler (stage 1) 1,3P-076 Pump for LT cooling water (engine
driven)
1,2HE-024 Cooler LT/sea water 2,4P-076 Pump for LT cooling water (free stand-
ing)
HE-025 Diesel oil coolers (quantity accord-
ing to plant)
T-002 Cooling water expansion tank HT
HE-029 Generator cooler (depending on
plant)
T-075 Cooling water expansion tank LT
1,2HE-032 or
HE-026
Fresh water generator or
heat exchanger for heat recovery
TC Temperature control by SaCoS
one
Major cooling water engine connections
3172 Reserve (for external HT pump) 4173/4190 Inlet/outlet LT pump
3171/3199 Inlet/outlet HT cooling water 4171/4199 Inlet/outlet charge air cooler (stage 2)
3471/3499 Inlet/outlet nozzle cooling Drains and ventings are not shown
4148 Compressor wheel cooling outlet -
Connections to the nozzle cooling water module
N1, N2 Return/feeding of engine nozzle
cooling water
N3, N4 Inlet/outlet LT cooling water
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 49
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The diagrams showing cooling water systems for
main engines comprising the possibility of heat uti-
lisation in a freshwater generator and equipment
for preheating of the charge air in a two-stage
charge air cooler during part load operation.
Note!
The arrangement of the cooling water system
shown here is only one of many possible solu-
tions. It is recommended to inform MAN
Diesel & Turbo in advance in case other ar-
rangements should be desired.
For special applications, e. g. electric propulsion
or dual-fuel engines, supplements will explain spe-
cific necessities and deviations.
For the design data of the system components
shown in the diagram see "Section 2.15: Planning
data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propul-
sion, page 2-97".
The cooling water is to be conditioned using a cor-
rosion inhibitor, see "Section 4.9: Specification for en-
gine cooling water, page 4-41".
LT = Low temperature
HT = High temperature
Cooler dimensioning, general
For coolers operated by seawater (not treated wa-
ter), lube oil or MDO/MGO on the primary side and
treated freshwater on the secondary side, an ad-
ditional safety margin of 10 % related to the heat
transfer coefficient is to be considered. If treated
water is applied on both sides, MAN Diesel &
Turbo does not insist on this margin.
In case antifreeze is added to the cooling water,
the corresponding lower heat transfer is to be tak-
en into consideration.
The cooler arrangement has to ensure venting and
draining facilities for the cooler.
LT cooling water system
In general the LT cooling water passes through the
following components:
Stage 2 of the two-stage charge-air cooler
(HE-008)
Lube oil cooler (HE-002)
Nozzle cooling water cooler (HE-005)
Fuel oil cooler (HE-007)
Gear lube oil cooler (HE-023) (or e. g. alternator
cooling in case of a plant with generator oper-
ation)
LT cooling water cooler (HE-024)
Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part
(HE-025)
Other components such as, e. g., auxiliary en-
gines (GenSets)
LT cooling water pumps can be either of engine-
driven or electrically-driven type.
The system components of the LT cooling water
circuit are designed for a max. LT cooling water
temperature of 38 C with a corresponding sea-
water temperature of 32 C (tropical conditions).
However, the capacity of the LT cooler (HE-024) is
determined by the temperature difference be-
tween seawater and LT cooling water. Due to this
correlation an LT freshwater temperature of 32 C
can be ensured at a seawater temperature of
25 C.
To meet the IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II regulations the
set point of the temperature regulator valve
(MOV-016) is to be adjusted to 32 C. However
this temperature will fluctuate and reach at most
38 C with a seawater temperature of 32 C (trop-
ical conditions).
The charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008) and the
lube oil cooler (HE-002) are installed in series to
obtain a low delivery rate of the LT cooling water
pump (P-076).
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
Page 5 - 50 51/60DF E-BD
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P-076/LT cooling water pump
The delivery rates of the service and standby
pump are mainly determined by the cooling
water required for the charge-air cooler stage 2
and the other coolers.
For operating auxiliary engines (GenSets) in port,
the installation of an additional smaller pump is
recommendable.
MOV-003/Temperature control valve for charge air cooler
This three-way valve is to be installed as a mixing
valve.
It serves two purposes:
1. In engine part load operation the charge air
cooler stage 2 (HE-008) is partially or com-
pletely by-passed, so that a higher charge air
temperature is maintained.
2. The valve reduces the accumulation of con-
densed water during engine operation under
tropical conditions by regulation of the charge
air temperature. Below a certain intake air tem-
perature the charge air temperature is kept
constant. When the intake temperature rises,
the charge air temperature will be increased ac-
cordingly.
The three-way valve is to be designed for a pres-
sure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar and is to be equipped
with an actuator with high positioning speed. The
actuator must permit manual emergency adjust-
ment.
HE-002/Lube oil cooler
For the description see "Section 5.2.2: Lube oil system
description, page 5-21". For heat data, flow rates and
tolerances see "Section 2.15: Planning data for emis-
sion standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page
2-97". For the description of the principal design
criteria see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, general,
page 5-49".
HE-024/LT cooling water cooler
For heat data, flow rates and tolerances of the
heat sources see "Section 2.15: Planning data for
emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page
2-97". For the description of the principal design
criteria for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimension-
ing, general, page 5-49".
MOV-016/LT cooling water temperature regulator
This is a motor-actuated three-way regulating
valve with a linear characteristic. It is to be installed
as a mixing valve. It maintains the LT cooling water
at set-point temperature, which is 32 C.
The three-way valve is to be designed for a pres-
sure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar. It is to be equipped with
an actuator with normal positioning speed (high
speed not required). The actuator must permit
manual emergency adjustment.
Caution!
For engine operation with reduced NOx emis-
sion, according to IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II re-
quirement, at 100 % engine load and a
seawater temperature of 25 C
(IMO Tier I/IMO Tier II reference temperature),
an LT cooling water temperature of 32 C be-
fore charge air cooler stage 2 (HE-008) is to be
maintained.
Fil-021/Strainer
In order to protect the engine and system compo-
nents, several strainers are to be provided at the
places marked in the diagram before taking the
engine into operation for the first time. The mesh
size is 1 mm.
HE-005/Nozzle cooling water cooler
The nozzle cooling water system is a separate and
closed cooling circuit. It is cooled down by LT
cooling water via the nozzle cooling watercooler
(HE-005). For heat data, flow rates and tolerances
see "Section 2.15: Planning data for emission standard:
IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page 2-97". For the de-
scription of the principal design criteria for coolers
see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, general, page
5-49". For plants with two main engines only one
nozzle cooling water cooler
(HE-005) is needed. As an option a compact noz-
zle-cooling module (MOD-005) can be delivered,
see "Section 5.3.8: Nozzle cooling water module, page
5-69". For plants with two main engines only one
nozzle-cooling module is required.
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 51
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HE-007/MDO/Pilot fuel, MDO/MGO cooler
This cooler is required to dissipate the heat of the
fuel injection pumps during MDO/MGO operation.
For the description of the principal design criteria
for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimensioning, gen-
eral, page 5-49". For plants with more than one en-
gine, connected to the same fuel oil system, only
one MDO/MGO cooler is required.
HE-025/Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part
See "Section 5.4.4: Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system,
page 5-87".
T-075/LT cooling water expansion tank
The effective tank capacity should be high enough
to keep approx. 2/3 of the tank content of T-002.
In case of twin-engine plants with a common cool-
ing water system, the tank capacity should be by
approx. 50 % higher. The tanks T-075 and T-002
should be arranged side by side to facilitate instal-
lation. In any case the tank bottom must be in-
stalled above the highest point of the LT system at
any ship inclination. For the recommended instal-
lation height and the diameter of the connecting
pipe, see "Table 2-59: Service tanks capacity".
HT Cooling water circuit
General
The HT cooling water system consists of the fol-
lowing coolers and heat exchangers:
Charge air cooler stage 1 (HE-010)
Cylinder cooling
HT cooler (HE-003)
Heat utilisation, e. g. freshwater generator
(HE-026)
HT cooling water preheater (H-020)
The HT cooling water pumps can be either of en-
gine-driven or electrically-driven type. The outlet
temperature of the cylinder cooling water at the
engine is to be adjusted to 90 C.
For HT cooling water systems, where more than
one main engine is integrated, each engine should
be provided with an individual engine driven HT
cooling water pump. Alternatively common electri-
cally-driven HT cooling water pumps may be used
for all engines. However, an individual HT temper-
ature control valve is required for each engine. The
total cooler and pump capacities are to be adapt-
ed accordingly.
The shipyard is responsible for the correct cooling
water distribution, ensuring that each engine will
be supplied with cooling water at the flow rates re-
quired by the individual engines, under all operat-
ing conditions. To meet this requirement, e. g.,
orifices, flow regulation valves, by-pass systems
etc. are to be installed where necessary.
H-001/Preheater
Before starting a cold engine, it is necessary to
preheat the waterjacket up to 60 C.
For the total heating power required for preheating
the HT cooling water from 10 C to 60 C within 4
hours see "Table 5-15: Heating power".
These values include the radiation heat losses
from the outer surface of the engine. Also a margin
of 20 % for heat losses of the cooling system has
been considered.
A secondary function of the preheater is to provide
heat capacity in the HT cooling water system dur-
ing engine part load operation. This is required for
marine plants with a high freshwater requirement,
e. g. on passenger vessels, where frequent load
changes are common. It is also required for ar-
rangements with an additional charge air preheat-
ing by deviation of HT cooling water to the charge
air cooler stage 2 (HE-008). In this case the heat
output of the preheater is to be increased by ap-
prox. 50 %.
An electrically driven pump becomes necessary to
circulate the HT cooling water during preheating.
Engine type 32/40
32/44CR
48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF
L+V L+V
Min. heating power
(kW/cylinder)
6 14
Table 5-15 Heating power
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
Page 5 - 52 51/60DF E-BD
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For the required minimum flow rate see "Table 5-16:
Minimum flow rate during preheating and post-cooling".
The preheating of the main engine with cooling
water from auxiliary engines is also possible, pro-
vided that the cooling water is treated in the same
way. In that case, the expansion tanks of the two
cooling systems have to be installed at the same
level. Furthermore, it must be checked whether
the available heat is sufficient for preheating the
main engine. This depends on the number of aux-
iliary engines in operation and their load. It is rec-
ommended to install a separate preheater for the
main engine, as the available heat from the auxilia-
ry engines may be insufficient during operation in
the port.
As an option MAN Diesel & Turbo can supply a
compact preheating module (MOD-004). One
module for each main engine is required.
HE-026/Freshwater generator
The freshwater generator must be switched off au-
tomatically when the cooling water temperature at
the engine outlet drops below 88 C.
This will prevent operation of the engine at too low
temperatures.
HE-003/HT cooling water cooler
For heat data, flow rates and tolerances of the
heat sources see "Section 2.15: Planning data for
emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page
2-97". For the description of the principal design
criteria for coolers see "Paragraph: Cooler dimension-
ing, general, page 5-49".
HT temperature control
The HT temperature control system consists of the
following components:
The temperature controllers are available as
software functions inside the Gateway Module
of SaCoS
one
. The temperature controllers are
operated by the displays at the operating pan-
els as far as it is necessary. From the Interface
Cabinet the relays actuate the control valves.
1 electrically activated three-way mixing valve
with linear characteristic curve (MOV- 002)
1 temperature sensor TE, directly downstream
of the three-way mixing valve in the supply pipe
to charge-air cooler stage 1 (for EDS visualisa-
tion and control of preheater valve)
1 temperature sensor TE, directly downstream
of the engine outlet
It serves to maintain the cylinder cooling water
temperature constantly at 90 C at the engine
outlet even in the case of frequent load
changes and to protect the engine from ex-
cessive thermal load. For adjusting the outlet
water temperature (constantly to 90 C) to en-
gine load and speed, the cooling water inlet
temperature is controlled. The electronic water
temperature controller recognizes deviations
by means of the sensor at the engine outlet and
afterwards corrects the reference value accord-
ingly.
Numbers of cyl-
inders
Minimum flow rate required dur-
ing preheating and post-cooling
m
3
/h
32/40
32/44CR
48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF
6L 7.2 14
7L 8.4 16
8L 9.6 18
9L 10.8 20
10L 12.0 -
12V 14.4 28
14V 16.8 30
16V 19.2 30
18V 21.6 30
20V 24.0 -
Table 5-16 Minimum flow rate during preheating and
post-cooling
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 53
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The electronic temperature controller is in-
stalled in the switch cabinet of the engine room.
For a stable control mode, the following boundary
conditions must be observed when designing the
HT freshwater system:
The temperature sensor is to be installed in the
supply pipe to stage 1 of the charge-air cooler.
To ensure instantaneous measurement of the
mixing temperature of the three-way mixing
valve, the distance to the valve should be 5 to
10 times the pipe diameter.
The three-way valve (MOV-002) is to be in-
stalled as a mixing valve. It is to be designed for
a pressure loss of 0.3 0.6 bar. It is to be
equipped with an actuator of high positioning
speed. The actuator must permit manual emer-
gency adjustment.
The pipes within the system are to be kept as
short as possible in order to reduce the dead
times of the system, especially the pipes be-
tween the three-way mixing valve and the inlet
of the charge-air cooler stage 1 which, are crit-
ical for the control.
The same system is required for each engine, also
for multi-engine installations with a common HT
freshwater system.
In case of a deviating system layout, MAN Diesel &
Turbo is to be consulted.
P-002/HT cooling water pumps
As an option the engine is available with an at-
tached (engine driven) HT cooling water pump. Al-
ternatively also electrically driven HT cooling water
pumps can be used.
The standby pump has to be of the electrically
driven type.
It is required to cool down the engine for a period
of 15 minutes after shut down. For this purpose
the standby pump can be used. In the case that
neither an electrically driven HT cooling water
pump nor an electrically driven standby pump is
installed (e. g. multi-engine plants with engine driv-
en HT cooling water pump without electrically driv-
en HT standby pump, if applicable by the
classification rules), it is possible to cool down the
engine by the separate small preheating pump,
see "Table 5-16: Minimum flow rate during preheating
and post-cooling", or if the optional preheating unit
(MOD-004) with integrated circulation pump is in-
stalled, it is also possible to cool down the engine
with this small pump. However, the pump used to
cool down the engine, has to be electrically driven
and started automatically after engine shut down.
None of the cooling water pumps is a self-priming
centrifugal pump.
Design flow rates should not be exceeded by
more than 15 % to avoid cavitation in the engine
and its systems. A throttling orifice is to be fitted
for adjusting the specified operating point.
FSH-002/Condensate monitoring tank
(not indicated in the diagram)
Only for acceptance by Bureau Veritas:
The condensate deposition in the charge air cool-
er is drained via the condensate monitoring tank.
A level switch releases an alarm when condensate
is flooding the tank.
T-002/HT cooling water expansion tank
The expansion tank compensates changes in sys-
tem volume and losses due to leakages. It is to be
arranged in such a way, that the tank bottom is sit-
uated above the highest point of the system at any
ship inclination. The expansion pipe should empty
into the suction pipe as close to the pump as pos-
sible. For the required volume of the tank, the rec-
ommended installation height and the diameter of
the connecting pipe, see "Table 2-59: Service tanks
capacity".
Tank equipment:
Sight glass for level monitoring
Low-level alarm switch
Overflow and filling connection
Inlet for corrosion inhibitor
Engine supply systems
5.3.1 Cooling water system diagram
Page 5 - 54 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
C-BD 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 55
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5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
Traditional systems
The cooling water systems presented so far, dem-
onstrate a simple and well proven way to cool
down the engines internal heat load.
Traditionally, stage 1 charge air cooler and cylinder
jackets are connected in sequence, so the HT
cooling water circle can work with one pump for
both purposes.
Cooling water temperature is limited to 90 C at
the outlet oft the cylinder jackets, the inlet temper-
ature at the charge air cooler is about 55 to 60 C.
Cooling water flow passing engine block and
charge air cooler is the same, defined by the inter-
nal design of the cylinder jacket.
As one result of this traditional set-up, the possible
heat recovery for fresh water generation is limited,
especially at part load conditions.
Advanced systems
To improve the benefit of the HT cooling water cir-
cle, this set-up can be changed to an advanced
circuit, with two parallel HT pumps.
Cooling water flow through the cylinder jackets
and outlet temperature at the engine block is lim-
ited as before, but the extra flow through the
charge air cooler can be increased.
With two pumps in parallel, the combined cooling
water flow can be more than doubled.
Common inlet temperature for both circles is e.g.
about 78 C, the mixed outlet temperature can
reach up to 94 C.
Following this design, the internal heat load of the
engine stays the same, but water flow and tem-
perature level of systems in- and outlet will be
higher, especially at part load conditions.
This improves considerably the use of heat recov-
ery components at high temperature levels, like
e.g. fresh water generators for cruise vessels or
other passenger ships.
General Requirements, LT System
General requirements for cooling water systems
and components concerning the LT system stay
the same like for the cooling water systems men-
tioned before.
Note!
The arrangement of the cooling water system
shown here is only one of many possible solu-
tions. It is recommended to inform MAN
Diesel & Turbo in advance in case other ar-
rangements should be desired.
HT cooling water circuit
Following the advanced design, components for
the cylinder cooling will not differ from the tradi-
tional set-up.
Due to the higher temperature level, the water flow
passing the stage 1 charge air cooler has to rise
considerably and for some engine types a bigger
HT charge air cooler as well as a more powerful HT
charge air cooler pump may be necessary.
Note!
The design data of the cooling water system
components shown in the following diagram
are different from "Section: Planning data for emission
standard IMO Tier II" and have to be cleared in ad-
vance with MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
Page 5 - 56 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF C-BD
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Figure 5-17 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased fresh water generation
Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
C-BD 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 57
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Legend
Components
1,2FIL-019 Sea water filter HE-032/HE-026 Fresh water generator
1,3FIL-021 Strainer for commisioning Heat exchanger for heat recovery
H-020 Preheater main engine MOV-004 Prreheating module
1HE-002 Lube oil cooler MOV-005 Nozzle cooling module
1,2HE-003 Cooler HT/sea water 1,3MOV-002 HT-cooling water temperature conrol
valve
HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler 1MOV-003 CATCO
HE-007 Diesel oil cooler MOV-016 LT cooling water temperature control
valve
1HE-008 Charge air cooler (stage 2) 1,2P-002 Pump for HT cooling water
1HE-010 Charge air cooler (stage 1) 3,4P-002 Pump for HT cooling water (free
standing
HE-022 Governor oil cooler (depending on plant) 1,2P-062 Sea water pump
1,2HE-024 Cooler LT/sea water 1,2P-076 Pump for LT cooling water (free
standing)
HE-25 Diesel oil cooler T-003 Cooling water expansion tank HT
1HE-029 Generator cooler (depending on plant) T-075 Cooling water expansion tank LT
Major cooling water engine connections
3171/3199 Inlet/outlet HT cooling water (cylinder) 4173/4197 Inlet/outlet HT cooling water (CAC1)
3177 Emergency and preheating cylinder cool-
ing
4177 Emergency and preheating (CAC1)
3471, 3499 Inlet/outlet nozzle cooling 4171, 4199 Inlet/outlet charge air cooler (Stage
2)
3572/3587 Inlet/outlet governor cooler (depending
on plant)
4184 Compressor wheel cooling outlet
Drains and ventings are not shown.
Connection to the nozzle cooling module
N1, N2 Return/feeding of engine nozzle cooling
water
N3, N4 Inlet/outlet LT cooling water
Engine supply systems
5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
Page 5 - 58 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF C-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system
G-AJ 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 59
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5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system
T-074/Cooling water collecting tank (not indicated in
the diagram)
The tank is to be dimensioned and arranged in
such a way that the cooling water content of the
circuits of the cylinder, turbocharger and nozzle
cooling systems can be drained into it for mainte-
nance purposes.
This is necessary to meet the requirements with
regard to environmental protection (water has
been treated with chemicals) and corrosion inhibi-
tion (re-use of conditioned cooling water).
P-031/Transfer pump (not indicated in the diagram)
The content of the collecting tank can be dis-
charged into the expansion tanks by a freshwater
transfer pump.
Engine supply systems
5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system
Page 5 - 60 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF G-AJ
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Engine supply systems
5.3.4 Miscellaneous items
E-BC 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 61
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5.3.4 Miscellaneous items
Piping
Coolant additives may attack a zinc layer. It is
therefore imperative to avoid to use galvanised
steel pipes. Treatment of cooling water as speci-
fied by MAN Diesel & Turbo will safely protect the
inner pipe walls against corrosion.
Moreover, there is the risk of the formation of local
electrolytic element couples where the zinc layer
has been worn off, and the risk of aeration corro-
sion where the zinc layer is not properly bonded to
the substrate.
Please see the instructions in our Work card 6682
000.16-01E for cleaning of steel pipes before fit-
ting.
Pipe branches must be fitted to discharge in the
direction of flow in a flow-conducive manner. Vent-
ing is to be provided at the highest points of the
pipe system and drain openings at the lowest
points.
Cooling water pipes are to be designed according
to in tables (e.g. Operating pressures" in Engine and
operation Planning data Operating/services tempera-
tures and pressures") stated pressure values and
flow rates. The engine cooling water connections
are mostly designed according to PN10/PN16.
Turbocharger washing equipment
The turbocharger of engines operating on heavy
fuel oil must be washed at regular intervals. This
requires the installation of a freshwater supply line
from the sanitary system to the turbine washing
equipment and two dirty-water drain pipes via a
funnel (for visual inspection) to the sludge tank.
The lance must be removed after every washing
process. This is a precautionary measure, which
serves to prevent an inadvertent admission of wa-
ter to the turbocharger.
The compressor washing equipment is completely
mounted on the turbocharger and is supplied with
freshwater from a small tank.
For further information see the turbocharger
project guide. You can also find the latest updates
on our website www.mandieselturbo.com
under:"Turbomachinery > Turbocharger > Axial
Flow > TCA Series" and "Turbomachinery >
Turbocharger > Radial Flow > TCR Series".
Engine supply systems
5.3.4 Miscellaneous items
Page 5 - 62 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF E-BC
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Engine supply systems
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device
L-BB Page 5 - 63
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5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device
The cooler bundle can be cleaned without being
removed. Prior to filling with cleaning solvent, the
charge air cooler and its adjacent housings must
be isolated from the turbocharger and charge air
pipe using blind flanges.
The casing must be filled and drained with a big
firehose with shut-off valve (see P & I).
All piping dimensions execute in DN 80.
If the cooler bundle is contaminated with oil, fill
the charge air cooler casing with freshwater
and a liquid washing-up additive.
Input the sono pusher after addition of the
cleaning agent in default dosing portion.
Flushing with freshwater (Quantity: approx. 2x
to fill in and to drain).
The contaminated water must be cleaned after
every sequence and must be drained into the dirty
water collecting tank.
Note!
When using the cleaning agents:
The instructions of the manufacturers must be
observed.
Particular the data sheets with safety rele-
vance must be followed.
The temperature of these products has, (due to
the fact that some of them are inflammable), to
be at 10 C lower than the respective flash
point.
The waste disposal instructions of the manu-
facturers must be observed.
Follow all terms and conditions of the Classifi-
cation Societies.
Designation Manufacturer
Aquabreak PX Unitor Ship Service AS
Mastemyr
N-1410 Kolbotn/Norway
Environclean Unitor Ship Service AS
Mastemyr
N-1410 Kolbotn/Norway
Enviromate 2000 Drew Chemical Corp.
Boonton
New Jersey/USA
Eskaphor N6773 Haug Chemie GmbH
Breite Seite 14 16
74889 Sinsheim/Germany
Table 5-17 Recommended cleaning medium
Increase in differential pressure
1)
1)
Increase in differential pressure = actual condition new condition
(mm WC = mm water column).
Degree of fouling Cleaning period (guide value)
< 100 mm WC Hardly fouled Cleaning not required
100 200 mm WC Slightly fouled approx. 1 hour
200 300 mm WC Severely fouled approx. 1.5 hour
> 300 mm WC Extremely fouled approx. 2 hour
Table 5-18 Degree of fouling of the charge-air cooler
Engine supply systems
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by a ultrasonic device
Page 5 - 64 L-BB
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Figure 5-18 Principle layout
Legend
1 Installation ultrasonic cleaning
2 Firehose with sprag nozzle
3 Firehose
4 Dirty water collecting tank
1)
1)
Required size of dirty water collecting tank:
Volume at the least 4-multiple charge air cooler volume.
5 Ventilation
A Isolation with blind flanges
Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation
L-AJ 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 65
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5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation
Figure 5-19 Cleaning turbine
Engine supply systems
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation
Page 5 - 66 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF L-AJ
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Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system
A-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 67
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5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system
Nozzle cooling system description
General
In HFO operation, the nozzles of the fuel injection
valves are cooled by freshwater circulation, there-
fore a nozzle cooling water system is required. It is
a separate and closed system re-cooled by the LT
cooling water system, but not directly in contact
with the LT cooling water. The nozzle cooling water
is to be treated with corrosion inhibitor according
to MAN Diesel & Turbo specification see "Section
4.9: Specification for engine cooling water, page 4-41".
Note!
In diesel engines designed to operate preva-
lently on HFO the injection valves are to be
cooled during operation on HFO. In the case of
MGO or MDO operation exceeding 72 h, the
nozzle cooling is to be switched off and the
supply line is to be closed. The return pipe,
however, has to remain open.
In diesel engines designed to operate exclu-
sively on MGO or MDO (no HFO operation pos-
sible), nozzle cooling is not required. The
nozzle cooling system is omitted.
In dual-fuel engines (liquid fuel and gas) the
nozzles are to be cooled according to the en-
gine design.
Engine supply systems
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system
Page 5 - 68 51/60DF A-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module
D-BD 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 69
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5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module
Nozzle cooling system description
General
In HFO operation, the nozzles of the fuel injection
valves are cooled by freshwater circulation, there-
fore a nozzle cooling water system is required. It is
a separate and closed system re-cooled by the LT
cooling water system, but not directly in contact
with the LT cooling water. The nozzle cooling water
is to be treated with corrosion inhibitor according
to MAN Diesel & Turbo specification see, "Section
4.9: Specification for engine cooling water, page 4-41".
Note!
In diesel engines designed to operate preva-
lently on HFO the injection valves are to be
cooled during operation on HFO. In the case of
MGO or MDO operation exceeding 72 h, the
nozzle cooling is to be switched off and the
supply line is to be closed. The return pipe,
however, has to remain open.
In diesel engines designed to operate exclu-
sively on MGO or MDO (no HFO operation pos-
sible), nozzle cooling is not required. The
nozzle cooling system is omitted. In dual-fuel
engines (liquid fuel and gas) the nozzles are to
be cooled according to the engine design.
Purpose
The nozzle cooling water module serves for cool-
ing the fuel injection nozzles on the engine in a
closed nozzle cooling water circuit.
Design
The nozzle cooling water module consists of a
storage tank, on which all components required
for nozzle cooling are mounted.
Description
By means of a circulating pump, the nozzle cool-
ing water is pumped from the service tank through
a heat exchanger and to the fuel injection nozzles.
The return pipe is routed back to the service tank,
via a sight glass. Through the sight glass, the noz-
zle cooling water can be checked for contamina-
tion. The heat exchanger is integrated in the LT
cooling water system. By means of a temperature
control valve, the nozzle cooling water tempera-
ture upstream of the nozzles is kept constant. The
performance of the service pump is monitored
within the module by means of a flow switch. If re-
quired, the optional standby pump integrated in
the module, is started.
Throughput 0.8 10.0 m/h nozzle cooling water,
suitable for cooling of all number of cylinders of the
current engine types and for single or double en-
gine plants.
Required flow rates for the respective engine types
and number of cylinders see Planning data".
Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module
Page 5 - 70 35/44DF, 51/60DF D-BD
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Figure 5-20 Example: Compact nozzle cooling water module
Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module
D-BD 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 71
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Figure 5-21 Nozzle cooling water module
Engine supply systems
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module
Page 5 - 72 35/44DF, 51/60DF D-BD
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Legend
D-001 Diesel engine T-076 Nozzle cooling water expansion tank
FIL-021 Strainer for commissioning TCV-005 Temperature control valve for nozzle
cooling water
HE-005 Nozzle cooling water cooler 3471 Nozzle cooling water inlet
MOD-005 Nozzle cooling water module 3495 Nozzle cooling water drain
P-005 Nozzle cooling water pump 3499 Nozzle cooling water outlet
T-039 Cooling water storage tank
Engine supply systems
5.3.9 Preheating module
C-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 73
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5.3.9 Preheating module
Figure 5-22 Example: Compact preheating cooling water module
Legend
Main components
1
Electric flow heater
2
Switch cabinet
3
Circulation pump
4
Non-return valve
5
Savety valve
6
Manometer (filled with glycerin)
A
Cooling water inlet
B
Cooling water outlet
Engine supply systems
5.3.9 Preheating module
Page 5 - 74 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF C-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system
C-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 75
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5.4 Fuel system
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system
Figure 5-23 Fuel treatment system (MDO)
Engine supply systems
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system
Page 5 - 76 51/60DF C-BD
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A prerequisite for safe and reliable engine opera-
tion with a minimum of servicing is a properly de-
signed and well-functioning fuel oil treatment
system.
The schematic diagram shows the system com-
ponents required for fuel treatment for Marine Die-
sel Oil (MDO).
T-015 / MDO storage tank
The minimum effective capacity of the tank should
be sufficient for the operation of the propulsion
plant, as well as for the operation of the auxiliary
Diesels for the maximum duration of voyage in-
cluding the resulting sediments and water.
Regarding the tank design, the requirements of
the respective classification society are to be ob-
served.
Tank heating
The tank heater must be designed so that the
MDO in it is at a temperature of at least 10 C min-
imum above the pour point.
The supply of the heating medium must be auto-
matically controlled as a function of the MDO tem-
perature.
T-021 / Sludge tank
If disposal by an incinerator plant is not planned,
the tank has to be dimensioned so that it is capa-
ble to absorb all residues which accumulate dur-
ing the operation in the course of a maximum
duration of voyage. In order to render emptying of
the tank possible, it has to be heated. The heating
is to be dimensioned so that the content of the
tank can be heated to approx. 40 C
P-073 / MDO supply pump
The supply pumps should always be electrically
driven, i.e. not mounted on the separator, as the
delivery volume can be matched better to the re-
quired throughput.
H-019 / MDO preheater
In order to achieve the separating temperature, a
separator adapted to suit the fuel viscosity should
be fitted.
CF-003 / MDO separator
A self-cleaning separator must be provided. The
separator is dimensioned in accordance with the
separator manufacturers' guidelines.
The required flow rate Q can be roughly deter-
mined by the following equation:
Q Separator flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l/h
P Total engine output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW
of Diesel gensets (without stand-by sets)
b
e
Fuel consumption (see below) . . . . . . g/kWh
Density at separating temp. approx. 0.87 kg/l
With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator
has to be selected acc. to the evaluation table of
the manufacturer. MAN Diesel strictly recommend
to use evaluation tables according to a "Certified
flow rate" (CFR). The separator rating stated by the
manufacturer should be higher than the flow rate
Q calculated according to the above formula.
For determining the maximum fuel consumption
(be), increase the specific table value by 15 %.
This increase takes into consideration:
tropical conditions
the engine-mounted pumps
fluctuations of the calorific value
the consumption tolerance
The freshwater supplied has to be treated as
specified by the separator supplier.
Withdrawal points for samples
Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be pro-
vided upstream and downstream of each separa-
tor, to verify the effectiveness of these system
components.
T-003 / MDO service tank
See description in "Section 5.4.2: Marine diesel oil
(MDO) supply system for dual-fuel engines, page 5-77".
Q
P b
e

---------------- =
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDOj supply system for dual-fuel engines
C-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 77
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5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for dual-fuel engines
General
The MDO supply system is an open system with
open deaeration service tank. Normally one or two
main engines are connected to one fuel system. If
required auxiliary engines can be connected to the
same fuel system as well (not indicated in the dia-
gram).
MDO fuel viscosity
MDO-DMB with a max. nominal viscosity of
11 cSt (at 40 C), or lighter MDO-qualities, can be
used.
At engine inlet the fuel viscosity should be 11 cSt
or less. The fuel temperature has to be adapted
accordingly. It is also to make sure, that the MDO-
fuel temperature of max. 45 C in engine inlet (for
all MDO qualities) is not exceeded. Therefore a
tank heating and a cooler in the fuel return pipe are
required.
T-003/ MDO service tank
The classification societies specify that at least
two service tanks are to be installed on board. The
minimum tank capacity of each tank should, in ad-
dition to the MDO consumption of other consum-
ers, enable a full load operation of min. 8 operating
hours for all engines under all conditions.
The tank should be provided with a sludge space
with a tank bottom inclination of preferably 10
and sludge drain valves at the lowest point, with
heating coils and insulation.
If DMB fuel with 11 cSt (at 40 C) is used, the tank
heating is to be designed to keep the tank temper-
ature at min. 40 C.
For lighter types of MDO it is recommended to
heat the tank in order to reach a fuel viscosity of
11 cSt or less. Rules and regulations for tanks, is-
sued by the classification societies, must be ob-
served.
The required minimum MDO capacity of each
service tank is:

In case more than one engine, or different engines
are connected to the same fuel system, the serv-
ice tank capacity has to be increased accordingly.
STR-010/ Suction strainer
To protect the fuel supply pumps, a suction strain-
er with a mesh size of approx. 0.5 mm is to be in-
stalled on the suction side of each supply pumps.
P-008/ Supply pump
The supply pump shall keep sufficient fuel pres-
sure before the engine.
The volumetric capacity must be at least 300 % of
the maximum fuel consumption of the engines, in-
cluding margins for:
tropical conditions
realistic heating value and
tolerance
V
MDOST
= (Q
p
x t
o
x M
s
)/(3x1,000 l/m
3
)
Required min. volume of one
MDO service tank
V
MDOST
m
Required supply pump capacity,
MDO 45 C
See supply pump P-008
Q
p
l/h
Operating time
t
o
= 8 h
t
o
h
Margin for sludge
MS = 1.05
M
S
-
Table 5-19 Required minimum MDO capacity
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDOj supply system for dual-fuel engines
Page 5 - 78 51/60DF C-BD
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To reach this, the supply pump has to be designed
according to the following formula:
In case more than one engine or different engines
are connected to the same fuel system, the pump
capacity has to be increased accordingly.
The delivery height shall be selected with reference
to the system losses and the pressure required
before the engine (see "Section 2.15: Planning data for
emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page
2-97"). Normally the required delivery height is 7
bar.
FIL-003/ Automatic filter
The automatic filter should be a type that causes
no pressure drop in the system during flushing se-
quence. The filter mesh size shall be 0.010 mm
(absolute) for common rail injection and 0.034 mm
(absolute) for conventional injection.
The automatic filter must be equipped with differ-
ential pressure indication and switches.
The design criterion relies on the filter surface load,
specified by the filter manufacturer.
MDO supply systems for more than one main engine:
A by-pass pipe in parallel to the automatic filter is
required. A stand-by filter in the by-pass is not re-
quired. In case of maintenance on the automatic
filter, the by-pass is to be opened; the fuel is then
filtered by the duplex filter FIL-013.
FIL-013/ Duplex filter
MDO supply systems for more than one main engine:
This duplex filter is to be installed upstream and as
close as possible to the engine.
The filter mesh size shall be 0.025 mm (absolute)
for common rail injection and 0.034 mm (absolute)
for conventional injection.
The filter is to be equipped with a visual differential
pressure indication and with two differential pres-
sure contacts. See also "Paragraph: General notes,
page 5-80".
The drain connection of each filter chamber is to
be fitted with a ball valve and a pipe to the sludge
tank. When removing the filter inserts for cleaning,
the filter chamber is to be emptied before. This
prevents a contamination with dirt fuel on the
clean filter side.
The design criterion relies on the filter surface load,
specified by the filter manufacturer
FBV-010/ Flow balancing valve
MDO supply systems for only one main engine and without
auxiliary engines:
The flow balancing valve FBV-010 is not required.
MDO supply systems for more than one main engine
or/and additional auxiliary engines:
A flow balancing valve (1,2FBV-010) is required at
the fuel outlet of each engine. It is used to adjust
the individual fuel flow for each engine. It will com-
pensate the influence (flow distribution due to
pressure losses) of the piping system as well.
Once these valves are adjusted, they have to be
blocked and must not be manipulated later.
Q
p
= P
1
x br
ISO1
x f
3
Required supply pump capacity
with MDO 45 C
Q
p
l/h
Engine output power at 100 %
MCR
P
1
kW
Specific engine fuel consumption
(ISO) at 100 % MCR:
br
ISO1
g/kWh
Factor for pump dimensioning:
for dual-fuel engines
f
3
= 3.75 x 10
-3
f
3
l/g
Table 5-20 Formula to design the supply pump
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDOj supply system for dual-fuel engines
C-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 79
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PCV-011/ Spill valve
MDO supply systems for only one main engine and without
auxiliary engines:
Spill valve PCV-011 is not required.
MDO supply systems for more than one main engine
or/and additional auxiliary engines:
In case two engines are operated with one fuel
module, it has to be possible to separate one en-
gine at a time from the fuel circuit for maintenance
purposes. In order to avoid a pressure increase in
the pressurised system, the fuel, which cannot cir-
culate through the shut-off engine, has to be re-
routed via this valve into the return pipe. This valve
is to be adjusted so that rerouting is effected only
when the pressure, in comparison to normal oper-
ation (multi-engine operation), is exceeded.
HE-007/ MDO cooler
The MDO-cooler is required to cool down the fuel,
which was heated up while circulating through the
injection pumps. The MDO cooler is normally con-
nected to the LT cooling water system and should
be dimensioned so that the MDO does not exceed
a temperature of max. 45 C.
The thermal design of the cooler is based on the
following data:
The recommended pressure class of the MDO
cooler is PN16.
Please note that the max. possible MDO flow
through the cooler is identical to the delivery quan-
tity of the supply pump P-008.
P
c
= P
1
x br
ISO1
x f
1

Qc = P
1
x br
ISO1
x f
2
Cooler outlet temperature MDO
1)
T
out
= 45 C
1)
This temperature has to be normally max. 45 C. Only for
very light MGO fuel types this temperature has to be even
lower in order to preserve the min. admissible fuel viscosity
in engine inlet (see "Section 4.8: Viscosity-temperature diagram
(VT diagram), page 4-39").
Tout C
Dissipated heat of the cooler P
c
kW
MDO flow for thermal dimensioning of
the cooler
2)
2)
The max. MDO/MGO throughput is identical to the delivery
quantity of the installed booster pump.
Q
c
l/h
Engine output power at 100% MCR P
1
kW
Specific engine fuel consumption
(ISO) at 100 % MCR
br
ISO1
g/kWh
Factor for heat dissipation:
for dual-fuel engines f
1
= 2.68 x 10
-5
f
1
-
Factor for MDO flow:
for dual-fuel engines f
2
= 3.77 x 10
-3

f
2
l/g
Note!
In case more than one engine, or different engines are
connected to the same fuel system, the cooler capac-
ity has to be increased accordingly.
Table 5-21 Calculation of cooler design
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDOj supply system for dual-fuel engines
Page 5 - 80 51/60DF C-BD
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PCV-008/ Pressure retaining valve
In open fuel supply systems (fuel loop with circula-
tion through the service tank; service tank under
atmospheric pressure) this pressure-retaining
valve is required to keep the system pressure to a
certain value against the service tank. It is to be
adjusted so that the pressure before engine inlet
can be maintained in the required range (see "Sec-
tion 2.17: Operating/service temperatures and pressures,
page 2-138").
FSH-001/ Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank
The leakage fuel oil monitoring tank is mounted on
the engine. Its purpose is to detect a fuel flow from
the injection pipes to the tank, which may occur by
a leakage. The fuel level in the leakage fuel oil
monitoring tank depends on the amount of the
leakage flow. In case of a considerable leakage
flow an alarm is generated by a level switch and
transferred to the alarm system.
The classification societies require the installation
of a monitoring tank for unmanned engine room.
Lloyd's Register specifies a monitoring tank for
manned engine rooms as well.
T-006/ Leakage oil collecting tank
Leakage fuel from the injection pipes, leakage lu-
brication oil and dirt fuel oil from the filters (to be
discharged by gravity) are collected in the leakage
oil collecting tank (1T-006). The content of this
tank has to be discharged into the sludge tank
(T-021). It is not allowed to add the content of the
tank to the fuel treatment system again, because
of contamination with lubrication oil.
Withdrawal points for samples
Points for withdrawing fuel oil samples are to be
provided upstream and downstream of each filter,
to verify the effectiveness of the system compo-
nents.
T-015/ MDO storage tank
See description "Section 5.4.1: Marine diesel oil (MDO)
treatment system, page 5-75".
FQ-003/ Fuel consumption meter
In case a fuel oil consumption measurement is re-
quired (not mentioned in the diagram), a fuel oil
consumption meter is to be installed upstream
and downstream of each engine (differentiation
measurement).
General notes
The arrangement of the final fuel filter directly up-
stream of the engine inlet (depending on the plant
design the final filter could be either the duplex fil-
ter FIL-013 or the automatic filter FIL-003) has to
ensure that no parts of the filter itself can be loos-
en.
The pipe between the final filter and the engine in-
let has to be done as short as possible and is to
be cleaned and treated with particular care to pre-
vent damages (loosen objects/parts) to the en-
gine. Valves or components shall not be installed
in this pipe. It is required to dismantle this pipe
completely in presents of our commissioning per-
sonnel for a complete visual inspection of all inter-
nal parts before the first engine start. Therefore
flange pairs have to be provided on eventually in-
stalled bands.
For the fuel piping system we recommend to
maintain a MDO flow velocity between 0.5 and
1.0 m/s in suction pipes and between 1.5 and
2 m/s in pressure pipes. The recommended pres-
sure class for the fuel pipes is PN16.
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDOj supply system for dual-fuel engines
C-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 81
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Figure 5-24 Fuel supply (MDO) Twin engine plant
Engine supply systems
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDOj supply system for dual-fuel engines
Page 5 - 82 51/60DF C-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system
C-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 83
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5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system
A prerequisite for safe and reliable engine opera-
tion with a minimum of servicing is a properly de-
signed and well-functioning fuel oil treatment
system.
The schematic diagram shows the system com-
ponents required for fuel treatment for HFO.
Bunker
Fuel compatibility problems are avoidable if mixing
of newly bunkered fuel with remaining fuel can be
prevented by a suitable number of bunkers.
Heating coils in bunkers to be designed so that the
HFO in it is at a temperature of at least 10 C min-
imum above the pour point.
P-038/Transfer pump
The transfer pump discharges fuel from the bun-
kers into the settling tanks. Being a screw pump,
it handles the fuel gently, thus prevent water being
emulsified in the fuel. Its capacity must be sized so
that complete settling tank can be filled in
s 2 hours.
T-016/Settling tank for HFO
Two settling tanks should be installed, in order to
obtain thorough pre-cleaning and to allow fuels of
different origin to be kept separate. When using
RM-fuels we recommend two settling tanks for
each fuel type (High sulphur HFO, low sulphur
HFO).
Size
Pre-cleaning by settling is the more effective the
longer the solid material is given time to settle. The
storage capacity of the settling tank should be de-
signed to hold at least a 24-hour supply of fuel at
full load operation, including sediments and water
the fuel contains.
The minimum volume (V) to be provided is:
V Minimum volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m
P Engine rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW
Tank heating
The heating surfaces should be so dimensioned
that the tank content can be evenly heated to
75 C within 6 to 8 hours.
The supply of heat should be automatically con-
trolled, depending upon the fuel oil temperature.
In order to avoid:
Agitation of the sludge due to heating, the heat-
ing coils should be arranged at a sufficient dis-
tance from the tank bottom.
The formation of asphaltene, the fuel oil tem-
perature should not be allowed to exceed
75 C.
The formation of carbon deposits on the heat-
ing surfaces, the heat transferred per unit sur-
face must not exceed 1.1 W/cm.
Design
The tank is to be fitted with baffle plates in longitu-
dinal and transverse direction in order to reduce
agitation of the fuel in the tank in rough seas as far
as possible. The suction pipe of the separator
must not reach into the sludge space. One or
more sludge drain valves, depending on the slant
of the tank bottom (preferably 10), are to be pro-
vided at the lowest point. Tanks reaching to the
ship hull must be heat loss protected by a coffer-
dam. The settling tank is to be insulated against
thermal losses.
Sludge must be removed from the settling tank
before the separators draw fuel from it.
T-021/Sludge tank
If disposal by an incinerator plant is not planned,
the tank has to be dimensioned so that it is capa-
ble to absorb all residues which accumulate dur-
ing the operation in the course of a maximum
duration of voyage. In order to render emptying of
the tank possible, it has to be heated. The heating
is to be dimensioned so that the content of the
tank can be heated to approx. 60 C
5.7 P
V
1000

=
Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system
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P-015/Heavy fuel supply pump
The supply pumps should preferably be of the
free-standing type, i. e. not mounted on the sepa-
rator, as the delivery volume can be matched bet-
ter to the required throughput.
H-008/Preheater for HFO
To reach the separating temperature a preheater
matched to the fuel viscosity has to be installed.
CF-002/Separator
As a rule, poor quality, high viscosity fuel is used.
Two new generation separators must therefore be
installed.
From Alfa Laval: Alcap, type SU
From Westfalia: Unitrol, type OSE
Separators must always be provided in sets of 2 of
the same type
1 service separator
1 stand-by separator
of self-cleaning type.
As a matter of principle, all separators are to be
equipped with an automatic programme control
for continuous desludging and monitoring.
Mode of operation
The stand-by separator is always to be put into
service, to achieve the best possible fuel cleaning
effect with the separator plant as installed.
The piping of both separators is to be arranged in
accordance with the makers advice, preferably for
both parallel and series operation.
The discharge flow of the free-standing dirty oil
pump is to be split up equally between the two
separators in parallel operation.
The freshwater supplied must be treated as spec-
ified by the separator supplier.
Size
The separators are dimensioned in accordance
with the separator manufacturers' guidelines.
The required flow rate (Q) can be roughly deter-
mined by the following equation:
With the evaluated flow rate the size of separator
has to be selected according to the evaluation ta-
ble of the manufacturer. MAN Diesel & Turbo
strictly recommend to use evaluation tables ac-
cording to a "certified flow rate" (CFR). The sepa-
rator rating stated by the manufacturer should be
higher than the flow rate (Q) calculated according
to the above formula.
By means of the separator flow rate which was de-
termined in this way, the separator type, depend-
ing on the fuel viscosity, is selected from the lists
of the separator manufacturers.
For determining the maximum fuel consumption
(be), increase the specific table value by 15 %.
This increase takes into consideration:
Tropical conditions
The engine-mounted pumps
The calorific value fluctuations
The consumption tolerance
Withdrawal points for samples
Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be pro-
vided upstream and downstream of each separa-
tor, to verify the effectiveness of these system
components.
Q Separator flow rate l/h
P Engine rating kW
b
e
Fuel consumption g/kWh
Density at separating temp. approx.
0.93 kg/l
e
P b
Q

=

Engine supply systems


5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system
C-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 85
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Figure 5-25 HFO treatment system
Engine supply systems
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system
Page 5 - 86 32/40, 32/44K, 48/60B, 48/60TS, 51/60DF C-BD
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Legend
1,2CF-002 Heavy fuel separator (1 service, 1 standby) 1,2P-038 Heavy fuel transfer pump
1,2H-008 Heavy fuel oil preheater 1,2T-016 Settling tank for heavy fuel oil
MDO-008 Fuel oil module T-021 Sludge tank
1,2P-015 Heavy fuel supply pump 1,2T-022 Service tank for heavy fuel oil
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 87
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5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
To ensure that high-viscosity fuel oils achieve the
specified injection viscosity, a preheating tempera-
ture is necessary, which may cause degassing
problems in conventional, pressureless systems.
A remedial measure is adopting a pressurised sys-
tem in which the required system pressure is 1 bar
above the evaporation pressure of water.
The indicated pressures are minimum require-
ments due to the fuel characteristic. Nevertheless,
to meet the required fuel pressure at the engine in-
let (see "Section 2.15: Planning data for emission stand-
ard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page 2-97" ), the
pressure in the mixing tank and booster circuit be-
comes significant higher as indicated in this table.
T-022/Heavy fuel oil service tank
The heavy fuel oil cleaned in the separator is
passed to the service tank, and as the separators
are in continuous operation, the tank is always
kept filled. To fulfil this requirement it is necessary
to fit the heavy fuel oil service tank T-022 with over-
flow pipes, which are connected with the setting
tanks T-016. The tank capacity is to be designed
for at least eight-hours' fuel supply at full load so
as to provide for a sufficient period of time for sep-
arator maintenance. The tank should have a
sludge space with a tank bottom inclination of
preferably 10, with sludge drain valves at the low-
est point, and is to be equipped with heating coils.
The sludge must be drained from the service tank
at regular intervals.
The heating coils are to be designed for a tank
temperature of 75 C.
The rules and regulations for tanks issued by the
classification societies must be observed.
T-003/MDO/MGO service tank
The classification societies specify that at least
two service tanks are to be installed on board. The
minimum volume of each tank should, in addition
to the MDO/MGO consumption of the generating
sets, enable an eight-hour full load operation of the
main engine.
Cleaning of the MDO/MGO by an additional sepa-
rator should, in the first place, be designed to
meet the requirements of the diesel alternator sets
on board. The tank should be provided, like the
heavy fuel oil service tank, with a sludge space
with sludge drain valve and with an overflow pipe
from the MDO/MGO service tank T-003 to the
MDO/MGO storage tank T-015.
Fuel Injection
viscosity
1)
1)
For fuel viscosity depending on fuel temperature please see "Section 4.8: Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram), page 4-39".
Temperature after
final preheater
Evaporation
pressure
Required system
pressure
mm/50 C mm/s C bar bar
180 12 126 1.4 2.4
320 12 138 2.4 3.4
380 12 142 2.7 3.7
420 12 144 2.9 3.9
500 14 141 2.7 3.7
700 14 147 3.2 4.2
Table 5-22 Injection viscosity and temperature after final preheater
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
Page 5 - 88 51/60DF E-BD
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CK-002/Three way valve
This valve is used for changing over from
MDO/MGO operation to heavy fuel operation and
vice versa. Normally it is operated manually, and it
is equipped with two limit switches for remote in-
dication and suppression of alarms from the vis-
cosity measuring and control system during
MDO/MGO operation.
STR-010/Y-type strainer
To protect the feed pumps, an approx. 0.5 mm
gauge (sphere-passing mesh) strainer is to be in-
stalled at the suction side of the pump.
P-018/Supply pump
The volumetric capacity must be at least 160 % of
max. fuel consumption.
The delivery height of the supply pump shall be se-
lected according to the required system pressure
(see "Table 5-22: Injection viscosity and temperature af-
ter final preheater") the required pressure in the mix-
ing tank and the resistance of the automatic filter,
flow meter and piping system.
Q
P1
= P
1
x br
ISO
x f
4
Required supply pump delivery capac-
ity with HFO at 90 C:
Q
P1
l/h
Engine output at 100 % MCR: P
1
kW
Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO)
at 100 % MCR
br
ISO
g/kWh
Factor for pump dimensioning
For diesel engines operating on main
fuel HFO:
f
4
= 2.00 x 10
3
For diesel engines installed in
dredges operating on main fuel HFO:
f
4
= 2.02 x 10
3
f
4
l/g
Note!
The factor f
4
includes the following parameters:
160 % fuel flow
Main fuel: HFO 380 mm
2
/50 C
Attached lube oil and cooling water pumps
Tropical conditions
Realistic lower heating value
Specific fuel weight at pumping temperature
Tolerance
In case more than one engine is connected to the
same fuel system, the pump capacity has to be
increased accordingly.
Table 5-23 Simplified supply pump dimensioning
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 89
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It is recommended to install supply pumps de-
signed for the following pressures:
Engines with conventional fuel injection system:
Design delivery height 7.0 bar, design output pres-
sure 7.0 bar g.
Engines common rail injection system: Design
delivery height 8.0 bar, design output pressure
8.0 bar g.
HE-025/Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part
If no fuel is consumed in the system while the
pump is in operation, the finned-tube cooler pre-
vents excessive heating of the fuel.
Its cooling surface must be adequate to dissipate
the heat that is produced by the pump to the am-
bient air.
In case of continuos MDO/MGO operation, a wa-
ter cooled fuel oil cooler is required to keep the fuel
oil temperature below 45 C.
PCV-009/Pressure limiting valve
This valve is used for setting the required system
pressure and keeping it constant.
It returns in the case of
engine shutdown 100 %, and of
engine full load 37.5 %
of the quantity delivered by the supply pump back
to the pump suction side.
Fil-003/Automatic filter
Only filters have to be used, which cause no pres-
sure drop in the system during flushing.
Design criterion is the filter area load specified by
the filter manufacturer. The automatic filter has to
be installed in the plant (is not attached on the en-
gine).
- Conventional fuel injection
system
32/40,
48/60B
Positive pressure at the fuel module inlet due to tank level above fuel module
level
0.10
Pressure loss of the pipes between fuel module inlet and mixing tank inlet + 0.20
Pressure loss of the automatic filter + 0.80
Pressure loss of the fuel flow measuring device + 0.10
Pressure in the mixing tank + 5.70
Operating delivery height of the supply pump = 6.70
Table 5-24 Example for the determination of the expected operating delivery height of the supply pump
- Conventional fuel
injection system
32/40,
48/60B
Filter mesh width (mm) 0.034
Design pressure PN10
Table 5-25 Required filter mesh width (sphere passing
mesh)
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
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T-011/Mixing tank
The mixing tank compensates pressure surges
which occur in the pressurised part of the fuel sys-
tem. For this purpose, there has to be an air cush-
ion in the tank. As this air cushion is exhausted
during operation, compressed air (max. 10 bar)
has to be refilled via the control air connection from
time to time.
Before prolonged shutdowns the system is
changed over to MDO/MGO operation. The tank
volume shall be designed to achieve gradual tem-
perature equalisation within 5 minutes in the case
of half-load consumption.
The tank shall be designed for the maximum pos-
sible service pressure, usually approx. 10 bar and
is to be accepted by the classification society in
question.
The expected operating pressure in the mixing
tank depends on the required fuel oil pressure at
the inlet (see "Section 2.15: Planning data for emission
standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion, page 2-97"
and the pressure losses of the installed compo-
nents and pipes).
This example demonstrates, that the calculated
operating pressure in the mixing tank is (for all HFO
viscosities) higher than the min. required fuel pres-
sure (see "Table 5-22: Injection viscosity and tempera-
ture after final preheater").
- Conventional fuel injection
system
32/40,
48/60B
bar
Required max. fuel pressure at engine inlet + 8.00
Pressure difference between fuel inlet and outlet engine 2.00
Pressure loss of the fuel return pipe between engine outlet and mixing tank
inlet, e. g.
0.30
Pressure loss of the flow balancing valve (to be installed only in multi-engine
plants, pressure loss approx. 0,5 bar)
0.00
Operating pressure in the mixing tank = 5.70
Table 5-26 Example for the determination of the expected operating pressure of the mixing tank
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 91
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P-003/Booster pumps
To cool the engine mounted high pressure injec-
tion pumps, the capacity of the booster pumps
has to be at least 300 % of maximum fuel oil con-
sumption at injection viscosity.
The delivery head of the booster pump is to be ad-
justed to the total resistance of the booster sys-
tem.
Q
P2
= P
1
x br
ISO
x f
5
Required booster pump delivery
capacity with HFO at 145 C:
Q
P2
l/h
Engine output at 100 % MCR: P
1
kWh
Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO)
at 100 % MCR
br
ISO
g/kWh
Factor for pump dimensioning
For diesel engines operating on main
fuel HFO:
f
5
= 3.90 x 10
3
For diesel engines installed in
dredges operating on main fuel HFO:
f
5
= 3.94 x 10
3
f
5
l/g
Note!
The factor f
5
includes the following parameters:
300 % fuel flow at 100 % MCR
Main fuel: HFO 380 mm
2
/50 C
Attached lube oil and cooling water pumps
Tropical conditions
Realistic lower heating value
Specific fuel weight at pumping temperature
Tolerance
In case more than one engine is connected to the
same fuel system, the pump capacity has to be
increased accordingly.
Table 5-27 Simplified booster pump dimensioning
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
Page 5 - 92 51/60DF E-BD
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It is recommended to install booster pumps de-
signed for the following pressures:
Engines with conventional fuel injection system:
Design delivery height 7.0 bar, design output pres-
sure 10.0 bar g.
Engines common rail injection system: Design de-
livery height 10.0 bar, design output pressure
14.0 bar g.
H-004/Final preheater
The capacity of the final-preheater shall be deter-
mined on the basis of the injection temperature at
the nozzle, to which 4 K must be added to com-
pensate for heat losses in the piping.
The piping for both heaters shall be arranged for
separate and series operation.
Parallel operation with half the throughput must be
avoided due to the risk of sludge deposits.
VI-001/Viscosity measuring and control device
This device regulates automatically the heating of
the final-preheater depending on the viscosity of
the bunkered fuel oil, so that the fuel will reach the
nozzles with the viscosity required for injection.
Fil-013/Duplex filter
This filter is to be installed upstream of the engine
and as close as possible to the engine.
The emptying port of each filter chamber is to be
fitted with a valve and a pipe to the sludge tank. If
the filter elements are removed for cleaning, the fil-
ter chamber must be emptied. This prevents the
dirt particles remaining in the filter casing from mi-
grating to the clean oil side of the filter.
Design criterion is the filter area load specified by
the filter manufacturer.
- Conventional fuel injection
system
32/40,
48/60B
bar
Pressure difference between fuel inlet and outlet engine + 2.00
Pressure loss of the flow balancing valve (to be installed only in multi-engine
plants, pressure loss approx. 0.5 bar)
+ 0.00
Pressure loss of the pipes, mixing tank engine mixing tank, e. g. + 0.50
Pressure loss of the final preheater max. + 0.80
Pressure loss of the indicator filter + 0.80
Operating delivery height of the booster pump = 4.10
Table 5-28 Example for the determination of the expected operating delivery height of the booster pump
- Conventional fuel injection system
32/40, 48/60B
Filter mesh width (mm) 0.034
Design pressure PN16
Table 5-29 Required filter mesh width (sphere passing mesh)
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 93
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FBV-010/Flow balancing valve (throttle valve)
The flow balancing valve at engine outlet is to be
installed only (one per engine) in multi-engine ar-
rangements connected to the same fuel system. It
is used to balance the fuel flow through the en-
gines. Each engine has to be feed with its correct,
individual fuel flow.
FSH-001/Leakage fuel monitoring tank
High pressure pump overflow and escaping fuel
from burst control pipes is carried to the monitor-
ing tanks from which it is drained into the leakage
oil collecting tank. The float switch mounted in the
tanks must be connected to the alarm system.
The classification societies require the installation
of monitoring tanks for unmanned engine rooms.
Lloyd's Register specify monitoring tanks for
manned engine rooms as well.
T-006/Leakage oil collecting tank for fuel and lube oil
Dirty leak fuel and leak oil are collected in the leak-
age oil collecting tank. It must be emptied into the
sludge tank.
A high flow of dirty leakage oil will occur in case of
a pipe break, for short time only (< 1 min). Engine
will run down immediately after a pipe break alarm.
Leakage fuel flows pressure less (by gravity only)
from the engine into this tank (to be installed below
the engine connections). Pipe clogging must be
avoided by trace heating and by a sufficient down-
ward slope.
The content of T-006 must not be added to the en-
gine fuel! It can be burned for instance in a waste
oil boiler.
Engine Type Attached on
the engine
To be installed in
the plant close
to the engine
L32/40 - X
V32/40 - X
L48/60B - X
V48/60B - X
Table 5-30 Position of the duplex filter
Engine
Type
Leakage fuel
monitoring
tanks
attached on
the engine
Leakage fuel moni-
toring tanks to be
installed in the plant
close to the engine
L32/40 - X
V32/40 - X
L48/60B X -
V48/60B - X
Table 5-31 Position of the leakage fuel monitoring tank
Engine type Leak rate for
HFO
Leak rate for
MGO
l/cyl. x h l/cyl. x h
32/40 0.5 ... 1.0 0.6 1.1
48/60B 0.8 ... 1.3 0.9 1.5
Table 5-32 Leak rate (fuel and lube oil together) for con-
ventional injection
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
Page 5 - 94 51/60DF E-BD
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Withdrawal points for samples
Points for drawing fuel oil samples are to be pro-
vided upstream and downstream of each filter, to
verify the effectiveness of these system compo-
nents.
HE-007/CK-003 MDO/MGO cooler/three way cock
The propose of the MDO/MGO cooler is to ensure
that the viscosity of MDO/MGO will not become
too fluid in engine inlet.
With CK-003, the MDO/MGO cooler HE- 007 has
to be opened when the engine is switched over to
MDO/MGO operation.
That way, the MDO/MGO, which was heated while
circulating via the injection pumps, is re-cooled
before it is returned to the mixing tank
T-011. Switching on the MDO/MGO cooler may
be effected only after flushing the pipes with
MDO/MGO. The MDO/MGO cooler is cooled by
LT cooling water.
The design pressure of the MDO cooler is PN 16.

The recommended pressure class of the MDO
cooler is PN16.
Please note that the max. possible MDO flow
through the cooler is identical to the delivery quan-
tity of the supply pump P-008.
The cooler has to be dimensioned for a MDO out-
let temperature of 45 C, for very light MGO
grades even lower outlet temperatures are re-
quired.
P
C
= P
1
x br
ISO
x f
1
Q
C
= P
1
x br
ISO
x f
2
Cooler outlet temp. MDO/MGO
1)
:
T
out
= 45 C
1)
This temperature has to be normally max. 45 C. Only for
very light MGO fuel types this temperature has to be even
lower in order to preserve the min. admissible fuel viscosity
in engine inlet (see "Section 4.8: Viscosity-temperature diagram
(VT diagram), page 4-39").
T
out
C
Dissipated heat of the cooler P
C
kW
MDO flow for thermal dimensioning of
the cooler
2)
2)
The max. MDO/MGO throughput is identical to the de livery
quantity of the installed booster pump.
Q
c
l/h
Engine output at 100 % MCR P
1
kW
Specific engine fuel consumption (ISO)
at 100 % MCR:
br
ISO
g/kWh
Factor for dissipated heat
f
1
= 2.01 x 10
5
f
1
kWh/g
Factor for MDO/MGO flow
f
2
= 2.80 x 10
3
f
2
l/g
Note!
In case more than one engine, or different engines are
connected to the same fuel system, the cooler capac-
ity has to be increased accordingly.
Table 5-33 Simplified MDO-cooler dimensioning for
engines without common rail (32/40,
48/60B)
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 95
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PCV-011/Pressure limiting valve
In case two engines are operated with one fuel
module, it has to be possible to separate one en-
gine at a time from the fuel circuit for maintenance
purposes. In order to avoid a pressure increase in
the pressurised system, the fuel, which cannot cir-
culate through the shut-off engine, has to be re-
routed via this valve into the return pipe. This valve
is to be adjusted so that rerouting is effected only
when the pressure, in comparison to normal oper-
ation (multi-engine operation), is exceeded.
V-002/Shut-off cock
The stop cock is closed during normal operation
(multi-engine operation). When one engine is sep-
arated from the fuel circuit for maintenance pur-
poses, this cock has to be opened manually.
T-008/Pressure peaks compensation tank
The injection nozzles cause pressure peaks in the
pressurised part of the fuel system. In order to pro-
tect the viscosity measuring and Control Unit,
these pressure peaks have to be equalised by a
compensation tank. The volume of the pressure
peaks compensation tank is 20 I.
Piping
We recommend to use pipes according to PN16
for the fuel system (see "Section 5.1.1: Engine pipe
connections and dimensions, page 5-3").
Material
The casing material of pumps and filters should be
EN-GJS (nodular cast iron), in accordance to the
requirements of the classification societies.
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
Page 5 - 96 51/60DF E-BD
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Figure 5-26 HFO supply system Twin engine plant
Engine supply systems
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 97
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Legend
CF-002 Heavy fuel oil separator 1 PCV-009 Pressure limiting valve
CF-003 Diesel fuel oil separator 10 PCV-009 Pressure limiting valve pilot fuel
CK-002 Switching between MDO and HFO PCV-011 Spill in single engine operation
CK-003 Switching to MDO cooler 1,2,10,11 STR-010 Strainer
1,2 FBV-010 Flow balancing valve 1,2 T-003 Diesel oil service tank
FBV Min flow valve 1 T-006 Leak oil tank
1 FIL-003 Automatic filter main fuel T-101 Pilot fuel circulation tank
10 FIL-003 Automatic filter pilot fuel T-008 Fuel oil dumper tank
1,2 FIL-013 Duplex filter main fuel T-011 Fuel oil mixing tank
10 FIL-013 Duplex filter piot fuel 1,2 T-015 Diesel oil storage tank
1,2 FQ-003 Flowmeter fuel oil 1,2 T-016 HFO settling tank
1,2 FSH-001 Leakage fuel oil monitoring tank T-021 Sludge tank for HFO separator
1,2 H-004 Final heater HFO 1,2 T-022 HFO service tank
1 HE-007 Diesel oil/gas oil cooler main fuel V-002 Shut-off cock
10 HE-007 Pilot fuel cooler 10V-004 Pilot fuel filling valve
1 HE-025 Cooler for circulation fuel oil feeding part VI-001 Viscosimeter
MOD-008 Fuel oil module main fuel 5671/5699 Main fuel inlet/outlet
1,2 P-003 Booster pump 5271/5241 Pilot fuel inlet/outlet
10,11 P-008 MDO pilot fuel pump 5693 Leckage fuel monitoring
1,2 P-018 HFO supply pump 5694 Leckage fuel drain
Note!
Engine L48/60B: FSH-001 attached on the engine, 5693 downstream of FSH-001.
Engine supply systems
5.4.5 Fuel supply at blackout conditions
Page 5 - 98 51/60DF E-BD
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5.4.5 Fuel supply at blackout conditions
Engine operation during short blackout
Engines with conventional fuel injection system:
The air pressure cushion in the mixing tank is suf-
ficient to press fuel from the mixing tank in the en-
gine for a short time.
Note!
A fast filling of hot high pressure injection
pumps with cold MDO/MGO shortly after HFO-
operation will lead to temperature shocks in
the injection system and has to be avoided un-
der any circumstances.
Blackout and/or black-start procedures are to
be designed in a way, that emergency pumps
will supply cold, low viscosity fuel to the en-
gines only after a sufficient blending with hot
HFO, e.g. in the mixing tank.
Engine supply systems
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 99
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5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
Each cylinder of the engine is equipped with two
injection nozzles, the pilot fuel nozzle and the main
fuel nozzle.
Pilot fuel
The pilot fuel nozzles are part of the pilot fuel com-
mon rail system. In gas mode this system is used
to ignite the gaseous fuel. For this propose MDO
(DMA or DMB) is used. Pilot fuel nozzles are de-
signed to operate with very small fuel quantities in
order to minimize the pilot fuel consumption.
Also in liquid mode pilot fuel is injected to keep the
injection nozzles clean and ready for gas mode
operation.
As a safety function, in case of a failure on the pilot
fuel system, the engine can be operated in liquid
mode without pilot fuel (back up mode) for a short
time (<15 h).
The engine has two pilot fuel connections, one for
pressurized pilot fuel inlet and one for pressureless
pilot fuel outlet. Non-burned fuel and leakage fuel
from the pilot fuel nozzles is circulated via the pilot
fuel outlet connection.
Main fuel oil
The main nozzles are designed to ensure full load
operation of the engine in liquid mode. Main fuel
nozzles are part of a conventional fuel injection
system, which is identical to the system used in
the parent engine (48/60B) for HFO and MDO op-
eration.
Only if the engine is operated in liquid mode, fuel
is injected through the main nozzles and burned.
Nevertheless, to ensure the lubrication and cool-
ing of the injection pumps and to be prepared to
switch the engine automatically and immediately
from gas mode to liquid mode for safety reasons,
main fuel oil has to be supplied to the engine, also
when operated in gas mode. In gas mode there is
no main fuel oil consumption, the complete main
fuel oil quantity will circulate.
The engine is equipped with two main fuel oil con-
nections, one for inlet and one for outlet, both un-
der pressure. The required main fuel oil flow at
engine inlet is equal to 3 times the max. fuel oil
consumption of the engine. Non-burned fuel will
circulate via the main fuel oil outlet connection
back to the external fuel oil system.
As main fuel oil HFO or MDO (DMA or DMB) can
be used. In case HFO is used, it must be heated
up to meet a viscosity of 11 cSt (max. 14 cSt for
very high fuel oil viscosity) at engine inlet.
When MDO is used, it is normally not necessary to
heat up the fuel. It must be ensured that the MDO
temperature at engine inlet does not become to
warm. Therefore a MDO cooler must be installed
in the fuel return line from the engine.
External fuel system
The external fuel system has to feed the engine
with pilot fuel and with main fuel oil and it has to
ensure safety aspects in order to enable the en-
gine to be switched from gas mode to liquid mode
automatically and immediately within
approx. 1 sec. Also transient conditions, like con-
ditions during fuel changing from HFO to MDO,
must be considered.
Normally two or three engines (one engine group)
are served by one fuel oil system in common. De-
pending on the required main fuel oil flexibility of
the plant different layouts of the external fuel oil
system are possible.
High main fuel oil flexibility
High main fuel oil flexibility for the engine group
means the possibility to operate each single en-
gine of this group individually with HFO or MDO as
main fuel oil. For example, engine No. 1 can oper-
ate on MDO as main fuel oil while at the same time
engine No. 2 can operate on HFO as main fuel oil.
Engine supply systems
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
Page 5 - 100 51/60DF E-BD
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Standard main fuel oil flexibility
Standard main fuel oil flexibility for the engine
group means that all engines connected to the
same external fuel oil system can operate contem-
porarily on the same main fuel oil only. For exam-
ple, engine No. 1 and No. 2 are operating together
and at the same time on HFO as main fuel oil. It is
possible to switch the main fuel oil from HFO to
MDO, but this can be done for the whole engine
group only. It is not possible to select for each sin-
gle engine of the group a different main fuel oil.
Systems designed for high main fuel oil flexibility
are more complicated compared to those for
standard main fuel oil flexibility.
Regardless of the chosen level of main fuel oil flex-
ibility, each engine can be operated in gas mode or
liquid mode individually and at any time.
Dual-fuel engines are operated frequently and for
long time periods in gas mode or in stand by
mode. In these cases no main fuel oil is burned,
but it is circulated. HFO is subject to alteration if
circulated in the fuel oil system without being con-
sumed. It becomes necessary to avoid circulation
of the same HFO content for a period longer than
12 hours. Therefore the external main fuel oil sys-
tem must be designed to ensure that the HFO
content of the fuel system is completely ex-
changed with "fresh" HFO every 12 hours. This
can be done by a return pipe from the booster sys-
tem in the HFO setting tank. Alternatively HFO can
be substituted by MDO, which is not so sensitive
to alterations if circulated for long time.
Other limitations for long term operation on gas,
MDO or HFO can be given by the selected lube oil
(base number) and by the minimum admissible
load.
External main fuel oil system
If high main fuel oil flexibility is required, the exter-
nal fuel oil system consists of the following major
components (seediagram DRW 11840280019):
Supply pumps and supply circuit for MDO in-
cluding pilot fuel. Equipped with water cooled
MDO cooler and pressure control valves. In-
stalled components are used by all connected
engines in common.
Pilot fuel system branched off from the MDO
supply system including first stage of pilot fuel
filtration for 5 m at 99 % separation efficiency.
Installed components are used by all connect-
ed engines in common.
Supply pumps and supply circuit for HFO with
34 m automatic filter. Equipped with air
cooled finned tube HFO cooler. Installed com-
ponents are used by all connected engines in
common.
Main fuel oil booster system including main fuel
oil selecting valve, mixing tank, booster pumps,
fuel heating, viscosity control, indicator filter
34 m , water cooled MDO cooler mounted in
the main fuel oil return line and HFO return pipe
to the HFO setting tank. These components
are repeated for each engine.
If standard main fuel oil flexibility is required, the
external fuel oil system consists of the following
major components (see diagram DRW
11840280022):
Supply pumps and supply circuit for main fuel
oil. Equipped with main fuel oil selecting valve,
water cooled MDO cooler and pressure control
valve. Installed components are used by all
connected engines in common.
Main fuel oil automatic filter 34 m. Used by all
connected engines in common.
Main fuel oil booster system and circuit.
Equipped on the feeding line with mixing tank,
booster pumps, fuel heating, viscosity control,
water cooled MDO cooler on the fuel oil return
line, and return pipe to the HFO service tank.
Installed components are used by all connect-
ed engines in common.
Engine supply systems
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 101
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Main fuel oil indicator filter 34 m installed be-
fore engine inlet and flow balancing valve in-
stalled after engine outlet. These components
are to be installed individually for each single
engine.
One spilling valve and shut off valve installed in
parallel to the engines.
Pilot fuel system including pilot fuel pumps,
pressure control valve, return pipe to the MDO
service tank, first stage of pilot fuel filtration for
5 m at 99 % separation efficiency. Pilot fuel re-
turn from the engines is collected in a pilot fuel
collecting tank and returned from there to the
MDO service tank by use of transfer pumps. In-
stalled components are used by all connected
engines in common.
Dimensioning of main components
All components installed in the supply circuit
are to be dimensioned for 1.6 times the max.
possible fuel oil consumption (under tropical
conditions, including all tolerances and correct-
ed to the real lower heating value) of all con-
nected engines.
All components installed in the booster circuit
are to be dimensioned for 3 times the max.
possible fuel oil consumption (under tropical
conditions, including all tolerances and correct-
ed to the real lower heating value) of all con-
nected engines.
The content of the mixing tank corresponds to
2.5 min of the max. possible fuel oil consump-
tion of all connected engines. Design pressure
10 bar g, design temperature min. 150 C.
Coolers in the supply circuit are to be designed
in order to not exceed a fuel oil temperature of
98 C if HFO is used and 45 C if MDO is used.
The dissipated heat to be considered is equal
to (or can not exceed) the installed power of the
electric motor of the supply pump.
MDO coolers installed in the main fuel oil return
pipe are to be dimensioned for an MDO outlet
temperature of 45 C. The considered MDO in-
let temperature is 60 C. The MDO flow for
cooler designing is 3 times the max. possible
fuel oil consumption of all connected engines.
Design pressure 16 barg.
A fuel oil return pipe from the booster circuit to
the HFO setting tank is required to substitute
every 12 hours the circulating content of the
main fuel oil system if HFO is used as main fuel.
The pilot fuel system has to be designed for a
flow of 70 l/h for each connected L-type engine
and 110 l/h for each connected V-type engine.
In case that pilot fuel is branched off from the
supply system the flow quantity of the supply
system has to be increased accordingly.
The pilot fuel collecting tank, installed on the pi-
lot fuel return pipe, has to be designed for a
content of min. 100 l for each connected
L-type engine and min. 160 l for each connect-
ed V-type engine. At the engine outlet the pilot
fuel is pressureless. Therefore the pilot fuel re-
turn pipe between the engine and the pilot fuel
collecting tank has to be installed with a down-
ward slope.
Main fuel oil pressure at engine inlet has to be
approx. 7 barg.
Pilot fuel oil pressure at engine inlet has to be
approx. 6.5 barg.
Engine supply systems
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
Page 5 - 102 51/60DF E-BD
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Figure 5-27 High fuel oil flexibility
Engine supply systems
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
E-BD 51/60DF Page 5 - 103
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Engine supply systems
5.4.6 Liquid fuel system for 51/60DF engines designed to burn HFO and MDO
Page 5 - 104 51/60DF E-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
J-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 105
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5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
The external gas supply system is necessary to
feed the dual-fuel engine with fuel gas according
to the requirements of the engine.
It consists of:
The engine related gas treatment system
The gas valve unit with connection pipes
The engine related gas treatment system serves to
provide gas with the correct conditions at the inlet
of the gas valve unit.
The pressure of the fuel gas supplied to the GVU
shall be in the range as specified in "Section 2.21:
Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit, page
2-151" and may have a maximum pressure fluctu-
ation of 200 mbar/s. The temperature of the fuel
gas supplied to the GVU shall be in the range from
5 C to 50 C. The temperature- and pressure-de-
pendent dew point of natural gas must be exceed-
ed to prevent condensation.
If the pressure of the fuel gas supplied to the GVU
exceeds the permissible range as stated in "Section
2.21: Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve Unit,
page 2-151" a pressure reducing station is required.
If the pressure of the fuel gas supplied to the GVU
falls below the permissible range as stated in "Sec-
tion 2.21: Required supply gas pressure at inlet Gas Valve
Unit, page 2-151" a gas compressor is required. In
any case the gas supply line to the GVU must be
equipped with an approved overpressure protec-
tion device or system which assures that the max-
imum design pressure of the GVU system of
10 bar(g) is not exceeded.
Usually the main components of the gas treatment
system are:
Piping between the cargo system and the com-
ponents of gas treatment system
Gas compressor
Device for forced evaporation of LNG
Heat exchangers
Piping from the components of the gas treat-
ment system to the gas valve unit
The gas treatment system is in part a cryogen sys-
tem and has to be designed by a specialised com-
pany.
Engine supply systems
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
Page 5 - 106 35/44DF, 51/60DF J-BC
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MOD-052/Gas valve unit
Figure 5-28 Gas valve unit (GVU)
The gas valve unit (MOD-052) is a regulating and
safety device permitting the engine to be safely
operated in the gas mode. The unit is equipped
with block and bleed valves (quick-acting stop
valves and venting valves) and a gas pressure reg-
ulating device.
The gas valve unit fulfils the following functions:
Gas leakage test by engine control system be-
fore engine start
Control of the pressure of the gas fed into the
dual-fuel engine
Quick stop of the gas supply at the end of the
DF-operation mode
Quick stop of the gas supply in case of an
emergency stop
Purging of the gas distribution system and the
feed pipe with air after DF-operation
Purging with N
2
for maintenance reasons
In order to keep impurities away from the down-
stream control and safety equipment, a gas filter
(FIL-026) is installed after the hand-stop valve
(V003). The pressure loss at the filter is monitored
by a differential pressure gauge.
The gas pressure control device (PCV-014) ad-
justs the pressure of the gas fed into the engine.
The control devices include a regulating valve with
pressure regulator and an IP transducer.
In accordance with the engine load, the pressure
control device maintains a differential gas over-
pressure to the charge air pressure. This ensures
that the gas feed pressure is correct at all operat-
ing points.
At the outlet of the gas control line, quick-acting
stop valves (1,2 QSV-001) and automatic venting
valves (1, 2, 3, 4 FV-002) are mounted. The quick-
acting stop valves will interrupt the gas supply to
engine on request. The automatic venting valve (2
FV-002) relieves the pressurised gas trapped be-
tween the two closed quick-acting stop valves
(1,2 QSV-001). The automatic venting valve (3 FV-
002) relieves the pressurised gas trapped between
the quick-acting stop valves (2 QSV-001) and the
Engine supply systems
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
J-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 107
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engine and is used to purge the gas distribution
system and pipe with air in inverse direction.
For safety reasons, the working principle of the
quick-acting stop valves (1,2 QSV-001) ensures
that the valves are normally closed (closed in case
there is no signal) while the venting valves (2,3 FV-
002) are normally open. In addition, a safety stop
device (SAV) (incorporated in PCV-014) shuts off
the gas flow automatically in case the pressure
downstream of the gas valve unit is excessive.
The gas valve unit includes pressure transmit-
ters/gauges and a thermocouple. The output of
these sensors is transmitted to the engine man-
agement system. The control logic meets MAN
Diesel & Turbo requirements and controls the
opening and closing of the block and bleed valves
as well as the gas-control-line leak test.
Gas valve unit room
The gas valve unit is to be installed in a separate
room meeting the following requirements:
Gas tight compartment
Installed room ventilation system with exhaust
air fan to outside area. This ensures that there
is always a lower pressure in this room in com-
parison to the engine room
Installation of a gas detection system
Installation of a fire detection and fire fighting
system
Safety concept:
For further information for the installation of the
gas supply system and the gas valve unit please
refer to our brochure"Safety concept of MAN Diesel &
Turbo dual-fuel engine"
Gas piping
The GVU shall be located as close as possible to
the engine to achieve optimal control behavior.
Therefore the maximum length of the piping be-
tween GVU and engine inlet is limited to
15 meters. The recommended material for manu-
facturing the supply gas piping from the GVU to
the engine inlet is stainless steel type EN 1.4404 or
type EN 1.4571.
A loss of 0.1 bar from GVU outlet to the engine in-
let is included in the gas pressure requirements in-
dicated in "Section 2.21: Required supply gas pressure
at inlet Gas Valve Unit, page 2-151".
The gas supply pipe of the engine (between the
gas valve unit and the engine gas inlet connection)
is to be of double-wall design or a pipe in a sepa-
rate duct. The interspace between the two pipes
(or between pipe and duct) is to be connected to
the gas valve unit room. A gas detection for the
interspace is to be installed, and a ventilation sys-
tem ensuring that the air is exchanged at least 30
times per hour is required.
If for integration reasons the double wall supply
piping presents low points (siphons), particular
construction attention shall be paid for avoiding
eventual accumulation of condensation water be-
tween the internal and external piping which might
obstruct the ventilation.
Also the gas pipe leading to the gas valve unit is to
be designed similarly to the feed pipe (double wall,
gas detection, air exchange at least 30 times per
hour). In addition, an external emergency stop-
valve has to be fitted in this pipe in an appropriated
place (outside).
The external gas pipe upstream of the gas input
connection of the gas valve unit (A) has to be
equipped with a fuel gas pressure safety valve in
order to ensure that the gas pressure at the gas
valve unit does not exceed the 6 barg. It is also to
be ensured that the fuel gas temperature remains
within the admissible range of 5 C to 50 C. For
more details, see "Section 4.3.2: Fuel specification for
natural gas, page 4-17".
Engine supply systems
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
Page 5 - 108 35/44DF, 51/60DF J-BC
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Figure 5-29 Fuel gas supply system, engine room arrangement
Engine supply systems
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
J-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 109
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Figure 5-30 Gas feeding system One common engine room
Engine supply systems
5.4.7 Fuel gas supply system
Page 5 - 110 35/44DF, 51/60DF J-BC
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Figure 5-31 Gas feeding system Two separate engine rooms
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system
E-BB 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 111
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5.5 Compressed air system
5.5.1 Starting air system
Marine main engines
The compressed air supply to the engine plant re-
quires air vessels and air compressors of a capac-
ity and air delivery rating which will meet the
requirements of the relevant classification society
(see Compressed air system Starting air vessels, com-
pressors").
1 C-001, 2 C-001, 3 C-001/Air compressor
1 service compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C-001
1 auxiliary compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 C-001
1 Jet Assist compressor . . . . . . . . . . . 3 C-001
These are multi-stage compressor sets with safety
valves, cooler for compressed air and condensate
traps.
The operational compressor is switched on by the
pressure control at low pressure, respectively
switched off at max. service pressure.
A max. service pressure of 30 bar is required. The
standard design pressure of the starting air ves-
sels is 30 bar and the design temperature is
50 C.
The service compressor is electrically driven, the
auxiliary compressor may also be driven by a die-
sel engine. The capacity of both compressors (1
C-001 and 2 C-001) is identical.
The total capacity of the compressors has to be
increased if the engine is equipped with Jet Assist.
This can be met either by providing a larger service
compressor, or by an additional compressor
(3 C-001).
For special operating conditions such as, e. g.,
dredging service, the capacity of the compressors
has to be adjusted to the respective requirements
of operation.
1 T-007, 2 T-007/Starting air vessels
The installation situation of the air vessels must en-
sure a good drainage of condensed water. Air ves-
sels must be installed with a downward slope
sufficiently to ensure a good drainage of accumu-
lated condensate water.
The installation situation also has to ensure that
during emergency discharging of the safety valve
no persons can be compromised.
It is not allowed to weld supports (or other) on the
air vessels. The original design must not be al-
tered. Air vessels are to be bedded and fixed by
use of external supporting structures.
T-018/Air vessel for Jet Assist
Technical notes identical to 1 T-007, 2 T-007/
starting air vessels.
As an alternative it is possible to omit the separate
air vessel for Jet Assist (T-018). In this case, the
volume of the starting air vessels (1 T-007,
2 T-007) must be increased accordingly.
Piping
The main starting pipe (engine connection 7171),
connected to both air vessels, leads to the main
starting valve (MSV- 001) of the engine.
A second 30 bar pressure line (engine connection
7172) with separate connections to both air ves-
sels supplies the engine with control air. This does
not require larger air vessels.
A line branches off the aforementioned control air
pipe to supply other air-consuming engine acces-
sories (e. g. lube oil automatic filter, fuel oil filter)
with compressed air through a separate 30/8 bar
pressure reducing station.
A third 30 bar pipe is required for engines with Jet
Assist (engine connection 7177). Depending on
the air vessel arrangement, this pipe can be
branched off from the starting air pipe near engine
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system
Page 5 - 112 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF E-BB
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or must be connected separately to the air vessel
for Jet Assist.
Additional connections on the air vessels are pro-
vided for air requirements of the ship and for the
horn. The pipes to be connected by the shipyard
have to be supported immediately behind their
connection to the engine. Further supports are re-
quired at sufficiently short distance.
Other air consumers for low pressure, auxiliary ap-
plication (e.g. filter cleaning, TC cleaning, pneu-
matic drives) can be connected to the start air
system after a pressure reduction unit.
Galvanised steel pipe must not be used for the
piping of the system.
General requirements of classification societies
The equipment provided for starting the engines
must enable the engines to be started from the
operating condition 'zero' with shipboard facilities,
i. e. without outside assistance.
Compressors
Two or more starting air compressors must be
provided. At least one of the air compressors must
be driven independently of the main engine and
must supply at least 50 % of the required total ca-
pacity.
The total capacity of the starting air compressors
is to be calculated so that the air volume neces-
sary for the required number of starts is topped up
from atmospheric pressure within one hour.
The compressor capacities are calculated as fol-
lows:
As a rule, compressors of identical ratings should
be provided. An emergency compressor, if provid-
ed, is to be disregarded in this respect.
Starting air vessels
The starting air supply is to be split up into not less
than two starting air vessels of about the same
size, which can be used independently of each an-
other.
For the sizes of the starting air vessels for the re-
spective engines see Compressed air system
Starting air vessels, compressors".
Diesel-mechanical main engine:
For each non-reversible main engine driving a
C.P.-propeller, or where starting without counter
torque is possible, the stored starting air must be
sufficient for a certain number of starting manoeu-
vres, normally 6 per engine. The exact number of
required starting manoeuvres depends on the ar-
rangement of the system and on the special re-
quirements of the classification society.
Diesel-electric auxiliary engine:
For auxiliary marine engines, separate air tanks
shall only be installed in case of turbine-driven ves-
sels, or if the auxiliary sets in engine-driven vessels
are installed far away from the main plant.
For electric propulsion main engine:
For each main engine for electrical propulsion the
stored starting air must be sufficient for a certain
number of starting manoeuvres, normally 6 per
engine. The exact number of required starting ma-
noeuvres depends on the number of engines and
on the special requirements of the classification
society.
P
Total volumetric capacity of the
compressors
m/h
V
Total volume of the starting air ves-
sels at 30 bar or 40 bar service
pressure
litres
V 30
P
1000

=
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system
E-BB 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 113
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Calculation formula for starting air vessels see below
If other consumers (i. e. auxiliary engines, ship air
etc.) which are not listed in the formula are con-
nected to the starting air vessel, the capacity of
starting air vessel must be increased accordingly,
or an additional separate air vessel has to be in-
stalled.
( ) ( )
Jet
st Drive st Safe Jet Jet sl sl Drive max min
sec
V
V V f z z z t V z f p p
5
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
V Required vessel capacity litre
V
st
Air consumption per nominal start
1)
1)
Tabulated values see Compressed air system Starting air ves-
sels, compressors".
litre
f
Drive
Factor for drive type
(1.0 = Diesel-mechanic,
1.5 = alternator drive)
-
z
st
Number of starts required by the
classification society
-
z
Safe
Number of starts as safety margi -
V
Jet
Assist air consumption per
Jet Assist
1)
litre
z
Jet
Number of Jet Assist procedures
1)
-
t
Jet
Duration of Jet Assist procedures sec.
V
sl
Air consumption per slow turnlitre -
z
sl
Number of slow turn manoeuvres -
p
max
Maximum starting air pressure bar
p
min
Minimum starting air pressure bar
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system
Page 5 - 114 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF E-BB
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Figure 5-32 Starting air system
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system
E-BB 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF Page 5 - 115
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Legend
1 C-001 Starting air compressor (service) T-018 Vessel for Jet Assist only
2 C-001 Starting air compressor (stand-by) TR-005 Water trap
3 C-001 Compressor for Jet Assist 1, 2, 3 TR-006 Automatic condensate trap
FIL-001 Lube-oil automatic filter 7171 Engine inlet (main starting valve)
FIL-003 Fuel automatic filter 7172 Control air and emergency stop
M-019 Valve for interlocking device 7177 Jet Assist (optional)
MSV-001 Main starting valve 7451 Control air from turning gear
2 T-007 Starting air vessel 7461 Control air to turning gear
TY-001 Typhon 9771 Turbocharger dry cleaning (optional)
Engine supply systems
5.5.1 Starting air system
Page 5 - 116 32/40, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF E-BB
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Engine supply systems
5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors
K-BB 51/60DF Page 5 - 117
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5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors
General
The engine requires compressed air for starting,
start-turning, for the Jet Assist function as well as
several pneumatic controls. The design of the
pressure air vessel directly depends on the air
consumption and the requirements of the classifi-
cation societies.
For air consumption see "Table 2-30: Starting air con-
sumption 51/60DF".
The air consumption per starting manoeuvre
depends on the inertia moment of the unit. For
generator plants, 1.5 times the air consumption
per starting manoeuvre has to be expected.
The air consumption is substantially deter-
mined by the respective turbocharger design.
For more information concerning Jet Assist see
"Section 5.5.3: Jet Assist, page 5-119".
The air consumption per slow-turn activation
depends on the inertia moment of the unit.
Starting air vessels
Service pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . max. 30 bar
Minimum starting air pressure . . . . .min. 10 bar
Starting air compressors
The total capacity of the starting air compressors
has to be capable to charge the air receivers from
the atmospheric pressure to full pressure of 30 bar
within one hour.
Engine supply systems
5.5.2 Starting air vessels, compressors
Page 5 - 118 51/60DF K-BB
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Propulsion plant with 1 main engine
1. Electric propulsion with Jet Assist
2. Electric propulsion without Jet Assist
Multiple engine plants
In this case the number of required starts is gener-
ally reduced. Three consecutive starts are required
per engine. The total capacity must be sufficient
for not less than 12 starts and need not exceed 18
starts.
Starting air vessels
1)
and compressor capacities (6 starts + 1 safety start, 10 x 5 sec. Jet Assist, 1 slow turn)
1)
Starting air vessels: At least two starting air vessels of approximately equal size are required.
Engine 51/60DF 6 L 7 L 8 L 9 L 12 V 14 V 16 V 18 V
Min. required vessel capacity litre 3,890 4,160 5,110 5,320 7,190 7,660 8,000 10,170
Required vessels litre 2x2,000 2x2,250 2x2,750 2x 2,750 2x3,750 2x4,000 2x4,000 2x5,250
Min. required compressor
capacity
Nm/h 120 135 165 165 225 240 240 315
Table 5-34 Starting air vessels , compressors with Jet Assist-single shaft vessel
Starting air vessels
1)
and compressor capacities (6 starts + 1 safety start, no Jet Assist, 1 slow turn)
1)
Starting air vessels: At least two starting air vessels of approximately equal size are required.
Engine 51/60DF 6 L 7 L 8 L 9 L 12 V 14 V 16 V 18 V
Min. required vessel capacity litre 1,890 2,160 2,360 2,570 3,240 3,710 4,050 4,520
Required vessels litre 2x1,000 2x1,250 2x1,250 2x1,500 2x1,750 2x2,000 2x2,000 2x2,250
Min. required compressor
capacity
Nm/h 60 75 75 90 105 120 120 135
Table 5-35 Starting air vessels, compressors without Jet Assist-single shaft vessel
Engine supply systems
5.5.3 Jet Assist
D-BD 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 5 - 119
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5.5.3 Jet Assist
General
Jet Assist is a system for acceleration of the turbo-
charger. By means of nozzles in the turbocharger,
compressed air is directed to accelerate the com-
pressor wheel. This causes the turbocharger to
adapt more rapidly to a new load condition and
improves the response of the engine.
Air consumption
The air consumption for Jet Assist is, to a great ex-
tent, dependent on the load profile of the ship. In
case of frequently and quickly changing load
steps, Jet Assist will be actuated more often than
this will be the case during long routes at largely
constant load.
For air consumption (litre) see Compressed air
system Starting air vessels, compressors".
General data
Jet Assist air pressure (overpressure) ........ 4 bar
At the engine connection the pressure is max.
30 bar. The air pressure will reduced on the engine
by an orifice to max. 4 bar (overpressure).
Jet Assist activating time:
3 sec to 10 sec (5 sec in average)
Engine supply systems
5.5.3 Jet Assist
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Consider temporal distribution of events
For the design of the Jet Assist air supply the tem-
poral distribution of events needs to be consid-
ered, if there might be an accumulation of events.
Following figure shows exemplary for an applica-
tion with 10 manoeuvres per hour five Jet Assist
manoeuvers in rapid succession and five remain-
ing Jet Assist manoeuvres in standard activation.
Figure 5-33 Example: Application diesel-electric marine drive
In this case for the design of the starting air vessels
and compressors it has to be considered that after
finishing of the five Jet Assist manoeuvres within
short time the next Jet Assist manoeuvre (marked)
must be executable.
Dynamic positioning for drilling vessels, cable-laying
vessels, off-shore applications
When applying dynamic positioning, pulsating
load application of > 25 % may occur frequently,
up to 30 times per hour. In these cases, the possi-
bility of a specially adapted, separate compressed
air system has always to be checked.
Air supply
Generally, larger air bottles are to be provided for
the air supply of the Jet Assist.
If the planned load profile is expecting a high re-
quirement of Jet Assist, it should be checked
whether an air supply from the working air circuit,
a separate air bottle or a specially adapted, sepa-
rate compressed air system is necessary or rea-
sonable.
In each case the delivery capacity of the compres-
sors is to be adapted to the expected Jet Assist
requirement per unit of time.
Engine supply systems
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air
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5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air
General information
Engine room ventilation system
Its purpose is:
Supplying the engines and auxiliary boilers with
combustion air.
Carrying off the radiant heat from all installed
engines and auxiliaries.
Combustion air
The combustion air must be free from spray water,
snow, dust and oil mist. This is achieved by:
Louvres, protected against the head wind, with
baffles in the back and optimally dimensioned
suction space so as to reduce the air flow ve-
locity to 1 1.5 m/s.
Self-cleaning air filter in the suction space (re-
quired for dust-laden air, e. g. cement, ore or
grain carrier).
Sufficient space between the intake point and
the openings of exhaust air ducts from the en-
gine and separator room as well as vent pipes
from lube oil and fuel oil tanks and the air intake
louvres. (The influence of winds must be taken
into consideration).
Positioning of engine room doors on the ship's
deck so that no oil-laden air and warm engine
room air will be drawn in when the doors are
open.
Arranging the separator station at a sufficiently
large distance from the turbochargers.
The combustion air is normally drawn in from the
engine room.
In tropical service a sufficient volume of air must be
supplied to the turbocharger(s) at outside air tem-
perature. For this purpose there must be an air
duct installed for each turbocharger, with the out-
let of the duct facing the respective intake air si-
lencer, separated from the latter by a space of
1.5 m. No water of condensation from the air duct
must be allowed to be drawn in by the turbocharg-
er. The air stream must not be directed onto the
exhaust manifold.
In intermittently or permanently arctic service (de-
fined as: air intake temperature of the engine be-
low +5 C) special measures are necessary
depending on the possible minimum air intake
temperature. For further information see "Section
2.8: Engine operation under arctic conditions, page 2-53".
If necessary, steam heated air preheaters must be
provided.
For the required combustion air quantity, see En-
gine and operation Planning data". For the required
combustion air quality, see "Section 4.12: Specifica-
tion for intake air (combustion air), page 4-53".
Cross-sections of air supply ducts are to be de-
signed to obtain the following air flow velocities:
Main ducts 8 12 m/s
Secondary ducts max. 8 m/s
Air fans are to be designed so as to maintain a
positive air pressure of 50 Pa (5 mm WC) in the
engine room.
Engine supply systems
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air
Page 5 - 122 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 48/60TS, 51/60DF A-BD
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Radiant heat
The heat radiated from the main and auxiliary en-
gines, from the exhaust manifolds, waste heat
boilers, silencers, alternators, compressors, elec-
trical equipment, steam and condensate pipes,
heated tanks and other auxiliaries is absorbed by
the engine room air.
The amount of air V required to carry off this radi-
ant heat can be calculated as follows:
Ventilator capacity
The capacity of the air ventilators (without separa-
tor room) must be large enough to cover at least
the sum of the following tasks:
The combustion air requirements of all con-
sumers.
The air required for carrying off the radiant heat.
A rule-of-thumb applicable to plants operating on
heavy fuel oil is 20 24 m
3
/kWh.
V Air required m/h
Q Heat to be dissipated kJ/h
At Air temperature rise in engine room
(10 12.5)
C
cp Specific heat capacity of air (1.01) kJ/kg*k
t Air density at 35 C (1.15) kg/m
Q
V
t cp t
=

Engine supply systems
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air
A-BD 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 123
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Figure 5-34 Engine room arrangement and ventilation systems
Engine supply systems
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air
Page 5 - 124 35/44DF, 51/60DF A-BD
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Engine supply systems
5.7.1 General information
K-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 125
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5.7 Exhaust gas system
5.7.1 General information
Layout
As the flow resistance in the exhaust system has a
very large influence on the fuel consumption and
the thermal load of the engine, the total resistance
of the exhaust gas system must not exceed
30 mbar.
For permissible values for special cases contact
MAN Diesel & Turbo.
The pipe diameter selection depends on the en-
gine output, the exhaust gas volume, and the sys-
tem backpressure, including silencer and SCR (if
fitted). The backpressure is also being dependent
on the length and arrangement of the piping as
well as the number of bends. Sharp bends result
in very high flow resistance and should therefore
be avoided. If necessary, pipe bends must be pro-
vided with guide vanes.
We recommend, as guideline, that the maximum
exhaust gas velocity in the pipe approx. 40 m/s.
For the installation of exhaust gas systems in dual-
fuel engine plants, in ships and offshore applica-
tions, several rules and requirements from IMO,
classification societies, port and other authorities
have to be applied. Each individual plant design
has to be approved by one or more of the above
mentioned parties.
The exhaust piping has to be built steadily ascend-
ing to avoid any accumulation of explosive gas
concentration. In addition, the design of other
main components, like exhaust gas boiler and si-
lencer, has to ensure that no accumulation of gas
fuel can occur inside.
For the exhaust gas system in particular, this is re-
flected in the following design details:
Design requirements for the exhaust system in-
stallation
Installation of adequate purging device
Installation of explosion venting devices (rup-
ture discs or similar)
Note!
For further information, refer to our brochure
"Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-
fuel engine".
Installation
When installing the exhaust system, the following
points must be observed:
The exhaust pipes of two or more engines must
not be joined.
Because of the high temperatures involved, the
exhaust pipes must be able to expand. The ex-
pansion joints to be provided for this purpose
are to be mounted between fixed-point pipe
supports installed in suitable positions. One
sturdy fixed-point support must be provided for
the expansion joint directly after the turbo-
charger. It should be positioned, if possible, im-
mediately above the expansion joint in order to
prevent the transmission of forces to the turbo-
charger itself. These forces include those re-
sulting from the weight, thermal expansion or
lateral displacement of the exhaust piping.
The exhaust piping should be elastically hung
or supported by means of dampers in order to
prevent the transmission of sound to other
parts of the vessel.
The exhaust piping is to be provided with water
drains, which are to be regularly checked to
drain any condensation water or possible leak
water from exhaust gas boilers if fitted.
During commissioning and maintenance work,
checking of the exhaust gas system back pres-
sure by means of a temporarily connected
measuring device may become necessary. For
this purpose, a measuring socket is to be pro-
vided approximately 1 to 2 metres after the ex-
haust gas outlet of the turbocharger, in a
straight length of pipe at an easily accessed
position. Standard pressure measuring devices
usually require a measuring socket size of 1/2".
Engine supply systems
5.7.1 General information
Page 5 - 126 35/44DF, 51/60DF K-BC
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This measuring socket is to be provided to en-
sure back pressure can be measured without
any damage to the exhaust gas pipe insulation.
Engine supply systems
5.7.2 Components and assemblies
F-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 5 - 127
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5.7.2 Components and assemblies
Exhaust gas silencer
Mode of operation
The silencer operates on the absorption principle
so it is effective in a wide frequency band. The flow
path, which runs through the silencer in a straight
line, ensures optimum noise reduction with mini-
mum flow resistance. The silencer must be
equipped with a spark arrester.
Installation
If possible, the silencer should be installed to-
wards the end of the exhaust line. A vertical instal-
lation situation is to be preferred, but at least it has
to be build steadily asceding to avoid any accumu-
lation of explosive gas concentration. The cleaning
ports of the spark arrestor are to be easily acces-
sible.
Exhaust gas boiler
To utilize the thermal energy from the exhaust, an
exhaust gas boiler producing steam or hot water
can be installed.
Insulation
The exhaust gas system (from outlet of turbo-
charger, boiler, silencer to the outlet stack) is to be
insulated to reduce the external surface tempera-
ture to the required level. The relevant provisions
concerning accident prevention and those of the
classification societies must be observed.
The insulation is also required to avoid tempera-
tures below the dew point on the interior side. In
case of insufficient insulation intensified corrosion
and soot deposits on the interior surface are the
consequence. During fast load changes, such de-
posits might flake off and be entrained by exhaust
in the form of soot flakes.
Insulation and covering of the compensator must
not restrict its free movement.
Explosion venting devices/rupture disc
The external exhaust gas system of a dual-fuel en-
gine installation is to be equipped with explosion
venting devices (rupture discs, or similar) to relief
the excess pressure in case of explosion. The
number and location of explosion venting devices
is to be approved by the classification societies.
Purging device/fan
The external exhaust gas system of dual-fuel en-
gine installations is to be equipped with a purging
device to ventilate the exhaust system after an en-
gine stop or emergency shut down. The design
and the capacity of the ventilation system is to be
approved by the classification societies.
Safety concept
For further information please refer to our brochure
"Safety concept of MAN Diesel & Turbo dual-fuel engine".
Engine supply systems
5.7.2 Components and assemblies
Page 5 - 128 35/44DF, 51/60DF F-BC
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6 Engine room planning
Page 6 - 2
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Engine room planning
6.1.1 General details
D-BC 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 6 - 3
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6.1 Installation and arrangement
6.1.1 General details
Apart from a functional arrangement of the com-
ponents, the shipyard is to provide for an engine
room layout ensuring good accessibility of the
components for servicing.
The cleaning of the cooler tube bundle, the emp-
tying of filter chambers and subsequent cleaning
of the strainer elements, and the emptying and
cleaning of tanks must be possible without any
problem whenever required.
All of the openings for cleaning on the entire unit,
including those of the exhaust silencers, must be
accessible.
There should be sufficient free space for tempo-
rary storage of pistons, camshafts, exhaust gas
turbochargers etc. dismounted from the engine.
Additional space is required for the maintenance
personnel. The panels in the engine sides for in-
spection of the bearings and removal of compo-
nents must be accessible without taking up floor
plates or disconnecting supply lines and piping.
Free space for installation of a torsional vibration
meter should be provided at the crankshaft end.
A very important point is that there should be
enough room for storing and handling vital spare
parts so that replacements can be made without
loss of time.
In planning marine installations with two or more
engines driving one propeller shaft through a multi-
engine transmission gear, provision must be made
for a minimum clearance between the engines be-
cause the crankcase panels of each must be ac-
cessible. Moreover, there must be free space on
both sides of each engine for removing pistons or
cylinder liners.
Note!
MAN Diesel & Turbo supplied scope is to be
arranged and fixed by proven technical experi-
ences as per state of the art. Therefore the
technical requirements have to be taken in
consideration as described in the following
documents subsequential:
Order related engineering documents
Installation documents of our sub-suppliers for
vendor specified equipment
Operating manuals for diesel engines and auxilia-
ries
Project Guides of MAN Diesel & Turbo
Any deviations from the principles specified in
the a. m. documents requires a previous ap-
proval by us.
Arrangements for fixation and/or supporting of
plant related equipment attached to the scope
supplied by us, not described in the a. m. doc-
uments and not agreed with us are not al-
lowed.
For damages due to such arrangements we
will not take over any responsibility nor give
any warranty.
Engine room planning
6.1.1 General details
Page 6 - 4 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BC
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Engine room planning
6.1.2 Installation drawings
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 5
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6.1.2 Installation drawings
Engine 6+7+8 L51/60DF
Figure 6-1 Installation drawing 6+7+8 L51/60DF - turbocharger on counter coupling side
Engine room planning
6.1.2 Installation drawings
Page 6 - 6 51/60DF E-AJ
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Engine 9 L51/60DF
Figure 6-2 Installation drawing 9 L51/60DF - turbocharger on counter coupling side
Engine room planning
6.1.2 Installation drawings
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 7
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Engine 12, 14, 16, 18 V51/60DF
Figure 6-3 Installation drawing 12-18 V51/60DF - turbocharger on counter coupling side
Engine room planning
6.1.2 Installation drawings
Page 6 - 8 51/60DF E-AJ
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Engine room planning
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room
K-BC 51/60DF Page 6 - 9
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6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer
A support programme to configure the engine room
MAN Diesel & Turbo offers a free-of-charge online
programme for the configuration and provision of
installation data required for installation examina-
tions and engine room planning: The 3D Engine
Viewer and the 3D GenSet Viewer.
Easy-to-handle selection and navigation masks
permit configuration of the required engine type,
as necessary for virtual installation in your engine
room.
In order to be able to use the 3D Engine, respec-
tively GenSet Viewer, please register on our web-
site under:
https://dieselport.mandiesel.com/_layouts/Request-
Forms/Open/CreateUser.aspx
After successful registration, the 3D Engine and
GenSet Viewer is available under
http://dieselport/ProjectTools/3DViewer/display.aspx
by clicking onto the requested application.
In only three steps, you will obtain professional en-
gine room data for your further planning:
Selection
Select the requested output, respectively the
requested type.
Configuration
Drop-down menus permit individual design of
your engine according to your requirements.
Each of your configurations will be presented
on the basis of isometric models.
View
The models of the 3D Engine Viewer and the
3D GenSet Viewer include all essential geomet-
ric and planning-relevant attributes (e. g. con-
nection points, interfering edges, exhaust gas
outlets, etc.) required for the integration of the
model into your project.
The configuration with the selected engines can
now be easily downloaded. For 2D representation
as .pdf or .dxf, for 3D as .dgn, .sat, .igs or 3D-dxf.
Engine room planning
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room
Page 6 - 10 51/60DF K-BC
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Figure 6-4 Selection of engine
Figure 6-5 Preselection for the configuration 1
Engine room planning
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room
K-BC 51/60DF Page 6 - 11
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Figure 6-6 Preselection for the configuration 2
Figure 6-7 Preselection for the configuration 3
Engine room planning
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room
Page 6 - 12 51/60DF K-BC
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Figure 6-8 Isometric view of the engine
Figure 6-9 Dismantling view
Engine room planning
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room
K-BC 51/60DF Page 6 - 13
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Figure 6-10 Dismantling areas
Engine room planning
6.1.3 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room
Page 6 - 14 51/60DF K-BC
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Engine room planning
6.1.4 Engine arrangements
I-BB 51/60DF Page 6 - 15
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6.1.4 Engine arrangements
Figure 6-11 Example: arrangement with engine 12 V51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.4 Engine arrangements
Page 6 - 16 51/60DF I-BB
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Figure 6-12 Charge air cooler removal upwards or sidewards; L51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.4 Engine arrangements
I-BB 51/60DF Page 6 - 17
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Figure 6-13 Charge air cooler removal upwards or sidewards; V51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.4 Engine arrangements
Page 6 - 18 51/60DF I-BB
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Engine room planning
6.1.5 Mechanical propulsion system arrangement
A-BA 51/60DF Page 6 - 19
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6.1.5 Mechanical propulsion system arrangement

Figure 6-14 Example: Propulsion system arrangement 8L51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.5 Mechanical propulsion system arrangement
Page 6 - 20 51/60DF A-BA
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Engine room planning
6.1.6 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner
K-BA 51/60DF Page 6 - 21
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6.1.6 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner
Figure 6-15 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner L51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.6 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner
Page 6 - 22 51/60DF K-BA
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Figure 6-16 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner V51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.7 Lifting appliance
D-BD 32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 6 - 23
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6.1.7 Lifting appliance
Lifting gear with varying lifting capacities are to be
provided for servicing and repair work on the en-
gine, turbocharger and charge-air cooler.
Engine
Lifting capacity
An overhead travelling crane is required which has
a lifting power equal to the heaviest component
that has to be lifted during servicing of the engine.
To choose the recommended crane capacity see
"Table 6-1: Lifting capacity"
Crane arrangement
The rails for the crane are to be arranged in such
a way that the crane can cover the whole of the
engine beginning at the exhaust pipe. The hook
position must reach along the engine axis, past
the centreline of the first and the last cylinder, so
that valves can be dismantled and installed with-
out pulling at an angle. Similarly, the crane must be
able to reach the tie rod at the ends of the engine.
In cramped conditions, eyelets must be welded
under the deck above, to accommodate a lifting
pulley.
The required crane capacity is to be determined
by the crane supplier.
Crane design
It is necessary that:
there is an arresting device for securing the
crane while hoisting if there is a seaway
there is a two-stage lifting speed
Precision hoisting approx. = 0.5 m/min
Normal hoisting approx. = 2 4 m/min
Places of storage
In planning the arrangement of the crane, a stor-
age space must be provided in the engine room
for the dismantled engine components which can
be reached by the crane. It should be capable of
holding two rocker arm casings, two cylinder cov-
ers and two pistons. If the cleaning and service
work is to be carried out here, additional space for
cleaning troughs and work surfaces should be
planned for.
Engine type 32/44CR 32/40 48/60B
48/60CR
51/60DF
Cylinder head with valves kg 568 566 1,124
Piston with connecting shaft/head 238 230 707
Cylinder liner 205 205 663
Recommended lifting capacity of travelling
crane
1,000 1,000 L = 2,000
V = 2,500
Table 6-1 Lifting capacity
Engine room planning
6.1.7 Lifting appliance
Page 6 - 24 32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BD
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Transport to the workshop
Grinding of valve cones and valve seats is carried
out in the workshop or in a neighbouring room.
Transport rails and appropriate lifting tackle are to
be provided for the further transport of the com-
plete cylinder cover from the storage space to the
workshop. For the necessary deck openings, see
turbocharger casing.
Turbocharger
Hoisting rail
A hoisting rail with a mobile trolley is to be provided
over the centre of the turbocharger running parallel
to its axis, into which a lifting tackle is suspended
with the relevant lifting power for lifting the parts,
which are mentioned in the tables (see "Paragraph:
Lifting capacity, page 6-23"), to carry out the opera-
tions according to the maintenance schedule.
Withdrawal space dimensions
The withdrawal space dimensions shown in our
dimensioned sketch (see "Section: Installation and ar-
rangement Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder
liner" ) and the tables (see "Paragraph: Hoisting rail,
page 6-24" ) are needed in order to be able to sep-
arate the silencer from the turbocharger. The si-
lencer must be shifted axially by this distance
before it can be moved laterally.
In addition to this measure, another 100 mm are
required for assembly clearance.
This is the minimum distance that the silencer
must be from a bulkhead or a tween-deck. We
recommend that a further 300 400 mm be
planned as for working space.
Turbocharger NR 29/S NR 34/S NA 34/S NA 40/S NA 48/S NA
57/T9
Silencer kg 85 300 300 480 750 1,015
Compressor casing 105 340 340 460 685 720
Rotor plus bearing casing 190 245 270 485 780 1,040
Space for removal of silencer mm 110 + 100 230 + 100 200 + 100 50 + 100 50 + 100 250 + 100
Table 6-2 Hoisting rail for NR/NA turbocharger
Turbocharger TCA 55 TCA 66 TCA 77 TCA 88
Silencer kg 430 800 1,770 2,010
Compressor casing 550 830 1,450 2,500
Space for removal of silencer mm 110 + 100 120 + 100 150 + 100 200 + 100
Table 6-3 Hoisting rail for TCA turbocharger
Turbocharger TCR 20 TCR 22
Silencer kg 76 156
Compressor casing 132 277
Rotor plus bearing casing 152 337
Space for removal of silencer mm 130 + 100 150 + 100
Table 6-4 Hoisting rail for TCR turbocharger
Engine room planning
6.1.7 Lifting appliance
D-BD 32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 6 - 25
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Make sure that the silencer can be removed either
downwards or upwards or laterally and set aside,
to make the turbocharger accessible for further
servicing. Pipes must not be laid in these free
spaces.
Fan shafts
The engine combustion air is to be supplied to-
wards the intake silencer in a duct ending at a
point 1.5 m away from the silencer inlet. If this duct
impedes the maintenance operations, for instance
the removal of the silencer, the end section of the
duct must be removable. Suitable suspension lugs
are to be provided on the deck and duct.
Gallery
If possible the ship deck should reach up to both
sides of the turbocharger (clearance 50 mm) to
obtain easy access for the maintenance person-
nel. Where deck levels are unfavourable, suspend-
ed galleries are to be provided.
Charge-air cooler
For cleaning of the charge air cooler bundle, it
must be possible to lift it vertically out of the cooler
casing and lay it in a cleaning bath.
Exception 32/40: The cooler bundle of this engine
is drawn out at the end. Similarly, transport onto
land must be possible.
For lifting and transportation of the bundle, a lifting
rail is to be provided which runs in transverse or
longitudinal direction to the engine (according to
the available storage place), over the centreline of
the charge air cooler, from which a trolley with
hoisting tackle can be suspended
Figure 6-17 Air direction
Engine type Weight Length (L) Width (B) Height (H)
kg mm mm mm
L32/40 650 430 1,705 830
L32/44CR 450 520 712 1,014
L48/60 950 730 1,052 1,874
L48/60B, L48/60CR 527 360 1,040 1,959
L51/60DF 1,000 730 1,052 1,904
Table 6-5 Weights and dimensions of charge air cooler bundle
Engine room planning
6.1.7 Lifting appliance
Page 6 - 26 32/40, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BD
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Engine room planning
6.1.8 Space requirement for maintenance
I-BB 51/60DF Page 6 - 27
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6.1.8 Space requirement for maintenance
Figure 6-18 Space requirement for maintenance 51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.1.8 Space requirement for maintenance
Page 6 - 28 51/60DF I-BB
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Engine room planning
6.1.9 Major spare parts
F-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 29
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6.1.9 Major spare parts
Fire band 108 kg; cylinder liner 515 kg Piston 297 kg; piston pin 102 kg
Connecting rod 637 kg Cylinder head 1,055 kg
Engine room planning
6.1.9 Major spare parts
Page 6 - 30 51/60DF F-AJ
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Engine room planning
6.1.9 Major spare parts
F-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 31
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Engine room planning
6.1.9 Major spare parts
Page 6 - 32 51/60DF F-AJ
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Engine room planning
6.2.1 Ducting arrangement
L-BC 35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 6 - 33
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6.2 Exhaust gas ducting
6.2.1 Ducting arrangement
Figure 6-19 Example: Exhaust gas ducting arrangement
Engine room planning
6.2.1 Ducting arrangement
Page 6 - 34 35/44DF, 51/60DF L-BC
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Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 35
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6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
Rigidly mounted engine Desing at low engine room height and standard design
Figure 6-20 Design at low engine room height and standard design
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
Page 6 - 36 51/60DF E-AJ
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Number of cylinders
6 L 7 L 8 L 9 L
Turbocharger
TCA 55 TCA 55 TCA 55 TCA 66
A mm 704 704 704 832
B 302 302 302 302
C 372 372 387 432
D 914 914 1,016 1,120
E 1,332 1,332 1,433 1,535
F 800 800 850 900
Table 6-6 Position of exhaust outlet casing L51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 37
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Resiliently mounted engine Design at low engine room height
Figure 6-21 Design at low engine room height
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
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Number of cylinders
6 L 7 L 8 L 9 L
Turbocharger
TCA 55 TCA 55 TCA 55 TCA 66
A mm 704 704 704 832
B 302 302 302 302
C 760 760 847 795
D 914 914 1,016 1,120
E 2,020 2,020 2,200 2,260
F 762 762 802 842
Table 6-7 Position of exhaust outlet casing L51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 39
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Rigidly & resiliently mounted engine

Figure 6-22 Standard Design V51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
Page 6 - 40 51/60DF E-AJ
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Number of cylinders 12 V 14 V 16 V 18 V
Turbocharger TCA 77 TCA 77 TCA 77 TCA 77
A mm 960 960 960 960
B 802 802 902 1,002
C* 432 432 432 432
C** 1,423 1,627 1,702 1,702
D 1,220 1,320 1,420 1,420
* = for rigidly mounted engines ** = for resiliently mounted engines
Table 6-8 Position of exhaust gas outlet casing V51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 41
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Rigidly mounted engine

Figure 6-23 Design at low engine room height - rigidly mounted engine
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
Page 6 - 42 51/60DF E-AJ
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Figure 6-24 Design at low engine room height - rigidly mounted engine - exhaust gas pipes
Number of cylinders 12 V 14 V 16 V 18 V
Turbocharger TCA 77 TCA 77 TCA 77 TCA 77
A mm 960 960 960 960
B 1,332 1,332 1,433 1,585
C 372 372 387 432
D 2x 914 2x 914 2x 1,016 2x 1,120
E 1,300 1,300 1,400 1,500
F 720 720 720 750
Table 6-9 Position of exhaust outlet casing V51/60DF
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
E-AJ 51/60DF Page 6 - 43
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Resiliently mounted engine
Figure 6-25 Design at low engine room height - resiliently mounted engine
Engine room planning
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger
Page 6 - 44 51/60DF E-AJ
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Figure 6-26 Design at low engine room height - resiliently mounted engine - exhaus gas pipes
Number of cylinders 12 V 14 V 16 V 18 V
Turbocharger TCA 77 TCA 77 TCA 77 TCA 77
A mm 960 960 960 960
B 2,060 2,060 2,240 2,320
C 760 760 847 795
D 2 x 914 2 x 914 2 x 1,016 2 x 1,120
E 1,300 1,300 1,400 1,500
F 802 802 852 902
Table 6-10 Position of exhaust outlet casing V51/60DF
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7 Propulsion packages
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Propulsion packages
7.1 General
E-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 51/60DF Page 7 - 3
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7.1 General
MAN Diesel & Turbo standard propulsion packages
The MAN Diesel & Turbo standard propulsion
packages are optimised at 90 % MCR, 100 %
rpm and 96.5 % of the ship speed. The propeller
is calculated with the class notation "No Ice" and
high skew propeller blade design. These propul-
sion packages are examples of different combina-
tions of engines, gearboxes, propellers and shaft
lines according to the design parameters above.
Due to different and individual aft ship body de-
signs and operational profiles your inquiry and or-
der will be carefully reviewed and all given
parameters will be considered in an individual cal-
culation. The result of this calculation can differ
from the standard propulsion packages by the as-
sumption of e.g. a higher Ice Class or different de-
sign parameters.
Figure 7-1 MAN Diesel & Turbo standard propulsion package with engine 7L32/40 (example)
Propulsion packages
7.1 General
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Propulsion packages
7.2 Propeller layout data
K-BA 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 7 - 5
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7.2 Propeller layout data
For propeller design please fill in the form "Propel-
ler layout data see "Section 9.8.2: Propeller layout data,
page 9-35" and return it to your sales representa-
tive.
Propulsion packages
7.2 Propeller layout data
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Propulsion packages
7.3 Propeller clearance
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7.3 Propeller clearance
To reduce the emitted pressure impulses and vi-
brations from the propeller to the hull, MAN
Diesel & Turbo recommend a minimum tip clear-
ance see "Foundation Recommended configuration of
foundation".
For ships with slender aft body and favourable in-
flow conditions the lower values can be used
whereas full after body and large variations in
wake field causes the upper values to be used.
In twin-screw ships the blade tip may protrude be-
low the base line.
Figure 7-2 Recommended tip clearance
Legend
Hub Dismantling of cap
X mm
High skew propeller
Y mm
Non-skew propeller
Y mm
Baseline clearance
Z mm
VBS 1180 365 15 20 % of D 20 25 % of D Minimum 50 100
VBS 1280 395
VBS 1380 420
VBS 1460 450
VBS 1560 480
VBS 1680 515
VBS 1800 555
VBS 1940 590
Propulsion packages
7.3 Propeller clearance
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8 Electric propulsion plants
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Electric propulsion plants
8.1 Advantages of electric propulsion
D-BD 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 8 - 3
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8.1 Advantages of electric propulsion
Due to different and individual types, purposes
and operational profiles of electric driven vessels
the design of a electric propulsion plant differs a lot
and has to be evaluated case by case. All the fol-
lowing is for information purpose only and without
obligation.
In general the advantages of electric propulsion
can be summarized as follows:
Lower fuel consumption and emissions due to
the possibility to optimise the loading of diesel
engines/GenSets. The GenSets in operation
can run on high loads with high efficiency. This
applies especially to vessels which have a large
variation in power demand, for example for an
supply vessel, which divides its time between
transit and station-keeping (DP) operation.
High reliability, due to multiple engine redun-
dancy. Even if an engine/GenSet malfunctions,
there will be sufficient power to operate the
vessel safely. Reduced vulnerability to single
point of failure providing the basis to fulfil high
redundancy requirements.
Reduced life cycle cost, resulting from lower
operational and maintenance costs.
Improved manoeuvrability and station-keeping
ability, by deploying special propulsors such as
azimuth thrusters or pods. Precise control of
the electrical propulsion motors controlled by
frequency converters.
Increased payload, as electric propulsion
plants take less space.
More flexibility in location of engine/GenSets
and propulsors. The propulsors are supplied
with electric power through cables. They do not
need to be adjacent to the diesel en-
gines/GenSets.
Low propulsion noise and reduced vibrations.
For example a slow speed E-motors allows to
avoid a gearbox and propulsors like pods keep
most of the structure bore noise outside of the
hull.
Efficient performance and high motor torques,
as the system can provide maximum torque
also at slow speeds, which gives advantages
for example in icy conditions.
Electric propulsion plants
8.1 Advantages of electric propulsion
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Electric propulsion plants
8.2 Efficiencies in diesel-electric plants
H-BC 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 8 - 5
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8.2 Efficiencies in diesel-electric plants
A diesel-electric propulsion plant consists of
standard electrical components. The following
losses are typical:
Figure 8-1 Typical losses of diesel-electric plants







100%
Engine
Power (P
B
)
90,3 -
92,3%
Shaft Power
(P
S
)

Alternator
3%
Main
Switchboard

0,2%
Supply
Transformer
*)


1%
*) not applicable if e.g.
converters with Active
Front End are used
Frequency
Converter

1,5%
E- Propulsion
Motor
*)


3% - 4%
*) Synchronous: 3%
nduction: 4%
A
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Heat losses
Electric propulsion plants
8.2 Efficiencies in diesel-electric plants
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Electric propulsion plants
8.3 Components of an electric propulsion plant
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8.3 Components of an electric propulsion plant
Figure 8-2 Example: Electric propulsion plant
Legend
1 GenSets: Diesel engines + alternators
2 Main switchboards
3 Supply transformers (optional): Dependent on the type of the converter. Not needed in case of the
use of frequency converters with 6 pulses, an Active Front End or a Sinusoidal Drive
4 Frequency converters/drives
5 Electric propulsion motors
6 Propellers/propulsors
Electric propulsion plants
8.3 Components of an electric propulsion plant
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Electric propulsion plants
8.4 Electric plant design
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8.4 Electric plant design
Generic workflow how to design a electric propulsion plant
:

Start
x Type of vessel
x Propulsion type: Shaft line driven, thruster, pod, etc
x Propeller type: FPP, CPP
x Operational profile
x Additional class notation: Propulsion redundancy, ice class, etc

x Ship design points
x Propulsion power: At sea, maneuvering, at port, etc
x Sea margin

x Electrical power of consumers: At sea, maneuvering, at port, etc
x Efficiency of DE plant: Consider losses of main E-components
x Total engine brake power: Power to be installed


x Number and type of engines. Split of cylinders
x Max. allowed loading of engines: % of MCR
x Maintenance strategy of engines: At sea operation, at port, etc

x Frequency choice: 50 / 60 Hz
x Voltage choice: Low voltage, medium voltage
x Number of switchboard sections
x Main alternator parameters: cos M, xd

x Selection of converter type: PWM, LCI, AFE, Sinusoidal, etc
x Selection of pulse number: 6p, 12p, 24p
x Investigate supply transformer less configuration (i.e. Active Front End)
x Selection of E-propulsion motor: Motor type, over-torque capability/FWP
x THD mitigation method

x Check short circuit currents: Increase voltage, optimize xd, etc
x Check availability of reactive power: Change number of alternators, cos M, etc
x Check THD limits: Increase pulse number, add filters, etc

End
Ship basic data
Speed power estimation
Electrical load analysis
Switchboard layout
Variable speed drive &
propulsion motor layout
Engine selection
Countercheck
DE plant
Electric propulsion plants
8.4 Electric plant design
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The requirements of a project will be considered in
an application specific design, taking into account
the technical and economical feasibility and later
operation of the vessel. In order to provide you
with appropriate data, please fill the form "electric
plant layout data" see "Section 9.8.1: Electric plant lay-
out data, page 9-29" or
http://www.mandieselturbo.com/0000855/
Products/Marine-Engines-and-Systems/
GenSet-and-Diesel-Electric-Drives/
Diesel-Electric-Plant.html and return it to your
sales representative.
Electric propulsion plants
8.5 Engine selection
H-BC 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 8 - 11
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8.5 Engine selection
The engines for a diesel-electric propulsion plant
have do be selected accordingly to the maximum
power demand at all the design points. For a con-
cept evaluation the rating, the capability and the
loading of engines is basically defined from the op-
eration mode with the highest expected electric
load and can be calculated like this:
Example: Offshore Construction Vessel (at design
point)
Propulsion power demand (at E-motor shaft)
7,200 kW (incl. sea margin)
Max. electrical consumer load . . . 1,800 kW
For the detailed selection of the type and number
of engines furthermore the operational profile of
the vessel, the maintenance strategy of the en-
gines and the boundary conditions given by the
general arrangement have to be considered. Also
should be considered that at least one engine
should be in stand-by. For the optimal cylinder
configuration of the engines between sea and port
operation often the load conditions in port are de-
cisive.
No. Item Unit
1.1 Shaft power on propulsion motors
Electrical transmission efficiency
P
S
[kW] 7,200
0.91
1.2 Engine brake power for propulsion P
B1
[kW] 7,912
2.1 Electric power for ship (E-Load)
Alternator efficiency
[kW] 1,800
0.96
2.2 Engine brake power for electric consumers P
B2
[kW] 1,875
2.3 Total engine brake power demand (= 1.2 + 2.2) P
B
[kW] 9,787
3.1 Diesel engine selection Type 8L27/38
3.2 Rated power (MCR) [kW] 2,800
3.3 Number of engines - 4
3.4 Total engine brake power installed P
B
[kW] 11,880
4.1 Loading of engines (= 2.3/3.4) % of MCR 87.4
5.1 Check: Max. allowed loading of engines 90.0
Table 8-1 Selection of the engines for a diesel-electric propulsion plant
Electric propulsion plants
8.5 Engine selection
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Electric propulsion plants
8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design
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8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design
The configuration and layout of an electrical pro-
pulsion plant, the main switchboard and the alter-
nators follows some basic design principles. For a
concept evaluation the following items should be
considered:
A main switchboard which is divided in sym-
metrical sections is reliable and redundancy re-
quirements are easy to be met.
An even number of GenSets/alternators en-
sures the symmetrical loading of the bus bar
sections.
Electrical consumers should be arranged sym-
metrically on the bus bar sections.
The switchboard design is mainly determined
by the level of the short circuit currents which
have to be withstand and by the breaking ca-
pacity of the circuit breakers (CB).
The voltage choice for the main switchboard
depends on several factors. On board of a ves-
sel it is usually handier to use low voltage. Due
to short circuit restrictions the following table
can be use for voltage choice as a rule of
thumb:
Total installed alternator power Voltage Breaking capacity of CB
< 10 12 MWe
(and: Single propulsion motor < 3.5 MW)
440 V 100 kA
< 13 15 MWe
(and: Single propulsion motor < 4.5 MW)
690 V 100 kA
< 48 MWe 6,600 V 30 kA
< 130 MWe 11,000 V 50 kA
Table 8-2 Rule of thumb for the voltage choice
Electric propulsion plants
8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design
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The design of the alternators and the electric
plant always has to be balanced between volt-
age choice, availability of reactive power, short
circuit level and allowed total harmonic distor-
tion (THD).
On the one hand side a small xd of an alterna-
tor increases the short circuit current I
sc
, which
also increases the forces the switchboard has
to withstand (F ~ I
sc
^ 2). This may lead to the
need of a higher voltage. On the other side a
small xd gives a lower THD but a higher weight
and a bigger size of the alternator. As a rule of
thumb a xd=16 % is a good figure for low volt-
age alternators and a xd=14 % is good for
medium voltage alternators.
For a rough estimation of the short circuit cur-
rents the following formulas can be used:
The dimensioning of the panels in the main
switchboard is usually done accordingly to the
rated current for each incoming and outgoing
panel. For a concept evaluation the following
formulas can be used:
Short circuit level [kA] (rough) Legend
Alternators n * P
r
/ (3 * U
r
* xd * cos
Grid
) n: No. of alternators connected
P
r
: Rated power of alternator [kWe]
U
r
: Rated voltage [V]
xd: Subtransient reactance [%]
cos : Power factor of the vessels network
(typically = 0.9)
Motors n * 6 * P
r
/ (3 * U
r
* xd * cos
Motor
) n: No. of motors (directly) connected
P
r
: Rated power of motor [kWe]
U
r
: Rated voltage [V]
xd: Subtransient reactance [%]
cos : Power factor of the motor
(typically = 0.85 0.90 for an induction motor)
Converters Frequency converters do not contribute to
the I
sc

-
Table 8-3 Formulas for a rough estimation of the short circuit currents
Electric propulsion plants
8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design
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The choice of the type of the E-motor depends
on the application. Usually induction motors are
used up to a power of 7 MW (
Motor
: typically =
0.96). If it comes to applications above 7 MW
per E-motor often synchronous machines are
used. Also in applications with slow speed E-
motors (without a reduction gearbox), for ice
going or pod-driven vessels mainly synchro-
nous E-motors (
Motor
: typically = 0.97) are
used.
In plants with frequency converters based on
VSI-technology (PWM type) the converter itself
can deliver reactive power to the
E-motor. So often a power factor cos = 0.9 is
a good figure to design the alternator rating.
Nevertheless there has to be sufficient reactive
power for the ship consumers, so that a lack in
reactive power does not lead to unnecessary
starts of (standby) alternators.
The harmonics can be improved (if necessary)
by using supply transformers for the frequency
converters with a 30 phase shift between the
two secondary windings, which cancel the
dominant 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic currents. Also
an increase in the pulse number leads to lower
THD. Using a 12-pulse configuration with a
PWM type of converter the resulting harmonic
distortion will normally be below the limits de-
fined by the classification societies. When using
a transformer less solution with a converter
with an Active Front End (Sinusoidal input rec-
tifier) or in a 6-pulse configuration usually THD-
filters are necessary to mitigate the THD on the
sub-distributions.
The final layout of the electrical plant and the com-
ponents has always to be based on a detailed
analysis and a calculation of the short circuit levels,
the load flows and the THD levels as well as on an
economical evaluation.
Type of switchboard panel Rated current [kA] Legend
Alternator incoming P
r
/ (3 * U
r
* cos
Grid
) P
r
: Rated power of alternator [kWe]
U
r
: Rated voltage [V]
cos : Power factor of the network
(typically = 0.9)
Transformer outgoing S
r
/ (3 * U
r
) S
r
: Apparent power of transformer [kVA]
U
r
: Rated voltage [V]
Motor outgoing (Induction
motor controlled by a PWM-
converter)
P
r
/ (3 * U
r
* cos
Converter
*
Motor
*
Converter
) P
r
: Rated power of motor [kWe]
U
r
: Rated voltage [V]
cos : Power factor converter
(typically = 0.95)

Motor
: typically = 0.96

Converterr
: typically = 0.97
Motor outgoing (Induction
motor started: DoL, Y/A,
Soft-Starter)
P
r
/ (3 * U
r
* cos
Motor
*
Motor
) P
r
: Rated power of motor [kWe]
U
r
: Rated voltage [V]
cos : Power factor motor
(typically = 0.85...0.90)

Motor
: typically = 0.96
Table 8-4 Formulas to calculate the rated currents of switchboard panel
Electric propulsion plants
8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design
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Electric propulsion plants
8.7 Over-torque capability
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8.7 Over-torque capability
In diesel-electric propulsion plants, which are run-
ning with a fix pitch propeller, the dimensioning of
the electric propulsion motor has to be done accu-
rately, in order to have sufficient propulsion power
available. For dimensioning the electric motor it
has to be investigated, what amount of over-
torque, which directly defines the motors cost
(amount of copper), weight and space demand, is
required to operate the propeller with sufficient
power also in situations, where additional power is
needed (for example because of heavy weather or
icy conditions).
Usually a constant power range of 5 10 % is ap-
plied on the propulsion (Field weakening range),
where constant E-motor power is available.
Figure 8-3 Example: Over-torque capability of a E-propulsion train for a FPP-driven vessel
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
rpm
rpm
E- Motor torque
Power
Propeller power
E-Motor power
NominaI conditions
Request for additionaI power / torque
Field weakening range
Over-torque capability
Electric propulsion plants
8.7 Over-torque capability
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Electric propulsion plants
8.8 Protection of the electric plant
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8.8 Protection of the electric plant
In an electric propulsion plant protection devices
and relays are used to protect human life from in-
jury from faults in the electric system and to
avoid/reduce damage of the electric equipment.
The protection system and its parameters always
depend on the plant configuration and the opera-
tional requirements. During the detailed engineer-
ing phase calculations like a short circuit and an
earth fault calculation and a selectivity and protec-
tion device coordination study have to be made, in
order to get the correct parameter settings and to
decide, which event/fault should alarm only or trip
the circuit breaker.
A typical protection scheme may include the fol-
lowing functions (Example):
Main switchboard:
- Over and under-voltage
- Earth fault
Alternator:
- Short circuit
- Over-current
- Stator earth fault
- Reverse power
- Phase unbalance, Negative phase se-
quence
- Differential protection
- Over- and under-frequency
- Over- and under-voltage
- Alternator windings and bearings over-tem-
perature
- Alternator cooling air/water temperature
- Synchronizing check
- Over- and under-excitation (Loss of excita-
tion)
Bus tie feeder:
- Short circuit
- Earth fault
- Synchronizing check
- Differential protection (in ring networks)
Transformer feeder:
- Short circuit
- Over-current
- Earth fault
- Thermal overload/image
- Under-voltage
- Differential protection (for large transform-
ers)
Motor feeder:
- Short circuit
- Over-current
- Earth fault
- Under-voltage
- Thermal overload/image
- Motor start: Stalling I2t, number of starts
- Motor windings and bearings over-tempera-
ture
- Motor cooling air/water temperature
Electric propulsion plants
8.8 Protection of the electric plant
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Electric propulsion plants
8.9 Drive control
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8.9 Drive control
The drive control system is a computer controlled
system for the frequency converters/variable
speed drives, providing network stability in case of
sudden/dynamical load changes. It ensures safe
operation of the converters with constant and sta-
ble power supply to the E-propulsion motors and
avoids the loss of power under all operational con-
ditions. Usually the propulsion is speed controlled.
So the system keeps the reference speed con-
stant as far as possible within the speed and
torque limitations and dynamic capability.
The drive control system normally interfaces with
the propulsion control system, the power man-
agement system, the dynamic position system
and several other ship control and automation
systems. The functionality of the drive control sys-
tem depends on the plant configuration and the
operational requirements.
The main tasks of the drive control system can be
summarized as follows:
Control of the converters/drives, including the
speed reference calculation
Control of drive/propeller speed according to
the alternator capability, including anti-overload
prevention
Control of power and torque. It takes care of
the limits
Control of the converter cooling
For some applications (e.g. for ice going vessels,
for rough sea conditions, etc, where load torque
varies much and fast) often a power control mode
is applied, which reduces the disturbances on the
network and smoothens the load application on
the diesel engines.
Electric propulsion plants
8.9 Drive control
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Electric propulsion plants
8.10 Power management
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8.10 Power management
Power reservation
The main function of a power management sys-
tem is to start and stop GenSets/alternators ac-
cording to the current network load and the online
alternator capacity. The power management sys-
tem takes care that the next alternator will be start-
ed, if the available power (= Installed power of all
connected alternators current load) becomes
lower than a preset limit. This triggers a timer and
if the available power stays bellow the limit for a
certain time period the next GenSet/alternator in
sequence is started. It also blocks heavy consum-
ers to be started or sheds (unnecessary) consum-
ers, if there is not enough power available, in order
to avoid unstable situations.
Class rules require from GenSets/alternators 45
seconds for starting, synchronizing and beginning
of sharing load. So it is always a challenge for the
power management system to anticipate the situ-
ation in advance and to start GenSets/alternators
before consumers draw the network and overload
the engines. Overloading an engine will soon de-
crease the speed/frequency with the danger of
motoring the engine, as the flow of power will be
altered from network to alternator (Reverse pow-
er). The electric protection system must discon-
nect such alternator from the network. An
overload situation is always a critical situation for
the vessel and a blackout has to be avoided.
The detailed power management functionality al-
ways depends on the plant configuration, the
operational requirements but also on general phi-
losophy and preferred solution of the owner. The
parameters when to stat or to stop a GenSet/
alternator have always to be evaluated individually.
The following figure shows that in principle:
Figure 8-4 GenSets/alternators start/stop
Load
start (n+1)
Number
Alternators connected
2
Load
start (n=3)
3
4
Load
start (n=4)
Load
stop (n=4)
Load
stop (n=3)
Electric propulsion plants
8.10 Power management
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For example the load depending start/stop of
GenSets/alternators is shown in the next table. It
can be seen that the available power depends on
the status of the GenSets/alternators when they
get their starting command. As an example a plant
with 4 GenSets/alternators is shown:
The available power for this example could look
like this:
Figure 8-5 PMS Power reserve
No. of alternators
connected
Alternator
load
Available power (Power reserve) via load
pick-up by the running GenSets
Time to accept
load
2 85 % 2 x 15 % = 30 % 0...10 sec
3 87 % 3 x 13 % = 39 % 0...10 sec
4 90 % 4 x 10 % = 40 % 0...10 sec
Table 8-5 Load depending start/stop of GenSets/alternators
No. of alternators
connected
Alternator
load
Available power (Power reserve) by starting
a standby
1)
GenSet
1)
Preheated, prelubricated, etc. see "Section: Engine and operation Starting conditions".
Time to accept
load
2 70 % 2 x 30 % = 60 % < 1 min
3 75 % 3 x 25 % = 75 % < 1 min
4 80 % 4 x 20 % = 80 % < 1 min
Table 8-6 Load depending start/stop of GenSets/alternators
Available power
(Power reserve)
Time
0 sec
10 sec
> 1 min
0% 30% 40% 60% 80%
Electric propulsion plants
8.10 Power management
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Power management system
Derived from the above mentioned main tasks of a
power management system the following func-
tions are typical:
Automatic load dependent start/stop of
GenSets/alternators
Manual starting/stopping of GenSets/alterna-
tors
Fault dependent start/stop of standby
GenSets/alternators in cases of under-frequen-
cy and/or under-voltage.
Start of GenSets/alternators in case of a black-
out (black-start capability)
Determining and selection of the starting/stop-
ping sequence of GenSets/alternators
Start and supervise the automatic synchroniza-
tion of alternators and bus tie breakers
Balanced and unbalanced load application and
sharing between GenSets/alternators. Often an
emergency program for quickest possible load
acceptance is necessary.
Regulation of the network frequency (with static
droop or constant frequency)
Distribution of active load between alternators
Distribution of reactive load between alterna-
tors
Handling and blocking of heavy consumers
Automatic load shedding
Tripping of non-essential consumers
Bus tie and breaker monitoring and control
All questions regarding the functionality of the
power management system have to be clarified
with MAN Diesel & Turbo at an early project stage.
Electric propulsion plants
8.10 Power management
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Electric propulsion plants
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
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8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
Offshore Support Vessels
The term Offshore Service & Supply Vessel in-
cludes a large class of vessel types, such as Plat-
form Supply Vessels (PSV), Anchor
Handling/Tug/Supply (AHTS), Offshore Construc-
tion Vessel (OCV), Diving Support Vessel (DSV),
Multipurpose Vessel, etc.
Electric propulsion is the norm in ships which fre-
quently require dynamic positioning and station
keeping capability. Initially these vessels mainly
used variable speed motor drives and fixed pitch
propellers. Now they mostly deploy variable speed
thrusters and they are increasingly being equipped
with hybrid diesel-mechanical and diesel-electric
propulsion.
Figure 8-6 Example: Electric propulsion configuration of a PSV
In modern applications often frequency converters
with a 6-pulse configuration or with an Active Front
End are used, which give specific benefits in the
space consumption of the electric plant, as it is
possible to get rid of the heavy and bulky supply
transformers.
Type of converter/drive Supply transformer Type of E-motor Pros & cons
6- pulse Drive or
Active Front End
- Induction + Transformer less solution
+ Less space and weight
THD filter required
Table 8-7 Main DE-components for Offshore applications
Electric propulsion plants
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
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LNG Carriers
A propulsion configuration with two high speed
E-motors (e.g. 600 RPM or 720 RPM) and a re-
duction gearbox (Twin-in-single-out) is a typical
configuration, which is used at LNG carriers where
the installed alternator power is in the range of
about 40 MW. The electrical plant fulfils high re-
dundancy requirements. Due to the high propul-
sion power which is required and higher
efficiencies usually synchronous E-motors are
used.
Figure 8-7 Example: Electric propulsion configuration (redundant) of a LNG carrier with geared transmission, single screw
and FP propeller
For ice going carriers and tankers also podded
propulsion is a robust solution, which has been
applied in several vessels.
Type of converter/drive Supply transformer Type of E-motor Pros & cons
VSI with PWM 24 pulse Synchronous + High propulsion power
+ High drive & motor efficiency
+ Low harmonics
Heavy E-plant configuration
Table 8-8 Main DE-components for a LNG carrier
Electric propulsion plants
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
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Cruise and ferries
Passenger vessels cruise ships and ferries are
an important application field for diesel-electric
propulsion. Safety and comfort are paramount.
New regulations, as Safe Return to Port, require
a high reliable and redundant electric propulsion
plant and also onboard comfort is a high priority,
allowing only low levels of noise and vibration from
the ships machinery.
A typical electric propulsion plant is shown in the
example below.
Figure 8-8 Example: Electric propulsion configuration (redundant) of a cruise liner, twin screw, gear less
For cruise liners often also geared transmission is
applied as well as pods.
Type of converter/drive Supply transformer Type of E-motor Pros & cons
VSI with PWM 24 pulse Synchronous
(e.g. slow speed 150 RPM)
+ Highly redundant & reliable
+ High drive & motor efficiency
+ Low noise & vibration
Complex E-plant configuration
Table 8-9 Main DE-components for a Cruise liner
Electric propulsion plants
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
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For a RoPax ferry almost the same requirements
are valid as for a cruise liner.
The figure below shows an electric propulsion
plant with a classical configuration, consisting of
high speed E-motors (e.g. 1,200 RPM), geared
transmission, frequency converters and supply
transformers.
Figure 8-9 Example: Electric propulsion configuration (redundant) of a RoPax ferry, twin screw, geared transmission
Type of converter/drive Supply transformer Type of E-motor Pros & cons
VSI-type
(with PWM technology)
12 pulse,
two secondary windings,
30 phase shift
Induction + Robust & reliable technology
+ No THD filters
More space & weight (compared
to transformer less solution)
Table 8-10 Main DE-components for a RoPax ferry
Electric propulsion plants
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
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Low loss applications
As MAN Diesel & Turbo works together with differ-
ent suppliers for diesel-electric propulsion plants
an optimal matched solution can be designed for
each application, using the most applicable com-
ponents from the market. The following example
shows a smart solution, patented by STADT AS
(Norway).
In many cases a combination of an E-propulsion
motor, running on two constants speeds (Medium,
high) and a pitch controllable propeller (CPP) gives
a high reliable and compact solution with very low
electrical plant losses.
Figure 8-10 Example: Electric-propulsion configuration (redundant) of a RoRo, twin screw, geared transmission
Type of converter/drive Supply transformer Type of E-motor Pros & cons
Sinusoidal drive
(Patented by STADT AS)
- Induction
(Two speeds)
+ Highly reliable & compact
+ Very low losses
+ Low losses
+ Transformer less solution
+ Low THD (No THD filters
needed)
Only applicable with a CP
propeller
Table 8-11 Main DE-components of a low loss application (Patented by STADT AS)
Electric propulsion plants
8.11 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants
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Annex
9.1.1 General
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9.1 Safety instructions and necessary safety measures
The following list of basic safety instructions, in
connection with further engine documentation like
user manual and working instructions, should en-
sure a safe handling of the engine. Due to varia-
tions between specific plants, this list does not
claim to be exhaustive and may vary with regard to
the real existing requirements.
9.1.1 General
There are risks at the interfaces of the engine,
which have to be eliminated or minimized in the
context of integration the engine into the plant sys-
tem. Responsible for this is the legal person which
is responsible for the integration of the engine.
Following prerequisites need to be fulfilled:
Layout, calculation, design and execution of
the plant according to the latest state of the art.
All relevant classification rules, rules, regula-
tions and laws are considered, evaluated and
are included in the system planning.
The project-specific requirements of MAN
Diesel & Turbo regarding the engine and its
connection to the plant will be implemented.
In principle, always apply the more stringent re-
quirements of a specific document if its rele-
vance is given for the plant.
Annex
9.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side
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9.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side
Following safety equipment respectively safety measures must be provided by plant-side
Securing of the engines turning gear
The turning gear has to be equipped with an
optical and acoustic warning device. When the
turning gear is first activated, there has to be a
certain delay between the emission of the
warning device's signals and the start of the
turning gear. The turning gears gear wheel has
to be covered. The turning gear should be
equipped with a remote control, allowing opti-
mal positioning of the operator, overlooking the
entire hazard area (a cable of approx. 20 m
length is recommended).
It has to be prescribed in the form of a working
instruction that:
- the turning gear has to be operated by at
least two persons.
- the work area must be secured against un-
authorized entry.
- only trained personnel is allowed to operate
the turning gear.
Securing of the starting air pipe
To secure against unintentional restarting of the
engine during maintenance work, a disconnec-
tion and depressurization of the engines start-
ing air system must be possible. A lockable
starting air stop valve must be provided in the
starting air pipe to the engine.
Securing of the turbocharger rotor
To secure against unintentional turning of the
turbocharger rotor while maintenance work, it
must be possible to prevent draught in the ex-
haust gas duct and, if necessary, to secure the
rotor against rotation.
Safeguarding of the surrounding area of the fly-
wheel
The entire area of the flywheel has to be safe-
guarded by plant-side.
Special care must be taken, inter alia, to pre-
vent from: ejection of parts, contact with mov-
ing machine parts and falling into the flywheel
area.
Consideration of the blow-off zone of the
crankcase covers relief valves
During crankcase explosions, the resulting hot
gases will be blown out of the crankcase
through the relief valves. This must be consid-
ered in the overall planning.
Setting up storage areas
Throughout the plant, suitable storage areas
have to be determined for stabling of compo-
nents and tools. Thereby it is important to en-
sure stability, carrying capacity and
accessibility. The quality structure of the ground
has to be considered (slip resistance, resist-
ance against residual liquids of the stored com-
ponents, consideration of the transport and
traffic routes).
Proper execution of the work
Generally, it is necessary to ensure that all work
is properly done according to the task trained
and qualified personnel. Special attention must
be paid to the execution of the electrical equip-
ment. By selection of suitable specialized com-
panies and personnel, it has to be ensured that
a faulty feeding of media, electric voltage and
electric currents will be avoided.
Connection of exhaust port of the turbocharger
at the engine to the exhaust gas system of the
plant
The connection between the exhaust port tur-
bocharger and exhaust gas system of the plant
has to be executed gas tight and must be
equipped with a fire proof insulation. The sur-
face temperature of the fire insulation must not
exceed 220 C.
In workspaces and traffic areas, a suitable con-
tact protection has to be provided whose sur-
face temperature must not exceed 60 C.
Annex
9.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side
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The connection has to be equipped with com-
pensators for longitudinal expansion and axis
displacement in consideration of the occurring
vibrations. (The flange of the turbocharger
reaches temperatures of up to 450 C).
Generally any ignition sources, smoking and
open fire in the maintenance and protection
area of the engine is prohibited.
Smoke detection systems and fire alarm sys-
tems have to be provided.
Signs
a) Following figure exemplarily shows the de-
clared risks in the area of a combustion engine.
This may vary slightly for the specific engine:
Figure 9-1 Warning sign E11.48991-1108
This warning sign has to be mounted clearly
visibly at the engine as well as at all entrances
to the engine room or to the power house.
b) Prohibited area signs
Dependending on the application, it is possible
that specific operating ranges of the engine
must be prohibited.
In these cases the signs will be delivered to-
gether with the engine, which have to be
mounted clearly visibly on places at the engine
which allow intervention to the engine opera-
tion.
Optical and acoustic warning device
Due to noise-impared voice communication in
the engine room/power house, it is necessary
to check where at the plant additionally to
acoustic warning signals optical warning sig-
nals (e.g. flash lamp) should be provided.
In any case, optical and acoustic warning de-
vices are necessary while using the turning
gear and while starting/stopping the engine.
Engine room ventilation
An effective ventilation system has to be pro-
vided in the engine room to avoid endangering
by contact or by inhalation of fluids, gases, va-
pours and dusts which could have harmful,
toxic, corrosive and/or acid effects.
Venting of crankcase and turbocharger
The gases/vapours originating from crankcase
and turbocharger are ignitable. It must be en-
sured that the gases/vapours will not be ignited
by external sources. For multi-engine plants,
each engine has to be ventilated separately.
The engine ventilation of different engines must
not be connected.
In case of an installed suction system, it has to
be ensured that it will not be stopped until at
least 20 minutes after engine shutdown.
Drainable supplies and excipients
Supply system and excipient system must be
drainable and must be secured against unin-
tentional recommissioning (EN 1037).
Sufficient ventilation at the filling, emptying and
ventilation points must be ensured.
The residual quantities which must be emptied
have to be collected and disposed of properly.
Spray guard has to be ensured for liquids pos-
sibly leaking from the flanges of the plants pip-
ing system. The emerging media must be
drained off and collected safely.
Annex
9.1.2 Safety equipment/measures provided by plant-side
Page 9 - 6 D-BB
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Composition of the ground
The ground, workspace, transport/traffic
routes and storage areas have to be designed
according to the physical and chemical charac-
teristics of the excipients and supplies used in
the plant.
Safe work for maintenance and operational
staff must always be possible.
Adequate lighting
Light sources for an adequate and sufficient
lighting must be provided by plant-side. The
current guidelines should be followed (100 Lux
is recommended, see also DIN EN 1679-1).
Working platforms/scaffolds
For work on the engine, working platforms/
scaffolds must be provided and further safety
precautions must be taken into consideration.
Among other things, it must be possible to
work secured by safety belts. Corresponding
lifting points/devices have to be provided.
Fail-safe 24 V power supply
Because engine control, alarm system and
safety system are connected to a 24 V power
supply, this part of the plant has to be designed
fail-safe to ensure a regular engine operation.
Intake air filtering
In case of air intake is realized through piping
and not by means of the turbochargers intake
silencer, appropriate measures for air filtering
must be provided. It must be ensured that par-
ticles exceeding 5 m will be restrained by an
air filtration system.
Quality of the intake air
It has to be ensured that combustible media will
not be sucked in by the engine.
Intake air quality according to the relevant sec-
tion of the project guide has to be guaranteed.
Emergency stop system
The emergency stop system requires special
care during planning, realization, commission-
ing and testing at site to avoid dangerous oper-
ating conditions. The assessment of the effects
on other system components caused by an
emergency stop of the engine must be carried
out by plant-side.
Annex
9.1.3 Provided by plant-side especially for gas-fueled engines
J-BC Page 9 - 7
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9.1.3 Provided by plant-side especially for gas-fueled engines
Following safety equipment respectively safety measures must be provided by plant-side especially for
gas-fueled engines
Gas detectors in the power house
In the power house gas detectors for detection
of gas leakages have to be installed. In case of
a gas alarm triggered at a gas concentration
widely below the lower explosion limit the en-
gine has to be stopped and the power supply
to the engines has to be switched off. The gas
supply to the power house must be immediate-
ly interrupted. Additionally it is necessary to
switch off the power supply to all plant equip-
ment, except the emergency equipment like
power house ventilation, gas alarm system,
emergency lighting and devices etc. The emer-
gency equipment has to be certified for appli-
cation in explosion hazardous areas. It is
necessary to connect the emergency equip-
ment to an independent power supply in order
to keep it in operation in case of a gas alarm.
To increase the availability of engine operation it
could be possible to switch the engine into the
diesel mode at a very low gas concentration
level. Dependent on the plant design it might be
necessary to apply the same procedure for ad-
jacent engines. In this case it is obligatory to
shut off the gas supply to the power house and
to vent the gas piping in the power house pres-
sureless.
The leakage source shall be located and re-
paired by qualified staff using mobile gas de-
tectors and special tools certified for using in
explosion endangered areas.
Earthing
Gas piping must be earthed in an appropriate
manner.
Explosion protection equipment at large vol-
ume exhaust system parts, e.g. exhaust silenc-
er, exhaust gas boiler
Due to the possibility that unburned gas pene-
trates the plant-side exhaust system parts,
these must be equipped with explosion relief
valves with integrated flame-arresters. The rup-
ture discs must be monitored for example via
wire break sensor. In case of bursting the en-
gine has to be switched off.
Deflagration protection of HT-cooling water
system, crankcase ventilation, Gas Valve Unit
Only in case of malfunctions in the engines
combustion chamber area gas could be carry
off to the high temperature cooling water circuit
and would accumulate in the expansion tank.
Therefore it is recommended to provide the
high temperature cooling water system with
deflagration protection. The same applies to
the nozzle cooling system if it is equipped with
a tank where gas can be collected and vented.
The crankcase ventilation has to be equipped
with a deflagration protection at its end (except
closed systems).
The venting lines of the Gas Valve Unit shall end
outside the building in a secured area which
shall be classified as an explosion hazardous
area. It shall be clarified with the manufacturer
of the Gas Valve Unit if the gas venting lines
must be equipped with a deflagration protec-
tion.
The lube oil can carry off gas into the lube oil
system
Accordingly, measures must be taken to pre-
vent accumulation of gas in the lube oil tank
and lube oil pipes.
Blower for venting the exhaust gas duct
Before further engine start of a gas engine or a
Dual-fuel engine which has been stopped in
gas mode the exhaust gas duct must be vent-
ed. Therefore a suitable blower has to be pro-
vided, which blows in fresh air into the exhaust
gas duct after turbo charger and compensator.
The blower has to be classified for application
in explosion hazardous areas (For more details
see also project related documentation).
The crankcase vent line must lead to the out-
Annex
9.1.3 Provided by plant-side especially for gas-fueled engines
Page 9 - 8 J-BC
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side and must keep always sufficient distance
to hot surfaces. The equipemt installed in the
crankcase venting line has to be classified for
application in explosion hazardous areas.
(For more details see also project related docu-
mentation)
Absolutely safe and reliable gas shutoff device
(gas blocking valve with automatic leak testing
system and leakage line leading to the outside).
Scavenging line with flame arrestors leading to
the outside, so for maintenance the gas system
can be kept free of gas, during commissioning
the system can be vented and in case of emer-
gency stop or switching to diesel-mode (dual-
fuel engine) existing gas can be blown out.
Power house ventilation
An effective ventilation system has to be pro-
vided. The minimum air exchange rate shall be
defined according to state of the art as required
by European and/or local regulations. It might
be necessary to design the power house venti-
lation system explosion proof and to connect
the power house ventilation to an independent
power supply in order to keep it in operation in
case of a gas alarm. To avoid the returning of
exhaust air out of the ventilation outlets to the
power house, the ventilation outlets shall not be
located near to the inlet/outlet openings of suc-
tion lines, exhaust gas ducts, gas venting lines
or crankcase vent lines.
Engine operation in a room without an effective
ventilation or during the ventilation system is
not available is strictly forbidden.
Intake air
The air intakes must be connected to ducts
leading out of the power house, if possible
leading to the open air.
The intakes of combustion air and the outlets of
exhaust gas, crankcase and gas vent must be
arranged in a way that a suction of exhaust gas,
gas leakage as well as any other explosion en-
dangered atmospheres will be avoided. The in-
take lines of different engines must not be
connected together. Each engine must have its
own intake ducts, completely separated from
other engines.
Lubrication oil system engine
The lube oil can carry off gas into the lube oil
system. Required measures must be taken ac-
cording to Machinery Directive 2006/42/EG.
HT cooling water system
Only in case of malfunctions in the engines
combustion chamber area gas could be carry
off to the HT cooling water system and forms
an explosion endangered atmosphere in the
plant system.
Nozzle cooling water system
Only in case of malfunctions in injection nozzles
gas could be carry off to the nozzle cooling wa-
ter system and built an explosion endangered
atmosphere in the plant system.
Annex
9.2 Programme for Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)
G-BC 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 9
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9.2 Programme for Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)
The following table shows the operating points to be considered during acceptance test run.
Operating points ABS
1)
1)
ABS = American Bureau of Shipping.
BV
2)
2)
BV = Bureau Veritas.
DNV
3)
3)
DNV = Det Norske Veritas.
GL
4)
4)
GL = Germanischer Lloyd.
LR
5)
5)
LR = Lloyds Register of Shipping.
RIN
a
6)
JG
7)

(NK)
8)
IACS
9)
MAN Diesel &
Turbo pro-
gramme with
acceptance by
classification
society
A
l
l

e
n
g
i
n
e
s
Starting attempts
Governor test
Operational test of
the attached
safety devices
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
M
a
r
i
n
e

m
a
i
n

e
n
g
i
n
e
s
Maximum contin-
uous rating
(MCR)
Speed: According to propeller curve or constant
100 %
10)
110 %
90 %
85 %
75 %
50 %
25 %
Low speed and/or
idling
60
30
M
-
M
M
M
M
60
30
M
-
M
M
M
M
30
30
M
11)
M
12)
M
11)
M
-
-
60
30
M
-
M
M
M
M
60
30
M
-
M
M
M
M
60
30
M
-
M
M
M
M
20 (60)
20 (30)
-
-
20 (30)
20 (30)
20 (30)
-
60
3045
M
-
M
M
M
M
60
30
30
11)
30
12)
30
30
30
30
M
a
r
i
n
e

a
u
x
.

e
n
g
i
n
e
s
Maximum contin-
uous rating
(MCR)
Constant speed
100 %
10)
110 %
75 %
50 %
25 %
idling = 0 %
60
30
M
M
M
M
60
30
M
M
M
M
30
30
M
M
-
-
60
30
M
M
M
M
60
30
M
M
M
M
60
30
M
M
M
M
20(60)
20(30)
20(30)
20(30)
20(-)
-
60
30
M
M
M
M
60
30
30
30
30
30
Table 9-1 Test conditions of four-stroke marine engines
M = Measurement at a steady state
Annex
9.2 Programme for Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)
Page 9 - 10 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF G-BC
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The selection of the measuring points and the
measuring method are fixed in accordance with
ISO Standard 3046-1 for engines with output ac-
cording ICN power definition and the specifications
of the classification societies.
The execution of the test run according to this
guideline will be confirmed in writing by the cus-
tomer or his representative, by the authorised rep-
resentative of the classification society and by the
person in charge of the tests.
After the test run, the components will be inspect-
ed, as far as this is possible without disassembly.
Only in exceptional cases (e. g. if required by the
customer/the classification society), will compo-
nents be dismantled.
The works test will be accomplished with MGO or
MDO. Heavy fuel oil is not available at the serial
test beds.
6)
RINa = Registro Italiano Navale.
7)
JG =Japanese government.
8)
NK =Nippon Kaiji Kyoka.
9)
ACS =International Association of
Classification Societies.
10)
Two service recordings at an interval of 30 min.
11)
Could be replaced by MCR load point 85 %.
12)
Replacement for
11)
.
Annex
9.3 Engine running-in
B-BD Page 9 - 11
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9.3 Engine running-in
Prerequisites
Engines require a run-in period:
When put into operation on-site, if after test run
the pistons or bearings were dismantled for in-
spection or if the engine was partially or fully
dismantled for transport.
After fitting new drive train components, such
as cylinder liners, pistons, piston rings, crank-
shaft bearings, big-end bearings and piston pin
bearings.
After the fitting of used bearing shells.
After long-term low load operation (> 500 oper-
ating hours).
Supplementary information
Operating Instructions
During the run-in procedure the unevenness of the
piston-ring surfaces and cylinder contact surfaces
is removed. The run-in period is completed once
the first piston ring perfectly seals the combustion
chamber. I.e. the first piston ring should show an
evenly worn contact surface. If the engine is sub-
jected to higher loads, prior to having been run-in,
then the hot exhaust gases will pass between the
piston rings and the contact surfaces of the cylin-
der. The oil film will be destroyed in such locations.
The result is material damage (e.g. burn marks) on
the contact surface of the piston rings and the cyl-
inder liner. Later, this may result in increased en-
gine wear and high oil consumption.
The time until the run-in procedure is completed is
determined by the properties and quality of the
surfaces of the cylinder liner, the quality of the fuel
and lube oil, as well as by the load of the engine
and speed. The run-in periods indicated in follow-
ing figures may therefore only be regarded as ap-
proximate values.
Operating media
The run-in period may be carried out preferably
using diesel fuel or gas oil. The fuel used must
meet the quality standards see "Section 4: Specifica-
tion for engine supplies, page 4-1" and the design of
the fuel system.
For the run-in of gas four-stroke engines it is best
to use the gas which is to be used later in opera-
tion.
Diesel-gas engines are run in using diesel opera-
tion with the fuel intended as the ignition oil.
Lube oil
The run-in lube oil must match the quality stand-
ards, with regard to the fuel quality.
Engine run-in
Cylinder lubrication (optional)
The cylinder lubrication must be switched to "Run-
ning In" mode during completion of the run-in pro-
cedure. This is done at the control cabinet or at the
control panel (under "Manual Operation"). This en-
sures that the cylinder lubrication is already acti-
vated over the whole load range when the engine
starts. The run-in process of the piston rings and
pistons benefits from the increased supply of oil.
Cylinder lubrication must be returned to "Normal
Mode" once the run-in period has been complet-
ed.
Checks
Inspections of the bearing temperature and crank-
case must be conducted during the run-in period:
The first inspection must take place after 10
minutes of operation at minimum speed.
An inspection must take place after operation
at full load respectively after operational output
level has been reached.
Annex
9.3 Engine running-in
Page 9 - 12 B-BD
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The bearing temperatures (camshaft bearings,
big-end and main bearings) must be determined in
comparison with adjoining bearing. For this pur-
pose an electrical sensor thermometer may be
used as a measuring device.
At 85 % load and on reaching operational output
level, the operating data (ignition pressures, ex-
haust gas temperatures, charge pressure, etc.)
must be tested and compared with the accept-
ance report.
Standard running-in programme
Dependent on the application the run-in pro-
gramme can be derived from the figures in "Para-
graph: Diagrams of standard running-in, page 9-13".
During the entire run-in period, the engine output
has to be within the marked output range. Critical
speed ranges are thus avoided.
Running-in during commissioning on site
Barring exceptions, four-stroke engines are al-
ways subjected to a test run in the manufacturers
premises. As such, the engine has usually been
run in. Nonetheless, after installation in the final lo-
cation, another run-in period is required if the pis-
tons or bearings were disassembled for inspection
after the test run, or if the engine was partially or
fully disassembled for transport.
Running-in after fitting new drive train components
If during revision work the cylinder liners, pistons,
or piston rings are replaced, then a new run-in pe-
riod is required. A run-in period is also required if
the piston rings are replaced in only one piston.
The run-in period must be conducted according to
following figures or according to the associated
explanations.
The cylinder liner may be re-honed according to
Work Card 050.05, if it is not replaced. A trans-
portable honing machine may be requested from
one of our service and support locations.
Running-in after refitting used or new bearing liners
(crankshaft, connecting rod and piston pin bearings)
When used bearing shells are reused, or when
new bearing shells are installed, these bearings
have to be run in. The run-in period should be 3 to
5 hours under progressive loads, applied in stag-
es. The instructions in the preceding text seg-
ments, particularly the ones regarding the
"Inspections", and following figures must be ob-
served.
Idling at higher speeds for long periods of opera-
tion should be avoided if at all possible.
Running-in after low load operation
Continuous operation in the low load range may
result in substantial internal pollution of the engine.
Residue from fuel and lube oil combustion may
cause deposits on the top-land ring of the piston
exposed to combustion, in the piston ring chan-
nels as well as in the inlet channels. Moreover, it is
possible that the charge air and exhaust pipe, the
charge air cooler, the turbocharger and the ex-
haust gas tank may be polluted with oil.
Since the piston rings have adapted themselves to
the cylinder liner according to the running load, in-
creased wear resulting from quick acceleration
and possibly with other engine trouble (leaking pis-
ton rings, piston wear) should be expected.
Therefore, after a longer period of low load opera-
tion (> 500 hours of operation) a run-in period
should be performed again, depending on the
power, according to following figures.
Also for instruction see "Section 2.5: Low load opera-
tion, page 2-39".
Note!
For further information, you may contact the
MAN Diesel & Turbo customer service or the
customer service of the licensee.
Annex
9.3 Engine running-in
B-BD Page 9 - 13
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Diagrams of standard running-in
Figure 9-2 Standard running-in programme for engines operated with constant speed of the types: 32/40, 32/40DF,
32/40G, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 35/44G
Figure 9-3 Standard running-in programme for engines operated with constant speed of the types: 48/60B, 48/60TS,
48/60CR, 51/60DF, 51/60G
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5
Running in period [h]
Speed [%] Output [%]
Engine output
(specified range)
Engine speed
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8
Running in period [h]
Speed [%] Output [%]
Engine speed
Engine output
(specified range)
Annex
9.3 Engine running-in
Page 9 - 14 B-BD
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Figure 9-4 Standard running-in programme for marine engines (variable speed) of the types: 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40,
32/44CR
Figure 9-5 Standard running-in programme for marine engines (variable speed) of the types: 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5
Speed [%]
Running in period [h]
Output [%]
A
B
Engine speed range
A Controllable-pitch propeller
B Fixed-pitch propeller
Engine output
(specified range)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8
Speed [%]
Running in period [h]
Output [%]
A
B
Engine speed range
A Controllable-pitch propeller
B Fixed-pitch propeller
Engine output
(specified range)
Annex
9.4 Definitions
D-BD 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 15
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9.4 Definitions
Auxiliary GenSet/auxiliary generator operation
A generator is driven by the engine, hereby the en-
gine is operated at constant speed. The generator
supplies the electrical power not for the main
drive, but for supply systems of the vessel.
The mean output range of the engine is between
40 to 80 %.
Loads beyond 100 % up to 110 % of the rated
output are permissible only for a short time to pro-
vide additional power for governing purpose only.
Blackout Dead ship condition
The classification societies define blackout on
board ships as a loss of electrical power, but still
all necessary alternative energies (e.g. start air,
battery electricity) for starting the engines are avail-
able.
Contrary to blackout dead ship condition is a loss
of electrical power on board a ship. The main and
all other auxiliary GenSets are not in operation,
also all necessary alternative energies for starting
the engines are not available. But still it is assumed
that the necessary energy for starting the engines
(e.g. emergency alternator) could be restored at
any time.
Designation
Designation of engine sides
- Coupling side, CS (KS)
The coupling side is the main engine output
side and is the side to which the propeller,
the alternator or other working machine is
coupled.
- Free engine end/counter coupling side,
CCS (KGS)
The free engine end is the front face of the
engine opposite the coupling side.
Designation of cylinders
The cylinders are numbered in sequence, from
the coupling side, 1, 2, 3 etc. In V-engines,
looking from the coupling side, the left hand
row of cylinders is designated A, and the right
hand row is designated B. Accordingly, the cyl-
inders are referred to as A1-A2-A3 or B1-B2-
B3, etc.
Figure 9-6 Designation of cylinders
Annex
9.4 Definitions
Page 9 - 16 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BD
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Direction of rotation
Figure 9-7 Designation: Direction of rotation
Electric propulsion
A generator is driven by the engine, there the en-
gine is operated at constant speed. The generator
supplies electrical power to drive an electric motor.
The power of the electric motor is used to drive a
controllable pitch or fixed pitch propeller.
Thereby the mean output range of the engine is
between 80 to 95 % and the fuel consumption is
optimised at 85 % load.
GenSet
The term "GenSet" is used, if engine and electrical
alternator are mounted together on a common
base frame and form a single piece of equipment.
Gross calorific value (GCV)
This value suppose that the water of combustion
is entirely condensed and that the heat contained
in the water vapor is recovered.
Mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propel-
ler (CPP)
A propeller with adjustable blades is driven by the
engine.
The CPPs pitch can be adjusted to absorb all the
power that the engine is capable of producing at
nearly any rotational speed.
Thereby the mean output range of the engine is
between 80 to 95 % and the fuel consumption is
optimised at 85 % load.
Mechanical propulsion with fixed pitch propeller (FPP)
A fixed pitch propeller is driven by the engine. The
FPP is always working very close to the theoretical
propeller curve (power input ~ n
3
). A higher torque
in comparison to the CPP even at low rotational
speed is present.
To protect the engine against overloading its rated
output is reduced up to 90 %. The turbo charging
system is adapted. Engine speed reduction of up
to 10 % at maximum torque is allowed.
The mean output range of the engine is between
80 to 95 % of its available output and the fuel con-
sumption is optimised at 85 % load.
Multi engine propulsion plant
In a multi engine propulsion plant at least two or
more engines are available for propulsion.
Net calorific value (NCV)
This value suppose that the products of combus-
tion contains the water vapor and that the heat in
the water vapor is not recovered.
Offshore application
Offshore construction and offshore drilling places
high requirements regarding the engines acceler-
ation and load application behaviour. Higher re-
quirements exist also regarding the permissible
engines inclination.
The mean output range of the engine is between
15 to 60 %. Acceleration from engine start up to
100 % load must be possible within a specified
time.
Annex
9.4 Definitions
D-BD 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 17
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Output
ISO-standard-output (as specified in DIN ISO
3046-1)
Maximum continuous rating of the engine at
nominal speed under ISO-conditions, provided
that maintenance is carried out as specified.
Operating-standard-output (as specified in DIN
ISO 3046-1)
Maximum continuous rating of the engine at
nominal speed taking in account the kind of ap-
plication and the local ambient conditions, pro-
vided that maintenance is carried out as
specified. For marine applications this is stated
on the type plate of the engine.
Fuel stop power (as specified in DIN ISO 3046-
1)
Fuel stop power defines the maximum rating of
the engine theoretical possible, if the maximum
possible fuel amount is used (blocking limit).
Rated power (in accordance to rules of Germa-
nischer Lloyd)
Maximum possible continuous power at rated
speed and at defined ambient conditions, pro-
vided that maintenances carried out as speci-
fied.
Overload power (in accordance to rules of Ger-
manischer Lloyd)
110 % of rated power, that can be demonstrat-
ed for marine engines for an uninterrupted pe-
riod of one hour.
Output explanation
Power of the engine at distinct speed and dis-
tinct torque.
100 % Output
100 % Output is equal to the rated power only
at rated speed. 100 % Output of the engine
can be reached at lower speed also if the
torque is increased.
Nominal Output
= rated power
MCR
Maximum continuous rating
ECR
Economic continuous rating = output of the en-
gine with the lowest fuel consumption
Single engine propulsion plant
In a single engine propulsion plant only one single
engine is available for propulsion.
Suction dredger application (mechanical drive of
pumps)
For direct drive of the suction dredger pump by the
engine via gear box the engine speed is directly in-
fluenced by the load on the suction pump.
To protect the engine against overloading its rated
output is reduced up to 90 %. The turbo charging
system is adapted. Engine speed reduction of up
to 20 % at maximum torque is released.
Possibly the permissible engine operating curve
has to be adapted to the pump characteristics by
means of a power output adaption respectively
the power demand of the pump has to be opti-
mised particularly while start-up operation.
The mean output range of the engine is between
80 to 100 % of its available output and the fuel
consumption is optimised at 85 % load.
Water-jet application
A marine system that creates a jet of water that
propels the vessel. Also the water-jet is always
working close to the theoretical propeller curve
(power input ~ n
3
).
To protect the engine against overloading its rated
output is reduced up to 90 %. The turbo charging
system is adapted. Engine speed reduction of up
to 10 % at maximum torque is allowed.
The mean output range of the engine is between
80 to 95 % of its available output and the fuel con-
sumption is optimised at 85 % load.
Annex
9.4 Definitions
Page 9 - 18 28/33D, 28/33D STC, 32/40, 32/44K, 32/44CR, 35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BD
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Annex
9.5 Symbols
K-AJ Page 9 - 19
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9.5 Symbols
Note!
The symbols shown should only be seen as ex-
amples and can differ from the symbols in the
diagrams.
Figure 9-8 Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 1
Annex
9.5 Symbols
Page 9 - 20 K-AJ
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Figure 9-9 Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 2
Annex
9.5 Symbols
K-AJ Page 9 - 21
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Figure 9-10 Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 3
Annex
9.5 Symbols
Page 9 - 22 K-AJ
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Figure 9-11 Symbols used in functional and pipeline diagrams 4
Annex
9.6.1 General information
E-BA Page 9 - 23
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9.6 Preservation, packaging, storage
9.6.1 General information
Introduction
Engines are internally and externally treated with
preservation agent before delivery.
The type of preservation and packaging must be
adjusted to the means of transport and to the type
and period of storage.
Improper storage may cause severe damage to
the product.
Packaging and preservation of engine
The type of packaging depends on the require-
ments imposed by means of transport and stor-
age period, climatic and environmental effects
during transport and storage conditions as well as
on the preservative agent used.
As standard, engines are preserved for a storage
period of 12 months and for sea transport.
Note!
The packaging must be protected against
damage. It must only be removed when a fol-
low-up preservation is required or when the
packaged material is to be used.
Preservation and packaging of assemblies and engine
parts
Unless stated otherwise in the order text, the pres-
ervation and packaging of assemblies and engine
parts must be performed in such a way that the
parts will not be damaged during transport and
that the corrosion protection remains fully intact for
a period of at least 12 months when stored in a
roofed dry room.
Transport
Transport and packaging of the engine, assem-
blies and engine parts must be coordinated.
After transportation, any damage to the corrosion
protection and packaging must be rectified,
and/or MAN Diesel & Turbo must be notified im-
mediately.
Annex
9.6.2 Storage location and duration
Page 9 - 24 E-BA
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9.6.2 Storage location and duration
Storage location
Storage location of engine
As standard, the engine is packaged and pre-
served for outdoor storage.
The storage location must meet the following re-
quirements:
Engine is stored on firm and dry ground.
Packaging material does not absorb any mois-
ture from the ground.
Engine is accessible for visual checks.
Storage location of assemblies and engine parts
Assemblies and engine parts must always be
stored in a roofed dry room.
The storage location must meet the following re-
quirements:
Parts are protected against environmental ef-
fects and the elements.
The room must be well ventilated.
Parts are stored on firm and dry ground.
Packaging material does not absorb any mois-
ture from the ground.
Parts are accessible.
Parts cannot be damaged.
Parts are accessible for visual inspection.
An allocation of assemblies and engine parts to
the order or requisition must be possible at all
times.
Note!
Packaging made of or including VCI paper or
VCI film must not be opened or must be closed
immediately after opening.
Storage conditions
In general the following requirements must be met:
Minimum ambient temperature. . . . . .10 C
Maximum ambient temperature . . . . +60 C
Relative humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . < 60 %
Storage period
The permissible storage period of 12 months must
not be exceeded.
Before the maximum storage period is
reached:
Check the condition of the stored engine, as-
semblies and parts.
Renew the preservation or install the engine or
components at their intended location.
Annex
9.6.3 Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded
E-BA Page 9 - 25
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9.6.3 Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded
A follow-up preservation must be performed be-
fore the maximum storage period has elapsed, i.e.
generally after 12 months.
Request assistance by authorised personnel of
MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Annex
9.6.4 Removal of corrosion protection
Page 9 - 26 E-BA
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9.6.4 Removal of corrosion protection
Packaging and corrosion protection must only be
removed from the engine immediately before com-
missioning the engine in its installation location.
Remove outer protective layers, any foreign body
from engine or component (VCI packs, blanking
covers, etc.), check engine and components for
damage and corrosion, perform corrective meas-
ures, if required.
The preservation agents sprayed inside the engine
do not require any special attention. They will be
washed off by engine oil during subsequent en-
gine operation.
Contact MAN Diesel & Turbo if you have any ques-
tions.
Annex
9.7 Engine colour
l-BC Page 9 - 27
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9.7 Engine colour
Engine standard colour according RAL colour table is RAL 9006.
Other colours on request.
RAL 9006
Annex
9.7 Engine colour
Page 9 - 28 I-BC
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Annex
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
J-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 29
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9.8 Form
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
In order to provide you with appropriate project material and to carry out proposals promptly and accu-
rately, we would kindly request you to fill in as many of the following details as possible and return it with
a complete set of arrangement drawings to your sales representative.
General data
Name: ________________________________________________________________________________
Address:_______________________________________________________________________________
Phone: ________________________________________________________________________________
E-mail: ________________________________________________________________________________
Project:________________________________________________________________________________
Type of vessel:__________________________________________________________________________
Propulsion principle:
Diesel-electric set CODLAD CODLAG _________________________
Main particulars: ____________________________________________________________
Length, overall [m]: ____________________________________________________________
Length, pp [m]: ____________________________________________________________
Breadth, moulded [m]: ____________________________________________________________
Depth, moulded [m]: ____________________________________________________________
Draught, design [m]: ____________________________________________________________
Draught, scantling [m]: ____________________________________________________________
DWT, at sct draught [t]: ____________________________________________________________
Gross tonnage [GRT]: ____________________________________________________________
Crew + Passengers: ________________+ ___________________________________________
Classification society: _________________Class notation: _____________________________
Additional class notations: Redundancy: ____________________________
Ice Class: ____________________________
Ambient conditions:
Max. machinery room temperature [C]:__________________________________________________
Max. sea water temperature [C]: _____________________________________________________
Max. freshwater temperature [C]: _____________________________________________________
Annex
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
Page 9 - 30 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF J-BB
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Speed and margins
Speed:
Ship design speed [kn]: _________________(at maximum shaft power)
Sea margin [%]: ____________________________________________________________
Max. allowed load of engines [%]: ______________% MCR
System and power demand
Main:
Shaft: Single screw: Single in Single out
Tandem
Twin in Single out
Twin screw: Two shaft lines
2 x Twin in Single out
Steerable rudder propellers (=Azimuth thrusters)
Pods
_________________________________________________________________________________
Data for main:
FPP: Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor (per propeller; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Propeller revolution [RPM]: __________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Reduction gearbox: yes no
CPP Number. _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor (per propeller; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Propeller revolution [RPM]: __________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Reduction gearbox: yes no
Annex
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
J-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 31
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Azi. thruster: Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor(per thruster; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Propeller type: FPP ___ CPP
Pod: Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor(per pod; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
E-motor speed [RPM]: ______________________________________________
_______________ Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor(each; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Propeller revolution [RPM]: __________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Reduction gearbox: yes no
Data for manoeuvring propulsors:
Bow thruster: Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor(each; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Propeller type: FPP ___ CPP
Stern thruster: Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor(each; including sea margin)
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Propeller type: FPP ___ CPP
_______________ Number: _______________
Max. shaft power on E-motor(each; including sea margin
[kW]: __________________________________________________________
Input speed (= E-motor RPM): _______________________________________
Propeller revolution [RPM]: __________________________________________
Propeller type: FPP ___ CPP
Annex
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
Page 9 - 32 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF J-BB
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Electrical load balance
Max. total electrical power demand at sea:
for main propulsion [kW
el
]: _____________________________________________________________
for consumers of vessel [kW
el
]: _________________________________________________________
Max. total electrical power demand at manoeuvring:
for main propulsion [kW
el
]: _____________________________________________________________
for manoeuvring propulsors [kW
el
]: ______________________________________________________
for consumers of the vessel [kW
el
]: ______________________________________________________
Max. total electrical power demand at port:
for consumers of the vessel [kW
el
]: ______________________________________________________
The five biggest electrical consumers of the vessel
(apart from main and manoeuvring propulsors):
Name: __________________________________________ kW
el
:_______________________________
Name: __________________________________________ kW
el
:_______________________________
Name: __________________________________________ kW
el
:_______________________________
Name: __________________________________________ kW
el
:_______________________________
Name: __________________________________________ kW
el
:_______________________________
Please provide us with a complete E-Load-Balance of the vessel.
Annex
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
J-BB 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 33
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Electrical system and motors
Number of alternators: __________________________________________________________________
Capacity per alternator [kW
el
]: ____________________________________________________________
Power factor: __________________________________________________________________________
Revolution of alternators [RPM]: __________________________________________________________
Frequency [Hz]: ________________________________________________________________________
Voltage level of alternator and MSB [V]: ____________________________________________________
Voltage levels of sub-switchboards [V]: _____________________________________________________
System grounding of MSB: 3-phase, 3-wire, isolated from hull
3-phase, 3-wire, isolated via high-resistive resistor
__________________________________________________________
Main E-motors:
Number of winding systems: 1 2
Speed control: variable speed via frequency converter
_______________________________________
Manoeuvring E-motors (i. e. bow thrusters): variable speed via frequency converter
constant speed (start via Y/A-unit)
constant speed (start via Softstarter)
constant speed (start via autotransformer)
_______________________________________
Annex
9.8.1 Electric plant layout data
Page 9 - 34 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF J-BB
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Dimensioning of E-propulsion motor
For the design of the torque capability of the propulsion E-motor usually a constant power range of
5 % 10 % is applied (for a FPP-driven vessel). In case of additional load, like bollard pull or icy condi-
tions, this range has to be extended.
Figure 9-12 Power range
Torque capability Constant power from ________% to 100 % of propeller RPM
Max. over-torque capability of the E-motor: ______________%
Single line diagram
Please provide us with a complete single line diagram of the vessel.
Annex
9.8.2 Propeller layout data
D-BA 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF Page 9 - 35
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9.8.2 Propeller layout data
In order to provide you with appropriate project material and to carry out proposals promptly and accu-
rately, we would kindly request you to fill in as many of the following details as possible and return it to
your sales representative.
Identification:________________________________________________________________________
Type of vessel:________________________________________________________________________
Figure 9-13 Propeller data sheet
1. S:________________mm W:_______________mm l:_______________mm (as shown above)
D:_________________mm
2. Stern tube and shafting arrangement layout
3. Propeller aperture drawing
4. Complete set of reports from model tank (resistance test, self- test and wake measurement). In case
model test is not available the next page should be filled in.
5. Drawing of lines plan
6. Classification society:_______________
Ice Class notation:_______________
7. Maximum rated power of shaft alternator:_______________
8. Optimisation condition for the propeller:
To obtain the highest propeller efficiency please identify the most common service condition for the
vessel.
Ship speed:_______________knEngine service load :________________%
Service/sea margin:_______________%Shaft gen service load:________________kW
Draft:_______________m
9. Comments:_________________________________________________________________________
10.Vessel main dimensions (Please fill-in if model test is not available).
Annex
9.8.2 Propeller layout data
Page 9 - 36 32/40, 32/44CR, L35/44DF, 48/60B, 48/60CR, 51/60DF D-BA
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11.Comments: _____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Date: ____________________ Signature: ___________________________
Symbol Unit Ballast Loaded
Length between perpendiculars L
pp
m
Length of load water line L
wL
m
Breadth B m
Draft at forward perpendicular T
F
m
Draft at aft perpendicular T
A
m
Displacement s m
3
Block coefficient (L
pp
) C
B
-
Midship coefficient C
M
-
Waterplane area coefficient C
WL
-
Wetted surface with appendages S m
2
Centre of buoyancy forward pf L
pp
/2 LCB m
Propeller centre height above baseline H m
Bulb section area at forward perpendicular A
B
m
2
Table 9-2 Vessel main dimensions
51/60DF Index - I
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Index
A
Aging (Increase of S.F.C.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-95, 2-96
Air
Consumption (Jet Assist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-119
Flow rates, temperature . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-118, 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Starting air consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91
Starting air vessels, compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-117
Air vessels
Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-118
Condensate amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Airborne noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-157
Alignment
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-209
Alternator
Reverse power protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-73
Ambient conditions causes derating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Ambient temperature compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Angle of inclination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Approved applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Arctic conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53
Arrangement
Attached pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-179
Engine arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-177
Attached pumps
Arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-179
Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98, 2-100, 2-115, 2-117
Auxiliary generator operation
Definiton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Auxiliary GenSet operation
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Auxiliary power generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Available outputs
Permissible frequency deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69
Related reference conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
B
Balancing of masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-171
Bearing, permissible loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-167
Blackout
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Black-Start capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
C
Capacities
Air vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-118
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98, 2-100, 2-115, 2-117
Charge air
Blow off amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-92
Control of charge air temperature (CHATCO). . . . . 2-17
Preheating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Temperature control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Charge air cooler
Condensate amount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97, 2-99, 2-114, 2-116
Heat to be dissipated . . . . . . 2-97, 2-99, 2-114, 2-116
Clearance
Propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Colour of the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
Combustion air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-121
Flow rate . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118, 2-119,
2-120, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-121
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-53
Common rail injection system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-89
Components of an electric propulsion plant . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Composition of exhaust gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-155
Compressed air system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-111
Condensate amount
Air vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Charge air cooler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Consumption
Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85
Jet Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-119
Lube oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91
Starting air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91
Controllable pitch propeller
Operating range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Cooler
Flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97, 2-99, 2-114, 2-116
Heat to be dissipated . . . .2-106, 2-108, 2-122, 2-124,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-126, 2-128, 2-134, 2-136
Specification, nominal values. 2-97, 2-99, 2-114, 2-116
Temperatures . . . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Index - II 51/60DF
M
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5
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d
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I
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9
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.
f
m
Cooling water
Inspecting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49
Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41
Specification for cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-51
System diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-45
Crankcase vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-43
Cross section, engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Cylinder
Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Cylinder liner, removal of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
D
Damper
Moments of inertia - Engine, flywheel . . . . . . . . . 2-169
Dead ship condition
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Required starting conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40
Definition of engine rating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Derating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
As a function of methan number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
As a function of N2 content in the fuel gas . . . . . . 2-28
As a function of water temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Due to ambient conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Due to special conditions or demands . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Gas mode relevant derating factors . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Liquid fuel mode relevant derating factors. . . . . . . 2-25
Design parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Diesel fuel see Fuel
E
Earthing
Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-75
Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76
ECR
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Electric operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67
Electric propulsion
Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Drive control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Engine selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Example of configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-27
Form for plant layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29
Over-torque capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
Plant components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Plant design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Power management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-23
Protection of the electric plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
Switchboard and alternator design . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Emissions
Exhaust gas - IMO standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153
Static torque fluctuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-173
Torsional vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-164
Engine
3D Engine viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-209
Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
Cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Definition of engine rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Equipment for various applicatons. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Inclinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Main dimensions, electric prolulsion. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Main dimensions, mechanical prolulsion . . . . . . . . 2-13
Moments of inertia - Damper, flywheel. . . . . . . . . 2-169
Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-157
Operation under arctic conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53
Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Ratings for different applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Room layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Room ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-121
Running-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Single engine propulsion plant (Definition) . . . . . . . 9-17
Speeds, Related main data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35
Weights, electric prolulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Weights, mechanical prolulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Engine automation
Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Installation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Supply and distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
System overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Technical data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Exhaust gas
Back pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-155
Ducting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-33
Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153
Flow rates . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118, 2-119,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-120, 2-121
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Smoke emission index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-154
System description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-125
51/60DF Index - III
M
_
5
1
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6
0
d
f
-
I
I
-
2
0
1
1
0
9
2
3
S
I
X
.
f
m
Temperature. . . . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Exhaust gas noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-161
Explanatory notes for operating supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
F
Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Failure of one engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-71
Filling volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-141
Firing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-171
Fixed pitch propeller
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Flexible pipe connections
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Air. . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118, 2-119, 2-120,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-121
Exhaust gas . . . . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Lube oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97, 2-114
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97, 2-114
Flow resistances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-141
Flywheel
Arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-177
Moments of inertia - Engine, damper . . . . . . . . . 2-169
Follow-up preservation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
Foundation
Chocking with synthetic resin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-191
Conical mountings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-204
General requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-181
Inclined sandwich elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-199
Resilient seating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-197
Rigid seating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-183
Frequency deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69
Fuel
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85, 2-92, 2-93
Dependent on ambient conditions . . . . . . . . 2-92, 2-93
Diagram of HFO treatment system . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-85
Diagram of MDO treatment system. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
HFO system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-87
HFO treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-83
MDO supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-77
MDO treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
Recalculation of consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-93
Sharing mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-61
Specification (HFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Specification (MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Specification of gas oil (MGO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Stop power, definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Viscosity-diagram (VT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
G
Gas
Pressure before gas valve unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-151
Supply diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-108
Supply of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-105
Types of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Gas mode relevant derating factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Gas oil
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Generator operation
Operating range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65
GenSet
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Grid parallel operation
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Gross calorific value (GCV)
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
H
Heat radiation. . . . 2-97, 2-99, 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105,
. . . . . . . . . . 2-114, 2-116, 2-118, 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Heat to be dissipated . . 2-106, 2-108, 2-122, 2-124, 2-126,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-128, 2-134, 2-136
Heavy fuel oil see Fuel
HFO operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-99
HFO see Fuel
HT switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
I
Ignition oil for DF engines
Quality requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
IMO certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-66, 2-78
IMO Tier II
Exhaust gas emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153
Inclinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Installation
Flexible pipe connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Installation drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Index - IV 51/60DF
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_
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9
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Intake air pressure
Before turbocharger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
Intake noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-159
ISO
Reference conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Standard output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21, 9-17
J
Jet Assist
Air consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-119
L
Layout of pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Lifting appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
Liquid fuel mode relevant derating factors . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
LNG carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Load
Load reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Low load operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
Load application
Change of load steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-80
Cold engine (only emergency case). . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52
General remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
In liquid fuel mode in emergency case . . . . . . . . . 2-51
Preheated engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
Ship electrical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67
Start up time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-46
Load reduction
As a protective safety measure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59
Recommended. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Stopping the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Sudden load shedding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Low load operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
LT switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
Lube oil
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91
Specification (DF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
System description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
System diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Lube oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-41
M
Main dimensions, electric prolulsion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Marine diesel oil see Fuel
Marine gas oil see Fuel
MARPOL Regulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85, 2-153
MCR
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
MDO
Diagram of treatment system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-75
see Fuel
Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Mechanical propulsion with FPP
Definiton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Methane number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
MGO see Fuel
MGO/MDO see Lube oil
Moments of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-169
Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-199
Multi engine propulsion plant
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
N
Natural boil off gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Natural gas
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
NCV
Dependent on N2 content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Net calorific value (NCV)
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Noise
Airborne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-157
Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-157
Exhaust gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-161
Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-159
Nominal Output
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
NOx
IMO Tier II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153
Nozzle cooling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-67
O
Offshore application
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Operating
Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-138
Standard-output (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-138
51/60DF Index - V
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Operating range
CPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Generator operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65
Operation
Load application for ship electrical systems . . . . . 2-67
Load reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Low load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
Running-in of engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Vessels (failure of one engine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-71
Output
As a function of methane no. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Available outputs, related reference conditions . . . 2-23
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Engine ratings, power, speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
ISO Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Permissible frequency deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69
Overload power
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
P
Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
Permissible frequency deviations
Available outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69
Pipe dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Piping
Propeller layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5, 9-35
Piston, removal of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Pitch control
General requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79
Planning data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-97, 2-114
Flow rates of cooler . . . . . . . 2-97, 2-99, 2-114, 2-116
Heat to be dissipated . . . . 2-106, 2-108, 2-122, 2-124,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-126, 2-128, 2-134, 2-136
Temperature. . . . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger . . . . . 6-35
Postlubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Power
Engine ratings, outputs, speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Power drive connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-167, 2-169
Preheated engine
Load application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45
Preheating
At starting condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
Lube oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35
Prelubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
Preservation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
Propeller
Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Layout data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5, 9-35
Operating range CPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77
Operation, suction dredger (pump drive) . . . . . . . . 2-77
Pitch control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79
Pumps
Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-98, 2-100, 2-115, 2-117
Q
Quality requirements
Ignition oil for DF engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
R
Rated power
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Ratings (output) for different applications, engine . . . . . 2-23
Reference conditions (ISO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Removal
Cylinder liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Removal of corrosion protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
Reverse power protection
Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-73
Room layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Running-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
S
SaCoS one
Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Injection Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
System overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Safety
Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Safety concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Slow turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17, 2-40
Smoke emission index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-154
Spare parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-29
Specification
Cleaning agents for cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-51
Combustion air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-53
Cooling water inspecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-49
Cooling water system cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-51
Diesel oil (MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Engine cooling water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41
Index - VI 51/60DF
M
_
5
1
-
6
0
d
f
-
I
I
-
2
0
1
1
0
9
2
3
S
I
X
.
f
m
Fuel (HFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Fuel (MDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
Fuel (MGO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Gas oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Heavy fuel oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Lube oil (DF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Natural gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Viscosity-diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
Speed
Adjusting range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Droop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37
Engine ratings, power, outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Main data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35
Standard engine ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Stand-by operation capability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
Starting air
Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-117
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91
Jet Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-119
System description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-111
System diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-114
Vessels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-117
Starting conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39
Static torque fluctuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-173
Stopping the engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
Storage location and duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24
Suction dredger application
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Supply gas pressure at GVU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-151
Supply system
Blackout conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-98
HFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-87
Switching
HT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
LT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43
T
Table of ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Temperature
Air. . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118, 2-119, 2-120,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-121
Cooling water . . . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Exhaust gas . . . . . 2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119, 2-120, 2-121
Lube oil . . .2-101, 2-102, 2-104, 2-105, 2-118, 2-119,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-120, 2-121
Temperature control
Charge air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Time limits for low load operation
Gas mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44
Liquid fuel mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44
Torque measurement flange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83
Torsional vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-164
Turbocharger assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
V
Venting
Crankcase, turbocharger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-149
Vibration, torsional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-164
Viscosity-temperature-diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
W
Water
Specification for engine cooling water . . . . . . . . . . 4-41
Water systems
Cooling water collecting and supply system . . . . . 5-59
Engine cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-45
Nozzle cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-67
Turbine washing device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-65
Waterjet application
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Weights
Engine, electric prolulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Lifting appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
Welding
Earthing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76
Windmilling protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81
Works test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
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MAN Diesel & Turbo
86224 Augsburg, Germany
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