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Extrinsic Semiconductor

Where as an extrinsic semiconductor is an improved intrinsic semiconductor with a

small amount of impurities added by a process, known as doping, which alters the
electrical properties of the semiconductor and improves its conductivity. Introducing
impurities into the semiconductor materials (doping process) can control their
Doping process produces two groups of semiconductors: the negative charge
conductor (n-type) and the positive charge conductor (p-type). Semiconductors are
available as either elements or compounds. Silicon and Germanium are the most
common elemental semiconductors. Compound Semiconductors include InSb, InAs,
GaP, GaSb, GaAs, SiC, GaN. Si and Ge both have a crystalline structure called the
diamond lattice. That is, each atom has its four nearest neighbors at the corners of a
regular tetrahedron with the atom itself being at the center. In addition to the pure
element semiconductors, many alloys and compounds are semiconductors. The
advantage of compound semiconductor is that they provide the device engineer with a
wide range of energy gaps and mobilities, so that materials are available with
properties that meet specific requirements. Some of these semiconductors are therefore
called wide band gap semiconductors.
The Doping of Semiconductors
The addition of a small percentage of foreign atoms in the regular crystal lattice of silicon or
germanium produces dramatic changes in their electrical properties, producing n-type andp-
type semiconductors.
Pentavalent impurities
(5 valence electrons) produce n-type semiconductors by
contributing extra electrons.
Trivalent impurities
(3 valence electrons) produce p-type semiconductors by
producing a "hole" or electron deficiency.

N-Type Semiconductor

The addition of pentavalent impurities such as
antimony, arsenic or phosphorous contributes free
electrons, greatly increasing the conductivity of
the intrinsic semiconductor. Phosphorous may be
added by diffusion of phosphine gas (PH3).

P-Type Semiconductor
The addition of trivalent impurities such as boron, aluminum or gallium to an
intrinsic semiconductor creates deficiencies of valence electrons,called
"holes". It is typical to use B
diborane gas to diffuse boron into the silicon

Ideal Diodes
The key function of an ideal diode is to control the direction of current-flow. Current passing
through a diode can only go in one direction, called the forward direction. Current trying to flow
the reverse direction is blocked. Theyre like the one-way valve of electronics.
If the voltage across a diode is negative, no current can flow*, and the ideal diode looks like an
open circuit. In such a situation, the diode is said to be off or reverse biased.
As long as the voltage across the diode isnt negative, itll turn on and conduct current.
Ideally* a diode would act like a short circuit (0V across it) if it was conducting current. When a
diode is conducting current its forward biased (electronics jargon for on).

AC and DC Resistance
When you pass an Alternating Current through a wire (resistance), the current generates
a magnetic field across the wire which opposes the flow of this AC along with the
resistance of the wire. This oppose cause is known as Inductance. Inductance exists
only in AC because the magnitude of the current is continuously changing.

Whereas, when you pass a Direct Current through a wire, the current does not generate
any magnetic field as the magnitude of current is always constant in DC. Hence, there is
no Inductance. So only the original resistance of wire comes into play.

Therefore, the resistance offered by a wire is greater for AC than DC.
Reverse Recovery Time is the time it takes a diode to reduce the current to zero when
diode changes from forward bias to reverse bias.

A Zener diode is a diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as
an ideal diode, but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a
certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "zener knee voltage" or "zener voltage" or "Avalanche

Zener Diode as Voltage Regulators

The function of a regulator is to provide a constant output voltage to a load connected in parallel with
it in spite of the ripples in the supply voltage or the variation in the load current and the zener diode
will continue to regulate the voltage until the diodes current falls below the minimum IZ(min) value in
the reverse breakdown region. It permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will
also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value - the breakdown
voltage known as the Zener voltage. The Zener diode specially made to have a reverse voltage
breakdown at a specific voltage. Its characteristics are otherwise very similar to common diodes. In
breakdown the voltage across the Zener diode is close to constant over a wide range of currents thus
making it useful as a shunt voltage regulator.

The purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain a constant voltage across a load regardless of
variations in the applied input voltage and variations in the load current. A typical Zener diode shunt
regulator is shown in Figure 3. The resistor is selected so that when the input voltage is at VIN(min)
and the load current is at IL(max) that the current through the Zener diode is at least Iz(min). Then for
all other combinations of input voltage and load current the Zener diode conducts the excess current
thus maintaining a constant voltage across the load. The Zener conducts the least current when the
load current is the highest and it conducts the most current when the load current is the lowest.
Zener Diode is a special purpose diode used specially for voltage regulations in ckt. summary shown
in point u can understand easily

1. always used in reverse biased condition.
2. break down region is zener break down ie heavily doped
3. used in voltage regulator mostly
4. used in parallel to any ckt mostly coz a basic logic form network (parallel voltage remain same)
thats why zener used in parallel
5. if u see the graph of zener in reverse then u will see a straight curve is graph that show same
voltage after breakdown thats y it is used in voltage regulator.

app - zener has breakdown voltage say 3.5 volt then when we give supply to ckt then the o/p voltage
will remain 3.5 when ever voltage is above 3.5 an before it will be i/p for that concept u can read some
point about clipper and will understand more clear.

thats how zener work like voltage regulator and by book u can find how calculation is done for zener
diode voltage etc.
RECIFIER Class notes
These are the some SECTION-A material. For more details please refer classroom notes.