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- Modeling Heat Transfer
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You are on page 1of 8

2

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011

HEAT TRANSFER

Aeronautical Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. Engine oil at 40

0

C ows at a velocity of 1 m/s over a 2m long at plate whose

surface is maintained at a uniform temperature of 80

0

C. Determine the average

heat transfer coecient over 2m length of plate. [16]

2. Explain the nite dierence method in unsteady state heat conduction. [16]

3. (a) What do you mean by a radiation shield? Where is it used?

(b) By using one radiation shield between two surfaces and if all the three surfaces

have the same emissivity, show that the net radiant heat transfer is reduced

by 50%. [6+10]

4. An electrically heated copper spherical element of diameter 10 cm is immersed

in water at atmospheric pressure and saturation temperature. The surface of the

element is maintained at a uniform temperature of 115

o

C. Calculate

(a) The surface heat ux

(b) The rate of evaporation

(c) Peak heat ux. [16]

5. (a) Derive expression for temperature distribution and heat dissipation in a straight

n for the case of n insulated at the tip.

(b) Find out the amount of heat transferred through an iron n of length 50mm,

width 100mm and thickness 5mm. Assume K = 210 KJ/mh

0

C and h = 42

KJ/m

2

h

0

C for the material of the n and the temperature at the base of the

n as 80

0

C. Also determine the temperature at tip of the n, if the atmosphere

temperature is 20

0

C. [6+10]

6. (a) Write an expression for overall heat transfer coecient (U) for double pipe

heat exchanger. Explain the signicance of various terms in this expression.

(b) A horizontal steel pipe of 5.25 cm ID and 6.03 cm OD is exposed to atmo-

spheric air at 20

o

C. Hot water at 98

o

C ows through this pipe with a velocity

of 15 meters per minute. Taking the following data calculate the overall heat

transfer coecient based on the outer area of the pipe. Take K for steel = 54

W/mK, h

i

= 1961W/m

2

K, h

o

= 7.91W/m

2

K. [6+10]

7. (a) How does the temperature in a cylinder vary?

1

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 2

(b) A thin plate 500 mm is subjected to 400 W of heating on one surface and

dissipates the heat by combined convection and radiation from the other sur-

face into the ambient air at 290K. If the surface of the plate has an emissivity

of 0.9 and the heat coecient between the surface and the ambient air is 15

W/m

2

K, calcuate the temperature of the plate. [4+12]

8. A power amplier is mounted vertically in air at 25

o

C. The case is made of an-

odized aluminium with a surface area of about 3800 mm

2

and a height of 40 mm.

Determine

(a) The heat transfer coecient for natural convection cooling with a case tem-

perature of 125

o

C.

(b) The rate of total heat dissipation

(c) What is the percentage of total heat that is lost by natural convection? Prop-

erties of air at 75

o

C are = 2.06 10

5

m

2

/s, Pr = 0.697 and K = 0.0299

W/mK. [16]

2

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011

HEAT TRANSFER

Aeronautical Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) The boundary layer thickness for a free convection process is more than in the

case of forced convection process. Why?

(b) A plate of size 20 cm 30 cm is used as a water heater in a process plant.

The temperature of water is 20

o

C while the heater plate is maintained at a

temperature of 120

o

C. Determine the heat transfer rate by free convection

when 20 cm side of the heater is kept vertical. [4+12]

2. Determine the friction factor and the pressure drop for fully developed laminar ow

at 40

0

C through a 50 cm diameter and 60 m long tube at a rate of 0.15 kg/s. [16]

3. (a) What are radiation shape factors? Why are they used?

(b) Show that the direct heat exchange area between a disc of radius r and a

sphere of radius R, whose center is on the normal through the center of the

disc separated by a center to center distance H is

2 R

2

[ 1 - {H /

(H

2

+r

2

)}].

[4+12]

4. Calculate the heat transfer coecient during stable lm boiling of water from 9mm

diameter horizontal carbon tube. The water is saturated at 100

o

C and the tube

surface is at 1000

o

C. Assume the emissivity of carbon surface to be 0.8. Properties

of steam are

v

= 0.266 kg/m

3

,

v

= 28.7 10

6

kg/ms and k

v

= 0.0616 W/mk.

[16]

5. (a) Discuss the concept of transient heat conduction in semi innite solids.

(b) A steel ingot (large in size) heated uniformly to 745

0

C is hardened by quench-

ing it in an oil bath maintained at 20

0

C. Find the time required for the tem-

perature to reach 595

0

C at a depth of 12mm. The ingot may be approximated

as a at plate. For steel ingot take (thermal diusivity) = 1.2 10

5

m

2

/s.

[6+10]

6. Hot exhaust gases, which enter a nned tube, cross ow heat exchanger at 300

o

C

and leave at 100

o

C, are used to heat pressurized water at a ow rate of 1 kg/s from

35

o

C to 125

o

C. The exhaust gas specic heat is approximately 1000 J/kg K, and

the overall heat transfer coecient based on the gas side surface area is U

h

= 100

W/m

2

K. Determine the required gas side surface area by the NTU method.

[16]

7. (a) Derive an expression for 1- Dimensional, steady state heat conduction with

internal heat generation for plane wall.

3

(a) Explain the significance of following dimensions nos:

i) Reynolds number(Re) ii) Prandlt number(Pr) iii) Stanton number(St)

(b) Water at 30

0

C with a flow rate of 0.01 kg/s enters a 3cm diameter tube which is maintained at 100

0

C.

Assuming hydro-dynamically developed flow determine the tube length required to heat the water to 60

0

C.

[8+8]

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 4

(b) Nichrome, having a resistivity of 100-cm is to be used as a heating element

in a 10kW heater. The Nichrome surface temperature should not exceed

1220

0

C. Other design features include surrounding air temperature is 20

0

C,

Outside surface coecient is 1.15 W/ m

2

-k, Thermal conductivity of Nichrome

=- 17 W/mk. Find out which diameter Nichrome wire is necessary for a 1

meter long heater. Also nd the rate of current ow. [8+8]

8. (a) How do the temperature distributions in a solid vary its thermal conductivity

various linearly with temperature?

(b) A thin metallic plate is insulated at the back surface and is exposed to the sun

at the front surface. The front surface absorbs solar radiation at 900 W/m

2

and dissipates it mainly by convection to the ambient air at 30

0

C. If the heat

trasfer coecient between the plate and the air is 15 W/m

2

K, what is the

temperature of the plate? [6+10]

4

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011

HEAT TRANSFER

Aeronautical Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) What is meant by sub-cooled and saturated boiling?

(b) A heated polished copper plate is immersed in a pool of water boiling at atmo-

spheric pressure. If the surface temperature of the copper plate is maintained

at a temperature of 113

o

C, determine the surface heat ux and the evaporation

rate per unit area of the plate. [6+10]

2. (a) Distinguish between free and forced convection heat transfer processes.

(b) A vertical plate 10 cm high and 5 cm wide is cooled by natural convection.

The rate of heat transfer is 5.55W and the air temperature 38

o

C. Estimate

the maximum temperature of the plate. Assume uniform heat ux. [4+12]

3. (a) How are exit uid temperatures determined with the help of -NTU method?

(b) When one of the two uids undergoes phase change, show that the eectiveness

values for both parallel ow and counter ow heat exchangers are equal and

given by

= 1 exp(- NTU). [4+12]

4. (a) Derive expression for temperature distribution under steady state in one di-

mensional heat conduction for a plane wall.

(b) Calculate the critical radius of insulation for asbestos, (K = 0.17 W/m

0

C)

surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 20

0

C with h = 3.0 W/m

2

C.

Calculate the heat loss from a 200

0

C, 50 mm diameter pipe when covered with

the critical radius of insulation and without insulation. [6+10]

5. (a) A 25mm OD solid steel (20% Cr) ball bearing at a temperature of 600

0

C is

quenched in oil at 40

0

C. The convection heat transfer coecient between the

bearing surface and the oil is 1500W/m

2

k. Determine the centre temperature

and the temperature at 1.25 mm from the surface after the bearing has been

in the oil for 30 seconds. Also determine the heat lost by the spherical ball

during the rst half minute

(b) Determine the heat transfer from a 40 W incandescent bulb at 125

0

C which

is exposed to an air stream at 29

0

C moving with 0.3 m/sec. The bulb may be

treated as a sphere of 50 mm diameter. Determine the heat transfer rate and

the percentage of power lost due to convection. The properties of air at the

lm temperature of 77

0

C are K = 0.03 W/mk, Pr = 0.697, = 2.08 10

5

m

2

/sec. [8+8]

5

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 1

6. A long cylinder having a diameter of 2 cm is maintained at 600

o

C and has an

emissivity of 0.4. Surrounding the cylinder is another long, thin walled concentric

cylinder having a diameter of 6 cm and an emissivity of 0.2 on both the inside and

outside surfaces. The assembly is located in a large room having a temperature

of 27

o

C. Calculate the net radiant energy lost by the 2 cm diameter cylinder per

meter length. Also calculate the temperature of the 6 cm diameter cylinder. [16]

7. (a) Explain the scope of the study of heat transfer.

(b) A cubical tank of water of volume 1 m

3

is kept at a steady temperature of 65

0

C by a 1 kW heater. The heater is switched o. How long does the tank

take to cool to 50

0

C if the room temperatue is 15

0

C. [6+10]

8. (a) Air at 20

0

C ows over a at plate with a velocity of 2 m/sec. The size of the

plate is 60cm 30 cm. The plate is maintained at 100

0

C. Calculate the heat

transfer rate from the plate if the air is owing parallel to 60 cm side. What

will be the eect on heat transfer if the ow of air is parallel to 30 cm side?

(b) Prove that the momentum equation for the boundary layer over a at plate is

given by [8+8]

u du/dx + v du/dy = d

2

u/dy

2

6

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech II Semester Examinations,APRIL 2011

HEAT TRANSFER

Aeronautical Engineering

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1. Write short notes on following basic laws

(a) First law of thermodynamics

(b) Second law of thermodynamics

(c) Law of conservation of mass

(d) Newtons laws of motion. [4+4+4+4]

2. Deduce an expression for temperature distribution and heat transfer under one

dimensional steady state conduction with internal heat generation for cylinder.[16]

3. (a) Give a comparison of parallel ow and counter ow heat exchangers. Why are

counter ow exchangers are mostly used?

(b) Sketch the temperature distribution of hot and cold uids along the length

of heat exchanger for counter ow arrangement and derive the expression for

LMTD. [6+10]

4. (a) Plot E

b

/ T

5

versus T. What does the curve signify?

(b) Explain the electrical analogy for radiative heat transfer in a black enclosure.

Draw the equivalent electrical net work for radiative ux between four walls

of a black enclosure. [6+10]

5. Using dimensional analysis establish a relation between Nusselt, prandtl and Grasho

numbers. [16]

6. A vertical tube 12.5 mm diameter and 1.7m long is used for condensing steam

at 0.4 bar. The tube surface temperature is maintained at 54

o

C. Determine the

average heat transfer coecient in condensation. What would be the value of the

heat transfer coecient if the tube were held in a horizontal position? [16]

7. (a) On a hot summers day a concrete high way reach a temperature of 55

0

C.

Suppose that a stream of water is directed on the high way so that the surface

temperature is suddenly lowered to 35

0

C. How long will it take to cool the

concrete to 45

0

C at a depth of 5cm from the surface?

(b) A solid steel, 160mm long cylinder with a 80mm diameter initially at 800

0

C,

is cooled in a medium which is at a constant temperature of 30

0

C. The surface

heat transfer coecient is 120 W/m

2

k. Determine the centre line temperature

at the midpoint of length 30 minuets after cooling is initiated. Take = 0.022

m

2

/hr, k=23.5 W/mk. [8+8]

7

A large block of steel is initially at 35

0

C. The surface temperature is suddenly raised

and maintained at 250

0

C. Calculate the temperature at a depth of 2.5cm after a time

of 30s. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of steel are 1.4 10

-5

m

2

/s

and 45W/mk respectively.

Code No: 07A82111 R07 Set No. 3

8. (a) Explain the terms hydrodynamic boundary layer and thermal boundary

layer, how are these thickness related to Prandtl number.

(b) Compute the coecient of heat transfer from a vertical plate of height 2 m to

the surrounding still air at 20

o

C when the plate is maintained at 100

o

C. Use

the following relation

Nu

L

= 0.15(Gr

L

Pr

L

)

n

(Pr/Pr

s

)

0.25

.

Where all uid properties except Prs(Pratsurface)are taken at the ambient

temperature. [6+10]

8

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