You are on page 1of 6

# Aim

Apparatus

Block Diagram

Student name

Signature

Date

Batch

To study the behavior of the instrumentation amplifier

Transducer
Instrumentation
amplifier
Application
Pin Diagram

Fig2: IC 741
Circuit Diagram

## Fig3: Analog Circuit

Stage 1: Differential input/output amplifier
Stage 2: Inverting amplifier

R
2

V
o

V
ee
V
ee
V
ee
R
+V
cc
+V
cc
+V
cc
I
V
1

V
2

R
R
R
2

R
1

R
1

V
2

V
1

+
+
A1A1

+A2A2
Stage 1 Stage 2

Theory
Instrumentation amplifier is a kind of differential amplifier with additional input buffer
stages. The addition of input buffer stages makes it easy to match (impedance
matching) the amplifier with the preceding stage. Instrumentation are commonly used
in industrial test and measurement application. The instrumentation amplifier also has
some useful features like low offset voltage, high CMRR (Common mode rejection
ratio), high input resistance, high gain etc. The circuit diagram of a typical
instrumentation amplifier using op-amp is shown figure2.

In the circuit diagram, op-amps labeled A
1
and A
2
are the input buffers. Anyway the
gain of these buffer stages is not unity because of the presence of R and R. Op amp
labeled A
3
is wired as a standard differential amplifier. R
2
connected from the output of
A
3
to its non- inverting input is the feedback resistor. R
1
is the input resistor. The
voltage gain of the instrumentation amplifier can be expressed by using the equation
below.
A

=
R
2
R
1
(1 +
2R
i
R
)
If its needed to vary the gain of the instrumentation amplifier then the resistance R is
replaced by a suitable potentiometer.
Formulae applied
The voltage gain of the complete circuit
A

= A
1
A
2

Where A
v1
is the voltage gain of stage 1 and A
v2
is the stage 2 gain.
A

=
R
2
R
1
(1 +
2R
i
R
)
The overall voltage gain can be controlled by adjustment of R. The common mode
signal attenuation for the instrumentation amplifier is that provided by the difference
amplifier. This can be maximized by making resistor R
2
voltage level can be controlled if R
2
is connected to an adjustable bias voltage of being
directly grounded.

Sample Calculation
Design an instrumentation amplifier to have an overall voltage gain of 100. The input
signal amplitude is varied till the op-amps are saturated (741 op-amps are to be used)
and the supply voltage is _12V.

Solution:
Stage 1 design: Let A
1
= A
2

= A

= 1uu
= 1u
Stage 2 design: Designing the resistor values
The output and input voltage is related by the below stated formula
I
0
=
R
2
R
1
(1 +
2R
i
R
)(I
1
-I
2
)
Assume
R
2
R
1
= 1uand1 +
2Ri
R
= 1u. Taking R
1
= 1k, then R
2
= 1uk .
Taking R = 1uk on solving R' = 4.Sk (approximate it to 5k by using two 10k
resistors in parallel)
Theoretical Calculation

Procedure
Step1: On conducting the calculation set up the circuit as shown in the figure.
Step2: Measure the output voltage obtained
Step3: Compare with the theoretically obtained value.
Step4: Vary the input subsequently and note down the output voltage. Calculate the
gain.
Tabulation
Input voltage( mV) Output voltage(V) Practical
gain(A
v
)

Observations and Remarks

Conclusion