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B. ED.



Concept of ICT

Meaning & Definition:
ICT is technology that supports activities involving information. Such
activities include gathering, processing, storing and presenting data. Increasingly
these activities also involve collaboration and communication. Hence IT has
become ICT: information and communication technology. Some underlying
principles Technology does not exist in isolation ICT contributes at various
points along a line of activity ICT is used in activities the ICT use depends on
the activities. The key outputs of educational activities are context are
knowledge, experience and products. The output should be useful to the users
(self and others).

What is a useful concept of ICT?
It depends on the local culture and the particular ICT available and how it
is configured and managed. The understanding, management and configuration
of the available technology might vary the concept of ICT from a collection of
tools and devices used for particular tasks, eg, publishing, course delivery,
transaction processing...
an organised set of equipment (like a 'workshop') for working on information and
communication components of integrated arrangements of devices, tools,
services and practices that enable information to be collected, processed, stored
and shared with others components in a comprehensive system of people,
information and devices that enables learning, problem solving and higher order
collaborative thinking, that is, ICT as key elements underpinning a (sharable)

Models of communication
Models of communication refers to the conceptual model used to explain
the human communication process. The first major model for communication
came in 1949 by Claude Elwood Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell
Laboratories Following thebasic concept, communication is the process of
sending and receiving messages or transferring information from one part
(sender) to another (receiver).
Shannon and Weaver Model
The new model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and
telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary
parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a
person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the
part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver
also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a
telephone conversation, which they deemed noise. The noise could also mean the
absence of signal.
In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard
view of communication, information or content (e.g. a message in natural
language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/
sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This common conception of
communication views communication as a means of sending and receiving
information. The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and
quantifiability. Social scientists Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured
this model based on the following elements:
An information source, which produces a message.
A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals
A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission
A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal.
A destination, where the message arrives.
Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for
communication within this theory.
The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?
The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect
Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating:

It assumes communicators are isolated individuals.
No allowance for differing purposes.
No allowance for differing interpretations.
No allowance for unequal power relations.
David Berlo
In 1960, David Berlo expanded Shannon and Weavers,Steven Munyao
(1949) linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of
The Source-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of
communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded
upon by other scholars.
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:
Message (what type of things are communicated), source / emisor / sender
/ encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through which medium),
destination / receiver / target /decoder (to whom), and Receiver. Wilbur
Schramm (1954) also indicated that we should also examine the impact that a
message has (both desired and undesired) on the target of the
Between parties, communication includes acts that confer knowledge
and experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. These acts may
take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form
depends on the abilities of the group communicating. Together, communication
content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target
can be oneself, another person or being, another entity (such as a corporation or
group of beings).
Communication can be seen as processes of information
transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules:
1. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols),
2. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and
their users) and
3. Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two
interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set
of semiotic rules. This commonly held rule in some sense
ignores autocommunication, including intrapersonal
communicationvia diaries or self-talk, both secondary phenomena that followed
the primary acquisition of communicative competences within social
In light of these weaknesses, Barnlund (1970) proposed a transactional
model of communication.
The basic premise of the transactional model of
communication is that individuals are simultaneously engaging in the sending
and receiving of messages.
In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are
linked reciprocally. This second attitude of communication, referred to as the
constitutive model or constructionist view, focuses on how an individual
communicates as the determining factor of the way the message will be
interpreted. Communication is viewed as a conduit; a passage in which
information travels from one individual to another and this information becomes
separate from the communication itself. A particular instance of communication
is called a speech act. The sender's personal filters and the receiver's personal
filters may vary depending upon different regional traditions, cultures, or gender;
which may alter the intended meaning of message contents. In the presence of
"communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception
and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve
the desired effect. One problem with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model
is that the processes of encoding and decoding imply that the sender and
receiver each possess something that functions as a code-book, and that these
two code books are, at the very least, similar if not identical. Although something
like code books is implied by the model, they are nowhere represented in the
model, which creates many conceptual difficulties.
Theories of co-regulation describe communication as a creative and
dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of information.
Canadian media scholar Harold Innis had the theory that people use different
types of media to communicate and which one they choose to use will offer
different possibilities for the shape and durability of society (Wark, McKenzie
1997). His famous example of this is using ancient Egypt and looking at the ways
they built themselves out of media with very different properties stone and
papyrus. Papyrus is what he called 'Space Binding'. it made possible the
transmission of written orders across space, empires and enables the waging of
distant military campaigns and colonial administration. The other is stone and
'Time Binding', through the construction of temples and the pyramids can
sustain their authority generation to generation, through this media they can
change and shape communication in their society (Wark, McKenzie 1997).
Constructionist Model
There is an additional working definition of communication to
consider that authors like Richard A. Lanham (2003) and as far back as Erving
Goffman (1959) have highlighted. This is a progression from Lasswells attempt to
define human communication through to this century and revolutionized into the
constructionist model. Constructionists believe that the process of
communication is in itself the only messages that exist. The packaging can not
be separated from the social and historical context from which it arose, therefore
the substance to look at in communication theory is style for Richard Lanham
and the performance of self for Erving Goffman.
Lanham chose to view communication as the rival to the over
encompassing use of CBS model (which pursued to further the transmission
model). CBS model argues that clarity, brevity, and sincerity are the only
purpose to prose discourse, therefore communication. Lanham wrote, If words
matter too, if the whole range of human motive is seen as animating prose
discourse, then rhetoric analysis leads us to the essential questions about prose
style (Lanham 10). This is saying that rhetoric and style are fundamentally
important; they are not errors to what we actually intend to transmit. The
process which we construct and deconstruct meaning deserves analysis.
Erving Goffman sees the performance of self as the most important frame to
understand communication. Goffman wrote, What does seem to be required of
the individual is that he learn enough pieces of expression to be able to fill in
and manage, more or less, any part that he is likely to be given (Goffman 73)
Goffman is highlighting the significance of expression.
The truth in both cases is the articulation of the message and the package as
one. The construction of the message from social and historical context is the
seed as is the pre-existing message is for the transmission model. Therefore any
look into communication theory should include the possibilities drafted by such
great scholars as Richard A. Lanhamand Erving Goffman that style and
performance is the whole process.
Communication stands so deeply rooted in human behaviors and the structures
of society that scholars have difficulty thinking of it while excluding social or
behavioral events.
[weasel words]
Because communication theory remains a relatively
young field of inquiry and integrates itself with other disciplines such as
philosophy, psychology, and sociology, one probably cannot yet expect a
consensus conceptualization of communication across disciplines.
Communication Model Terms as provided by Rothwell (11-15):
Noise; interference with effective transmission and reception of a message.
For example;
physical noise or external noise which are environmental distractions such
as poorly heated rooms, startling sounds, appearances of things, music playing
some where else, and someone talking really loudly near you.
physiological noise are biological influences that distract you from
communicating competently such as sweaty palms, pounding heart, butterfly in
the stomach, induced by speech anxiety, or feeling sick, exhausted at work, the
ringing noise in your ear, being really hungry, and if you have a runny nose or a
psychological noise are the preconception bias and assumptions such as
thinking someone who speaks like a valley girl is dumb, or someone from a
foreign country cant speak English well so you speak loudly and slowly to them.
semantic noise are word choices that are confusing and distracting such
as using the word tri-syllabic instead of three syllables.
Sender; the initiator and encoder of a message
Receiver; the one that receives the message (the listener) and the decoder
of a message
Decode; translates the sender's spoken idea/message into something the
receiver understands by using their knowledge of language from personal
Encode; puts the idea into spoken language while putting their own
meaning into the word/message.
Channel; the medium through which the message travels such as through
oral communication (radio, television, phone, in person) or written
communication (letters, email, text messages)
Feedback; the receiver's verbal and nonverbal responses to a message
such as a nod for understanding (nonverbal), a raised eyebrow for being
confused (nonverbal), or asking a question to clarify the message (verbal).
Message; the verbal and nonverbal components of language that is sent to
the receiver by the sender which conveys an idea.
Linear Model[edit]
It is a one way model to communicate with others. It consists of the sender
encoding a message and channeling it to the receiver in the presence of noise.
Interactive Model
It is two linear models stacked on top of each other. The sender channels a
message to the receiver and the receiver then becomes the sender and channels a
message to the original sender. This model has added feedback, indicates that
communication is not a one way but a two way process. It also has field of
experience which includes our cultural background, ethnicity geographic
location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the
course of your lifetime. Draw backs there is feedback but it is not

The Interactive Model.
For example instant messaging. The sender sends an IM to the receiver,
then the original sender has to wait for the IM from the original receiver to react.
Or a question/answer session where you just ask a question then you get an
Transactional Model
It assumes that people are connected through communication; they engage
in transaction. First, it recognizes that each of us is a sender-receiver, not merely
a sender or a receiver. Secondly, it recognizes that communication affects all
parties involved. So communication is fluid/simultaneous. This is what most
conversations are like. The transactional model also contains ellipses that
symbolize the communication environment (how you interpret the data that you
are given). Where the ellipses meet is the most effective communication area
because both communicators share the same meaning of the message.
The Constitutive Metamodel
Another way of dividing up the communication field emphasizes the
assumptions that undergird particular theories, models, and approaches. Robert
T. Craig suggests that the field of communication as a whole can be understood
as several different traditions who have a specific view on communication. By
showing the similarities and differences between these traditions, Craig argues
that the different traditions will be able to engage each other in dialogue rather
than ignore each other. Craig proposes seven different traditions which are:
1. Rhetorical: views communication as the practical art of discourse.
2. Semiotic: views communication as the mediation by signs.
3. Phenomenological: communication is the experience of dialogue with
4. Cybernetic: communication is the flow of information.
5. Socio-psychological: communication is the interaction of individuals.
6. Socio-cultural: communication is the production and reproduction of the
social order.
7. Critical: communication is the process in which all assumptions can be

Communication (from Latin commnicre, meaning "to share") It is the activity
of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or
information, as by speech, visuals, signals, written, or behavior. It is the
meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures.
One definition of communication is any act by which one person gives to
or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires,
perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or
unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take
linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other
Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although
the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to
communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur
across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the
communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The
communication process is complete once the receiver understands the sender's
Communicating with others involves three primary steps:
Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a
concept, idea, information, or feeling.
Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a
concept or information that a person can understand.
There are a variety of verbal and non-verbal forms of communication.
These include body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication,
and chronemics. Other examples are media content such as pictures,
graphics, sound, and writing. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities also defines the communication to include the display of
text, Braille, tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia, as well as
written and plain language, human-reader, augmentative and alternative modes,
means and formats of communication, including accessible information and
communication technology. Feedback is a critical component of effective
Verbal communication
Human spoken and pictorial languages can be described as
a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by
which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common
properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively
during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use
patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with
others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties although many
of these include exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and
a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages,
and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the
properties shared by human languages. Communication is the flow or exchange
of information within people or a group of people.
Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in
the form of non-word messages. Some forms of non verbal communication
include chronemics, haptics,gesture, body language or posture, facial
expression and eye contact, object communication such
as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, infographics, and tone of voice, as
well as through an aggregate of the above. Speech also contains nonverbal
elements known as paralanguage. This form of communication is the most
known for interacting with people. These include voice lesson quality, emotion
and speaking style as well as prosodic features such
as rhythm, intonation and stress. Research has shown that up to 55% of human
communication may occur through non verbal facial expressions, and a further
38% through paralanguage.
Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements
such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use
of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form.
Oral communication
Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal
communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support
the conveyance of meaning. Oral communication includes speeches,
presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a
type of face-to-face communication, body language and choice tonality play a
significant role, and may have a greater impact upon the listener than
informational content. This type of communication also garners immediate
Business communication
A business can flourish only when all objectives of the organization are
achieved effectively. For efficiency in an organization, all the people of the
organization must be able to convey their message properly.
Effective communication
Effective communication occurs when a desired effect is the result of
intentional or unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between
multiple entities and acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures that
messages are not distorted during the communication process. Effective
communication should generate the desired effect and maintain the effect, with
the potential to increase the effect of the message. Therefore, effective
communication serves the purpose for which it was planned or designed.
Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action, create
understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When the
desired effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are
explored, with the intention being to discover how the communication has been

Telecommunication is communication at a distance by technological
means, particularly through electrical signals or electromagnetic waves. Due to
the many different technologies involved, the word is often used in a plural form,
as telecommunications.
A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the 1900s with
pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi.
Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his efforts. Other highly
notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and
electronic telecommunications include Charles Wheatstone and Samuel
Morse (telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell(telephone), Edwin Armstrong, and Lee
de Forest (radio), as well as John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (television).
An artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order
to collect information or for communication.
"a communications satellite"
Ex: space station, space capsule, spacecraft; More artificial satellite,
communications satellite, weather satellite, television satellite; sputnik, COBE,
IRAS; informalComsat
A celestial body orbiting the earth or another planet.
Ex: moon, secondary planet etc
The world's first artificial satellite, the Sputnik 1, was launched by the
Soviet Union in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched
into orbit around the Earth. Some satellites, notably space stations, have been
launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Artificial satellites originate from more
than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten
nations. A few hundred satellites are currently operational, whereas thousands
of unused satellites and satellite fragments orbit the Earth as space debris. A few
space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become
artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Vesta,
Eros, and the Sun.
Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include
military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites,
navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations
and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly,
depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways.
Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and
geostationary orbit.
About 6,600 satellites have been launched. The latest estimates are that
3,600 remain in orbit. Of those, about 1,000 are operational; the rest have lived
out their useful lives and are part of the space debris. Approximately 500
operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 50 are in medium-Earth orbit (at
20,000 km), the rest are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km).
Satellites are propelled by rockets to their orbits. Usually the launch
vehicle itself is a rocket lifting off from a launch pad on land. In a minority of
cases satellites are launched at sea (from a submarine or a mobile maritime
platform) or aboard a plane (see air launch to orbit).
Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems.
Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal
control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.
Launch-capable countries
This list includes countries with an independent capability of states to
place satellites in orbit, including production of the necessary launch vehicle.
Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites but
are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services. This list
does not consider those numerous countries, but only lists those capable of
launching satellites indigenously, and the date this capability was first
demonstrated. The list include multi-national state organization ESA but does
not include private consortiums.
First launch by country
Order Country
Date of first
Rocket Satellite
4 Oct 1957 Sputnik-PS Sputnik 1
1Feb 1958 Juno I Explorer 1
3 France 26 Nov 1965 Diamant-A Astrix
4 Japan 11 Feb 1970 Lambda-4S sumi
5 China 24 Apr 1970 Long March 1
Dong Fang
Hong I
28 Oct 1971 Black Arrow Prospero
7 India 18 Jul 1980 SLV Rohini D1
8 Israel 19 Sept 1988 Shavit Ofeq 1

Russia 21 Jan 1992 Soyuz-U Kosmos 2175

Ukraine 13 Jul 1992 Tsyklon-3 Strela
9 Iran 2 Feb 2009 Safir-1 Omid
12 Dec 2012 Unha-3
ng-3 Unit 2

A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmedto carry
out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Since a sequence of
operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element,
typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The
processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing
and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored
information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external
source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
Digital and Analog Computers
A digital computer uses distinct values to represent the data internally.
All information are represented using the digits 0s and 1s. The computers that
we use at our homes and offices are digital computers.
Analog computer is another kind of a computer that represents data as
variable across a continuous range of values. The earliest computers were analog
computers. Analog computers are used for measuring of parameters that vary
continuously in real time, such as temperature, pressure and voltage. Analog
computers may be more flexible but generally less precise than digital
computers. Slide rule is an example of an analog computer.
Characteristics of Computer
Speed, accuracy, diligence, storage capability and versatility are some of
the key characteristics of a computer. A brief overview of these characteristics
Speed The computer can process data very fast, at the rate of millions of
instructions per second. Some calculations that would have taken hours and
days to complete otherwise, can be completed in a few seconds using the
computer. For example, calculation and generation of salary slips of thousands
of employees of an organization, weather forecasting that requires analysis of a
large amount of data related to temperature, pressure and humidity of various
places, etc.
Accuracy Computer provides a high degree of accuracy. For example, the
computer can accurately give the result of division of any two numbers up to 10
decimal places.
Diligence When used for a longer period of time, the computer does not
get tired or fatigued. It can perform long and complex calculations with the same
speed and accuracy from the start till the end.
Storage Capability Large volumes of data and information can be stored
in the computer and also retrieved whenever required. A limited amount of data
can be stored, temporarily, in the primary memory. Secondary storage devices
like floppy disk and compact disk can store a large amount of data permanently.
Versatility Computer is versatile in nature. It can perform different types
of tasks with the same ease. At one moment you can use the computer to
prepare a letter document and in the next moment you may play music or print a
Components of Computer Hardware
The computer system hardware comprises of three main components
1. Input/output (I/O) Unit,
2. Central Processing Unit (CPU), and
3. Memory Unit.
The I/O unit consists of the input unit and the output unit. CPU performs
calculations and processing on the input data, to generate the output. The
memory unit is used to store the data, the instructions and the output
information. Figure illustrates the typical interaction among the different
components of the computer.
The computer system interaction

Input/Output: Unit The user interacts with the computer via the I/O unit.
The Input unit accepts data from the user and the Output unit provides the
processed data i.e. the information to the user. The Input unit converts the data
that it accepts from the user, into a form that is understandable by the
computer. Similarly, the Output unit provides the output in a form that is
understandable by the user. The input is provided to the computer using input
devices like keyboard, trackball and mouse. Some of the commonly used output
devices are monitor and printer.
Central Processing Unit: A central processing unit (CPU) (formerly also
referred to as a central processor unit) is the hardware within a computer that
carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic
arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The term has
been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.
form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their
history, but their fundamental operation remains much the same.
A computer can have more than one CPU; this is called multiprocessing. All
modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning contained on a single chip.
Some integrated circuits (ICs) can contain multiple CPUs on a single chip; those
ICs are called multi-core processors. An IC containing a CPU can also contain
peripheral devices, and other components of a computer system; this is called
a system on a chip(SoC).
Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which
performs arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit(CU), which
extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on
the ALU when necessary.
Not all computational systems rely on a central processing unit. An array
processor or vector processor has multiple parallel computing elements, with no
one unit considered the "center". In the distributed computing model, problems
are solved by a distributed interconnected set of processors.
Memory Unit: Memory unit stores the data, instructions, intermediate
results and output, temporarily, during the processing of data. This memory is
also called the main memory or primary memory of the computer. The input data
that is to be processed is brought into the main memory before processing. The
instructions required for processing of data and any intermediate results are also
stored in the main memory. The output is stored in memory before being
transferred to the output device. CPU can work with the information stored in
the main memory. Another kind of storage unit is also referred to as the
secondary memory of the computer. The data, the programs and the output are
stored permanently in the storage unit of the computer. Magnetic disks, optical
disks and magnetic tapes are examples of secondary memory.
Application of Computers
Computers have proliferated into various areas of our lives. For a user, computer
is a tool that provides the desired information, whenever needed. You may use
computer to get information about the reservation of tickets (railways, airplanes
and cinema halls), books in a library, medical history of a person, a place in a
map, or the dictionary meaning of a word. The information may be presented to
you in the form of text, images, video clips, etc.
Figure (Application of Compueter) shows some of the applications of computer.
Some of the application areas of the computer are listed below
Education Computers are extensively used, as a tool and as an aid, for
imparting education. Educators use computers to prepare notes and
presentations of their lectures. Computers are used to develop computer-based
training packages, to provide distance education using the e-learning software,
and to conduct online examinations. Researchers use computers to get easy
access to conference and journal details and to get global access to the research
Entertainment Computers have had a major impact on the entertainment
industry. The user can download and view movies, play games, chat, book tickets
for cinema halls, use multimedia for making movies, incorporate visual and
sound effects using computers, etc. The users can also listen to music, download
and share music, create music using computers, etc.
Sports A computer can be used to watch a game, view the scores, improve
the game, play games (like chess, etc.) and create games. They are also used for
the purposes of training players.
Advertising Computer is a powerful advertising media. Advertisement can
be displayed on different websites, electronic-mails can be sent and reviews of a
product by different customers can be posted. Computers are also used to create
an advertisement using the visual and the sound effects. For the advertisers,
computer is a medium via which the advertisements can be viewed globally. Web
advertising has become a significant factor in the marketing plans of almost all
companies. In fact, the business model of Google is mainly dependent on web
advertising for generating revenues.
Figure Applications of computer

Medicine Medical researchers and practitioners use computers to access
information about the advances in medical research or to take opinion of doctors
globally. The medical history of patients is stored in the computers. Computers
are also an integral part of various kinds of sophisticated medical equipments
like ultrasound machine, CAT scan machine, MRI scan machine, etc. Computers
also provide assistance to the medical surgeons during critical surgery
operations like laparoscopic operations, etc.
Science and Engineering Scientists and engineers use computers for
performing complex scientific calculations, for designing and making drawings
(CAD/CAM applications) and also for simulating and testing the designs.
Computers are used for storing the complex data, performing complex
calculations and for visualizing 3-dimensional objects. Complex scientific
applications like the launch of the rockets, space exploration, etc., are not
possible without the computers.
Government The government uses computers to manage its own
operations and also for e-governance. The websites of the different government
departments provide information to the users. Computers are used for the filing
of income tax return, paying taxes, online submission of water and electricity
bills, for the access of land record details, etc. The police department uses
computers to search for criminals using fingerprint matching, etc.
Home Computers have now become an integral part of home equipment. At
home, people use computers to play games, to maintain the home accounts, for
communicating with friends and relatives via Internet, for paying bills, for
education and learning, etc. Microprocessors are embedded in house hold
utilities like, washing machines, TVs, food processors, home theatres, security
devices, etc.

One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by
their scope or scale. For historical reasons, the networking industry refers to
nearly every type of design as some kind of area network. Common examples of
area network types are:
LAN - Local Area Network
WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
WAN - Wide Area Network
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network

LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks, while the
others have gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution.
LAN - Local Area Network
A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A
networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though
sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room),
and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings.
In TCP/IPnetworking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single
IP subnet.
In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned,
controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to
use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernetand Token Ring.
WAN - Wide Area Network
As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is
the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.
A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called
a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a
LAN address and a WAN address.
A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most WANs (like the
Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective
or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology
like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances.
LAN, WAN and Home Networking
Residences typically employ one LAN and connect to the Internet WAN via
an Internet Service Provider (ISP) using a broadband modem. The ISP provides a
WAN IP address to the modem, and all of the computers on the home network
use LAN (so-called private) IP addresses. All computers on the home LAN can
communicate directly with each other but must go through a central gateway,
typically a broadband router, to reach the ISP.

E-learning (or eLearning) is the use of electronic media and information
and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning is broadly
inclusive of all forms ofeducational technology in learning and teaching. E-
learning is inclusive of, and is broadly synonymous with multimedia
learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL),computer-based
instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based
training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided
instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), web-based training (WBT), online
education, virtual education, virtual learning environments (VLE) (which are also
called learning platforms), m-learning, and digital educational collaboration.
These alternative names emphasize a particular aspect, component or delivery
E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio,
images, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology applications
and processes such as audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer-
based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web-based
learning. Information and communication systems, whether free-standing or
based on either local networks or the Internet in networked learning, underly
many e-learning processes.

E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-
paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning.
E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but it can also be
used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended
learning is commonly used.
Advantages and disadvantages
There are several advantages and disadvantages with regards to motivation
in e-learning.For many students, e-learning is the most convenient way to
pursue a degree in higher education. A lot of these students are attracted to a
flexible, self-paced method of education to attain their degree. It is important to
note that many of these students could be working their way through college,
supporting themselves or battling with serious illness. To these students, it
would be extremely difficult to find time to fit college in their schedule. Thus,
these students are more likely and more motivated to enroll in an e-learning
class. Moreover, in asynchronous e-learning classes, students are free to log on
and complete work any time they wish. They can work on and complete their
assignments at the times when they think most cogently, whether it be early in
the morning or late at night.
However, many teachers have a harder time keeping their students
engaged in an e-learning class. A disengaged student is usually an unmotivated
student, and an engaged student is a motivated student. One reason why
students are more likely to be disengaged is that the lack of face-to-face contact
makes it difficult for teachers to read their students' nonverbal cues, including
confusion, boredom or frustration. These cues are helpful to a teacher in
deciding whether to speed up, introduce new material, slow down or explain a
concept in a different way. If a student is confused, bored or frustrated, he or she
is unlikely to be motivated to succeed in that class.

Features of Multimedia

Multimedia presentations may be viewed in person on stage, projected,
transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or
recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either
analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be
downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.

Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment
with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally
with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.

Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple
forms of media content But depending on what multimedia content you
have it may vary Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented
and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation
and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these
range from multiple forms of content on web sites like photo galleries with both
images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficient,
events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the
multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming.

Applications of Multimedia
Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited
to, advertisements, art, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine,
mathematics, business, scientific research and spatial, temporal applications.

A few application areas of multimedia are listed below:

Creative industries
Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from
fine arts, to entertainment, to commercial art, to journalism, to media and
software services provided for any of the industries listed below. An individual
multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. Request
for their skills range from technical, to analytical and to creative.

Much of the electronic old and new media utilized by commercial artists is
multimedia. Exciting presentations are used to grab and keep attention in
advertising. Industrial, business to business, and interoffice communications are
often developed by creative services firms for advanced multimedia presentations
beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven-up training. Commercial
multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and
nonprofit services applications as well.

Entertainment and Fine Arts
In addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment
industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations.
Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available
either as CD-ROMs or online. Some video games also use multimedia features.

Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of
just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive

In Education, multimedia is used to produce computer-based training
courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopaedia and
almanacs. A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations, text about a
particular topic, and associated illustrations in various information formats.
Edutainment is an informal term used to describe combining education
with entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment.

Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for
anything from entertainment to training such as military or industrial training.
Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as collaboration between
creative professionals and software engineers.



Development of models of teaching is the recent innovation in
teaching. An important purpose of discussing models of teaching is to assist the
teacher to have a wide range of approaches for creating a proper interactive
environment for learning. An intelligent use of these approaches enables the
teacher to adopt him to the learning needs of the students.
A number of educationist and psychologists have proposed model approach to
teaching. Flender (1970) put his interaction analysis as a model of teaching and
for this approaches he categorized the statements of the students and teachers
into ten categories. In India, the first National project on models of teaching was
planned, designed and executed during 1985-86

ALLEN AND RYAN (1969); Modeling is an individual demonstrating
particular pattern which the trainee through imitation.
B.K.PASSI L.C.SINGH AND D.N.SANSANWAL (1991); A model of teaching
consist of guidelines for designing educational activities and
environments. Model of teaching is a plan that can also be utilized to shape
courses of studies, to design instructional material and to guide instruction.
JOYCE AND WEIL (1972) ; Teaching of model is a pattern or plan, which
can be a curriculum or courses to select instructional materials and to guide a
teachers actions.
Educators and psychologist have design several types of teaching models
which provides suitable guidelines to the teachers for modifying the behaviour of
the learners.
As a matter of facts some sorts of models of teaching have been existence
since times immemorial. In simple language a models of teaching may be defined
as a blueprint designed in advance for providing necessary structure and
direction to the teacher for realizing the stipulated objectives.

1. Specification of learning outcomes; A models of teaching specify what the
students should perform after completing an instructional sequence.
2. Specification on environment; A models of teaching specifies in definite
terms the environmental condition under which a students response
should be observed.
3. Specification of criterion of performance; A models of teaching specifies the
criterion for performance which is expected from the students.
4. Specification of operation; A models of teaching specifies the mechanism
that provides for the reaction of students and interaction with the
5. Scientific procedure; A models of teaching is based on a systematic
procedure to modify the behavior of the learner. It is not a haphazard
combination of facts.

1. They help in guiding the teacher to select appropriate teaching techniques,
strategies and methods for the effective utilization of the teaching
situation and material for realizing the objectives
2. They help in bringing about desirable changes in the behaviour of the
3. They help in finding out ways and means of creating favorable
environmental situation for carrying out teaching process.
4. They help in achieving desirable teacher-pupil interaction during teaching.
5. They help in the construction of a curriculum or contents of a course.
6. They help in the proper selection of instruction material for teaching the
prepared course or the curriculum.
7. They help in designing appropriate educational activities.
8. They assist procedure of material to create interesting and effective
materials and learning sources.
9. They stimulate the development of new educational innovations.
10. They help in the formation of theory of teaching.
11. They help to establish teaching end learning relationship empirically.

Bandura and Walters mention three kinds of effects in teaching by
1. A modeling effect
2. A inhibitory and dishibitory effects
3. An eliciting effects
1. A modeling effect: A modeling effects can be seen when a teacher
demonstrate to a students to hold a pencil or write capital A etc. and thus
shows a new behaviour. Here student learner new kinds of responses pattern.
2. A inhibitory and dishibitory effects: An inhibitory or dishibitory effects
takes place when through modeling we let the students know that it is not
possible to look at picture of nudes, in an art book.
3. An eliciting effects: The eliciting effect takes place when a teacher through
modeling tries to teach students to rise when a lady enters the room and thus
provides a cue eliciting a response neither new nor inhibited.
A teaching model has six fundamental modls:
I. Focus
II. Syntax
III. Principles of reactions
IV. The social system
V. The supportive system
VI. Application contenxt

FOCUS; Focus is the central aspects of a teaching model. Objectives of teaching
and aspects of environment generally constitute the focus of the model.

SYNTAX; Syntax includes the sequences of steps involved in the organization of
the complete programmed of teaching.

PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING: This element is concerned with the way a teacher
should regard and aspects respond to the activities of the students. These
responses should be appropriate and selective.

THE SOCIAL SYSTEM: It is related to the description of the following ;
1. Interactive roles and relationship between the teacher and the students.
2. The kinds of norms that are observed and student behavior which is

The supportive system relates to the additional requirements other than
the usual human skills or capacities of the teacher and the facilities usually
available in the ordinary classroom. Teacher requirements refer to special skills,
special knowledge of the teacher and special audio-visual material like films, elf-
instructional material, visit to special place etc
APPILICATION CONTEXT: Several types of teaching modes are available. Each
model attempts to desirable the feasibility of its use in varying contexts-goal
achievements-cognitive, conactive-effective.

1. Information processing models
2. Social interaction models
3. Personal models
4. Behaviour modification models

Information processing models
Information processing models refer to the way people handle stimuli from
the environment, organize data, sense problem, generate concepts and solution
to problems and use verbal and nonverbal symbols.

Social interaction models
Social interaction models stress the relationship of the individual to other
person and to society.

Personal models
Personal development models assist the individual in the development of
selfhood, they focus on the emotional life an individual,.

Behaviour modification models
Behaviour modification models stress changing the external behaviour of
the learners and describe them in them of visible behaviour rather than
underlying behaviour.

1. It is a natural way of teaching and learning.
2. It is helpful in developing the power of imagination of the students.
3. It helps in the developments of reasoning power of the students.
4. It helps the students to analyse things systematically.
5. It keeps students actively engaged in the classroom activity.
6. It helps in making the students good observers.
7. It keeps the students busy in the classroom work.

I. It makes high demands on the students as well as teachers.
II. All the students of the class may not be able to participate in the
teaching-learning process.
III. Some students, on account of their shyness, fail to derive the requisite
advantage of this model.

Robert Glasers Teaching Model:
Robert Glaser (1962) has developed a stripped-down teaching model
which, with modifications, is the basic teaching model. The basic teaching model
divides the teaching process into four components or parts. It will be useful in
several ways. It helps to organize the great body of facts, concepts and principles
which makes up

The above diagram is a diagram of basic teaching model. The four parts of
the model represent the basic divisions. Box A denotes Instructional objectives,
Box B includes Entering behavior, Box C deals with instructional procedure,
and finally Box D relates to performance assessment. The diagram referred above
applies to the four components of the basic teaching model, with its connecting
arrows shows only the major sequence of events in the instructional process, it is
possible to add many more connecting lines. Lines with connect components
later in the sequence with earlier ones are called FEEDBACK LOOPS .The three
feedback loops as shown in the diagram shown below for example, connect
performance assessment with each of the earlier components of the model.
Instructional objectives
Instructional objectives are those the student should attain upon
completion of a segment of instruction. In theory, objectives can vary in scope
and character. Instructional procedures ,describe the teaching process; most
decisions a teacher makes are on these procedures. Proper management of this
component results in those changes I student behavior which we call learning or
achievement. Procedures must vary with the instructional objectives.
One way to define instructional objectives is to identify the end product of
instruction in terms of observable performance. The way to determine whether or
not a student has learned something is to observe the outcome of his behavior.
The outcome has been conventionally referred to as behavioral objectives. It is
more precise to refer to these end products of instruction as terminal
performances. In most schools these are verbal performances or motor skills.
Entering behavior
Entering behavior describes the student level before the instruction begins.
It refers to what the student has previously learned, his intellectual ability and
development, his motivational state, and certain social and cultural determinants
of his learning ability. Entering behavior is a more precise term than its usual
alternativeshuman ability, individual differences, and readiness. This precision
may come at the price of seeing the student as less complex, less able, and less
experienced than he may in fact be. Schools tend to define entering behavior in
terms of the traditions curriculum rather than in terms of student ability,
experience, and interest. A student with the more abstractive ability and interest
of the mathematician, therefore, may be viewed as having a higher level entering
behavior than that of a student whose major interest and ability are in creating
the visual, geometric forms of modern painting and sculpture. Although the
model gives priority to the selection of instrumental objectives over the
assessment of entering behavior, in practices these two components must
interact. Depending on the requirement of the instructional situations,
particularly on the entering behavior of the student, the classroom of the future
will provide for more or less personal contact than the conventional classroom
does now. Accordingly, the model implies a greater emphasis on teacher
competence than on personal charisma without, of course, objecting to a useful
combination of the two.
More simply, entering behavior describes the present status of the
students knowledge and skill in reference to a future status the teacher wants
him to attain. Entering behavior, therefore, is where the instruction must always
begin.Terminal behavior is where the instruction concludes.. This way the
teaching can be described as getting the student from where he is to where we
would like him to be- as moving from entering to terminal behavior. Together
descriptions of entering and terminal behavior define the limits of instructional
responsibility for each degree of teaching.

Instructional Procedures
Instructional procedures describe the teaching process; most decisions a
teacher makes are on these procedures. Proper management of this component
results in those changes in student behavior which we call learning or
achievement. Procedures must vary with the instructional objectives. Generally
instructional procedures describe procedures for teaching skills, language,
concepts, principles, and problem solving.

Performance assessment

Educational technology
Educational technology, sometimes termed EdTech, is the study and
ethical practice of facilitating e-learning, which is the learning and improving
performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological
processes and resources. The term educational technology is often associated
with, and encompasses, instructional theory and learning theory. While
instructional technology is "the theory and practice of design, development,
utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for
learning," according to the Association for Educational Communications and
Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology Committee, educational
technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human
capability. Educational technology includes, but is not limited to, software,
hardware, as well as Internet applications, such as wikis and blogs, and
activities. But there is still debate on what these terms mean.
Technology in education is most simply and comfortably defined as an
array of tools that might prove helpful in advancing student learning and may be
measured on how and why individuals behave. Educational Technology relies on
a broad definition of the word "technology." Technology can refer to material
objects of use to humanity, such as machines or hardware, but it can also
encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and
techniques. Some modern tools include but are not limited to overhead
projectors, laptop computers, and calculators. Newer tools such as smartphones
and games (both online and offline) are beginning to draw serious attention for
their learning potential. Media psychology is the field of study that applies
theories of human behavior to educational technology.
A classic example of an Educational Psychology text is Bloom's 1956
book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy is helpful when
designing learning activities to keep in mind what is expected ofand what are
the learning goals forlearners. However, Bloom's work does not explicitly deal
with educational technology per

This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century with
the animal learning experiments of Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C.
Tolman, Clark L. Hull, B.F. Skinner and many others. Many psychologists used
these theories to describe and experiment that is parallel to human learning.
While still very useful this philosophy of learning has lost favor with many
Cognitive science has changed the way educators view learning. Since the
very early beginning of the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, learning
theory has undergone a great deal of change. Much of the empirical framework of
Behaviorism was retained even though a new paradigm had begun. Cognitive
theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. Cognitivists
consider how human memory works to promote learning.
Constructivism is a learning theory of educational philosophy that many
educators began to consider in the 1990s. One of the primary tenets of this
philosophy is that learners construct their own meaning from new information,
as they interact with reality or others with different perspectives.
Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior
knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts
in learning. Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a
facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own
knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning
experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen
(1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice
learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more
advanced learners. Educators utilizing technology when teaching with a
constructivist perspective should choose technologies that reinforce prior
learning perhaps in a problem-solving environment.
Educational technology is intended to improve education for the 21st
century learner. Students today are considered "Digital Natives" who were born
and raised in a digital environment and inherently think different because of this
exposure to technology. Some of the claimed benefits of incorporating technology
into the classroom are listed below:
Easy-to-access course materials. Instructors can post their course
material or important information on a course website, which means students
can study at a time and location they prefer and can obtain the study material
very quickly.
Student motivation. According to James Kulik, who studies the
effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in
less time when receiving computer-based instruction and they like classes more
and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based
classes. Teachers must be aware of their students' motivators in order to
successfully implement technology into the classroom. Students are more
motivated to learn when they are interested in the subject matter, which can be
enhanced by using technologies in the classroom and targeting the need for
screens and digital material that they have been stimulated by outside of the
More opportunities for extended learning. According to study completed
in 2010, 70.3% of American family households have access to the internet.
According to Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission
Canada, 79% of homes have access to the internet. This allows students to
access course material at home and engage with the numerous online resources
available to them. Students can use their home computers and internet to
conduct research, participate in social media, email, play educational games and
stream videos.
Wide participation. Learning material can be used for long distance
learning and are accessible to a wider audience.

Improved student writing. It is convenient for students to edit their
written work on word processors, which can, in turn, improve the quality of their
writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and
editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students
they know.

Computer in the classroom: Having a computer in the classroom is an
asset to any teacher. With a computer in the classroom, teachers are able to
demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new
programs, and show new websites.
Class website: An easy way to display your student's work is to create a
web page designed for your class. Once a web page is designed, teachers can
post homework assignments, student work, famous quotes, trivia games, and so
much more. In today's society, children should know how to use the computer to
navigate their way through a website, so why not give them one where they can
be a published author? Just be careful, as most districts maintain strong policies
to manage official websites for a school or classroom. Also, most school districts
provide teacher webpages that can easily be viewed through the school district's
Class blogs and wikis: There are a variety of Web 2.0 tools that are
currently being implemented in the classroom. Blogs allow for students to
maintain a running dialogue. They work a tool for maintaining a journal of
thoughts, ideas, and assignments, as well as encourage student comment and
reflection. Wikis are more group focused to allow multiple members of the group
to edit a single document and create a truly collaborative and carefully edited
finished product.
Blogs allow the student to express their knowledge of the information learned in
a way that they like. Blogging is something that students do for fun sometimes,
so when they are assigned an assignment to do a blog they are eager to do it! If
you are a teacher and need to find a way to get your students eager to learn,
create, and inspire assign them a blog. They will love it.
Wireless classroom microphones: Noisy classrooms are a daily
occurrence, and with the help of microphones, students are able to hear their
teachers more clearly. Children learn better when they hear the teacher clearly.
The benefit for teachers is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of the
Mobile devices: Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be
used to enhance the experience in the classroom by providing the possibility for
professors to get feedback.
Mobile learning is how an individual learns using personal interactive
technologies, such as a computer.A branch of mobile learning where students
relate personal experiences to their learning is called performance support. More
specifically, performance support is when a person relies on their personal
technology for everyday tasks, such as using your cell phone to check the time or
setting reminders in your phone. Students would also agree that technology, in
this case computers, allow for more control over their learning. The reasons that
make mobile learning appealing is how versatile computers can be. These devices
can be available anytime and anywhere and can also enable access to the
Internet and puts a surplus of information at the users fingertips. Some of the
special characteristics that mobile learning presents to its users are portability,
connectivity, speed, and accessibility. With benefits like these, mobile learning
has the ability to offer more to education than has been available before. With
easy access to the Internet, classrooms are more flexible to adapt to surrounding
students who have different needs.
Interactive Whiteboards: An interactive whiteboard that provides touch
control of computer applications. These enhance the experience in the classroom
by showing anything that can be on a computer screen. This not only aids in
visual learning, but it is interactive so the students can draw, write, or
manipulate images on the interactive whiteboard.
Digital video-on-demand: Replacement of hard copy videos (DVD, VHS)
with digital video accessed from a central server (e.g. SAFARI Montage). Digital
video eliminates the need for in-classroom hardware (players) and allows
teachers and students to access video clips immediately by not utilizing the
public Internet.
Online media: Streamed video websites can be used to enhance a
classroom lesson (e.g. United Streaming, Teacher Tube, etc.)
Online study tools: Tools that motivate studying by making studying
more fun or individualized for the student (e.g. Study Cocoa)
Digital Games: The field of educational games and serious games has
been growing significantly over the last few years. The digital games are being
provided as tools for the classroom and have a lot of positive feedback including
higher motivation for students.

There are many other tools being used depending on the local school board and
funds available. These may include: digital cameras, video cameras, interactive
whiteboard tools, document cameras, or LCD projectors.

Instruction is helping people learn and develop in a structured manner.
The kinds of learning and development may include cognitive, emotional, social,
physical, and spiritual. Learning can certainly occur without instruction. We are
continuously encountering and interpreting our environment and the events in
it. Learning is a natural process that leads to changes in what we know, what
we can do, and how we behave. However, one function of an educational system
is to facilitate intentional learning, in order to accomplish many goals that would
take much longer without instruction. Educational institutions teach knowledge
and skills that the community feels are desirable, even if they are not of
immediate personal interest to the student, and even if they would not be
encountered naturally in non-school environments. The government and
commercial industries provide both skills and training and continuing refresher
training to help employees acquire the skills and learning needed to succeed in a
changing workplace (Gagne et. al. 2005).
Is teaching different from instruction? Teaching is only one part of
instruction. The word teach infers that a person is lecturing or demonstrating
something to the learner. However, the teacher or trainers role includes many
different tasks, such as selecting materials, gauging student readiness to learn,
managing class time, monitoring instructional activities, and finally serving as a
content resource and a learning facilitator. Instruction puts emphasis on a
whole range of activities the teacher uses to engage the students. An instructor
who has knowledge of the principles of instruction design has a broader vision of
what it takes to help students learn: when it would benefit students to be put
into groups, when practice and feedback will be most effective, and what are the
pre-requisites for problem-solving and higher-order learning skills, for example.
Application of principles of instructional design would benefit a number of
persons connected with education, including those who are in the business of
producing instructional materials, such as textbook writers, curriculum material
developers, web-based course designers, and knowledge management system
Instructional-Design Theories (Reigeluth 1999)
An instructional-design theory offers explicit guidance on how to better
help people learn and develop. For example, an instructional-design theory
called Theory One (Perkins 1992) offers the following guidance for what the
instruction should provide:
Clear information. Descriptions and examples of goals, knowledge
needed, and the performances expected.
Thoughtful practice. Opportunity for learners to engage actively and
reflectively whatever is to be learned.
Informative feedback. Clear, thorough counsel to learners about their
performance, helping them to proceed more effectively.
Strong intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Activities that are amply
rewarded, either because they are very interesting and engaging in themselves, or
because they feed into other achievements that concern the learner.
Instructional-design theory is a design-oriented (focusing on means to attain
given goals of learning or development), rather than description oriented
(focusing on the results of given events). Secondly, instructional design theory
identifies methods of instruction (ways to support and facilitate learning) and the
situations in which those methods should and should not be used. Third, in all
instructional-design theories, the methods of instruction can be broken into
more detailed component methods. Fourth, the methods are probabilistic rather
than deterministic, which means they increase the chances of attaining the goals
rather than ensuring attainment of goals.
Theories can be thought of as dealing with cause-and-effect relationships
or with flows of events in natural processes, keeping in mind that those effects or
events are almost always probabilistic. Most people think of theories as
descriptive in nature, meaning that the theory describes the effects that occur
when a given class of causal events occurs, or meaning that it describes the
sequence in which certain events occur. Descriptive theories can be used for
prediction or for explanation. Designoriented theories are very different from
descriptive theories. Design theories are prescriptive in nature, in the sense that
they offer guidelines as to what method(s) to use to best attain a given goal.
Simon (1969) referred to the distinction between descriptive theories and design
theories as the natural sciences and and the sciences of the artificial,
respectively. Design theories are intended to provide direct guidance to
practitioners about what methods to use to attain different goals, whereas
descriptive theories attempt to provide a deeper understanding of effects that
result from phenomena. Descriptive theories, therefore, are also useful to
practitioners, because they provide an understanding of why a design theory
works and because they can help practitioners to generate their own theories for
those many situations for which no adequate ones exist. The major concern for
people developing and testing descriptive theories is validity, whereas for design
theories it is preferability.
Instruction design theory requires at least two components: methods for
facilitating human learning and development (which are also called instructional
methods), and indications as to when and when not use those methods (which
may be called situations). An essential feature of instructional-design theories is
that the methods they offer are situational rather than universal. There are two
major aspects of any instructional situation: the conditions under which the
instruction will take place and the desired outcomes of the instruction.
Instructional conditions include:
The nature of what is to be learned (e.g., understandings are learned
differently from the way skills are learned)
The nature of the learner (e.g., prior knowledge, learning strategies, and
The nature of learning environment (e.g., independently at home, in a
group, in a classroom, a team in business)
The nature of the instructional development constraints (e.g., resources
available for planning and developing instruction)
The second major aspect of any instructional situation is the desired
instructional outcomes, which are different from learning goals. They do not
include the specific learnings that are desired. Instead, desired instructional
outcomes include the levels of effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal you want or
need from the instruction. Some trade-offs are necessary, among the desired
Instructional methods are also componential, meaning that each can be
done in different ways and therefore made up of different components (or
features). For example, group discussion can be viewed as a method of
instruction. But group discussion is made up of many smaller methods, such as
forming groups, presenting an issue for discussion, rules to be followed for
discussions, and evaluating groups as well as individuals efforts and so forth. In
addition, there are usually many different ways in which a method can be
performed. The discussion topic can be presented in many ways; the rules for
discussions can be made differently, and so forth. More details can be provided
for a method by offering criteria that the method should meet. An instructional-
design theory is easier to apply if it describes methods on a relatively detailed
Another characteristic of methods of instruction is that they are
probabilistic. This means that methods do not guarantee the desired
instructional and learning outcomes. They only increase the probability that the
desired results will occur. This is because there are so many factors that
influence how well a method of instruction works.
So, instructional-design theories can vary greatly in terms of the level of
guidance they provide, ranging from very general theories to highly dedicated
theories. Instructional-design theories differ in important ways from learning
theories, curriculum theories, and instruction-design processes.
Learning theories are often confused with instruction-design theories.
Learning theories are descriptive. They describe how learning occurs. For
example, one kind of theory, called schema theory, proposes that new knowledge
is acquired by accretion into an existing schema, by tuning that schema when
minor inconsistencies emerge, and restructuring that schema when major
inconsistencies arise. If I am able to successfully identify useful methods for a
particular situation, I have created an instructional-design theory. In contrast to
learning theories, instructional-design theories are more directly and easily
applied to education problems, for they describe specific events outside of the
learner that facilitate learning (i.e., methods of instruction), rather than
describing what goes on inside a learners head when learning occurs. The same
kind of analysis applies to theories of human development.
Curriculum theories are concerned with what to teach, whereas decisions
about how to teach constitute the province of instruction-design theories.
However, the interrelationships between these two kinds of decisions are so
strong that it often makes sense to combine the two. Regarding what to teach
(goals), the Instructional System Design (ISD) process has traditionally looked at
only what works, through the process of needs analysis. But many curriculum
theories are based on a philosophy (a set of values). In fact both empirics (data
about what is needed) and values (opinions about what is important) are relevant
and should be addressed in the ISD process for deciding what to teach, perhaps
with different degrees of emphasis for different situations. Decisions regarding
how to teach need also to take into consideration how one situation differs from
another, because people differ in their values about what outcomes are
important. Thus, both values and empirics are important for making decisions
about how to teach as well as what to teach, so elements of curriculum theory
and the ISD process should be combined.
Instructional-Design Process or Instructional System Development
(ISD) is the process a teacher or instructional designer should use to plan and
prepare for instruction, while instructional-design theory concerns what the
instruction should be like (i.e., what methods of instruction should be used).
However, instructional-design theories and instructional-design processes are
closely related. Different theories require differences in the process used to apply
those theories to particular situations.
Instructional practice is a subsystem that is part of different kinds of
systems, such as public education system, higher education systems, corporate
training systems, health agencies, the armed forces, museums, informal learning
systems, and many others. Systems thinkers know that, when a human-activity
system (or societal system) changes in significant ways, its subsystems must
change in equally significant ways to survive. This is because each subsystem
must meet one or more needs of its supersystem in order for the supersystem to
continue to support it.

Instructional System Design Model
Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Models are the systematic guidelines
instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a
curriculum, an instructional program, a training session, or the instructional
materials and products for educational programs. ISD is a process to ensure
learning does not occur in a haphazard manner, but is developed using a process
with specific measurable outcomes. The responsibility of the instructional
designer is to create instructional experiences, which ensure that the learners
will achieve the goals of instruction. ADDIE is generic model for instruction
system design. All other ISD models can be treated as particularizations of this
model for specific purposes. For example, the very popular Dick and Carey
model can be seen as particularization of ADDIE model for training programs,
though the authors did not refer to ADDIE. One particularization of ADDIE
model to courses in formal engineering programs is presented in the following.
The ADDIE Model is a colloquial term used, since 1980s, to describe a
systematic approach to instructional development. The term is virtually
synonymous with instructional systems development. The label seems not to
have a single author, but rather to have evolved informally through oral
tradition. It is not a specific, fully elaborated model in its own right, but rather
an umbrella term that refers to a family of models that share a common
underlying structure. ADDIE is an acronym referring to the major processes that
comprise the generic ISD: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation,
and Evaluation. These processes are sequential and iterative, as depicted in
figure 1.
The basic engine of ISD models (Molenda 2003) is the systems approach:
viewing human organizations and activities as systems in which inputs, outputs,
processes (throughputs), and feedback and control elements are the salient
features. Advocates of this model claim that the process of designing instruction
can be carried out more efficiently and effectively if the steps are followed in a
logical order so that the output of each step provides the input to the next. For
example, the outputs of the Analysis phase are a set of learning objectives
prepared based on a selected set of competencies, a concept map that arranges
the concepts to be mastered to achieve the learning objectives, and course
contents arranged as modules. In the Design phase learning objectives at the
level of modules are prepared, media in which learning material would be
presented is selected, and instructional methods are chosen for different learning
units/modules. The blueprint created in the Design phase is converted into
instructional materials and procedures in the Development phase. The
materials and procedures are used by actual learners in the Implementation
phase. The learners and the instructional system are probed, in the Evaluation
phase to decide whether revisions are necessary, in which case the process
would be repeated with the next version of instruction.

Fig. 1: ADDIE model of ISD
The iterative aspect of the model is represented vertically down the model
by the arrows in both directions between each phase, as depicted in figure 1.
Each major phase of the process is accompanied by some sort of formative
evaluation, as depicted on the left side of the model, to test the adequacy of the
decisions made during that phase. After Analysis, for example, the accuracy of
descriptions of the audience and the learning needs are evaluated by a group of

experts. After Design, the concept map and instructional methods are judged by
experts. After Development, the efficacy of prototype work in a small-scale tryout
is evaluated and improvements to the learning materials are worked out. Did the
entire intervention achieve its goal, or what remains to be done after
Implementation? This summative evaluation is what is symbolized by the final
Evaluation phase. At each of these phases, the results of the evaluative activity
could lead the developers to revisit earlier steps, hence the arrows between
phases in both the directions.
The single most important feature of ADDIE model is the identification, at
the beginning of instruction design, of learning objectives that determine the
nature and content of learning material.
The activities under all these four phases will greatly depend on the nature of
what is being created and the context in which it is being created. The context is
defined by the audience and their background, environment in which the
instruction takes place, and the technologies accessible.
Analysis is the first stage of ADDIE model. The first task in this phase is
identification of audience and determination of their entry behavior. As
engineering programs are formal, elaborate mechanisms exist for selection of
students to these programs, and the curriculum identifies the course structure
and prerequisites of each course, the analysis of audience and entry behaviors
need not be undertaken for each course. The time and budget constraints also
do not change from one course to the other very much. All courses are of one
semester duration and have well defined credit load. The system of examination
to evaluate the performance of students is prefixed and the instruction designer
has only a limited choice in this regard. Therefore, the major task of the analysis
phase is identification of instructional goals. An engineering program has well
defined outcomes, which are generic in nature. Each course attempts to meet a
subset of these outcomes. The selected outcomes need to be translated into a set
of technical and non-technical competencies related to the subject matter of the
course. Learning objectives are written for the identified list of competencies.
The stages of analysis phase for an engineering course may be listed as
State the context of the course in terms of Mission and Vision of the
Institution, Program Educational Objectives, Curriculum of the program of
which the course is an element, and course overview.
Select a subset of program outcomes proposed to be addressed by the
Identify the competencies related to the subject under consideration that
also achieve the selected program outcomes.
Determine instructional methods proposed to be used for the course.
Select an assessment pattern for the identified competencies.
Write instructional objectives that would lead to the identified
Create the concept map of the course that arranges in a hierarchical
manner the concepts that need to be learnt to achieve the competencies.
Prepare the course contents as per the concept map.
Prepare competency-program outcome matrix.
Have the outcomes, competencies, assessment pattern, learning objectives,
and concept map evaluated by peers, and modify them if necessary.
Design Phase
The design phase represents activities that enable the instruction designer
to generate a plan according to which the instructional material would be
identified and/or developed. The stages of design phase for an engineering
course may be listed as
Work out instructional strategies for achieving each competency taking the
available tools and preferences into account.
Write overview and instructional objectives for each unit.
Select appropriate delivery system for each unit from the available
technology systems.
Work out instructional strategy for a group of units (Module) or for each
Plan the non-lecture oriented sessions (assignment, laboratory
experiments, field trips, reports, group projects, discussion sessions etc.) if
Have the outputs of design phase peer reviewed.
Development Phase
The development phase represents activities that convert the blueprints
created in the design phase into instructional materials, learning materials and
materials and procedures for planned activities. The stages in the development
phase of an engineering course consist of
Select and/or prepare learning materials for the course. The learning
material could be in the form of learning objects
Identify reference materials and internet links relevant resources.
Prepare instructional materials as per the selected instructional methods
and strategies

The art of teaching does not merely involve a simple transfer of knowledge
from one to other. Instead, it is a complex process that facilitates and influences
the process of learning. Quality of a teacher is estimated on how much the
students understand from his/her teaching. The classrooms cannot be used as a
learning platform for acquiring primary teaching skills. Training of medical
teachers in specific teaching skills is a major challenge in medical education
programs. The pedagogic skill for teaching can be acquired only through more
structured and cheaper faculty training techniques. With the introduction of
microteaching about five decades ago, the lacunae of scientifically proven or
effective methods to be followed in teacher training programs has been overcome.
The aim of this article is to emphasize the need for using microteaching
techniques more frequently and efficiently with minimum available facilities. A
systematic literature search of research articles and reviews was undertaken
from various educational databases. From the reference lists of published
articles, books available were also reviewed.
Definition and basic concepts
Microteaching is a teacher training technique for learning teaching skills. It
employs real teaching situation for developing skills and helps to get deeper
knowledge regarding the art of teaching. This Stanford technique involved the
steps of plan, teach, observe, re-plan, re-teach and re-observe and has evolved
as the core component in 91% of on-campus clinical teaching development
programs, with the significant reduction in the teaching complexities with
respect to number of students in a class, scope of content, and timeframe, etc.
Most of the pre-service teacher education programs widely use microteaching,
and it is a proven method to attain gross improvement in the instructional
experiences. Effective student teaching should be the prime quality of a teacher.
As an innovative method of equipping teachers to be effective, skills and
practices of microteaching have been implemented.
Microteaching in medical education
The traditional medical teaching emphasizes on the transmission of factual
knowledge and hence, the teachers are the main source of information. But, the
conventional methods of medical teacher training are not adequate. So, the
teaching objectives have now shifted to the student centered, measurable,
achievable, relevant, and timely concept. Microteaching allows learning each skill
to the maximum extent as there is a chance of listening, observing, and
Implementation of microteaching in medical education
There was an increase in interests toward introducing microteaching
techniques in the Indian medical schools. This training technique provides
medical teachers an excellent opportunity to improve their teaching skills and
follows the Skinners theory of operant conditioning and also has a scientific
basis. The Medical Council of India has also recommended training for medical
teachers for their continued, efficient performance in that capacity at any age. It
is widely accepted that the quality and competency of medical teachers can be
improved by effective medical education training programs.