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William Lasso

a

, Eduardo A. Prez Caldern

b

, Nelali P. Castillo Serrano

b

, Leonardo Daz M.

a

, and

Cesar O. Torres*

a

a

Optics and Computer Science Laboratory, Popular University of Cesar, Valledupar, Colombia

b

University of Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

ABSTRACT

The dynamic speckle analysis has been done because speckle interference began to be evaluated as an important source

of information, especially those related to biological samples under laser beam. The biospeckle is a phenomenon

produced naturally when biological material is illuminated by laser light. If it is possible to record the temporal history of

the phenomenon, it will be possible to identify, in a seed, areas with different activity. Biospeckle or dynamic speckle

can be used as a method for analysing activity, biologic or not, from materials illuminated with laser beam. The Spatial

Temporal Speckle (STS) contains data of time information of dynamic speckle and it is used as input for many

techniques allowing the analysis of the activity which is being monitored. This paper presents the results of analysing

biospeckle data using fractional order Fourier transform, coefficient filtering and reconstruction, with a novel approach

to increase the information obtained.

Keywords: Coherent light scattering, biological scattering centers, contrast, speckle size.

1. INTRODUCTION

Time history speckle pattern (THSP) has been used to characterize the activity in specimens, and the first account

registering its usage can be attributed to David Briers [1]. When coherent light crosses a medium having scattering

centers an ununiformly illuminated image is obtained, currently named speckled image, having a statistical distribution

of the intensity over the interference field. The speckled image appears as a result of the interference of the wavelets

scattered by the scattering centers, each wavelet having a different phase and amplitude in each location of the

interference field. An optical technique with potential use in biological metrology is the biospeckle; this effect (Braga Jr

et al., 2003) is a scattering phenomenon occurring when coherent light illuminates an active surface. Scattered waves are

Doppler shifted by movements of the scattering centres or other dynamic changes, such as refractive index time

variations, and beat in the detector thus producing low-frequency intensity variations. The surface appears to be covered

by tiny bright dots that fluctuate in a seemingly random way as for a boiling liquid. It has been used before for several

measurement applications in biology, medicine and industry.

The temporal variations of biospeckle are studied using some techniques as Inertia Moment [1], Wavelets based Entropy

[2] and Cross-Spectrum analysis [3]. All these methods have as input data the Spatial Temporal Speckle (STS) [4],

which is an image that represents the variation, along the time, of a region from the biospeckle of the material

illuminated with laser beam. In this work, we are going to consider the use of fractional order Fourier transform based

entropy as a measure of the activity following two approaches.

2. PRELIMINARIES

The application of dynamic laser speckle, or biospeckle laser BSL, in many areas of knowledge created naturally new

demands of research and developments [14], but always carrying out the results with the separation of the graphical to

the numerical approaches. The biospeckle samples can be obtained using different approaches. When only a small region

of the active sample is illuminated, one convenient way to register and store dynamic speckle information is through the

time history of the speckle pattern (THSP) suggested by Oulamara et al. [5]. Free propagation of the scattered light from

the sample is registered by a lens less CCD camera or a strongly defocused one. One column of the obtained image is

selected and consecutive ones are stored side by side in a composite image, the THSP.

*Email: cesartorres@unicesar.edu.co

8th Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 11th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers, and Applications,

edited by Manuel Filipe P. C. Martins Costa, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785, 8785G1

2013 SPIE CCC code: 0277-786X/13/$18 doi: 10.1117/12.2026264

Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785 8785G1-1

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 12/12/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms

Every pixel in the CCD receives, but for negligible variations in the sensitivity vector, different instantiations of

essentially the same phenomenon. So, many samples are simultaneously registered and an efficient use of statistics can

be accomplished. The incoming images are digitized by a frame grabber and stored and processed by a personal

computer. Care is taken to maintain the laser intensity constant during data acquisition.

The Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction equations can be derived from a transmission aperture diffraction model

(TADM), where the observation plane parallels the aperture plane; as a consequence, if the observation plane is not

parallel to the aperture plane, or, for a reflective surface diffraction model (RSDM) the observation plane is not parallel

to the object plane, the Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction equations become incapable of evaluating the complex-

amplitude distribution at the observation plane. This can be attributed to two considerations: (1) the coordinate system

rotation between the observation plane and the object plane, (2) variations of the near-field approximation caused by the

coordinate system rotation. There is also a distinct difference in the calculation of the inclination factor using the RSDM

and the TADM. When a weakly scattering object with a reflective surface is illuminated by a coherent oblique plane

wave, choosing an observation plane perpendicular to the direction of the reflected light by the object plane, a partially

developed speckle pattern will occur in this plane. To evaluate the speckle field at the observation plane, a new

diffraction equation need to be established. Yet to our best knowledge, few studies have been focused on this point.

Cheng [5] proposed an interesting RSDM by approximating the actual reflective surface with a series of step-like planes

and gave a discrete expression of the diffraction field under the Fraunhofer approximation. Allardyce et al. [8] analyzed

the diffraction from a rough reflective surface, using geometrical optics to acquire the emergent light field of the surface

and employing the Fraunhofer diffraction equation. New theoretical results of the diffraction of a rough surface under

the case in which the observation and the object planes are parallel to each other. Yamaguchi et al. [8] presented a

diffraction equation of a reflective surface, taking only the coordinate system rotation into account.

2.1 Analysing the biological activity by speckle properties

Surface roughness measurements of metallic components are of great importance in the mechanical machining field.

Since 1972 when Sprague [1] applied white speckle techniques to surface roughness measurements, many investigators

have investigated this subject [2-8]. Speckle patterns contain information about the microscopic structures of a rough

surface. In order to study the relationships between the statistical properties of speckle patterns with surface roughness,

the complex-amplitude distribution of the speckle field should be obtained. To achieve this, the corresponding diffraction

equation describing the propagation of diffracted wave from the rough surface to the observation plane should be

constructed. In former studies, the Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction equations were used to calculate the speckle field

[6-8] with the consideration that the observation plane is in parallel with the object plane in their experimental setups.

The purpose of this paper is to derive corresponding diffraction equations to describe the diffraction from a weak

scattering reflective surface under a coherent plane wave incidence. We consider the difference between the reflective

surface diffraction model (RSDM) and the transmission aperture diffraction model (TADM) and reached a general

diffraction equation in terms of the fractional Fourier transform and mathematical modeling of dynamic speckle.

2.2 General diffraction equation for a inclined surface

The integral of Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction can be written as:

( ) ( )

( )

ds

r

ikr

P U P U

01

01

1

'

0

exp

=

(1)

Where is the surface of the integral, and is chosen to be modeled mathematically as an inclined aperture; this opening

can be written as:

( ) ( ) ( )

=

2

, cos , cos exp 1

) ( '

21 01

21

21

1

r n r n

r

ikr A

i

P U

r r r r

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

ds

r n r n

r

ikr

P U

i

P U

2

, cos , cos exp 1

) (

21 01

01

01

1 0

r r r r

(2)

Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785 8785G1-2

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Where the expression ) (

1

P U is the wave field in the diffraction point and ) (

0

P U is the wave field in the observation

point

0

P , and the parenthetical term expression (2) represents the diffraction angle and the slope factor for the model

respectively. Considering in the point

1

P the corresponding expression for

01

r

r

and the element of area ds in the equation

(2) and also substituting ( )

1

P U , and ( )

01

, cos r n

r r

the diffraction general equation is obtained for an inclined surface:

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

0 1 0 1 0 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

2

0 1

1 1 0 0

cos sin

exp

cos sin

2

exp

2

1

dy dx h

z z y y x x

z z y y h x x h

z z y y x x

z z y y x x ik

z x i A

i

P U

x

y x

D

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

(3)

Where D defines the region of integration in the median plane.

2.3 Near field diffraction

As seen from equation (3) is very wasteful calculate the diffraction of light that should be roughly taken into account in

practical utilities, however considering the geometric arrangement of Figure 1, and based on the paraxial approximation,

where it is assumed that the distance L is very large compared with the linear dimensions of the region of maximum

illumination and the observation point

0

P is very close to the z axis, if it is further necessary approximations of

01

r

r

and

the terms of the partial derivation of

x

h ,

y

h , and substituted in equation (3) gives an approximate expression for the

diffraction equation for a reflective inclined surface.

Fig. 1. Geometrical arrangement

( ) ( )

( )

( )

1 1

2

0

2

0

2

0

1 0

2

0

2

0

2

0

0 1 0 1

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

1

2

1

1 1

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

0 0

0 0 0 0

2

exp

2

exp

exp cos sin

2

exp

exp

cos

2

, ,

dy dx

z y x

z z

i

z y x

y y x x

i

z y x

y x

i z x i

z y x

z y x ik

z y x

z

i

A

z y x U P U

D

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

= =

(4)

Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785 8785G1-3

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Making a coordinate conversion, cos sin

0

+ = L x , =

0

y , sen L z = cos

0

and entering the aperture

function ( ) y x P , the equation (4) yields equation near field diffraction for a rough surface inclined.

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

1 1

2 2 2

1 1

2 2 2

2

1

2

1

1

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

0

cos sin 2

exp exp

sin cos

cos

2

exp sin

2

exp ,

exp

cos

sin cos

2

,

dy dx

L

y L x

i

L

y x

i

z

L

L

i x i y x P

L

L ik

L

L

i

A

U

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

=

(5)

Considering that:

( ) ( )

+ +

+ =

1

2 2 2

1 1 1 1 0

sin cos

cos

2

exp , , z

L

L

i y x P y x U

fractional Fourier transform order, as shown in equation (6):

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

=

sin

2

exp ,

cos sin

exp

exp

cos

sin cos

2

,

1 1 1 0

2 2 2

2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

0

x i y x U

L

L

i

L

L ik

L

L

i

A

U

(6)

The expression (6) means that the aperture or pupil function is mounted on a phase of the form:

( )

sin

2

exp

1

x i

,

which corresponds to a spherical wave, Equation (6) establishes a relationship of fractional Fourier transform between

the complex amplitude distributions of field. Considering equation (6) approaches necessary to help describe the near-

field diffraction, one can obtain the standard form of the Fresnel diffraction equation for an inclined and reflective

surface, ie:

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

=

sin

2

exp

sin cos

cos

2

exp ,

cos sin

exp

exp

cos

sin cos

2

,

1 1

2 2 2

1 1

2 2 2

2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

0

x i z

L

L

i y x P

L

L

i

L

L ik

L

L

i

A

U

(7)

In the same way, considering the far-field diffraction ( )

L

y x +

max

2

1

2

1

allows to obtain the standard form of the

Fraunhofer diffraction equation for an inclined and reflective surface, ie:

( )

( )

( ) ( )

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

=

sin

2

exp

sin cos

cos

2

exp ,

exp

cos

sin cos

2

,

1 1

2 2 2

1 1

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

0

x i z

L

L

i y x P

L

L ik

L

L

i

A

U

(8)

In the particular situation where there is no inclination 0 = , the equations (7) and (8) yields:

( )

( )

( ) { }

1 1 0

2 2

0

, exp

exp

, y x U

L

i

L

ikL

i

A

U

+

=

(9)

( )

( )

( ) { }

1 1 0

0

,

exp

, y x U

L

ikL

i

A

U =

(10)

Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785 8785G1-4

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 12/12/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms

Equations (9) and (10) are precisely classic expressions corresponding to Fresnel diffraction and Fraunhofer diffraction

plane and the observation plane is not inclined.

3. A BIOLOGICAL SURFACE ILLUMINATED BY A LASER BEAM: THEORY

A biological surface illuminated by a laser beam can be modeled as the product of two components:

a) ( )

1 1 1

, , z y x C , that describes the roughness of the sample which consists of elementary cells with random

distribution of size and orientation.

b) ( ) t y x D , ,

1 1

, that describes the instantaneous location of small and moving particles inside the cells.

The speckle pattern observed in the observation plane at time t result from the light diffracted by the instantaneous

distribution of scatterers. The three-dimentional diffusing target is defined by the product:

( ) ( ) ( ) t y x D z y x C t z y x P , , , , , , ,

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= .

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

, , , , z y C z x C z y x C

y x

= , denotes the stationary roughness function with respect to the average plane of the

sample. Assuming a rectangular aperture:

( ) ( )

<

= =

a x if

a x if

x rect z x C

x

1

1

1 1 1

0

1

, ( ) ( )

<

= =

b y if

b y if

y rect z y C

y

1

1

1 1 1

0

1

, (11)

And the aperture function can be expanded as the sum of complex Gaussian functions with finite numbers and given by

( )

= =

=

N

l

l

l

N

n

n

n

y

b

B

A x

a

B

A z y x C

1

2

1 2

1

2

1 2 1 1 1

exp exp , , (12)

( ) t y x D , ,

1 1

is the temporal distribution of the scatterers defined by their individual location in the ( ) y x, plane

assuming displacement dz to be small, them:

( ) ( ) ( )

i i

y y x x t y x D = , ,

1 1

(13)

At time ( ) t t + this function is:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t v y y t v x x t t y x D

yi i xi i

+ + = + , ,

1 1

(14)

xi

v and

yi

v are the average speeds of the particle in the ( ) y x, plane. The scattered field amplitude becomes:

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

=

= =

sin

2

exp

sin cos

cos

2

exp , , exp exp

cos sin

exp

exp

cos

sin cos

2

,

1 1

2 2 2

1 1

1

2

1 2

1

2

1 2

2 2 2

2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2 2

0

x i z

L

L

i t y x D t v y y t v x x y

b

B

A x

a

B

A

L

L

i

L

L ik

L

L

i

A

U

yi i xi i

N

l

l

l

N

n

n

n

(15)

Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785 8785G1-5

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CONCLUSIONS

Based on the integral of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction, we have obtained a diffraction basic integrated for a reflective

inclined surface, in terms of the fractional Fourier transform and mathematical modeling of dynamic speckle, where the

difference in the calculation of tilt factor between the model has been taken into account. As a fundamental result found

a general equation of diffraction for an inclined surface and reflective under illumination (typical speckle patterns) of a

plane wave coherent, considering the effects of rotation of the coordinate system on the near-field approximation and

introducing the consideration of small inclinations, the diffraction near field and far field are obtained and presented as

special cases of equation (9-10). Thus the resulting expression is more general than the classical equations of Fresnel

diffraction and Fraunhofer for typical speckle patterns, It should be noted that the light fields emerging microscopic

equations are contained in these diffraction, and refer to the height distribution of the surface considered

REFERENCES

[1] Sprague RA. Surface roughness measurement using white light speckle. Appl. Opt. 1972; 11(12):28116.

[2] Chandley PJ. Surface roughness measurements from coherent light scattering. Opt. Quantum Electron 1976;8:323

7.

[3] Pedersen HM. Object-roughness dependence of partially developed speckle patterns in coherent light. Opt Commun

1976;16(1):637

[4] Leonard LC, Toal V. Roughness measurement of metallic surfaces based on the laser speckle contrast method. Opt

Lasers Eng 1998;30:43340.

[5] Yamaguchi I, Kobayashi K, Yaroslavsky L. Measurement of surface roughness by speckle correlation. Opt Eng

2004;43(11):275361.

[6] Goodman JW. Dependence of image speckle contrast on surface roughness. Opt Commun 1975;14(3):3247.

[7] Ohtsubo J, Asakura T. Statistical properties of laser speckle produced in the diffraction field. Appl Opt

1977;16(6):174253.

[8] Zhao Gao, Xuezeng Zhao. Diffraction equations for weak scattering reflective surface. Optics & Laser Technology,

May 2008.

Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8785 8785G1-6

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