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# Introduction Number Systems

## Number System Basics

All number systems have some commonalities:
The base of the number system identifies how many unique
symbols are used for that particular number system.
The base of the number system identifies the value of the
highest symbol.
All number systems begin counting at Zero.
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
Has ten unique symbols.
The ten symbols are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
The value for the highest symbol is determined using the
following formula:
Highest Symbol Value = Base 1
(Base) 10 1 = 9
The value for the highest symbol in the decimal number
system is 9.
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
When you begin counting in a number system, always begin
with Zero.
When you have used up all of the symbols, increment the
column to the left by 1 and begin counting again starting with
Zero.
Counting in decimal or Base 10 number system
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
All number systems use positional notation.
The base of the number identifies the base value to be used
when determining the value for each position.
All number systems use a POINT to separate the integer from
the fractional part.
For Base 10, this is called the decimal point.
Positional Notation
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
The values of the positional multipliers are the number systems
base raised to a power.
For the decimal number system, the multipliers are the powers
of ten:
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
. 10
-1
10
-2
10,000 1,000 100 10 1 . 0.1 0.01
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
Positional Notation
For example: 37,428
10
3 x 10
4
= 3 x 10,000 = 30,000
7 x 10
3
= 7 x 1, 000 = 7,000
4 x 10
2
= 4 x 100 = 400
2 x 10
1
= 2 x 10 = 20
8 x 10
0
= 8 x 1 = 8
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
Express this base 10 number in positional
notation:
56,782.45
Introduction Number Systems
The Decimal Number System
Solution
5 x 10
4
= 5 x 10,000 = 50,000
6 x 10
3
= 6 x 1,000 = 6,000
7 x 10
2
= 7 x 100 = 700
8 x 10
1
= 8 x 10 = 80
2 x 10
0
= 2 x 1 = 2
4 x 10
-1
= 4 x 0.1 = 0.4
+ 5 x 10
-2
= 5 x 0.01 = 0.05
56,782.45
Introduction Number Systems
Other Number Systems Used in Digital
Electronics & Computers
- Binary (Base 2)
- Octal (Base 8)
- Hexadecimal (Base 16)
Introduction Number Systems
Summary About the Basics
All of the basics discussed as they relate to
the decimal number system applies directly to
the Binary, Octal & Hexadecimal number
systems.
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
- Base 2
- Has two unique symbols.
- Remember, the value of the highest symbol equals the
Base of the Number System minus 1.
- Base 2 - 1 = 1
- Therefore, the highest symbol in the binary number
system is 1.
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
- When counting in binary, begin with Zero, just as you
do with any other number system.
- When you have used all of the unique symbols,
increment the column to the left by one and start with
Zero again.
Counting in Binary
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
Counting in Binary
0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
Counting in Binary
Write the next 16 counts beginning with 10000
2
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
Solution
10001 10101 11001 11101
10010 10110 11010 11110
10011 10111 11011 11111
10100 11000 11100 100000
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
- Each position will be 2 raised to a power.
- The binary number system is based on the powers of 2.
2
5
, 2
4
, 2
3
, 2
2
, 2
1
, 2
0
. 2
-1
, 2
-2
, 2
-3
, etc.
- The point that separates the integer part from the
fractional part of the number is called the binary point.
Positional Notation
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
- Positional notation in the binary number system is
based on powers of two.
- For example:
2
5
, 2
4
, 2
3
, 2
2
, 2
1
, 2
0
. 2
-1
, 2
-2
, etc.
32 16 8 4 2 1 .5 .25
Positional Notation
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
Positional Notation
For example: 11011
2
1 x 2
4
= 1 x 16 = 16
1 x 2
3
= 1 x 8 = 8
0 x 2
2
= 0 x 4 = 0
1 x 2
1
= 1 x 2 = 2
+ 1 x 2
0
= 1 x 1 = 1
27
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
Express this binary number in positional notation:
101101.01
2
Introduction Number Systems
The Binary Number System
1 x 2
5
= 1 x 32 = 32.00
0 x 2
4
= 1 x 16 = 0.00
1 x 2
3
= 1 x 8 = 8.00
1 x 2
2
= 1 x 4 = 4.00
0 x 2
1
= 0 x 2 = 0.00
1 x 2
0
= 1 x 1 = 1.00
0 x 2
-1
= 0 x 0.5 = 0.00
+ 1 x 2
-2
= 0 x .25 = 0.25
45.25
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
- Base 8
- Is based on powers of 8.
- The value of the highest symbol is 7.
- The octal point separates the integer portion of the
number from the fractional portion of the number.
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
Counting in Base 8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
Counting in Base 8
Write the next 23 counts beginning with:
60
8
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
Counting in Base 8
Solution:
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
The positional multipliers for the octal number system are:
8
4
8
3
8
2
8
1
8
0
. 8
-1
8
-2
4096 512 64 8 1 . 0.125 0.015625
Positional Notation
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
Positional Notation
7 x 8
3
= 7 x 512 = 3,584
4 x 8
2
= 4 x 64 = 256
6 x 8
1
= 6 x 8 = 48
+ 2 x 8
0
= 2 x 1 = 2
3,890
For Example: 7462
8
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
Express this octal number using positional
notation:
4712.5
8
Introduction Number Systems
The Octal Number System
4 x 8
3
= 4 x 512 = 2,048.000
7 x 8
2
= 7 x 64 = 448.000
1 x 8
1
= 1 x 8 = 8.000
2 x 8
0
= 2 x 1 = 2.000
+ 5 x 8
-1
= 5 x 0.125 = 0.625
2,506.625
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
- The base of this number system is 16.
- There are 16 unique symbols for this number system.
- The sixteen symbols are:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
- A numeric symbol must occupy only one place in a
number.
- Numbers such as 12, 15, 24, etc uses two symbols as
two places are occupied.
- Since there are only 10 symbols defined because of the
decimal number system, six additional symbols must be
selected.
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
- The six extra symbols needed are borrowed from the
alphabet.
- The six letters borrowed from the alphabet are: A B C
D E F
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
- This number system begins counting at zero.
- After counting from 0 to 9, the next six counts are A, B,
C, D, E, F.
- After using the 16 possible symbols, increment the next
column to the left by one and start counting with zero
again.
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
Write the next 32 counts beginning with 40
16
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F
Solution
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
- The hexadecimal number system uses positional
notation just like the other number systems studied so
far.
- The hexadecimal number system is based on the
number 16.
- The Hexadecimal Point separates the integer portion of
the number from the fractional portion.
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
- The powers of 16 used for the positional notation
system for base 16 are:
16
3
16
2
16
1
16
0
. 16
-1
4,096 256 16 1 . 0.0625
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
Positional Notation
B x 16
3
= 11 x 4,096 = 45,056
9 x 16
2
= 9 x 256 = 2,304
5 x 16
1
= 5 x 16 = 80
+ F x 16
0
= 15 x 1 = 15
47,455
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
Express this base 16 number in positional notation:
3C9F.B
16
Introduction Number Systems
The Hexadecimal Number System
3 x 16
3
= 3 x 4,096 = 12,288.0000
C x 16
2
= 12 x 256 = 3,072.0000
9 x 16
1
= 9 x 16 = 144.0000
F x 16
0
= 15 x 1 = 15.0000
B x 16
-1
= 11 x 0.0625 = 0.6875
15,519.6875