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Number Systems (2)

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All number systems have some commonalities:

The base of the number system identifies how many unique

symbols are used for that particular number system.

The base of the number system identifies the value of the

highest symbol.

All number systems begin counting at Zero.

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

Has ten unique symbols.

The ten symbols are: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

The value for the highest symbol is determined using the

following formula:

Highest Symbol Value = Base 1

(Base) 10 1 = 9

The value for the highest symbol in the decimal number

system is 9.

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

When you begin counting in a number system, always begin

with Zero.

When you have used up all of the symbols, increment the

column to the left by 1 and begin counting again starting with

Zero.

Counting in decimal or Base 10 number system

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

All number systems use positional notation.

The base of the number identifies the base value to be used

when determining the value for each position.

All number systems use a POINT to separate the integer from

the fractional part.

For Base 10, this is called the decimal point.

Positional Notation

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

The values of the positional multipliers are the number systems

base raised to a power.

For the decimal number system, the multipliers are the powers

of ten:

10

4

10

3

10

2

10

1

10

0

. 10

-1

10

-2

10,000 1,000 100 10 1 . 0.1 0.01

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

Positional Notation

For example: 37,428

10

3 x 10

4

= 3 x 10,000 = 30,000

7 x 10

3

= 7 x 1, 000 = 7,000

4 x 10

2

= 4 x 100 = 400

2 x 10

1

= 2 x 10 = 20

8 x 10

0

= 8 x 1 = 8

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

Express this base 10 number in positional

notation:

56,782.45

Introduction Number Systems

The Decimal Number System

Solution

5 x 10

4

= 5 x 10,000 = 50,000

6 x 10

3

= 6 x 1,000 = 6,000

7 x 10

2

= 7 x 100 = 700

8 x 10

1

= 8 x 10 = 80

2 x 10

0

= 2 x 1 = 2

4 x 10

-1

= 4 x 0.1 = 0.4

+ 5 x 10

-2

= 5 x 0.01 = 0.05

56,782.45

Introduction Number Systems

Other Number Systems Used in Digital

Electronics & Computers

- Binary (Base 2)

- Octal (Base 8)

- Hexadecimal (Base 16)

Introduction Number Systems

Summary About the Basics

All of the basics discussed as they relate to

the decimal number system applies directly to

the Binary, Octal & Hexadecimal number

systems.

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

- Base 2

- Has two unique symbols.

- Remember, the value of the highest symbol equals the

Base of the Number System minus 1.

- Base 2 - 1 = 1

- Therefore, the highest symbol in the binary number

system is 1.

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

- When counting in binary, begin with Zero, just as you

do with any other number system.

- When you have used all of the unique symbols,

increment the column to the left by one and start with

Zero again.

Counting in Binary

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

Counting in Binary

0

1

10

11

100

101

110

111

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

Counting in Binary

Write the next 16 counts beginning with 10000

2

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

Solution

10001 10101 11001 11101

10010 10110 11010 11110

10011 10111 11011 11111

10100 11000 11100 100000

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

- Each position will be 2 raised to a power.

- The binary number system is based on the powers of 2.

2

5

, 2

4

, 2

3

, 2

2

, 2

1

, 2

0

. 2

-1

, 2

-2

, 2

-3

, etc.

- The point that separates the integer part from the

fractional part of the number is called the binary point.

Positional Notation

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

- Positional notation in the binary number system is

based on powers of two.

- For example:

2

5

, 2

4

, 2

3

, 2

2

, 2

1

, 2

0

. 2

-1

, 2

-2

, etc.

32 16 8 4 2 1 .5 .25

Positional Notation

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

Positional Notation

For example: 11011

2

1 x 2

4

= 1 x 16 = 16

1 x 2

3

= 1 x 8 = 8

0 x 2

2

= 0 x 4 = 0

1 x 2

1

= 1 x 2 = 2

+ 1 x 2

0

= 1 x 1 = 1

27

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

Express this binary number in positional notation:

101101.01

2

Introduction Number Systems

The Binary Number System

1 x 2

5

= 1 x 32 = 32.00

0 x 2

4

= 1 x 16 = 0.00

1 x 2

3

= 1 x 8 = 8.00

1 x 2

2

= 1 x 4 = 4.00

0 x 2

1

= 0 x 2 = 0.00

1 x 2

0

= 1 x 1 = 1.00

0 x 2

-1

= 0 x 0.5 = 0.00

+ 1 x 2

-2

= 0 x .25 = 0.25

45.25

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

- Base 8

- Is based on powers of 8.

- The value of the highest symbol is 7.

- The octal point separates the integer portion of the

number from the fractional portion of the number.

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

Counting in Base 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

Counting in Base 8

Write the next 23 counts beginning with:

60

8

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

Counting in Base 8

Solution:

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

The positional multipliers for the octal number system are:

8

4

8

3

8

2

8

1

8

0

. 8

-1

8

-2

4096 512 64 8 1 . 0.125 0.015625

Positional Notation

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

Positional Notation

7 x 8

3

= 7 x 512 = 3,584

4 x 8

2

= 4 x 64 = 256

6 x 8

1

= 6 x 8 = 48

+ 2 x 8

0

= 2 x 1 = 2

3,890

For Example: 7462

8

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

Express this octal number using positional

notation:

4712.5

8

Introduction Number Systems

The Octal Number System

4 x 8

3

= 4 x 512 = 2,048.000

7 x 8

2

= 7 x 64 = 448.000

1 x 8

1

= 1 x 8 = 8.000

2 x 8

0

= 2 x 1 = 2.000

+ 5 x 8

-1

= 5 x 0.125 = 0.625

2,506.625

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

- The base of this number system is 16.

- There are 16 unique symbols for this number system.

- The sixteen symbols are:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

- A numeric symbol must occupy only one place in a

number.

- Numbers such as 12, 15, 24, etc uses two symbols as

two places are occupied.

- Since there are only 10 symbols defined because of the

decimal number system, six additional symbols must be

selected.

Some Additional Information

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

- The six extra symbols needed are borrowed from the

alphabet.

- The six letters borrowed from the alphabet are: A B C

D E F

Some Additional Information

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

- This number system begins counting at zero.

- After counting from 0 to 9, the next six counts are A, B,

C, D, E, F.

- After using the 16 possible symbols, increment the next

column to the left by one and start counting with zero

again.

Counting in Hexadecimal

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

Counting in Hexadecimal

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

Counting in Hexadecimal

Write the next 32 counts beginning with 40

16

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F

Solution

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

- The hexadecimal number system uses positional

notation just like the other number systems studied so

far.

- The hexadecimal number system is based on the

number 16.

- The Hexadecimal Point separates the integer portion of

the number from the fractional portion.

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

- The powers of 16 used for the positional notation

system for base 16 are:

16

3

16

2

16

1

16

0

. 16

-1

4,096 256 16 1 . 0.0625

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

Positional Notation

B x 16

3

= 11 x 4,096 = 45,056

9 x 16

2

= 9 x 256 = 2,304

5 x 16

1

= 5 x 16 = 80

+ F x 16

0

= 15 x 1 = 15

47,455

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

Express this base 16 number in positional notation:

3C9F.B

16

Introduction Number Systems

The Hexadecimal Number System

3 x 16

3

= 3 x 4,096 = 12,288.0000

C x 16

2

= 12 x 256 = 3,072.0000

9 x 16

1

= 9 x 16 = 144.0000

F x 16

0

= 15 x 1 = 15.0000

B x 16

-1

= 11 x 0.0625 = 0.6875

15,519.6875

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