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File Reference: PCI11402 J.R. Van Slooten on 874-6412
Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Transducers, Pneumatic
Boosters, And Control Valve Positioners
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Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters And Control Valve Position
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CONTENTS Page
DETERMINING WHETHER ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCERS,
PNEUMATIC BOOSTERS, AND CONTROL VALVE POSITIONERS ARE
REQUIRED 1
Baseline For Instrument Selection 1
Simple Pneumatic Loop 1
Control Objectives That Can Be Achieved With Transducers, Boosters,
And Positioners 2
Proper Control Valve Operation From The Available Control Signal 2
Overcoming Valve Friction 2
Increased Seat Load 2
Faster Stroking Speed 2
Split-Range Control 3
Modification Of Control Valve Flow Characteristics 3
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action 3
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Function, Role, And Typical Application 4
Function 4
Role And Application 4
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Operation, Types, And Options 5
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Operation 5
Types Of Electro-Pneumatic Transducers 5
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Options 6
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Filter-Regulators For Pneumatic Instruments 8
Function, Role, And Typical Application 8
Regulator Operation 9
Specific Control Objectives That Can Be Achieved
With Electro-Pneumatic Transducers 11
Operation Of A Pneumatic Device With
An Electronic Control Signal 11
Split Ranging 12
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action 13
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Selection Guidelines 14
Signal Conversion 14
Split Range Control 14
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action 14
Filter-Regulator Selection Guidelines 14
Pneumatic Booster Function, Role, And Typical Application 15
Function 15
Role 15
Typical Application 16
Pneumatic Booster Operation, Types, And Options 17
Pneumatic Booster Operation 17
Types Of Pneumatic Boosters 18
Pneumatic Booster Options 21
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Specific Control Objectives That Can Be
Achieved With Pneumatic Boosters 21
Operation Of A Pneumatic Device With An
Incompatible Pressure Signal 21
Reduced Stroking Time 22
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action 24
Pneumatic Booster Selection And Application Guidelines 25
1:1 Boosters (Relays Or Repeaters) 25
Pressure Boosters And Reducers 25
Volume Boosters 25
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action 26
Filter Regulator Selection Guidelines 26
Control Valve Positioner Function, Role, And Typical Application 27
Function 27
Role 28
Typical Application 28
Positioner Operation, Types, Actions, And Options 29
Positioner Operation 29
Types Of Positioners 32
Positioner Options 35
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Specific Control Objectives That Can Be
Achieved With Control Valve Positioners 40
Throttling Control With Double-Acting Piston Actuators 40
Split-Range Control 41
Overcoming Valve Friction 42
Increased Seat Load 45
Proper Control Valve Operation From The Available Control Signal 47
Modification Of Control Valve Flow Characteristics 48
Reduced Stroking Time Through Isolation 49
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action 50
Control Valve Positioner Selection And Application Guidelines 51
Static Selection And Application Guidelines 51
Dynamic Application Guidelines 52
Filter Regulator Selection Guidelines 55
Summary Of Selection Guidelines 56
Filter-Regulator Selection 57
General Specification Guidelines 57
SPECIFYING ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCERS 58
Introduction: Basis For Transducer Specifications 58
Control Objectives 58
Ratings And Specifications Of Connected Components 58
Components Of A Transducer Specification 58
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Components Of A Filter Regulator Specification 58
Developing A Specification 58
Specifications For Electro-Pneumatic Transducers 59
Line 80: Transducer Type and Model Number 60
Line 81: Transducer Input mA / Output 60
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal (Open or Close) 61
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd. 61
Specifications For Filter Regulators That Are Used
With Electro-Pneumatic Transducers 62
Line 74: Air Filter-Regulator Type / Size 62
Line 75: Air Req'd Set Pressure 62
SPECIFYING PNEUMATIC BOOSTERS 63
Introduction: Basis For Booster Specifications 63
Control Objectives 63
Ratings And Specifications Of Connected Components 63
Components Of A Booster Specifications 63
Components Of A Filter Regulator Specification 63
Specifications For Pneumatic Boosters 64
Line 80 Transducer Type / Model No. 64
Line 81: Transducer Input mA / Output 65
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal (Open or Close) 65
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd. 66
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Specifications For Filter Regulators That Are Used
With Pneumatic Boosters 66
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size 66
Line 75: Air Required Set Pressure 66
SPECIFYING CONTROL VALVE POSITIONERS 67
Introduction: Basis For Control Valve Positioner Specifications 68
Control Objectives 68
Ratings And Specifications Of Connected Components 68
Positioner Specifications 68
Filter Regulator Specifications 68
Specifications For Control Valve Positioners 69
Line 5: Manufacturer 70
Line 6: Model / Type Number 70
Line 9: Overall Valve / Actuator Characteristic 70
Line 38: Positioner Type / Model Number 70
Line 39: Positioner Bypass / Gauges 70
Line 40: Positioner Input and Output 71
Line 41: Positioner Action 72
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal 73
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd. 73
Line 45: Cam Characterized 73
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Specifications For Filter Regulators That Are Used With Control Valve
Positioners 74
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size 74
Line 75: Air Required Set Pressure 74
WORK AID 1: APPLICABLE PROCEDURAL STEPS AND THE PERTINENT
CONTENT FROM SAES-J-700 FOR DETERMINING
WHETHER ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCERS,
PNEUMATIC BOOSTERS, AND CONTROL VALVE
POSITIONERS ARE REQUIRED 75
Work Aid 1A: Applicable Procedural Steps For Determining Whether
Electro-Pneumatic Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters,
And Control Valve Positioners Are Required 75
Work Aid 1B: Pertinent Content From SAES-J-700 For Determining
Whether Electro-Pneumatic Transducers, Pneumatic
Boosters, And Control Valve Positioners Are Required 76
WORK AID 2: PROCEDURAL STEPS THAT ARE USED TO SPECIFY
ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCERS 77
WORK AID 3: PROCEDURAL STEPS THAT ARE USED TO SPECIFY
PNEUMATIC BOOSTERS 79
WORK AID 4: PERTINENT SECTIONS OF SAES-J-700 AND APPLICABLE
PROCEDURAL STEPS THAT ARE USED TO SPECIFY
CONTROL VALVE POSITIONERS 81
Work Aid 4A: Pertinent Sections Of SAES-J-700 That Are Used To
Specify Control Valve Positioners 81
Work Aid 4B: Procedural Steps That Are Used To Specify Control
Valve Positioners 82
GLOSSARY 85
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LIST OF FIGURES Page
Figure 1 Simple Pneumatic Control Loop 1
Figure 2 I/P Transducer Function 4
Figure 3 I/P Transducer Application 4
Figure 4 Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Construction And Operation 5
Figure 5 Direct- And Reverse-Acting Transducers 7
Figure 6 Filter-Regulator Application 8
Figure 7 Direct-Operated Regulator 9
Figure 8 Transducer Loading An Actuator 11
Figure 9 Transducer Loading A Positioner 11
Figure 10 Transducers In A Split Range Application 12
Figure 11 Reverse-Acting Transducer Application 13
Figure 12 Pneumatic Booster Function 15
Figure 13 Pneumatic Booster Application 16
Figure 14 Pneumatic Booster 17
Figure 15 Pneumatic Pressure Reducer And Pressure Booster 19
Figure 16 Dead Band Volume Booster 20
Figure 17 Pneumatic Pressure Booster Application 21
Figure 18 Pneumatic Pressure Reducer Application 22
Figure 19 Improving Actuator Response Through Control Signal Isolation 23
Figure 20 Dead Band Volume Booster Application 24
Figure 21 Control Valve Positioner Inputs And Outputs 27
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Figure 22 Positioner Role 28
Figure 23 Positioner Operation 30
Figure 24 Positioner Input And Output Relationships 31
Figure 25 Electro-Pneumatic Positioner With Internal I/P Transducer 32
Figure 26 Rotary-Shaft Feedback Linkage 33
Figure 27 Double-Acting Positioner 34
Figure 28 Direct Versus Reverse Acting Positioner Output 35
Figure 29 Positioner Gauges 36
Figure 30 Positioner Bypass Valve 37
Figure 31 Commonly Available Positioner Characteristics 38
Figure 32 Combined Positioner And Control Valve Characteristics 39
Figure 33 Double-Acting Positioner Application 40
Figure 34 Split-Range Control Application 41
Figure 35 Dead Band And Hysteresis 42
Figure 36 Control Valve Dead Band (Upper Plot) And Limit Cycle
(Lower Plot) 43
Figure 37 Minimizing Dead Band With A Control Valve Positioner 44
Figure 38 Additional Diaphragm Pressure That Is Available
For Control Valve Shutoff 45
Figure 39 Additional Diaphragm Pressure That Is Available
To Open The Valve 46
Figure 40 Operating A Control Valve With An Incompatible Signal Range 47
Figure 41 Modification Of Control Valve Characteristics 48
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Figure 42 Isolating The Control Signal From The Actuator 49
Figure 43 Reversing The Control Valve Action 50
Figure 44 Positioner As A Cascade Control Loop 53
Figure 45 Fast And Slow Processes 54
Figure 46 Instrument Selection Guidelines 56
Figure 47 Transducer Specifications On The Saudi Aramco ISS 59
Figure 48 Booster Specifications On The Saudi Aramco ISS 64
Figure 49 Positioner Specifications On The Saudi Aramco ISS 69
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DETERMINING WHETHER ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCERS,
PNEUMATIC BOOSTERS, AND CONTROL VALVE POSITIONERS ARE
REQUIRED
Baseline For Instrument Selection
Simple Pneumatic Loop
To provide a basis for determining when specific instruments would be selected, a
simple pneumatic control loop that includes only minimal instrumentation will be
reviewed. See Figure 1.
Simple Pneumatic Control Loop
Figure 1
Loop Components And Functions - The essential elements of the control loop are
as follows:
The transmitter measures the process variable and sends a control signal
to the controller.
The controller sums the control signal from the transmitter with the set
point for the process variable to determine if an error exists; i.e., if the
process variable is not at the set point value. If an error exists, the
controller adjusts the output pressure (actuator loading pressure) that is
sent to the actuator. The controller output derives from an independent
source of supply pressure.
The actuator positions the control valve closure member to reduce the
error.
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Control Valve Performance Considerations - The simple loop that is shown in
Figure 1 may provide satisfactory control in some applications. However, if any one of
a number of specific control objectives are to be achieved, the specifier must consider
the selection of additional instrumentation to provide the control valve performance that
is required.
Control Objectives That Can Be Achieved With Transducers, Boosters, And
Positioners
Throughout this Module, the subject of instrument selection and specification will be
discussed in terms of achieving specific control objectives. The control objectives that
are referenced in these discussion are briefly described below.
Proper Control Valve Operation From The Available Control Signal
Incompatible Control Signal Range - In some applications, an actuator may be
sized for operation from a pressure range that is different from the controller
output pressure range. For such applications, an instrument that converts one
pressure range to another is required. Such instruments are referred to as
pneumatic boosters, relays, and reducers.
Incompatible Control Signal Form - Control valve actuators are typically operated
with a pneumatic pressure; however, the available control signal may be in the
form of an electrical current or an electrical voltage. For such applications, an
accessory instrument that converts a signal from one form to another is
required. Instruments that convert a signal from one form to another are referred
to as transducers.
Overcoming Valve Friction
For many applications, the quality of process control is determined by the ability of the
actuator to move the valve plug to the precise position that is indicated by the control
signal (the controller output). When the friction that is produced by valve stem packing
and valve seals prevents accurate stem positioning, an instrument that ensures valve
stem positioning accuracy may be selected. This instrument is a control valve
positioner.
Increased Seat Load
To increase the control valve seat load for the purpose of achieving tighter valve
shutoff, an instrument that increases the loading pressure to the diaphragm may be
selected. Either pneumatic boosters or control valve positioners may be selected.
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Faster Stroking Speed
Some control objectives call for very short stroking times, or fast stroking speeds.
Actuator stroking times can be reduced by selecting an instrument that increases the
capacity, or volume, of the actuator loading pressure. The instrument most commonly
selected for this purpose is a volume booster.
Split-Range Control
Split range control is a method of control in which two control valves (or other final
control elements) are operated by one controller. In a typical split range control
application, an instrument on one control valve is configured to fully stroke the valve
from a portion of the control signal range, and the instrument on the other control valve
configured to fully stroke the valve from the remaining portion of control signal range.
Split range systems may be implemented to achieve one of several specific objectives,
including the following:
Increased Rangeability - When the ratio of the maximum required control valve C
v
to the minimum required control valve C
v
is very large and a single valve cannot
provide the required rangeability, two valves may be piped in parallel and
controlled with a split-range control strategy.
Control Of Different Process Variables - Split range systems may be designed to
control two or more different process variables; e.g., steam and cold water.
Control Of Different Types Of Final Control Elements - Split range systems may be
designed to operate different types of final control elements; e.g., a valve
actuator and an air damper.
Control valve positioners are the preferred instruments for split-range applications.
Modification Of Control Valve Flow Characteristics
In some instances, the desired control valve flow characteristic is not available as an
option for the preferred valve type. To produce the desired flow characteristic, the
available control valve characteristic can be modified by selecting an instrument that
includes a characterizing function. Of the instruments that are discussed in this
Module, control valve positioners are the only ones that are routinely available with a
characterizing function.
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Reversal Of The Control Valve Action
To achieve a specific control objective, it may be necessary to alter the action of a
control valve. The action of the control valve can be functionally changed by selecting
a reverse-acting instrument. Most instruments are available in both direct-acting and
reverse-acting constructions.
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Function, Role, And Typical Application
Function
The function of an electro-pneumatic transducer is to convert an input signal of one
form to an output signal of a different form, as shown in Figure 2. The most common
type of electro-pneumatic transducer is the current-to-pressure transducer, also known
as an I/P transducer, or simply an I/P (pronounced "I to P"). An I/P transducer converts
an input that is in the form of a mA dc signal to a proportional output in the form of a
pressure signal. The input signal range is often 4 to 20 mA dc because this range
matches the output signal range of many electronic controllers and other instruments.
Pressure outputs of 3 to 15 psig and 6 to 30 psig are common because these are the
popular ranges for pneumatic control signals. The output derives from an independent
supply pressure.
I/P Transducer Function
Figure 2
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Role And Application
I/P transducers are commonly selected to allow the operation of a pneumatic control
valve actuator from the output signal of an electronic controller, as shown in Figure 3.
I/P Transducer Application
Figure 3
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Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Operation, Types, And Options
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Operation
Although the specifics of transducer construction and operation vary from
manufacturer to manufacturer, the construction that is shown in Figure 4 is typical. The
operating principles of the transducer that is shown in Figure 4 are discussed below.
Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Construction And Operation
Figure 4
Electrical Input Signal Detector - An electro-pneumatic transducer accepts an
electrical input signal in the form of a voltage or current. The input signal
energizes a coil that surrounds an armature. As the input signal changes, the
position of the armature also changes. The coil and armature arrangement
converts a change in the electrical input signal to a change in the position of the
armature.
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Signal Conversion - The armature serves as the flapper for a nozzle-flapper
signal conversion device. The supply pressure is routed through the relay to the
nozzle. As the armature (flapper) approaches the nozzle, the nozzle pressure is
restricted and the pressure in the tubing that is upstream of the nozzle
increases. As the armature moves away from the nozzle, the pressure in the
tubing that is upstream of the nozzle decreases.
Pressure Signal Amplification - The pressure in the tubing that is upstream of the
nozzle is the input to a pneumatic pressure amplifier, or relay. The relay
amplifies the pressure that is produced by the nozzle-flapper device by
modulating a supply pressure. The output of the relay has sufficient capacity
and is of the proper pressure range to operate a control valve actuator.
Action On Increasing Input - An increase in the electrical input signal to the
transducer will cause the armature to restrict the flow of the supply pressure
through the nozzle. Because the nozzle is restricted, the pressure that is
directed to the relay (power amplifier) increases. The result is an increase in the
transducer output pressure.
Action On Decreasing Input - If the electrical input signal decreases, the armature
moves away from the nozzle and the supply pressure bleeds to the atmosphere.
The reduced pressure at the relay input causes a decrease in the transducer
output pressure.
Types Of Electro-Pneumatic Transducers
Electro-pneumatic transducers are categorized, by type, according to the type of
conversion they perform.
I/P - As previously explained, the most common transducer type is the current-
to-pressure transducer.
E/P - An E/P transducer converts a control signal in the form of an electrical
voltage into a proportional pressure signal. Common input ranges are 1 to 5
volts dc and 1 to 9 volts dc. Popular output ranges are 3 to 15 psig and 6 to 30
psig. Other input and output ranges are available.
Other Transducer Types - Other transducer types are also available; for example,
P/I (pressure-to-current) transducers convert pressure signals to mA dc signals.
Pressure-to-pressure transducers (P/P) are also common. P/P transducers are
most often referred to as pneumatic boosters or relays. Boosters and relays will
be discussed later in this Module.
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Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Options
Input and Output Ranges - Transducers are often available with a choice of input
range and output range. Options for 3 to 15 psig, 0 to 18 psig, 6 to 30 psig, and
0 to 33 psig pressure outputs are common. Options for various input signal
ranges may also be available.
Action - Transducers, like every other hardware element in the loop, may be
selected or configured as direct-acting or reverse-acting devices, as shown in
Figure 5. In a direct-acting transducer, an increase in the input signal produces
a proportional increase in the output pressure. In a reverse-acting transducer,
an increase in the input signal produces a proportional decrease in the output
pressure.
Direct- And Reverse-Acting Transducers
Figure 5
Intrinsically Safe Constructions - Some transducers are available as intrinsically
safe devices. An intrinsically safe device is one in which insufficient energy is
available to cause arcs and sparks that would be dangerous in a flammable or
explosive environment.
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Filter-Regulators For Pneumatic Instruments
Function, Role, And Typical Application
Function - A filter-regulator removes dust, dirt, pipeline scale, and other
impurities from an air supply, and it reduces the pressure of the supply.
Role - Each of the instruments that are discussed in this Module modulates an
independent source of supply pressure. In many applications, the source of the
supply pressure is a dedicated "plant air" system or "instrument air" system that
is designed to power all the pneumatically operated devices within a plant. Plant
air systems typically operate at 80 to 100 psig. The required or recommended
supply pressure of a transducer or other instrument is often a pressure value
that is just slightly higher than the maximum output pressure of the instrument;
e.g., an electro-pneumatic transducer that provides a maximum output pressure
of 15 psig may require a supply pressure of 20 psig. Pneumatic instruments
often have maximum supply pressure ratings that are well below the pressure of
the plant air system. To reduce the pressure of the instrument air system to the
supply pressure that is needed by each instrument, and to remove impurities
from the supply, a filter-regulator is commonly selected for each pneumatic
instrument.
Typical Application - Figure 6 illustrates a filter-regulator that removes impurities
from plant air and reduces the pressure of the plant air system to the supply
pressure that is required by a transducer.
Filter-Regulator Application
Figure 6
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Regulator Operation
Direct-Operated Regulators - Most supply pressure regulators may be classified as
direct-operated, pressure-reducing regulators. In this context, direct-operated
means that the power that is required to operate the regulator is taken from the
controlled fluid.
Major Elements - As shown in Figure 7, the three primary elements of a direct-
operated regulator are:
A measuring element, or diaphragm
A spring
A valve
Direct-Operated Regulator
Figure 7
Operation - The purpose of a regulator is to maintain the supply pressure at a
specific pressure value, or set pressure. In operation, the supply pressure
registers on the bottom side of the regulator diaphragm. The force that is
produced by the diaphragm is opposed by the force that is produced by the
regulator spring. If the diaphragm force and the spring force are equal, the
regulator valve holds a fixed position; i.e., the regulator is at a steady state
condition. The steady state condition is achieved only when the supply pressure
is the same as the set pressure.
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Decreased Demand - If there is a decrease in flow to the downstream device, the
supply pressure will increase to a pressure value that is above the set pressure.
Because of the increase in the supply pressure, the diaphragm force will
become greater than the spring force and the regulator valve will move toward
the closed position. The action of the valve closing will reduce the flow to the
downstream device, thereby causing the supply pressure to fall to the set
pressure.
Increased Demand - If there is an increase in flow to the downstream device, the
supply pressure will fall below the value of the set pressure. Because of the
decrease in the supply pressure, the diaphragm force will be less than the
spring force. The spring will move the valve toward the open position, thereby
increasing the flow to the downstream device. As a result, the supply pressure
will increase towards the set pressure.
Pressure Ranges - The range of set pressures that are available from a particular
regulator is determined by the spring rate of the regulator spring.
Establishing Set Pressure - The value of the set pressure is established by the
supply pressure requirement of the particular device. The pressure is set by the
amount of initial spring compression that is wound into the spring with the spring
adjuster.
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Specific Control Objectives That Can Be Achieved With Electro-Pneumatic
Transducers
Operation Of A Pneumatic Device With An Electronic Control Signal
The most common application for an I/P transducer is to convert an electronic control
signal from an electronic controller into a pressure signal that can operate control valve
actuators or other pneumatic instruments.
Operating Control Valve Actuators - Figure 8 shows an application in which an I/P
transducer converts the 4 to 20 mA dc control signal from the controller into a 0
to 18 psig actuator loading pressure.
Transducer Loading An Actuator
Figure 8
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Operating Pneumatic Instruments - Figure 9 illustrates an application in which an
I/P transducer converts a 4 to 20 mA dc controller output into a 3 to 15 psig
control signal that is connected to the input of another instrument (a control
valve positioner).
Transducer Loading A Positioner
Figure 9
Split Ranging
Transducers may also be selected achieve the objectives of split-range control
strategies.
Example Application - Figure 10 shows an application in which a small valve
controls the flow of a fuel gas when the demand is low. When the demand for
the fuel gas increases, a large valve operates to control the high volume flow of
the gas. To implement the strategy that is shown, transducer A has an input
signal range of 4 to 12 mA dc; i.e., transducer A will provide a full-span output
pressure of 3 to 15 psig from a portion (4 to 12 mA dc) of the control signal
range. Transducer B has an input span of 12 to 20 mA dc and provides a full
span output pressure (3 to 15 psig) from the remaining portion (12 to 20 mA dc)
of the control signal range.
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Transducers In A Split Range Application
Figure 10
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Reversal Of The Control Valve Action
When it is necessary to reverse the action of a control valve assembly, the reversal
can be achieved through the selection of a reverse-acting transducer. Figure 11 shows
an application in which the selection of a reverse-acting transducer reverses the output
of a direct-acting controller for the purpose of preserving negative feedback control.
Note that the loop includes a reverse-acting actuator and a PDTC control valve.
Because the transducer and the actuator are both reverse-acting, the control valve will
close upon an increase in the control signal.
Reverse-Acting Transducer Application
Figure 11
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Electro-Pneumatic Transducer Selection Guidelines
Signal Conversion
When it is necessary to convert an electronic control signal to a pressure signal, there
are no viable alternatives to the selection of an I/P transducer. In other words,
transducers are selected without hesitation.
Split Range Control
While it is possible to select electro-pneumatic transducers to implement split-range
control strategies, control valve positioners are generally favored over transducers for
this application. Positioners are preferred because of the stem positioning accuracy
that they provide. With transducers, there is no assurance that the actual valve stem
position will be the same as the position that is implied by the controller output. If gross
errors in valve stem position occur, the split-range strategy will not provide good
control.
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action
The process engineer must exercise caution when selecting the action (direct or
reverse-acting) of each instrument in the control loop. The general guidelines for
selecting a particular action are as follows:
To preserve the action of a control valve; i.e., direct or reverse acting, any
number of direct-acting components can be added without affecting the control
valve action. Reverse-acting components must be added in pairs.
To modify the action of a control valve, an odd number of reverse-acting
components must be added to the loop.
Filter-Regulator Selection Guidelines
Like all other pneumatic and electro-pneumatic instruments, an electro-pneumatic
transducer requires a supply pressure that is clean and regulated. The specific
guidelines that direct the selection of a filter-regulator include the following:
Unless the plant air (instrument air) system includes provisions for supplying
clean air at the appropriate pressure value to each pneumatic instrument, a
filter-regulator is required.
A filter-regulator should be selected for each instrument in the loop; i.e., the
operation of several instruments from a single filter-regulator is not
recommended.
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Pneumatic Booster Function, Role, And Typical Application
Function
Boosters (also known as relays, pressure boosters, pressure reducers, and pressure-
to-pressure transducers) accept a pneumatic input pressure and a supply pressure,
and they provide a pneumatic output pressure as shown in Figure 12. The input
pressure modulates the supply pressure to produce an output pressure that is
proportional to, but independent from, the input pressure. In other words, the input
pressure is isolated from the output pressure.
Pneumatic Booster Function
Figure 12
Role
The role of a booster is to ensure that a control signal arrives at a pneumatic
instrument or control valve actuator with sufficient pressure or capacity to ensure the
proper operation of the instrument or actuator.
Typical Application
An example application that includes a booster for the purpose of achieving isolation is
illustrated in Figure 13. The capacity of the controller output is relatively small while the
volume of the actuator diaphragm casing is relatively large. If the actuator were to be
operated directly from the controller output, substantial time would be required for the
controller to load the relatively large volume of an actuator diaphragm casing. The
result would be sluggish control valve response to changes in the control signal.
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Control valve response can be improved by adding a pressure-to-pressure booster.
Compared to an actuator casing, the input section of a booster has a relatively tiny
volume; therefore, a limited capacity control signal can load or 'charge-up' a booster
rather quickly. The booster, because it modulates an independent supply pressure, can
deliver extra capacity to the actuator casing.
Pneumatic Booster Application
Figure 13
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Pneumatic Booster Operation, Types, And Options
Pneumatic Booster Operation
Connections - All pneumatic boosters have three pressure connections. The
input pressure is typically the output signal (control signal) from a pneumatic
controller or an I/P transducer. The supply pressure is clean, regulated air from
the plant air system. The booster output is a pressure that is proportional to the
input pressure.
Double Diaphragms - A typical booster construction is shown in Figure 14. The
booster includes two diaphragms. The input pressure registers on the upper
diaphragm and the output pressure registers on the lower diaphragm. The two
diaphragms are connected to and separated by a spacer. The assembly that
consists of the diaphragms and the spacer is free to move upward or downward.
Pneumatic Booster
Figure 14
Pressure-Balanced Device - The booster is a pressure-balanced device; i.e., when
the pressure on the upper diaphragm (the input pressure) is the same as the
pressure on the lower diaphragm (the output pressure), the diaphragm
assembly remains in a fixed position.
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Pressure Unbalance And Valve Position - If the input pressure and the output
pressure are not identical, the diaphragm assembly will move away from the
source of the higher pressure. Any change in the position of the diaphragm
assembly will cause a change in the position of the supply valve and the exhaust
valve.
Increasing Signal - If the input pressure increases to a value that is greater than the
output pressure, the diaphragm assembly moves downward. The downward
motion of the diaphragm assembly opens the supply pressure valve and the output
pressure increases. The exhaust valve remains closed at this time. As the output
pressure approaches the value of the input pressure, the diaphragm assembly
moves upward and closes the supply valve to restore pressure balance.
Decreasing Signal - If the input pressure decreases to a value that is less than the
output pressure, the diaphragm assembly moves upward. The upward motion of
the diaphragm assembly closes the supply pressure valve, and the output
pressure decreases. If the pressure unbalance continues, the diaphragm continues
to move upward, thereby opening the exhaust valve and bleeding some of the
output pressure to the atmosphere. Note that the spacer between the diaphragms
includes flow passages that allow the pressure to exhaust to atmosphere. When
the output pressure is the same as the input pressure, pressure balance is
restored and the supply valve and the exhaust valve are both closed.
Types Of Pneumatic Boosters
Pneumatic boosters are categorized, by type, according to the ratio of the input and
output pressures, and according to whether their intended function is to modify the
pressure of the output or the capacity of the output. The common types of pneumatic
boosters are discussed below.
1:1 Boosters - 1:1 boosters, also referred to as repeaters, produce an output
pressure that is identical to the input pressure. Because the output pressure
derives from an independent supply pressure, the capacity of the output pressure
may be greater than the capacity of the pressure signal that is connected to the
booster input.
Pressure Reducers - A pressure-reducer (or pressure reducing relay) produces an
output pressure that is less than the input pressure by a fixed ratio; e.g., a 2:1
reducer converts a 6 to 30 psig input pressure into a 3 to 15 psig output pressure.
To provide a 2:1 pressure reduction ratio, the area of the upper diaphragm must be
one half the area of the lower diaphragm, as shown in Figure 15.
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Pressure Boosters - A pressure booster (or pressure amplifying relay) produces
an output pressure that is greater than the input pressure by a fixed ratio; e.g., a
1:2 booster converts a 3 to 15 psig input pressure into a 6 to 30 psig output
pressure. To increase the output pressure by a 1:2 ratio, the area of the upper
diaphragm must be twice as large as the area of the lower diaphragm, as shown
in Figure 15.
Pneumatic Pressure Reducer And Pressure Booster
Figure 15
Volume Boosters - Volume boosters typically provide a 1:1 ratio of input to output
pressure, but they include larger valve ports for the purpose of increasing the
capacity of the output pressure.
Dead Band Volume Boosters - Dead band volume boosters (see Figure 16) are
1:1 volume boosters that include a bypass circuit and bypass valve. Dead band
boosters direct the normal control signal to the downstream device unless a
large or sudden change occurs in the control signal. A large or sudden change
initiates a booster response, and the capacity of the booster output is
temporarily increased to ensure very fast loading or unloading of the
downstream device. The magnitude of the change in the input signal that must
occur to initiate a booster response is adjustable. Until this magnitude of change
occurs, there is no booster response, hence the name dead band booster.
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Dead Band Volume Booster
Figure 16
Operation - In normal operation, the input pressure (controller output) is
routed through a needle valve and a bypass circuit to the output
connection. When the output and input pressures are equal, there is no
pressure unbalance across the diaphragms and there is no booster
response; i.e., both the supply and exhaust valves remain closed. If the
input pressure changes quickly, and if the bypass valve is adjusted so
that the input pressure cannot quickly pass to the output, the pressure
imbalance causes the diaphragm assembly to move, thereby opening (or
closing) the appropriate booster valve and greatly increasing or
decreasing the volume of the output pressure.
Instrument Grade Vs. High-Capacity Dead Band Boosters - An important
distinction is whether a particular booster is an instrument grade booster
or a high-capacity booster. Instrument grade boosters maintain a
reasonably accurate 1:1 ratio of the output pressure to the input pressure.
This accuracy is required for smooth throttling control.
High-capacity dead band boosters are designed to load or unload a
downstream device as quickly as possible, often for the purpose of fully
opening or fully closing a control valve. High-capacity volume boosters
are not as accurate as instrument grade boosters; i.e., they do not
provide the precise 1:1 input-to-output pressure relationship that is
required for precise throttling control. Manufacturer's product specification
bulletins provide information that helps to identify a booster as an
instrument grade booster or a high-capacity booster.
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Pneumatic Booster Options
Input And Output Ranges - Boosters are available with various input and output
pressure ranges. As a general rule, the available input ranges are the standard
control signal ranges of 3 to 15 psig and 6 to 30 psig. Output pressure ranges
vary according to the booster type.
Action - Many 1:1 boosters, pressure amplifiers, and pressure reducers are
available as either direct-acting or reverse-acting devices. Volume boosters and
dead band volume boosters are typically available only as direct-acting devices.
Specific Control Objectives That Can Be Achieved With Pneumatic Boosters
Operation Of A Pneumatic Device With An Incompatible Pressure Signal
There are instances when the available control signal pressure range is not compatible
with the input pressure range of a downstream device. In such instances, pressure
boosters and pressure reducers may be selected to ensure proper operation of the
downstream device.
Actuator Application - Figure 17 illustrates an application in which an actuator
with a 6 to 30 psig operating pressure range has been selected; however, the
available control signal is 3 to 15 psig. To ensure proper actuator operation, a
1:2 pressure booster is selected to convert the 3 to 15 psig control signal to the
required 6 to 30 psig actuator loading pressure range.
Pneumatic Pressure Booster Application
Figure 17
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Instrument Application - Figure 18 illustrates an application in which the control
valve assembly includes a positioner with a 3 to 15 psig input pressure range.
The available control signal is the output from a transducer with a 6 to 30 psig
output pressure range. To ensure proper control valve and positioner operation,
a 2:1 pressure reducer is selected to convert the 6 to 30 psig control signal to
the required positioner input pressure range.
Pneumatic Pressure Reducer Application
Figure 18
Reduced Stroking Time
Proper control loop operation requires that the control valve respond quickly to
changes in the control signal. Beyond this basic requirement for reasonably fast
response, some applications have requirements for extremely short stroking times.
Boosters, volume boosters, and dead band volume boosters may be selected to
reduce stroking times. Example applications are discussed below.
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Isolating Instrumentation From Large Volume Actuators - Figure 19 illustrates a
typical application in which the control valve actuator is located a considerable
distance from the controller. Over the distance between the controller and the
actuator, piping friction will "weaken" the control signal. Considerable time may
be required for the weakened control signal to fill the relatively large volume of
the actuator diaphragm casing. The result may be sluggish actuator operation
and poor control. To reduce response time and to improve the quality of control,
a 1:1 relay (1:1 booster, or repeater) is installed on or near the control valve
actuator. Even though the capacity of the control signal is small, it is sufficient to
quickly load the relatively small volume of the booster. The booster, in turn,
modulates a supply pressure that has sufficient capacity to ensure fast actuator
response.
Improving Actuator Response Through Control Signal Isolation
Figure 19
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Achieving Very Short Stroking Times - Figure 20 shows a typical gas vent
application. The objective of this loop is to protect the downstream system from
overpressure. If the pressure of the process variable increases to a value that is
above the controller set point, the vent valve will open, thereby venting gas to
the atmosphere and relieving process pressure. In this application, the valve
must respond very quickly to changes in the control signal; therefore, a volume
booster is selected. If good throttling control throughout the duration of the
transient (large or sudden change in the control signal) is required, an
instrument grade volume booster would be selected. If fast response is more
important than good throttling control, a high-capacity volume booster would be
selected. Note that the output of the volume booster is always connected to a
high capacity device such as an actuator; never to the input of another
instrument.
Dead Band Volume Booster Application
Figure 20
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action
If it is necessary to reverse the control valve action, a reverse-acting 1:1 repeater,
pressure amplifier, or pressure reducer may be selected. Volume boosters are typically
not available in reverse-acting constructions.
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Pneumatic Booster Selection And Application Guidelines
1:1 Boosters (Relays Or Repeaters)
To isolate a low capacity control signal pressure from any large volume device that it
controls, 1:1 boosters are commonly selected without reservation. 1:1 relays are
typically located between the controller and the control valve, and are often located
near the signal source; i.e., the controller.
Pressure Boosters And Reducers
Although boosters can be 'problem solvers', process control engineers should,
whenever possible, avoid the application of pressure reducers and pressure amplifiers.
One alternative to the selection of boosters is the conversion, or retro-fitting, of the
existing, incompatible instruments. Instrument input and output pressure ranges can
often be changed by (a), recalibrating the instrument, or (b), changing, in the field,
certain instrument components such as input diaphragms and bellows.
Volume Boosters
Downstream Devices - The output of a dead band volume booster should only be
connected to the input of a large volume device such as a pneumatic actuator.
Because volume boosters produce high-capacity output signals, they may easily
over drive the low-volume input sections of other instruments.
Caution On High-Capacity Volume Boosters - High-capacity dead band boosters
can produce very large and sudden changes in pressure. Such large and
sudden changes can result in erratic and unstable loop performance if the
booster is not applied and adjusted properly. As a result, high-capacity dead
band boosters should be selected only when the requirement for a very short
stroking time is critical, and when the installation and calibration of the booster
can be supervised by experienced personnel. The output of a high-capacity
volume booster should only be connected to a large capacity device such as an
actuator.
Dead Band Volume Boosters And Control Valve Positioners - High-capacity dead
band boosters are typically used only in combination with a control valve
positioner. If a high-capacity volume booster is applied without a positioner, the
large changes in the output pressure may cause the actuator to over react and
move the valve plug farther than is indicated by the controller output. The
combination of a high-capacity booster and a control valve positioner provides
extremely fast response while preserving some measure of stem positioning
accuracy.
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Reversal Of The Control Valve Action
Boosters are not typically selected for the express purpose of reversing the valve
action; however, if the action must be reversed and the reversal cannot be achieved in
any other way, reverse-acting 1:1 relays, pressure amplifiers, or pressure reducers
may be selected. Volume boosters are typically not available as reverse-acting
devices.
Filter Regulator Selection Guidelines
A pneumatic booster requires a supply pressure that is clean and regulated. The
specific guidelines that direct the selection of a filter-regulator for a booster application
are the same as those that were given previously for electro-pneumatic transducers.
The guidelines are:
Unless the plant air (instrument air) system includes provisions for supplying
clean air at the appropriate pressure value to each pneumatic instrument, a
filter-regulator is required.
A filter-regulator should be selected for each instrument in the loop; i.e., the
operation of several instruments from a single filter-regulator is not
recommended.
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Control Valve Positioner Function, Role, And Typical Application
Function
The function of a control valve positioner (see Figure 21) is to adjust the actuator
loading pressure until the actual valve stem position is the same as the implied valve
position (the controller output). To achieve stem-positioning accuracy, the positioner
modulates an independent supply pressure on the basis of the measured values of two
inputs. The two inputs are:
1. The control signal (the controller output, or the implied valve position).
2. The actual position of the valve stem.
If the measured values of the above two inputs are not the same, an error exists.
Whenever an error exists, the positioner adjusts its output, the actuator loading
pressure, to minimize or eliminate the error.
Control Valve Positioner Inputs And Outputs
Figure 21
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Role
The role of the positioner is to achieve valve stem positioning accuracy, even when
valve friction and fluid forces tend to prevent the actuator from accurately positioning
the control valve stem. Figure 22 shows the role of the positioner in graphical form; i.e.,
to ensure that the valve stem position is the same as the implied valve stem position.
Positioner Role
Figure 22
Typical Application
Although positioners may be selected to achieve many different specific control
objectives, they are most commonly selected for applications in which valve friction is
considerable; e.g., when the control valve includes high friction graphite packing.
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Positioner Operation, Types, Actions, And Options
Positioner Operation
Major Elements - Positioner operation is best understood by first examining the
function of each of the elements of a typical positioner. The elements are:
The input measurement element
The stem position feedback linkage
The summing element
The signal detector
The power amplifier
The elements that are listed above are illustrated in Figure 23. The function of
each element is explained below.
Input Measurement Element - One input to the positioner is the controller
output or the implied valve position. In a typical pneumatic positioner, the
controller output pressure is measured by a deformable, pressure
sensitive element such as a bellows. The bellows expands and contracts
as the controller output pressure changes.
Stem Position Feedback Linkage - The second input to the positioner is
the actual stem position. The actual stem position is communicated to the
positioner by a stem position feedback mechanism; typically a
mechanical link such as an arm, lever, spring, or cam.
Summing Element - In the positioner that is shown in Figure 23, the
summing element is a summing beam that pivots on a fixed fulcrum. The
input measurement element and the stem position feedback linkage are
connected to the beam in such a way that the forces that are produced by
each input are in equilibrium only when the actual stem position is the
same as the implied stem position. When an error exists, the beam pivots
in one direction or the other.
Signal Detector - A signal detector in the form of a nozzle-flapper device
converts the sum of the two inputs (the relative position of the summing
beam) into a pneumatic pressure signal.
Power Amplifier - To increase the capacity and the output pressure range
of the nozzle-flapper device, the output of the nozzle flapper device is
connected to a power amplifier. A power amplifier is essentially a
pneumatic relay that operates in the same fashion as the pneumatic
boosters that were previously described.
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Supply Pressure
Controller Output
Input
Measurement
Power
Amplifier
(Relay)
Positioner
Output
Feedback
Spring
Stem Position
Feedback Linkage
Summing
Beam
A5192
Fulcrum
Signal
Detector
Positioner Operation
Figure 23
Positioner Response To Error - If the control signal increases, the bellows
expands and causes the beam to rotate in a counter-clockwise direction. As the
beam (flapper) moves closer to the nozzle, the flow of supply pressure through
the nozzle is restricted and the supply pressure is directed to the pneumatic
power amplifier (relay). The power amplifier increases the loading pressure to
the actuator (the positioner output), causing the valve stem to move downward.
As the valve stem moves downward, the feedback linkage exerts a force on the
summing beam and the beam (flapper) moves away from the nozzle. As the
beam moves away from the nozzle, the supply pressure bleeds though the
nozzle to atmosphere, the positioner output pressure decreases, and the
downward movement of the valve stem slows or stops. When the two inputs to
the summing beam become equal; i.e., when the actual stem position is the
same as the implied stem position, there is no error and the positioner output is
again at a steady state.
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Positioner Output - It is important to note that the positioner output, unlike most
other instruments, is not necessarily proportional to the value of the input
pressure. As shown in Figure 24, the positioner output pressure will go to any
pressure value that is required to achieve stem positioning accuracy (minimize
error). The output pressure can be any pressure value between 0 psig and a
pressure that is slightly less than the supply pressure to the positioner. (The
maximum output pressure is slightly less than the supply pressure because of
pressure losses within the positioner.)
Positioner Input And Output Relationships
Figure 24
Types Of Positioners
Positioners are classified, by type, according to the criteria that is explained below.
Pneumatic Vs. Electro-Pneumatic Positioners - Pneumatic positioners accept a
pneumatic control signal and produce a pneumatic output pressure. Electro-
pneumatic positioners (refer to Figure 25) include an internal I/P transducer;
therefore, electro-pneumatic positioners can accept an electrical input signal
(typically 4 to 20 mA dc) directly and do not require a separate I/P transducer.
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Referring to the positioner that is shown in Figure 25, the output of the I/P
transducer is sent to an input bellows. The bellows and the stem position
feedback linkage exert opposing forces on the summing beam. The position of
the summing beam is detected by a nozzle-flapper device. The output of the
nozzle flapper device is the input to a power amplifier (relay). The relay
modulates the supply pressure to produce the positioner output that is sent to
the actuator.
Electro-Pneumatic Positioner With Internal I/P Transducer
Figure 25
Sliding Stem Vs. Rotary Shaft - Another distinction for positioners is whether they
are designed for rotary-shaft control valves or for sliding-stem control valves.
The major difference between rotary-shaft and sliding-stem positioner types is
the type of stem position feedback linkage that is employed. A typical feedback
linkage for a rotary-shaft control valve is shown in Figure 26. The positioner
feedback lever follows a cam that is attached to the actuator lever.
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Rotary-Shaft Feedback Linkage
Figure 26
Single-Acting Vs. Double-Acting - Single acting positioners provide only one
output pressure and are designed for use with actuators that require one
controlled pressure; e.g., spring-and-diaphragm actuators. Double-acting
positioners provide two output pressures and are designed to operate double-
acting piston actuators in throttling control applications. As shown in Figure 27, a
double-acting positioner includes two nozzle-flapper devices and two power
amplifiers (relays). The nozzle pressure at each nozzle-flapper device is
determined by the position of an "L"-shaped summing beam. When the input
signal increases, the output pressure of one relay increases and the output
pressure of the other relay decreases. These opposing output pressures are
required to control the position of the piston in a double-acting piston actuator.
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Supply
Pressure
Relay "A''
Nozzle-Flapper "A"
Pivot Point
Nozzle-Flapper "B"
Relay "B''
Stem Position
Feedback
Linkage
A6454
Input Signal Pressure
Supply Pressure
Top Cylinder Pressure
Bottom Cylinder Pressure
Nozzle Pressure
Supply
Input Signal
Summing Beam
Piston
Double-Acting Positioner
Figure 27
Positioner Options
Several options are commonly available for control valve positioners. These options
are discussed below.
Positioner Action - While many instruments must be selected as direct-acting or
reverse-acting devices, most control valve positioners can be configured to
provide either action. Refer to Figure 28.
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Direct Versus Reverse Acting Positioner Output
Figure 28
Gauges - Positioners may include up to three gauges, as shown in Figure 29.
Gauges provide a visual indication of the following:
The supply pressure
The input signal pressure
The positioner output pressure
Gauges provide useful information to personnel who have responsibility for
troubleshooting, maintenance, and calibration.
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Instrument
Output
Supply
11B5619-E
C0775
Positioner Gauges
Figure 29
Bypass Valve - A bypass valve (see Figure 30) provides a means for switching
the positioner out of the loop, either on a temporary basis or on a permanent
basis. When the bypass valve is opened, the controller output is routed directly
to the actuator. The bypass valve may be temporarily opened to allow the
operator to maintain control of the process in the event of a positioner
malfunction or failure.
A control valve positioner is a high gain instrument. In some applications, the
high gain of the positioner may actually degrade the quality of control that can
be achieved. If it is determined, by temporarily opening the bypass valve, that
control loop performance is improved when the positioner is removed from the
loop, the bypass valve may be permanently opened and locked to functionally
remove the positioner from the loop.
Depending on the positioner manufacturer and the positioner model, a bypass
valve may be included as a standard positioner feature, a bypass valve may be
an option, or a bypass valve may not be available.
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Positioner Bypass Valve
Figure 30
Positioner Characteristics - In some positioners, the inherent flow characteristic of
a control valve can be modified by changing certain components in the
positioner feedback linkage. Feedback linkages are typically characterized with
cams that are shaped to establish the desired relationship between the
positioner input signal and the valve stem position, as shown in Figure 31. For
purposes of illustration, assume that three different cams are available for a
particular positioner: cam A, cam B, and cam C. Cam A establishes a linear
characteristic, cam B establishes a quick-opening characteristic, and cam C
establishes an equal-percentage characteristic. Note that these characteristics
refer only to the positioner characteristic.
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Commonly Available Positioner Characteristics
Figure 31
The positioner characteristic is imposed on the valve characteristic. For
example, the left-hand chart (marked A) in Figure 32 shows that when a linear
valve characteristic is selected, the combined valve and positioner characteristic
is the same as the positioner characteristic. Figure 32 (B) shows how the
various positioner characteristics influence the combined characteristic when an
equal percentage valve characteristic is selected. Note, for example, that the
combination of a quick-opening positioner characteristic (cam B in Figure 31)
and an equal percentage valve characteristic results in an approximately linear
inherent valve characteristic.
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Combined Positioner And Control Valve Characteristics
Figure 32
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Specific Control Objectives That Can Be Achieved With Control Valve
Positioners
Throttling Control With Double-Acting Piston Actuators
Required Pressure Control - A double-acting piston actuator that is applied in a
throttling control application requires the simultaneous control of the upper
cylinder pressure and the lower cylinder pressure, as shown in the upper portion
of Figure 33.
Positioner Application - A double-acting positioner has the capability to
simultaneously control two pressures, as shown in the lower portion of Figure
33. A double-acting positioner must be specified for a double-acting piston
actuator that is applied in a throttling control application.
Double-Acting Positioner Application
Figure 33
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Split-Range Control
Typical Application - Figure 34 illustrates a split range application in which the
control objective requires very wide control valve rangeability; i.e., a very low
minimum C
v
requirement and a very high maximum C
v
requirement. If the
rangeability requirement cannot be satisfied with a single valve, two valves may be
installed in a parallel piping arrangement. Each valve is operated by a split-ranged
positioner. Positioner A is calibrated to provide full stroke operation of control valve
A with an input signal range of 3 to 10 psig, and positioner B is calibrated to
provide full stroke operation of control valve B with an input signal range of 8 to 15
psig.
Split-Range Control Application
Figure 34
Overlap - In the example application that is shown in Figure 34, the system has
been designed so that the two input pressure ranges overlap. If the input ranges
do not overlap, a small error in instrument calibration may result in a "gap" or a
"dead" spot at the split. Any separation of the two signal ranges will result in dead
band; the condition where a change in input does not result in any observable
change in output. Calibration overlap ensures smooth transfer of control from one
valve to the other.
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Overcoming Valve Friction
Control Loop Performance And Valve Stem Positioning Accuracy - The best control
loop performance is achieved when the actual control valve stem position is the
same as the implied valve stem position.
Valve Friction - The most common factor that interferes with stem positioning
accuracy is control valve friction. Valve stem packing and valve seals are
common sources of control valve friction. The characteristics of the process fluid
can also introduce valve friction; for example, in coking applications, particulates
tend to build up on sliding surfaces and interfere with accurate stem positioning,
and viscous fluids may coat valve components with sticky residues that inhibit
movement of the control valve closure member.
Valve Friction, Dead band, And Hysteresis - The effects of valve friction on control
valve performance can be discussed in terms of dead band and hysteresis.
Dead band and hysteresis are illustrated in Figure 35. Dead band is the range
through which an input signal may be varied, upon reversal of direction of the
input signal, without initiating an observable response in the output. Hysteresis
refers to the maximum deviation of the output from the ideal output, and it is
measured as the input signal is continuously increased from the minimum signal
to the maximum, and then continuously decreased from maximum to minimum.
Dead Band And Hysteresis
Figure 35
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Limit Cycle - The effects of dead band and hysteresis can be observed in the
process as a distinct oscillation of the process variable that is referred to as limit
cycle. See Figure 36. Limit cycle is uniquely different from the oscillations that
result from excessive loop gain. Limit cycle occurs when the valve closure
member "sticks" because of static friction, then suddenly jumps to a new
position when the actuator force exceeds the static friction, as shown in the
upper plot in Figure 36. The response of the process variable to the abrupt
changes in valve stem position is shown in the lower plot in Figure 36. Note the
following:
The distinct shape of the limit cycle is determined by the time constant of
the process and other factors.
The magnitude of the limit cycle is determined by the proportional gain of
the controller.
The frequency of the limit cycle is a function of any integral action in the
controller or in the process.
Control Valve Dead Band (Upper Plot) And Limit Cycle (Lower Plot)
Figure 36
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Minimizing Friction Effects With Equipment Selection - Obviously, the occurrence of
limit cycles detracts from control loop performance. Because limit cycles are
caused, in part, by valve friction and imprecise stem positioning, any tactic that
minimizes dead band will help to minimize limit cycles. In terms of equipment
selection, the specifying engineer may:
Select a control valve positioner.
Select a larger actuator.
Increase the operating pressure range of the actuator.
The selection of a control valve positioner is often the easiest and most practical
solution. The improvement in stem positioning accuracy that can be achieved
with a positioner is illustrated in Figure 37.
Minimizing Dead Band With A Control Valve Positioner
Figure 37
Minimizing Friction Band With Controller Tuning - The controller can be adjusted
(tuned) to minimize the limit cycle in an existing system as follows:
Reducing the proportional gain of the controller reduces the magnitude of
the limit cycle.
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Changing the integral action. Increased integral action compensates for
the reduction in proportional gain and increases the frequency of the
cycles, while reducing the integral action will decrease the frequency of
the cycles.
Even if the limit cycles cannot be totally eliminated, they may be minimized to
the extent that their effects on the process variable become very small or even
imperceptible.
Increased Seat Load
Another performance objective that can be achieved by selecting a positioner is
increased seat load and tighter control valve shutoff. The amount of additional seat
load that can be gained depends upon whether the actuator is direct or reverse-acting,
and whether the control valve is a push-down-to-close (PDTC) or a push-down-to-open
(PDTO) type.
Direct-Acting Actuator: PDTC Valve - For purposes of illustration, assume that a
direct-acting actuator operates a PDTC control valve as shown in Figure 38.
Assume also that the actuator has been sized for a 3 to 15 psig operating
pressure range, and that the supply pressure to the positioner is set at 50 psig.
As soon as the valve plug touches the seat, the positioner will perceive an error.
In an effort to correct the error, the positioner output pressure will increase to its
maximum value (the supply pressure minus approximately 5 psig that is
consumed by the positioner). As a result, an additional shutoff force that is equal
to 30 psig (45 psig minus 15 psig) times the area of the diaphragm is available
to increase the seat load.
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Additional Diaphragm Pressure That Is Available For Control Valve Shutoff
Figure 38
Reverse-Acting Actuator: PDTC Valve - In the case of a reverse-acting actuator
(see Figure 39), the additional loading pressure results in an additional force for
opening the control valve. Increased seat load may be achieved by increasing
the amount of initial compression of the actuator spring; however, increasing the
amount of initial compression will alter the actuator bench set and may lead to
the selection of a larger actuator.
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Additional Diaphragm Pressure That Is Available To Open The Valve
Figure 39
Proper Control Valve Operation From The Available Control Signal
Another objective that can be achieved with a positioner is the operation of a
pneumatic actuator from an incompatible control signal range. As the basis for an
example, consider the application that is illustrated in Figure 40. The actuator has been
sized on the assumption that an actuator operating pressure range of 0 to 33 psig is
available, but the controller output is a 3 to 15 psig control signal. In this application, a
positioner with a 3 to 15 psig input pressure range is selected. To ensure stem
positioning accuracy, the positioner output pressure will go to any value between zero
psig and a pressure that is slightly less than the supply pressure.
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Operating A Control Valve With An Incompatible Signal Range
Figure 40
Modification Of Control Valve Flow Characteristics
Typical Application - Figure 41 shows a pressure relief application in which the
control valve must open quickly whenever the process variable (pressure)
increases to a value that is above set point. To ensure rapid pressure relief, a
quick-opening valve characteristic is preferred. The control valve that has been
selected for this application is a rotary-shaft valve that was selected because of
its wide rangeability. The control valve has a fixed, approximately linear
characteristic. To modify the inherent valve characteristic, a quick-opening
positioner characteristic is selected. The combination of the approximately linear
valve characteristic and the quick-opening positioner characteristic results in an
approximate quick-opening characteristic.
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Modification Of Control Valve Characteristics
Figure 41
Reduced Stroking Time Through Isolation
As previously discussed, long pneumatic signal transmission lines may weaken the
control signal. A standard solution to this problem is to isolate the control signal from
the actuator with any instrument that includes a small volume input (measuring)
element. Because the volume of a positioner input element is very small and does not
require a high-capacity control signal, isolation can be achieved with a positioner, as
shown in Figure 42. Because the positioner output derives from an independent supply
pressure, the positioner output is of sufficient capacity to quickly load the actuator
diaphragm casing.
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Isolating The Control Signal From The Actuator
Figure 42
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action
When necessary, it is possible to reverse the action of the control valve by selecting a
reverse-acting positioner. As mentioned previously, many positioners may also be easily
reversed in the field. To form the basis for an example application, refer to Figure 43
below. The objective of the control loop is to maintain a downstream pressure by closing
the control valve when the downstream pressure increases. As downstream pressure
increases, the controller output increases. A direct-acting transducer is already included
in the system and it cannot be changed. A reverse-acting actuator has been selected to
achieve a fail-closed fail mode. In view of the existing components and their actions, a
reverse-acting positioner is selected to ensure that the control valve will tend to close
upon an increase in the controller output.
Reversing The Control Valve Action
Figure 43
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Control Valve Positioner Selection And Application Guidelines
Static Selection And Application Guidelines
Following is a summary of the typical applications and applications guidelines that have
been presented in this section.
Overcoming Valve Friction - When significant valve friction is present, the use of a
control valve positioner helps to improve stem positioning accuracy. Improved
stem positioning accuracy results in improved process control.
Double-Acting Piston Actuators - When double-acting positioners are to provide
throttling (versus on-off) control, a double-acting positioner must be selected. No
other instrument can provide the pressure control that is required.
Split Range Applications - Positioners are typically the instrument of choice for
split range applications because of their ability to accurately position the valve
stem. Section 7.2 of SAES J-700 states that an I/P transducer shall be selected
for each control valve in a split-range system if the control valves are separated
by 25 feet or more. The same standard requires that the I/P transducers be
located equidistant from each final control element. This guideline ensures that
the pressure losses from each I/P transducer to its associated control valve are
minimized and equal.
Increased Seat Load - A positioner is often the instrument of choice when
additional seat load is required to achieve the needed ANSI Class shutoff rating.
Specifiers must remember that selecting a positioner for the purpose of
increasing the seat load that is available from a reverse-acting actuator may
require a change in the actuator specification; i.e., if the initial compression is
increased, the bench set will change and a larger actuator may be required.
Proper Control Valve Operation From The Available Control Signal - If the actuator
requires a loading pressure range that is different from the control signal
pressure range, a positioner may be selected to achieve instrument
compatibility.
Modification Of Control Valve Flow Characteristics - Positioners may be selected to
alter the control valve characteristic when (a), the desired characteristic is not
available as an option for the selected valve, or (b) it is desirable to change the
characteristic of an installed valve.
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Reduced Stroking Time - To compensate for pressure losses in long pneumatic
signal lines, or to reduce the time that is required to fill the diaphragm casing of
a relatively large actuator, either a positioner or a 1:1 booster may be selected.
A positioner is often preferred because of the stem positioning accuracy that it
can provide.
Reversal Of The Control Valve Action - Unless no other viable means of achieving
the needed control valve action is available, the selection of a reverse-acting
positioner should be avoided. Problems with bypass operation and calibration
complexity are the primary disadvantages of reverse-acting positioners. Section
7.1.1 of SAES-J-700 allows reverse-acting positioners only when the "valve
action cannot be reversed otherwise".
Dynamic Application Guidelines
Positioners are required to achieve throttling control with a double-acting piston
actuator, and they are recommended for split-range control applications because of
their ability to ensure valve stem positioning accuracy. In most other applications,
positioners are optional; i.e., the control objective could be achieved in some other
way; e.g., through the selection of another instrument, through the specification of a
different (generally larger) actuator, or through calibration or retro-fitting of existing
equipment. For each of the applications in which the selection of a positioner is
considered optional, the specifying engineer may analyze the dynamic aspects of
positioner performance before selecting a positioner. In this context, the dynamic
concerns of interest are the speed of response of the positioner compared to the speed
of response of the process.
Positioner Application As A Cascade Loop - The application of a positioner results
in a cascade control loop. Recall from prerequisite courses that cascade control
is a control strategy in which an inner loop operates within an outer loop for the
purpose of minimizing supply upsets before these upsets can affect the process
variable. To implement cascade control, the output of one controller is the set
point for another controller.
Cascade Loop Operation - To examine a positioner as an example of cascade
control, the positioner is seen as a secondary controller for which the set point is
the primary controller output and the measured variable is the actual valve stem
position. See Figure 44. The role of the positioner (as a secondary controller) is
to determine if an error exists between its measured variable (the actual stem
position) and its set point (the primary controller output) and to correct the error
by producing the appropriate change in its output (the actuator loading
pressure).
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Positioner As A Cascade Control Loop
Figure 44
Cascade Loop Requirements And Limitations - Recall from previous courses that
to ensure the proper operation of a cascade control strategy, the inner loop (in
this case, the positioner) must have a much faster response than the outer loop.
If the inner loop is slower than the outer loop, it will always be trying to correct a
prior error. If the inner loop is always "behind", the corrections that are made by
the secondary controller may actually introduce additional error into the process
resulting in loop instability. If the inner loop is faster than the outer loop, it will be
able to "keep up" up with the demands of the outer loop.
Fast Loop-Slow Loop Guidelines - A simple 'fast loop-slow loop' guideline can be
applied to (a) guide positioner selection and (b) predict the performance of a
loop that includes a positioner. This guideline is based on the speed of typical
processes, and is expressed as follows:
For slow processes, specify positioners without reservation.
For fast processes, evaluate solutions other than positioners. If
positioners are selected for fast loops, anticipate a tendency toward
control loop instability.
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While the terms "fast" and "slow" are somewhat arbitrary, the relative speed of
most processes can be characterized according to the chart that is shown in
Figure 45.
Potential Problems And Solutions - When positioners need to be applied in fast
loops, good control may be achieved by making adjustments to the controller
tuning settings. See Figure 45. The adjustments that are typically required tend
to detune the controller. The adjustments are:
Reduced proportional gain
Increased integral action
Speed
Designation
Process Notes
Slow Processes Liquid Level Good Loop Performance
Temperature With A Positioner
Large Volume Gas Pressure
Fast Processes Flow
If Instability Occurs, Adjust
Controller:
Liquid Pressure Reduced Gain
Small Volume Gas Pressure Increased Integral Action
Fast And Slow Processes
Figure 45
Filter Regulator Selection Guidelines
A control valve positioner, like the other instruments that have been discussed in this
Module, requires a supply pressure that is clean and regulated. The specific guidelines
that direct the selection of a filter-regulator are the same as those that have been
previously presented.
Unless the plant air (instrument air) system includes provisions for supplying
clean air at the appropriate pressure value to each pneumatic instrument, a
filter-regulator is required.
A filter-regulator should be selected for each instrument in the loop; i.e., the
operation of several instruments from a single filter-regulator is not
recommended.
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Summary Of Selection Guidelines
A summary of the selection guidelines that have been presented throughout this
Module is shown in Figure 46.
Control Objective Positioner
(1)
Booster
Transducer
(I/P)
Overcome Valve Friction
(Reduce Dead Band And
Hysteresis)
Stem Positioning
Accuracy
Increased Seat Load Maximum Effect
Because Pa = 0 and
Pb = Full Supply
Pressure
Pressure Amplifier
Moderate Effect
Some Effect Is
Possible If The
Output Span Is
0 to 18 psig or
0 to 33 psig
Compensation for Long
Signal Lines
(Signal Isolation)
Isolation Is Provided
By The Relay Action
1:1 Amplifier
(Repeater)
Operation Of Double-Acting
Piston Actuators
Double-Acting
Positioner
Split Range Control Preferred Possible
Modification Of Control
Valve Flow Characteristics Via Cam Selection
Reversal Of The Control
Valve Action
YES YES YES
Current-To-Pressure Signal
Conversion
Electro-Pneumatic
Positioner
(Not Allowed Per
Section 7.1.1 of
SAES-J-700)
Saudi Aramco
Preferred Method
Increased Stroking Speed Possible, Depending
On Positioner C
v
,
Gain, And Response
Time
Volume Booster
(Use Only In
Combination With A
Valve Positioner)
1. Caution on high loop gain and instability when positioner is used with a fast process.
Instrument Selection Guidelines
Figure 46
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Filter-Regulator Selection
General Specification Guidelines
A nearly infinite number of regulator types and styles could be specified for a specific
instrument application. To simplify filter-regulator selection and specification, control
valve manufacturer's offer pre-engineered filter-regulator combinations that have been
designed to provide optimum instrument performance in a broad range of applications.
To select an appropriate filter-regulator type and size, the specifier may observe the
following guidelines:
For all instruments except high-capacity devices such as volume boosters and
dead band volume boosters, select a standard filter-regulator. For example, the
Fisher Type 67AFR is a standard regulator that is designed to provide optimum
operation under most circumstances. The Type 67AFR is compatible with the
following:
- Inlet pressures up to 400 psig
- Outlet pressure ranges from 5 to 35 psig through 35 to 100 psig
- 1/4-inch inlet and outlet pressure connections
For high-capacity instruments such as volume boosters and dead band volume
boosters, select a standard high-capacity regulator. For example, the Fisher
Type 64R provides more than sufficient capacity to operate most high-capacity
instruments and the downstream devices that they control. Because the Type
64R does not include a filter, a separate filter such as a Fisher Type 254 must
be specified.
When very short stroking times are critical to the successful operation of the
control loop, the process of calculating the capacity requirements of the
instruments and the actuator can become highly involved. In this situation, the
specifier may simply note the stroking time that is required and request the
equipment vendor or manufacturer to recommend equipment that will achieve
the control objective.
When the instrument air supply is at a very high pressure (greater than the
maximum input pressure rating of a standard or high-capacity regulator), a
second stage of pressure reduction will be necessary. An example of a high-
pressure source is when a control valve uses gas pipeline pressure (instead of
a plant air supply) as a pneumatic source. In this instance, the value of the
available pressure should be noted and the vendor should be requested to
provide an equipment recommendation.
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SPECIFYING ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCERS
Introduction: Basis For Transducer Specifications
Control Objectives
The specification for a particular transducer is determined, in part, by evaluating the
specific control objectives. The most common control objectives that are achieved with
transducers are:
Operation of a pneumatic device with an electronic control signal
Split-range control
Reversal of the control valve action
Ratings And Specifications Of Connected Components
The specification for a transducer is also developed in view of the specifications and
ratings of the components that are connected to the transducer; e.g.:
Upstream devices such as controllers
Downstream devices such as actuators or other instruments
Components Of A Transducer Specification
The components of a complete transducer specification include the following:
Manufacturer and model number (or type number)
Type of electro-pneumatic transducer (I/P, E/P, etc.)
Transducer action (direct or reverse)
Input signal range
Output signal range
Required supply pressure
Components Of A Filter Regulator Specification
If a filter-regulator is required, the components of its specification are:
Type of air filter/regulator
Size of air filter/regulator
Filter regulator set pressure
Maximum available supply pressure to the filter/regulator
Minimum required supply pressure to the filter/regulator
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Developing A Specification
This Information Sheet section will provide the background information that a Process
Control Engineer needs to understand in order to specify electro-pneumatic
transducers.
Specifications For Electro-Pneumatic Transducers
During the discussion that follows, the specification for an I/P transducer will be
discussed in terms of the pertinent entries on the Saudi Aramco ISS. The pertinent
entries on the Saudi Aramco ISS are shown in Figure 47.
Many of the specifications are determined after consulting manufacturer's specification
bulletins; therefore, Participants may wish to refer to a typical specification bulletin that
lists transducer specifications; e.g., Fisher Specification Bulletin 62.1:546.
Transducer Specifications On The Saudi Aramco ISS
Figure 47
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Line 80: Transducer Type and Model Number
Transducer Type - The transducer type; e.g., I/P, E/P, etc., is entered in the first
box on line 80.
The type (I/P, E/P, etc.) of transducer that is specified is determined by the
following:
The form of the signal that is to be converted; i.e., whether the signal is
an electrical current, an electrical voltage, or a pneumatic pressure.
The required form of the transducer output; i.e., whether the downstream
device requires an input in the form of an electrical current, an electrical
voltage, or a pneumatic pressure.
Transducer Model Number - The transducer model number, or type number; e.g.,
Fisher 546, is entered in the second box on line 80. The transducer model
number may include designators that indicate a reverse-acting construction, an
expanded output pressure range, an intrinsically safe rating, or other options
and features.
Line 81: Transducer Input mA / Output
Transducer Input mA - The transducer input signal range is entered in the first
box on line 81. If the transducer is not an I/P type, then "mA" should be ruled out
and the appropriate units should be noted.
For most applications, the transducer input signal range is determined by the
output signal range of the upstream instrument. For example, if the upstream
instrument is an electronic controller that provides a 4 to 20 mA dc output, the
input signal range of the transducer is specified as 4 to 20 mA dc.
For split range applications, the transducer input signal range must be specified
according to the design of the control loop. For example, if two final control
elements are to respond to two equal portions of a 4 to 20 mA dc control signal,
one transducer will be specified with an input signal range of 4 to 12 mA dc, and
another transducer will be specified with an input signal range of 12 to 20 mA
dc.
Output - The transducer output signal range is entered in the second box on line
81. The appropriate units should be noted; e.g., 3 to 15 psig. The required
output signal range is determined by the input signal range of the downstream
device. Specifiers should consider the following:
Instruments often require either 3 to 15 or 6 to 30 psig control signals.
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Many actuators are sized on the assumption that a 0 to 18 psig or a 0 to
33 psig actuator operating pressure range is available.
If an inappropriate output range is selected, the downstream device may fail to
perform as designed. For example, if a transducer with an output pressure
range of 3 to 15 psig loads an actuator that was sized on the assumption of a 0
to 18 psig actuator operating pressure, the actuator may not fully stroke the
control valve, or the actuator may not provide sufficient seat load to achieve the
full rated shutoff of the control valve.
The specification of the output pressure range can also indicate whether the
transducer is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type. For example, the
following specification indicates a reverse-acting construction.
Transducer Input: 4 to 20 mA dc
Transducer Output: 15-3 psig
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal (Open or Close)
The valve action on increase in signal is a function of the following:
Whether the instrument or instruments between the control signal and the
actuator are direct-acting or reverse-acting types.
Whether the actuator is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type.
Whether the control valve is a PDTC (push-down-to-close) or PDTO
(push-down-to-open) type.
To ensure the desired valve response to an increase in the control signal, the
specifier must evaluate the control loop and select the proper transducer action;
i.e., direct-acting or reverse-acting.
If the wrong action is specified, the control valve will close when it should open
and it will open when it should close. This action will quickly result in loss of
control (positive feedback) and the system will cease to perform altogether.
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd.
Supply Max. Avail - The maximum supply pressure that is available to the filter-
regulator is entered in the first box on line 43. The entry for this line is the
maximum pressure of the plant air system. By noting the maximum available
inlet pressure to the regulator, the specifier and the vendor may verify that the
maximum regulator input pressure is not exceeded. For example, the maximum
input pressure rating of the Fisher Type 67AFR filter-regulator is 400 psig.
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Supply Min. Req'd. - The minimum supply pressure that is required for proper
filter-regulator operation is entered in the second box on line 43.
Generally speaking, the filter-regulators that have been discussed in this Module
will provide optimum performance as long as the minimum inlet pressure is
approximately 30 percent greater than the regulator set pressure. If the supply
pressure to the regulator approaches the set pressure of the regulator, the
regulator outlet pressure will droop and downstream devices may not perform as
designed.
Specifications For Filter Regulators That Are Used With Electro-Pneumatic
Transducers
Line 74: Air Filter-Regulator Type / Size
Air-Filter Regulator Type - The air filter-regulator type is entered in the first box on
line 74. The air filter-regulator type is the manufacturer's type number or model
number; e.g., a Fisher Type 67AFR. According to the guidelines previously
given, a standard filter-regulator (Fisher Type 67AFR) is satisfactory for most
transducer applications.
Size - This specification refers to the size of the inlet and outlet pressure
connections at the filter-regulator. Most standard regulators include 1/4-inch
NPT inlet and outlet pressure connections.
Line 75: Air Req'd Set Pressure
This line asks for the set pressure of the filter-regulator. The regulator set pressure must
be set to the transducer's supply pressure requirement.
The supply pressure to an I/P or E/P transducer is generally determined by the maximum
transducer output pressure. Because there is some pressure loss in the transducer, the
supply pressure to the transducer (the regulator set pressure) must be slightly higher than
the maximum transducer output pressure. Some manufacturers recommend a supply
pressure that is 5 to 10 percent greater than the maximum transducer output pressure.
The information that is needed to specify the supply pressure requirement is included in
the manufacturer's product specification bulletins.
Supply pressures that are higher than the manufacturer's recommendation may result in:
An elevated output pressure range and less than optimum transducer
performance.
Damage to the transducer and/or downstream equipment.
An inadequate supply pressure will result in poor transducer performance and a reduced
transducer output pressure range.
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Specifying PNEUMATIC BOOSTERS
Introduction: Basis For Booster Specifications
Control Objectives
The specification for a pneumatic booster is determined, in part, by evaluating the
specific control objectives that are to be achieved. The specific control objectives that
can be achieved with transducers are summarized as follows:
Operation of related pneumatic devices with incompatible pressure ranges
Reduced stroking time
Reversal of the control valve action
Ratings And Specifications Of Connected Components
The specification for a transducer is also developed in view of the specifications and
ratings of the components that are connected to the transducer; e.g.:
The output pressure range of the upstream device; e.g., the controller or
transducer
The input pressure range of the downstream device; e.g., an actuator or
another instrument
Components Of A Booster Specifications
The components of a complete transducer specification include the following:
Manufacturer and model number (or type number)
Type of booster (pressure booster, 1:1 repeater, volume booster, etc.)
Booster action (direct or reverse)
Input signal range
Output signal range
Required supply pressure
Components Of A Filter Regulator Specification
If a filter-regulator is required, the components of its specification are:
Type of air filter/regulator
Size of air filter/regulator
Filter regulator set pressure
Maximum available supply pressure to the filter/regulator
Minimum required supply pressure to the filter/regulator
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Specifications For Pneumatic Boosters
During the discussion that follows, the specification for a pneumatic booster will be
discussed in terms of the pertinent entries on the Saudi Aramco ISS. The pertinent
entries on the Saudi Aramco ISS are shown in Figure 48.
Many of the specifications are determined after consulting manufacturer's specification
bulletins; therefore, Participants may wish to refer to a typical specification bulletin that
lists pneumatic booster specifications; e.g., Fisher Specification Bulletin 62.3:2625 and
Moore Specification Bulletin GC-61.
Booster Specifications On The Saudi Aramco ISS
Figure 48
Line 80 Transducer Type / Model No.
Type - The transducer type is entered in the first box on line 80. Here, the
specifier should enter the manufacturer's name and designate a P/P transducer.
A complete specification must also indicate what type of booster is being
specified. This entry should also indicate whether the booster is a pressure
booster, a pressure reducer, a 1:1 repeater, or a volume booster. The type of
booster that is needed is determined according to the control valve performance
that is required to achieve specific control objectives.
Model Number - The model number of the booster is entered in the second box
on line 80.
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Line 81: Transducer Input mA / Output
Input - The Saudi Aramco ISS is pre-printed to accept an I/P transducer
specification. Because of the functions that they perform, pneumatic boosters
can be regarded as pressure-to-pressure (P/P) transducers. To enter a P/P
specification, the specifier should blacken "mA" as a units designator for the
input and indicate that the units are "psig". The pressure range of the input to
the booster is entered in the first box on line 81.
The input pressure range to the booster is determined by the output pressure
range of the upstream device. For example, if the input to the booster is the
output of a pneumatic controller that produces a 3 to 15 psig output, the input
pressure range to the booster must be specified as 3 to 15 psig.
If a booster input range is incorrectly specified, the booster will not provide the
desired performance. For example, if a controller output of 0 to 18 psig is
connected to the input of a booster with a 3 to 15 psig input pressure range, the
booster will only respond to a portion of the control signal pressure range.
Output - The booster output pressure range is entered in the second box on line
81. The booster output pressure range is determined by the input pressure
range of the downstream device. For example, if the output of the booster is to
operate a pneumatic actuator that requires a 6 to 30 psig operating pressure
range, the booster output pressure range must be specified as 6 to 30 psig.
If the output pressure range of the booster is incorrectly specified, the
downstream device will not perform as designed. For example, if the output of a
volume booster with a 3 to 15 psig output pressure range is connected to an
actuator with a 0 to 18 psig operating pressure range, the actuator may not be
able to produce sufficient force to fully close or fully open the valve.
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal (Open or Close)
The valve action on increase in signal is a function of the following:
Whether the instrument or instruments between the control signal and the
actuator are direct-acting or reverse-acting types.
Whether the actuator is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type.
Whether the control valve is a PDTC (push-down-to-close) or PDTO
(push-down-to-open) type.
To ensure the desired valve response to an increase in the control signal, the
specifier must evaluate the control loop and select the proper transducer action;
i.e., direct-acting or reverse-acting.
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Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd.
Max. Avail . - The maximum available supply pressure is entered in the first box
on line 43. The value for this specification is the maximum supply pressure that
is available from the plant air system.
Min. Req'd. - The minimum required supply pressure is entered in the second
box on line 43. As previously discussed, optimum performance may generally
achieved as long as the minimum inlet pressure is approximately 30 percent
greater than the regulator set pressure.
Specifications For Filter Regulators That Are Used With Pneumatic Boosters
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size
Type - The air filter and regulator manufacturer and model number (or type
number) are entered in the first box on line 74. The guidelines for selecting a
regulator for use with a pneumatic booster are as follows:
For all instruments (including 1:1 repeaters, pressure amplifiers, and
pressure reducers) except high-capacity volume boosters, select a
standard filter-regulator; e.g., a Fisher Type 67AFR.
For volume boosters and dead band volume boosters, select a high-
capacity regulator; e.g., a Fisher Type 64R. Because the Type 64R does
not include a filter, a separate filter such as the Fisher Type 254 must be
specified.
When very short stroking times are critical to the successful operation of
the control loop, request the equipment vendor or manufacturer to
analyze the capacity requirements and select an appropriate filter-
regulator device.
If the specified filter-regulator does not provide adequate capacity, pressure
losses and sluggish response of the instruments and devices that are
downstream of the regulator may result.
Size - This specification refers to the size of the inlet and outlet pressure
connections at the filter-regulator. Most standard regulators include 1/4-inch
NPT inlet and outlet pressure connections.
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Line 75: Air Required Set Pressure
The regulator set pressure must be set to the supply pressure requirement of the
selected booster. The required supply pressure to the booster may be determined by
the maximum booster output pressure, or it may be determined by an operating limit of
the booster design. For example, some boosters require a supply pressure that is just
slightly higher than the maximum output pressure of the booster, while other boosters
will accept supply pressures that are substantially higher than the maximum booster
output pressure. The information that is necessary to specify the supply pressure
requirements for a specific booster is included in the manufacturer's product
specification bulletins.
If the regulator set pressure is less than the booster's supply pressure requirement,
sluggish booster operation and reduced booster output pressure may result. If the
regulator set pressure is greater than the booster's supply pressure requirement, the
booster output pressure range may be elevated and/or damage to the booster may
result.
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SPECIFYING CONTROL VALVE POSITIONERS
Introduction: Basis For Control Valve Positioner Specifications
Control Objectives
The specification for a particular positioner is determined, in part, after evaluating the
specific control objectives. The specific control objectives that can be achieved with
control valve positioners include:
Operation of double-acting piston actuators
Implementation of split range control techniques
Increased seat load
Proper control valve operation from the available control signal
Modification of control valve flow characteristics
Reduced stroking time
Reversal of the control valve action
Ratings And Specifications Of Connected Components
The specification for a positioner is also developed in view of the specifications and
ratings of the components that are connected to the positioner. These devices include:
Upstream devices, including controllers and transducers
Downstream devices; normally a control valve actuator
Positioner Specifications
The components of a complete positioner specification include the following:
Manufacturer and model (or type number)
Type of positioner (pneumatic or electro-pneumatic)
Positioner action (direct or reverse)
Input signal range
Output pressure range
Required supply pressure
Desired options (gauges, characteristics, and bypass valves)
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Filter Regulator Specifications
If a filter-regulator is required, the components of its specification are:
Type of air filter/regulator
Size of air filter/regulator
Filter regulator set pressure
Maximum available supply pressure to the filter/regulator
Minimum required supply pressure to the filter/regulator
Specifications For Control Valve Positioners
During the discussion that follows, the specification for a control valve positioner will be
discussed in terms of the pertinent entries on the Saudi Aramco ISS. The pertinent
entries on the Saudi Aramco ISS are shown in Figure 49.
Many of the specifications are determined after consulting manufacturer's specification
bulletins; therefore, Participants may wish to refer to a typical specification bulletin that
lists positioner specifications; e.g., Fisher Specification Bulletin 62.1:3582.
Positioner Specifications On The Saudi Aramco ISS
Figure 49
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Line 5: Manufacturer
The name of the positioner manufacturer is entered on line 5. The positioner or
positioners that are available for a specific control valve may be manufactured by the
control valve manufacturer, or by a different company. For example, it is may be
possible to specify, for a Fisher control valve, a Fisher positioner or a PMV positioner.
Line 6: Model / Type Number
The model number or type number of the positioner is entered on line 6. The positioner
model number or type number generally indicates whether the positioner is designed
for a sliding-stem or rotary-shaft control valve, whether the positioner is a pneumatic or
electro-pneumatic type, and whether the positioner is single-acting or double-acting.
The model number may also indicate that the positioner includes specific features and
options.
Line 9: Overall Valve / Actuator Characteristic
If the positioner is characterized (see Line 45), the combined valve and positioner
characteristic is noted on line 9.
Line 38: Positioner Type / Model Number
Type - The positioner type (pneumatic or electro-pneumatic) is entered in the
first box on line 38. Because Section 7.1.1 of SAES-J-700 disallows the use of
electro-pneumatic control valve positioners, the positioner type will always be
entered as "pneumatic".
Model Number - The positioner model number; e.g., Fisher 3582, is entered in
the second box on line 38.
Line 39: Positioner Bypass / Gauges
Bypass - To indicate whether or not a bypass valve is being specified, the
specifier enters "yes" or "no". Section 7.1.4 of SAES-J-700 requires the
specification of a positioner bypass valve unless one of the following conditions
applies:
The actuator operating pressure range is other than 3 to 15 psig.
The actuator is a double-acting piston type.
In addition to the requirements that are included Section 7.1.4 of SAES-J-700,
the specifier should not specify a bypass valve for reverse-acting positioners.
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If a bypass valve is a standard positioner feature, the specifier should request
that the manufacturer disable the bypass under the following conditions:
The actuator operating pressure range is other than 3 to 15 psig.
The selected actuator is a double-acting piston type.
The selected positioner is reverse-acting.
If the positioner is specified as part of a complete control valve assembly and
any of the above conditions are noted on a specification, some manufacturers,
as a matter of standard operating procedure, will disable the bypass valve.
The improper application and operation of a bypass valve can produce
catastrophic results, as described below.
If a bypass valve is specified for a reverse-acting positioner (increase in
control signal produces a decrease in positioner output), and if the
bypass valve is opened, the controller output will be sent directly to the
actuator. The resulting valve action will be exactly opposite of the desired
valve action. In this situation, the controller will sense an infinite error and
the valve will remain at one travel extreme until the bypass valve is
closed.
If the actuator operating pressure range is different from the controller
output pressure range, and if the positioner bypass valve is opened, the
actuator will not be able to perform as it should. For example, if a
controller output pressure of 3 to 15 psig is bypassed directly to an
actuator with a 0 to 33 psig operating pressure range, the actuator will be
grossly underpowered.
Gauges - Section 7.1.3 of SAES-J-700 requires the specification of pressure
gauges that indicate the following pressure values:
Supply pressure (to the positioner).
Controller air pressure signal.
Positioner output pressure.
To indicate that gauges are required, the specifier enters "yes", and he may
optionally add the number "3" to indicate that three gauges are required.
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Line 40: Positioner Input and Output
Input - The positioner input pressure range is entered in the first box on line 40.
According to Section 7.1.1 of SAES-J-700, the input will be a pneumatic
pressure signal. For most applications, the input pressure range will be the
same as the output pressure range of the upstream instrument; i.e., the
upstream controller or transducer. For split-range applications, the input
pressure range is specified as the portion of the control signal pressure range
that is to operate the control valve.
Specification of the proper input range is crucial to the proper operation of the
positioner and the control valve. For example, if the controller output pressure
range is 3 to 15 psig and if the positioner input range is specified as 6 to 30 psig,
the positioner will interpret an input pressure of 15 psig as a requirement for a
valve position of 50 percent of the rated valve travel, instead of a requirement
for full valve travel.
Output - The positioner output pressure range is entered in the second box on
line 40. The minimum value of the positioner output pressure range is 0 psig.
The maximum positioner output pressure is set according the application
requirements and the maximum pressure ratings of the positioner and the
actuator, as follows:
For normal operation of a control valve actuator, the maximum output
pressure is typically set to a pressure value that is slightly higher than the
maximum actuator operating pressure that was assumed during the
actuator sizing process. For example, if an actuator is sized for a 0 to 33
psig actuator operating pressure range, the maximum positioner output
pressure may be set to 35 psig. The additional pressure allows for
calibration errors and it ensures that adequate actuator force will be
available to operate the control valve.
If additional seat load is required to achieve tighter shutoff (direct-acting
actuator), or if more actuator force is required to ensure that the valve will
fully open (reverse-acting actuator), the positioner output pressure may
be increased to a higher pressure value. The maximum output pressure
must not exceed either of the following:
- The maximum supply pressure rating of the positioner.
- The maximum diaphragm pressure rating of the actuator.
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The appropriate ratings are listed in manufacturer's specification bulletins.
Improper specification of the positioner output pressure can result in improper
control valve operation and damage to the positioner, actuator, and control
valve.
Line 41: Positioner Action
Most positioners can be configured as either direct-acting or reverse-acting devices.
When the positioner is specified as part of a control valve assembly, the correct action
should be included in the initial specification. The needed action is determined by
evaluating the control loop objectives and the existing control loop components. The
appropriate positioner action is determined in conjunction with the entry on Line 42;
Valve Action On Increase In Signal (See the information for Line 42, below).
To specify whether the positioner is direct-acting or reverse-acting, the specifier circles
the appropriate selection on line 41.
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal
To specify whether the control valve is to open or close upon an increase in control
signal, the specifier circles the appropriate selection on line 42. The valve action on
increase in signal is a function of the following:
Whether the instrument or instruments between the control signal and the
actuator are direct-acting or reverse-acting types.
Whether the actuator is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type.
Whether the control valve is a PDTC (push-down-to-close) or PDTO
(push-down-to-open) type.
To ensure the desired valve response to an increase in the control signal, the
specifier must evaluate the control loop and select the proper transducer action.
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd.
Max. Avail. - The value for this specification is the maximum supply pressure that
is available from the plant air system.
Min. Req'd. - The minimum pressure that is required for proper regulator
operation is entered in the second box on line 43.
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Line 45: Cam Characterized
If it is necessary or desirable to alter the inherent flow characteristic of the control
valve, the specifier must determine the appropriate positioner characteristic and
include it in the positioner specification.
Specifications For Filter Regulators That Are Used With Control Valve
Positioners
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size
Type - The type number or model number of the filter-regulator is entered in the
first box on line 74. Standard air filter-regulators normally provide adequate
performance with control valve positioners. For example, the Fisher Type
67AFR is commonly specified.
When volume boosters and dead band volume boosters are located
downstream of a control valve positioner, a high capacity regulator and a
separate filter must be specified.
Size - The size of the regulator inlet and outlet pressure connections is entered
in the second box on line 74.
Line 75: Air Required Set Pressure
The regulator set pressure is set to the value of the required supply pressure to the
positioner. The supply pressure requirement for the positioner is to be found in the
appropriate specification bulletin.
To compensate for pressure losses within the positioner, the positioner's supply
pressure requirement is generally a value that is slightly higher than the maximum
positioner output pressure; however, the set pressure must be less than the maximum
supply pressure that is recommended for the positioner, and it must be less than the
maximum actuator pressure rating.
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WORK AID 1: applicable procedural steps and THE pertinent content from
SAES-j-700 for determining whether electro-pneumatic
transducers, pneumatic boosters, and control valve
positioners are required
Work Aid 1A: Applicable Procedural Steps For Determining Whether Electro-
Pneumatic Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters, And Control Valve
Positioners Are Required
While there is no formal set of procedures to select the appropriate instrumentation, the
answers to a few basic questions typically narrows the field of possible solutions to a
specific instrument or group of instruments. To determine which specific instruments
are required for each of the processes that are described Exercise 1, answer the
following questions:
Is an electro-pneumatic transducer required?
If the answer to any of the following is "yes", an I/P transducer may be an appropriate
instrument selection.
Is it necessary to operate a pneumatic spring-and-diaphragm actuator
from an electronic control signal?
Is it necessary to operate a pneumatic positioner from an electronic
control signal?
Is a pneumatic booster required?
If the control signal is a pneumatic pressure, is it of a different pressure
range than the input pressure range of the instrument or actuator that it
controls? If so, consider a pressure amplifier or a pressure reducer.
Is there a requirement for isolating the actuator from the control signal? If
so, consider a 1:1 pressure relay.
Is there a special requirement for very short stroking times? If so,
consider a volume booster or a dead band volume booster and a
positioner.
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Is a control valve positioner required?
If the answer to any of the following is "yes", a control valve positioner may be an
appropriate instrument selection.
Is there a need for accurate stem positioning?
Does the control strategy involve split-range control?
Does the control valve include high friction packing?
Is there a need to increase seat load?
Is it necessary to characterize the valve with instrumentation?
Work Aid 1B: Pertinent Content From SAES-J-700 For Determining Whether
Electro-Pneumatic Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters, And Control
Valve Positioners Are Required
To guide the selection of a particular instrument, it may be helpful to consult the
pertinent sections of SAES-J-700.
The pertinent sections of SAES-J-700 are as follows:
Section 7.1: Positioners And Boosters
Section 7.2: Electro-Pneumatic Transducers
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Work Aid 2: Procedural Steps That Are Used To Specify Electro-
Pneumatic Transducers
The following procedural steps provide guidance for specifying I/P transducers on the
Saudi Aramco ISS.
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal
When one knows whether the valve is to open or close on an increase in the signal,
one may determine whether the selected instrument should be a direct-acting type or a
reverse-acting type. The valve action on increase in signal is a function of the
following:
Whether the instruments between the control signal and the actuator are direct-
acting or reverse-acting.
Whether the actuator is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type.
Whether the valve is a push-down-to-open (PDTO) type or a push-down-to-
close (PDTC) type.
To determine the transducer action that is required to ensure the appropriate valve
action, refer to the following table:
Valve
Type
Actuator Type Transducer
Action
Valve Action On
Increase In Signal
Push-Down Direct Direct Close
To-Close Reverse Open
(PDTC) Reverse Direct Open
Reverse Close
Push-Down Direct Direct Close
To-Open Reverse Open
(PDTO) Reverse Direct Open
Reverse Close
If additional instruments are used in combination with a transducer, note the following:
The addition of any number of direct-acting instruments will preserve the valve
action that is indicated in the table.
The addition of an odd number of reverse-acting instruments will reverse the valve
action that is indicated in the table.
The addition of an even number of reverse-acting instruments will preserve the
valve action that is indicated in the table.
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Circle the appropriate selection on line 42. Also indicate in any appropriate location on
the ISS whether the specified transducer is direct or reverse-acting. A reverse-acting
construction may be indicated by adding the suffix "R" to the transducer model
number, by indicating "reverse-action" on line 80, or by entering the transducer output
range with the highest value first; e.g., 18 to 0 psig.
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd.
Supply Max. Avail - Enter the maximum supply pressure that is available to the
filter-regulator in the first box on line 43.
Supply Min. Req'd. - The minimum required supply pressure is an estimated
value. For proper regulator operation, this value is approximately 30 percent
greater than the regulator set pressure (see the instructions for line 75, below).
Calculate this value and enter it in the second box on line 43.
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size
Air Filter Regulator Type - Refer to the appropriate manufacturer's specification
bulletin; e.g., the specification bulletin for a Fisher Type 67AFR. Verify that the
input and output pressure ranges are suitable for the application. If the regulator
that is being evaluated is suitable, enter the regulator type number (e.g., Type
67AFR) in the first box on line 74.
Air Filter Regulator Size - Enter the inlet and outlet pressure connection size; e.g.,
1/4- inch.
Line 75: Air Req'd Set Pressure
The regulator set pressure is the same as the transducer's supply pressure
requirement. Refer to the transducer specification bulletin to determine the
recommended supply pressure for the selected transducer.
Line 80: Transducer Type and Model Number
Transducer Type - Enter the transducer type; i.e., I/P, in the first box on line 80.
Transducer Model Number - Enter the transducer model number, or type number;
i.e., Fisher 546, in the second box on line 80.
Line 81: Transducer Input mA / Output
Transducer Input mA - Enter the transducer input signal range in the first box on
line 81; e.g., 4 to 20 mA dc.
Transducer Output - Enter the transducer output signal range in the second box
on line 81. The appropriate units should be noted; e.g., 3 to 15 psig.
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Work Aid 3: Procedural Steps That Are Used To Specify Pneumatic
Boosters
The following procedural steps provide guidance for specifying pneumatic boosters on
the Saudi Aramco ISS.
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal
When one knows whether the valve is to open or close on an increase in the signal, one
may determine whether the selected instrument should be a direct-acting type or a
reverse-acting type. The valve action on increase in signal is a function of the following:
Whether the instruments between the control signal and the actuator are direct-
acting or reverse-acting.
Whether the actuator is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type.
Whether the valve is a push-down-to-open (PDTO) type or a push-down-to-close
(PDTC) type.
To determine the booster action that is required to ensure the appropriate valve action,
refer to the following table:
Valve
Type
Actuator Type Booster
Action
Valve Action On
Increase In Signal
Push-Down Direct Direct Close
To-Close Reverse Open
(PDTC) Reverse Direct Open
Reverse Close
Push-Down Direct Direct Close
To-Open Reverse Open
(PDTO) Reverse Direct Open
Reverse Close
If additional instruments are used in combination with a booster, note the following:
The addition of any number of direct-acting instruments will preserve the valve
action that is indicated in the table.
The addition of an odd number of reverse-acting instruments will reverse the
valve action that is indicated in the table.
The addition of an even number of reverse-acting instruments will preserve the
valve action that is indicated in the table.
Circle the appropriate selection on line 42. Also indicate in any appropriate location on the ISS
whether the specified booster is direct-acting or reverse-acting. A reverse-acting construction
may be indicated by the booster model number, by indicating "reverse-action" on line 80, or by
entering the booster output range with the highest value first; e.g., 15 to 33 psig.
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Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd.
Supply Max. Avail - Enter the maximum supply pressure that is available to the
filter-regulator in the first box on line 43.
Supply Min. Req'd. - The minimum required supply pressure is an estimated
value. For proper regulator operation, this value is approximately 30 percent
greater than the regulator set pressure (see the instructions for Line 75, below).
Calculate this value and enter it in the second box on line 43.
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size
Air Filter Regulator Type - Refer to the appropriate manufacturer's specification
bulletin; e.g., the specification bulletin for a Fisher Type 67AFR, and verify that
the input and output pressure ranges are suitable for the application. If the Type
67AFR is suitable, enter "Type 67AFR" in the first box on line 74.
Air Filter Regulator Size - Enter the inlet and outlet pressure connection size; e.g.,
1/4- inch.
Line 75: Air Required Set Pressure
The regulator set pressure is the same as the booster supply pressure requirement.
Refer to the product specification bulletin to determine this value and enter it on line 75.
If no specific value is given for the supply pressure, a set pressure that is 5 to 10
percent higher than the maximum booster outlet pressure should be sufficient for
proper booster operation.
Line 80 Transducer Type / Model No.
In the first box on line 80, enter the manufacturer's name and designate a P/P
transducer. Enter the model number of the booster in the second box on line 80. Note:
Either a Moore 61L or a Moore 61H will provide the needed performance. Per the
description in the specification bulletin, the 61H is a dead band booster and it provides
more capacity than the 61L; however, the 61L may be preferred because it is more
accurate and there is no specific requirement for a short stroking time.
Line 81: Transducer Input mA / Output
Blacken "mA" as a units designator for the input and indicate that the units for the input
signal are "psig". Enter the booster input pressure range in the first box on line 81.
Enter the booster output pressure range in the second box on line 81.
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WORK AID 4: pertinent sections of saes-j-700 AND applicable procedural
steps that are used to specify control valve positioners
Work Aid 4A: Pertinent Sections Of SAES-J-700 That Are Used To Specify Control
Valve Positioners
To guide the selection of a particular instrument, it may be helpful to consult the
pertinent sections of SAES-J-700.
The pertinent sections are as follows:
Section 7.1 Positioners And Boosters
Section 7.2 Electro-Pneumatic Transducers
Work Aid 4B: Procedural Steps That Are Used To Specify Control Valve
Positioners
The following procedural steps provide guidance for specifying control valve
positioners on the Saudi Aramco ISS.
Line 5: Manufacturer
Enter the name of the positioner manufacturer on line 5.
Line 6: Model / Type Number
Enter the model number or type number of the positioner on line 6.
Line 9: Overall Valve / Actuator Characteristic
If the positioner is characterized (see Line 45), the combined valve and positioner
characteristic is entered on line 9 instead of the inherent valve characteristic.
Line 38: Positioner Type / Model Number
Enter the positioner type in the first box on line 38. The choices for this box are
pneumatic or electropneumatic. Because Section 7.1.1 of SAES-J-700 disallows the
use of electropneumatic positioners, the entry for this box will always be pneumatic.
Enter the positioner model number in the second box on line 38.
Line 39: Positioner Bypass / Gauges
Refer to Section 7.1.4 of SAES-J-700 to determine if a bypass is required. Enter "yes"
in the first box on line 39 if a bypass is required. Enter "no" in the first box on line 39 if
a bypass is not required.
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Per Section 7.1.3 of SAES-J-700, enter "yes" in the second box on line 39 to indicate
that gauges are required.
Line 40: Positioner Input and Output
Enter the pressure range of the input (control signal) to the positioner in the first box on
line 40.
Enter the positioner output range in the second box on line 40 as follows:
For any control valve positioner, the minimum value of the output
pressure range is 0 psig.
The maximum value of the output pressure range could be set to a value
that is 5 to 10 percent greater than the maximum actuator diaphragm
pressure; e.g., the output may be set to 35 psig for an actuator with a
nominal operating pressure range of 6 to 33 psig. To achieve additional
shutoff force, the maximum positioner output can be set to a pressure
value that is somewhat higher than the normal actuator requirement. For
example, the positioner output pressure could be set to 40 psig for an
actuator with a nominal operating pressure range of 6 to 33 psig.
Line 41: Positioner Action
If the positioner output is to increase upon an increase in the control signal, a direct-
acting positioner is specified. If the positioner output is to decrease upon an increase in
the control signal, a reverse-acting positioner is specified. Refer to the information that
is included in the directions for Line 42, below.
When the appropriate action has been determined, circle the appropriate selection on
line 41.
Line 42: Valve Action On Increase In Signal
When one knows whether the valve is to open or close on an increase in the signal,
one may determine whether the selected instrument should be a direct-acting type or a
reverse-acting type. The valve action on increase in signal is a function of the
following:
Whether the instruments between the control signal and the actuator are direct-
acting or reverse-acting.
Whether the actuator is a direct-acting type or a reverse-acting type.
Whether the valve is a push-down-to-open (PDTO) type or a push-down-to-
close (PDTC) type.
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To determine the positioner action that is required to ensure the appropriate valve
action, refer to the following table:
Valve
Type
Actuator
Type
Positioner
Action
(1)
Valve Action On
Increase In Signal
Push-Down Direct Direct Close
To-Close Reverse Open
(PDTC) Reverse Direct Open
Reverse Close
Push-Down Direct Direct Close
To-Open Reverse Open
(PDTO) Reverse Direct Open
Reverse Close
If additional instruments are used with a positioner, note the following:
The addition of any number of direct-acting instruments will preserve the
valve action that is indicated in the table.
The addition of an odd number of reverse-acting instruments wi ll reverse
the valve action that is indicated in the table.
The addition of an even number of reverse-acting instruments will
preserve the valve action that is indicated in the table.
Circle the appropriate selection on line 42.
Line 43: Supply Max. Avail / Min. Req'd.
Supply Max. Avail - Enter the maximum supply pressure that is available to the
filter-regulator in the first box on line 43.
Supply Min. Req'd. - The minimum required supply pressure is an estimated
value. For proper regulator operation, this value is approximately 30 percent
greater than the regulator set pressure (see the instructions for Line 75, below).
Calculate this value and enter it in the second box on line 43.
Line 74: Air Filter Regulator Type / Size
Air Filter Regulator Type - Refer to the specification bulletin for a Fisher Type
67AFR and verify that the input and output pressure ranges are suitable for the
application. If the Type 67AFR is suitable, enter "Type 67AFR" in the first box on
line 74.
Air Filter Regulator Size - Enter the inlet and outlet pressure connection size; e.g.,
1/4- inch.
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Line 75: Air Required Set Pressure
The regulator set pressure is set to the recommended supply pressure to the
positioner. The specification bulletin for the positioner will indicate that a supply
pressure that is slightly higher (e.g., 5 psig higher) than the maximum positioner output
pressure is required. For example, if the positioner output pressure is set to 40 psig,
the filter-regulator set pressure would be set to 45 psig.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters And Control Valve Position
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
GLOSSARY
actuator A device that supplies force or torque to the control valve
closure member.
amplifier A device that enables an input signal to control power
from a source that is independent of the signal and thus
be capable of delivering an output that bears some
relationship to, and is generally greater than, the input
signal.
beam The summing point of a control valve positioner.
bellows A deformable, pressure-measurement element that is
generally made of a metallic material, and that changes in
length as the pressure directed into it increases or
decreases.
booster (pneumatic) A device that uses an input pressure to modulate an
independent supply pressure to produce a pressure
output that is proportional, in a fixed ratio (e.g., 1:1, 1:2, or
1:3), to the input pressure. Also referred to as a relay.
bypass In pneumatic devices, a valve that routes the instrument
input signal directly to the instrument output. As a result,
the output is not a function of the instrument action.
capacity Rate of flow under stated conditions.
cascade control Control in which the output of one controller is the set
point for another controller.
closed loop control Control in which a measured variable is compared to its
desired value to produce an actuating error signal which is
acted upon in such a way as to reduce the magnitude of
the error.
control signal The controller output, which may be in the form of a
pneumatic, electronic, or digital signal.
controller A device which operates automatically to regulate a
controlled variable.
dead band The range through which an input signal may be varied,
upon reversal may be varied, upon reversal of direction,
without initiating an observable change in output signal.
diaphragm A flexible member that produces an output in force or
motion in response to changes in a pneumatic input
pressure.
direct-acting Referring to a device in which an increase in the input
signal produces an increase in the output.
double-acting
positioner
A positioner that produces two independent but related
outputs, typically for the purpose of operating springless
actuators and other double-acting pneumatic devices.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters And Control Valve Position
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
droop A specification for direct-operated pressure-reducing
regulators that describes how much the actual pressure
value of P
2
can deviate from the set pressure as the flow
rate increases. Droop is typically expressed as the
percentage of deviation from the set pressure. Also
referred to as offset or proportional band.
electro-pneumatic
positioner
A pneumatic positioner with an integral I/P transducer.
error The algebraic difference between the indication and the
ideal value of the measured signal.
gain, steady state or
static
The ratio of change of steady-state output to a step
change in input.
hysteresis The maximum deviation of the output from the ideal
output, measured as the input signal is continuously
increased from its minimum value to its maximum value,
and then continuously decreased from its maximum value
to its minimum value. The deviation may or may not
include dead band.
I/P transducer A transducer that converts an electrical current input (I)
into a proportional pneumatic pressure output (P). See
transducer.
input signal In process instrumentation, a physical variable, one or
more parameters of which carry information about another
variable which the signal represents.
limit cycle A repeating non-linearity in a control loop that is caused
by a friction-related dead band, distinct from the
oscillations that result from excessive loop gain, and
typically in the form of a clipped sine wave.
linear process A process in which the gain is constant regardless of load.
manipulated variable A quantity or condition which is varied as a function of the
actuating error signal so as to change the value of the
directly controlled variable.
measured variable A quantity, property, or condition which is measured.
nozzle-flapper amplifier A pneumatic signal amplifier in which the position of the
flapper relative to the nozzle results in changes in an
output pressure.
output signal A particular process quantity that has been identified to be
the result of the values or actions of one or more other
process values defined as inputs.
positioner An instrument that compares the actual position of a final
control element (such as valve stem position) to the
desired (implied) position and that adjusts its output to a
higher or lower value to minimize the error.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters And Control Valve Position
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
pressure amplifier A pneumatic amplifier that produces a pressure output
span that is proportional to the input pressure span, and
that is in a fixed ratio that is greater than 1:1; e.g., 1:2, 1:3,
or 1:6, the ratio being expressed as the input to output
ratio.
pressure reducer A pneumatic amplifier that produces a pressure output
span that is proportional to the input span, and that is in a
fixed ratio that is less than 1:1; e.g., 2:1, 3:1, or 6:1, the
ratio being expressed as the input to output ratio
process gain (static) The ratio of the magnitude of a steady state sinusoidal
output relative to the causal input.
range The region between the limits within which a quantity is
measured, received, or transmitted, expressed by stating
the lower and upper range values.
rangeability, control
valve
The ratio of the maximum control valve C
v
to the
minimum controllable control valve C
v
.
relay, pneumatic see booster
reverse-acting Referring to a device in which the value of the output
signal decreases as the value of the input signal
increases.
set point An input value which sets the desired value of the
controlled variable.
signal transducer A transducer which converts one standardized
transmission signal to another.
span The algebraic difference between the upper and lower
range values.
split range Action in which two or more signals are generated or two
or more final controlling elements are actuated by an input
signal, each one responding consecutively, with or without
overlap, to the magnitude of that input signal.
stroking time The time that is required for an actuator to move its stem
between two predetermined valve positions (generally
valve open and valve closed).
summing point Any point at which signals are added algebraically. In a
control valve positioner, summing is usually accomplished
with a beam.
supply pressure The pressure at the supply port of a device.
throttling The action of a control valve to regulate fluid flow through
its restricting orifice opening.
transducer An element or device which receives information in the
form of one quantify and converts it to information in the
form of the same or another quantity.
transient The behavior of a variable during transition between two
steady states.
Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation
Transducers, Pneumatic Boosters And Control Valve Position
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
volume booster A pneumatic amplifier, generally with a 1:1 output to input
ratio, that provides substantially increased output capacity
compared to the capacity of the input signal.