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Failure of International Peace

After Germany surrendered, Woodrow Wilson sought a just peace with his democratic justness.
Woodrow Wilson attended the European peace talks personally. He was a Rockstar.
o Wilson the Just. Moses from Across the Atlantic. Saviour of Humanity

The Fourteen Points
Group 1: Free trade, freedom of the seas, open diplomacy, disarmament, and settlement
through mediation.
Group 2: self-determination (re-drawing maps of broken up Empires)
Group 3 (Point 14): Called for a League of Nations

Treaty of Versailles Signed on June 28,1919.
27 nations assembled at the Palace of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors.
o Big 4: France, Britain, US, and Italy. (Italy was not too big)
Wilson learned that there was not much support for the Fourteen Points.
Fate of WWs self-determination goals could be seen as three groups.
o The Good Independece for: Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland,
Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
o The Bad Trusteeships for: Armenia, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. Managed by
British and France.
o The Ugly Japanese takeover of Germanys Asian colonies, Italian annexation of
200,000 German speakers, and the French take over of Saar River valley coal mines/
Germany was devastated by the treaty. They had to: give Northern land to Denmark, give
Eastern land to Poland and Czech., strip their army and air force, 100,000 man army,
demilitarize the Rhineland, and suffer from the War Guilt clause. Worst
o The Clause stated that German was the cause and must pay war reparations.(33 bil)

League of Nations
Wilson was pleased that the League was included in the treaty. New World Order.
o Its members were those who signed excluding Germany and USSR
Wilson believed that the League would correct the wrongs of the Paris Peace Conference.
o League could make the world safer and give autonomy to many.

The Ratification Fight
Before these things could happen, the US Senate had to ratify the treaty. Repub majority.
Two groups opposed Wilson
o 1. A caucus of 14 Mid-Westerners called The Irreconcilables who were conservative.
Included: Robert Lafollette, Willaim Borah, and Hiram Johnson. (Isolationists)
o 2. Led by Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge. Embraced TRs view of several strong nations. He
believed that the New Order could compromise American autonomy and power.
Some Republicans just wanted to humiliate Woodrow Wilson for not involving them in the
Peace Conference, showing that they were less patriotic, and the rise of socialism.
o TR Never thought I could hate a man as much as I hate Wilson
Lodge was chairman of the Senates Foreign Relations Committee, and did everything he could
to obstruct ratification.
o Wilson would not compromise with the Republicans, so he went on an 8,000 mile
campaign talking to the public for an hour at a time at 37 stops.
o He achieved his own exhaustion.
In October 1919, Wilson suffered a stroke and was isolated from Congress and the Press for two
months.
Final Vote was on March 8, 1920. Rafication failed by seven votes. US was not a member of the
League of Nations