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1
y[n ] = 2 xx
[nn
]
[
− 1] −
y[n − 1
]
2

1
(
)
)
1
1
YX
z
= 2
( zz
X( z
)
z Y( z )
2
Y z
(
)
− 1
2 − z
2
z −
1
H z
( ) =
=
=
X z
(
)
1
1
− 1
1 +
z
z +
2
2

1

n + 1

# Let

N z
(
)
z z − cos Ω
[
(
)]
( ) =
0
Y z
D z
(
)
2
z
− 2
z cos Ω
(
)
+
1
0
p
=
e j
0
.
Then the system response can be written as
1
N
(
z
)
y
[
n
] =
− 1
1
Z
z
H
(
p
)
cos
((
np
+ ∠
H
(
)
)u [n ]
10
1
D
(
)
 +
z

H
(
p
)

10

1

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13

z
z
H z
( ) =
=
z
5
(
zpzp
)(
)
2
z
+
1
2
2
16
1
+ j
2
1
− j
2
p
=
p
=
1
2
4
4
j Ω
e
(
j Ω
H e
) =
j
j
e
pe
p
1
2

# The Jury Stability Test

Let a transfer function be in the form,
H z
( ) =
D
D − 1
where D z
(
) =
a
z
+
a
z
++
L
az
+
a
D
D − 1
1
0

012

DD

1

D

2

012

123

DD

−−

D

012

D

21

DD

2

10

D

21

D

10

D

2

DDD

−−−

234

0

012

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
0
D
0
D −
1
0
D
2
0
1
==
,
b
,
b
=
,,
L
b
=
1
2
D − 1
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
D
0
D
1
D
2
D
D − 1

D1( ) > 0
(−1)
D D
(−10
)
>
>>
ab
,
b
,
c c
>
,,
L
s
>
s
00
DD
10
2
0 2

s

s

m =−∞

# Modify the CT system to reflect the last analysis.

Then multiply the impulse responses of both systems by T s
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28

δ

T
s

n =−∞

ss

s

s

ss

n =−∞

s

s

T
s

0

T

s

0

n =−∞

s

ss

−∞

T
s

s

# Digital Filters

Impulse and Step Invariant Design
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34

L 1

1
×
s
(
)
L −1
Sample
s
H s
( )
h
[
H s ( s )
h
t
n
]
− 1
− 1
s
z − 1
×
Z
z
z
H
(
z
)
H z ( z )
z
z − 1

z

aT

s

1

1
T s = 0.1
in H
( ) =
z
z
aT
− 1
1 − e
s
z

z

aT

s

1

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40

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41

# Impulse invariant approximation of

s
( ) =
s
H s
2
5
s
+
400
s
2
10
with a 1 kHz sampling rate
yields
z z − 0 . 9135
(
)
H z
( ) =
2
z
1 . 508
z
+
0 . 6703

# Impulse and Step Invariant Design

Step invariant approximation of
s
( ) =
s
H s
2
5
s
+
400
s
2
10
with a 1 kHz sampling rate
yields
− 4
7 . 97
×
10
(
z −
1
)
H
( ) =
z
z
2
z
1 . 509
z
+
0 . 6708

s

s

1

1

1
1
T
s
H
( ) =
s
H
(
z
)
=
=
s
z
s
+
a
 s
+
a 
s →
z − 1
T
z
− (
1 −
aT
)
s
s

# Finite Difference Design

Finite difference approximation of
s
( ) =
s
H s
2
5
s
+
400
s
2
10
with a 1 kHz sampling rate
yields
− 4
6 . 25
×
10
z z −
(
1
)
H z
( ) =
2
z
1 . 5
z
+
0 . 625

e sT s

e sT s

# −→−

Matched z -Transform
aT s
− 1
sa
→−
1
ez

# Direct Substitution and Matched z-Transform Design

Matched z -transform approximation of
s
( ) =
s
H s
2
5
s
+
400
s
2
10
with a 1 kHz sampling rate
yields
z z − 1
(
)
H
( ) =
z
z
2
z
1 . 509
z
+
0 . 6708

T
s

T
s

z

s

1

s

T

s

ln

z

x

2

3

k

k = 0

s

T
s
s
e
2
sT
e
s
=
→ z
T
s
− s
e
2

sT
s
1
+
2
sT
s
1
2

2
z −
1
s →
T
z
+ 1
s

j
2
e
1
2
s =
=
tan
j
T
e
+ 1
j T
2
s
s
or
ωT s
− 1
Ω = 2 tan
2

# FIR Filters

The design of an FIR
filter is the essence of
simplicity. It consists of
multiple feedforward
paths, each with a
different delay and
weighting factor and all
of which are summed to
form the response.
N − 1
[n ] =
a
δ
[nm −
]
h N
m

m = 0

 
 

T

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N

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70

a

2

2

2

a

Summer
Delay
Multiplier

1

2

1

2

3
1

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79

# For illustration purposed let the excitation vector be

 u n 
[
]
x n
[
] =
δ
[
n
]
and let the system be initially
at rest. Then by direct
recursion,
nn
qqy
[]
[]
n
[]
n
1
2
00
0
0
11
1
5
2
1 . 5833
0 5
..
4 667
3
1 6528
...
0 7917
5 681
MM
M
M

2

3

2

nn

1

n

2

1

0

2

3

2