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Bactericidal for gpc, gpr, gnc & Penicillin G (IV), penicillin V (oral)
spirochetes
Staph aureus CONDM
HELPS kill enterococci Ampicillin, amoxicillin
Pseudomonas species, gnr Carbenicillin, piperacillin, ticarcillin
G+c PEcK 1st generation cephalosporins
G+c HEN PEcKS MBC 2nd generation cephalosporins
Serious gram neg infections 3rd generation cephalosporins
resistant to other beta-lactams,
meningitis
Serious pseudomonas Ceftazidime
Serious gonorrhea Ceftriaxone
Gnrs (Klebsiella, pseudomonas, Aztreonam
serratia), penicillin allergic pts &
those with renal failure who can’t
tolerate aminoglycosides
Gpc, gnr, anaerobes Imipenem + cilastin
DOC for enterobacter Imipenem + cilastin
Serious gram pos multidrug- Vancomycin
resistant organisms (S aureus, C
difficile/PMC)
Severe gnr infections, synergistic
with β-lactam antibiotics
VACUUM Your Bed Room By Friday Tetracylcines
URTIs, pneumonias, STDs (gpc – Macrolides
Strep infections in pts allergic to
penicillin), Mycoplasma, Legionella,
Chlamydia, Neisseria
Last resort for meningitis (H Chloramphenicol
influenzae, N meningitides, S
pneumoniae)
Anaerobic infections above Clindamycin
diaphragm (B fragilis, C difficile)
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Gram pos & neg, Nocardia, Chlamydia Sulfonamides


DOC for simple UTI Triple sulfas or SMX
Recurrent UTI, Shigella, Salmonella, TMP + sulfonamide
PCP
Gnr of urinary & GI tracts (incl Fluoroquinolones
Pseudomonas), Neisseria, some gram
pos
Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Metronidazole
gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes
below diaphragm (Bacteroides,
clostridium)
H pylori Metronidazole + bismuth +
amoxicillin/tetracycline
Resistant gram neg infections Polymyxins
M tuberculosis, only one used as solo Isoniazid (INH)
prophylaxis against TB
M tuberculosis, delays resistance to Rifampin (always used in combination
dapsone when used for leprosy with other drugs except in tx of
meningococcal carrier state &
chemoprophylaxis in contacts of kids
with H flu type B)
DOC for nonsurgical meningococcal Rifampin
prophylaxis
Nonsurgical gonorrhea prophylaxis Ceftriaxone
Nonsurgical syphilis prophylaxis Benzathine penicillin G
Prophylaxis if history of recurrent TMP-SMX
UTIs
DOC for nonsurgical PCP prophylaxis TMP
Systemic mycoses, intrathecally for Amphotericin B
fungal meningitis
“Swish & swallow” for oral thrush Nystatin
Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS pts Fluconazole
& candidal infections of all types
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Blastomyces, Coccidiodes, Ketoconazole


Histoplasma, C albicans,
hypercortisolism
Superficial infections (inhibits Griseofulvin (oral)
growth of dermatophytes (tinea,
ringworm)
Propylaxis for influenza A, Amantadine
Parkinson’s Dz
RSV Ribavirin
Influenza A & B Zanamivir
HSV, VZV, EBV, mucocut & genital Acyclovir
herpes lesions, propylaxis in
immunocompromised pts
CMV (esp if immunocompromised) Ganciclovir
CMV retinitis in immunocompromised Foscarnet
pts when ganciclovir fails
Triple therapy for HIV when 2 NRTIs with protease inhibitor
CD4<500 or high viral load
Mother with HIV, reduces risk of Zidovudine (AZT)
fetal transmission
Chronic hepatitis B & C, Kaposi’s Interferons
sarcoma
Onchocerciasis (“river blindness”) Ivermectin
Nematode/roundworm (pinworm, Mebendazole/thiabendazole
whipworm)
Giant roundworm (Ascaris), Pyrantel pamoate
hookworm (Necator/Ancylostoma),
pinworm (Enterobius)
Trematode/fluke (schistosomes, Praziquantel
Paragonimus, Clonorchis),
cysticercosis
Cestode/tapeworm (D latum, Taenia Niclosamide
spp) except cysticercosis
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Leishmaniasis Pentavalent antimony


Malaria Chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine
Latent hypnozoite (liver) forms of Primaquine
malaria (P vivax & ovale)
PCP propylaxis Pentamidine
Chagas’ dz, American Nifurtimox
trypanosomiasis (T cruzi)
African trypanosomiasis (sleeping Suramin
sickness)
Postop & neurogenic ileus & urinary Bethanechol
retention
Glaucoma (cholinomimetic) Carbachol, pilocarpine, echothiophate,
physostigmine
Postop & neurogenic ileus & urinary Neostigmine
retention, myasthenia gravis,
reversal NMJ blockade (postop)
Myasthenia gravis Pyridostigmine
Dx of myasthenia gravis Edrophonium
Glaucoma & atropine OD Physostigmine (crosses BBB)
Regenerates active cholinesterase, Pralidoxime
tx of organophosphate exposure
Dilate pupil, ↓ acid secretion in acid- Atropine
peptic dz, ↓ urgency in mild cystitis,
↓ GI motility, ↓ airway secretions, tx
organophosphate poisoning
Parkinson’s Dz (antimuscarinic in Benztropine
CNS)
Motion sickness (antimuscarinic in Scopolamine
CNS)
Mydriasis & cyclopegia Atropine, homatropine, tropicamide
(antimuscarinic in eye)
Asthma, COPD (antimuscarinic in Ipratropium
resp)
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Muscle paralysis in Succinylcholine


surgery/mechanical ventilation
(depolarizing)
Muscle paralysis in Tubocurarine, atracurium, mivacurium,
surgery/mechanical ventilation pancuronium, vecuronium
(nondepolarizing)
Tx of malign hyperthermia Dantrolene
Anaphylaxis, glaucoma (open angle), Epinephrine
asthma, hypoTN
HypoTN (↓ renal perfusion) Norepinephrine
AV block (rare) Isoproterenol
Shock (↑ renal perfusion), heart Dopamine
failure
Shock, heart failure Dobutamine
Narcolepsy, obesity, attention Amphetamine
deficit disorder
Nasal congestion, urinary Ephedrine
incontinence, hypoTN
Pupil dilator, vasoconstriction, nasal Phenylephrine
decongestion
Asthma (β2 selective) Albuterol, terbutaline
Vasoconstriction & local anesthesia Cocaine
HTN (esp with renal dz b/c no ↓ Clonidine, α-methyl dopa
blood flow to kidney)
Pheochromocytoma Phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine
HTN, urinary retention in BPH Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin (α1
selective)
HTN, angina pectoris, MI, CHF β blockers
SVT Propranolol, esmolol
Glaucoma (β blocker) Timolol, betaxolol, carteolol
Glaucoma (diuretic) Acetazolamide, dorzolamide
Glaucoma (PG) Lantanoprost
Sedative for anxiety, seizures Barbiturates
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Induction of anesthesia Thiopental


(barbiturate), short surgical
procedures
Anxiety, spasticity, detoxification Benzodiazepines
(esp alcohol withdrawal – delirium
tremens)
Status epilepticus (benzodiazepine) Diazepam
Schizophrenia, psychosis (tx for + Neuroleptics (Thioridazine, haloperidol,
sx) fluphenazine, chlorpromazine)
Schizophrenia (tx for + & - sx) Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone
OCD, anxiety disorder, depression Olanzapine
Mood stabilizer for bipolar Lithium
affective disorder, blocks relapse &
acute manic events
Endogenous depression SSRIs, TCAs
Bedwetting (TCA) Imipramine
OCD (TCA) Clomipramine
Major depressive disorders Trazodone, buproprion, venlafaxine,
mirtazapine
Smoking cessation Buproprion
Generalized anxiety disorder Venlafaxine
Atypical depressions (with MAOIs
psychotic/ phobic features),
anxiety, hypochondriasis
Adjunctive agent to L-dopa in tx of Selegiline (deprenyl)
Parkinson’s dz
Parkinsonism (dopa agonists) L-dopa/carbidopa, bromocriptine
Pain, acute pulm edema Opioids (Morphine, fentanyl, codeine,
heroin, methadone, meperidine,
dextromethorphan)
Cough suppression (opioid) Dextromethorphan
Diarrhea (opioid) Loperamide, diphenoxylate
Maintenance programs for addicts Methadone
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(opioid)
Acute migraine, cluster headache Sumatriptan
attacks
Control vomiting postop & in pts Ondansetron
undergoing cancer therapy
Partial seizures (simple & complex) Phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine,
gabapentin, topiramate
Generalized tonic-clonic Phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine,
gabapentin, Phenobarbital, valproate
Generalized absence Ethosuximide, valproate
Status epilepticus Phenytoin, benzodiazepines
(diazepam/lorazepam)
Trigeminal neuralgia Carbamazepine
DOC for generalized tonic-clonic Phenytoin
Most common drug used for Midazolam
endoscopy, used adjunctively with
gaseous anesthetics & narcotics
Dissociative anesthetic, CV Ketamine
stimulant, ↑ cerebral blood flow
Used with other CNS depressants Morphine, fentanyl
during general anesthesia
(narcotics)
Rapid anesthesia induction & short Propofol
procedures, less post-op nausea
than thiopental
Minor surgical procedures, spinal Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine, lidocaine,
anesthesia bupivacaine
Severe HTN, CHF Hydralazine
HTN, angina, arrhythmias Ca2+ channel blockers
HTN, CHF, diabetic renal dz ACE inhibitors, losartan
Glaucoma, urinary alkalinization, Acetazolamide
metabolic alkalosis, altitude sickness
Edematous states (CHR, cirrhosis, Furosemide
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nephritic syndrome, pulm edema),


HTN, hypercalcemia
Diuresis in pts allergic to sulfa Ethacrynic acid
drugs
HTN, CHF, Ca2+ stone formation, Hydrochlorothiazide
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride
CHF
Shock, drug OD, ↓ Mannitol
intracranial/intraocular pressure
Angina, pulm edema, aphrodisiac, Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate
erection-enhancer
CHF, atrial fibrillation Cardiac glycosides (digoxin)
Digoxin/digitalis OD Slowly normalize K+, lidocaine, cardiac
pacer, anti-dig Fab fragments, Mg2+
Atrial & ventricular arrhythmias Class IA (Na+ channel blockers)
Acute ventricular arrhythmias (esp Class IB (Na+ channel blockers)
post MI), digitalis-induced
arrhythmias
V-tachs that progress to V-fib, Class IC (Na+ channel blockers)
intractable SVT (last resort in
refractory tachyarrhyth-mias)
Used when other antiarrhythmics Class III (K+ channel blockers)
fail
Prevention of nodal arrhythmias (eg Class IV (Ca2+ channel blockers)
SVT)
DOC in diagnosing/abolishing AV Adenosine
nodal arrhythmias
Depresses ectopic pacemakers (esp K+
in digoxin toxicity)
Effective in torsades de pointes & Mg+
digoxin toxicity
Leukemias, lymphomas, chorioca, Methotrexate
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sarcomas, abortion, ectopic


pregnancy, RA, psoriasis
Colon cancer & other solid tumors, 5-FU
BCC (topical), synergy with
methotrexate
Leukemias, lymphomas (not 6-MP
CLL/Hodgkin’s)
CML Busulfan
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast & Cyclophosphamide
ovarian ca, an immunosuppressant
Brain tumors (incl glioblastoma Nitrosureas
multiforme)
Testicular, bladder, ovary, lung ca Cisplatin
Part of ABVD combo regimen for Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
Hodgkin’s & for myelomas, sarcomas,
& solid tumors (breast, ovary, lung)
Testicular cancer, lymphomas Bleomycin
Oat cell ca of lung & prostate, Etoposide
testicular ca
Most commonly used glucocorticoid Prednisone
in cancer chemo, used in CLL,
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (in MOPP
regimen), an immunosuppressant
used in autoimmune dz)
Breast cancer Tamoxifen, raloxifene
Part of MOPP regimen for Vincristine (Oncovorin), vinblastine
lymphoma, Wilms’ tumor, chorioca
Ovarian & breast ca Paclitaxel
Acetaminophen OD N-acetylcysteine
Salicylate OD Alkalinize urine, dialysis
Anticholinesterase/organophosphate Atropine, pralidoxime
OD
Antimuscarinic/anticholinergic OD Physostigmine salicylate
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β blocker OD Glucagon
Iron poisoning Deferoxamine
Lead poisoning CaEDTA, dimercaprol, succimer,
penicillamine
Arsenic, mercury, or gold poisoning Dimercaprol (BAL), succimer
Copper, arsenic, or gold poisoning Penicillamine
CN poisoning Nitrite, hydroxocobalamine, thiosulfate
Methemoglobin problem Methylene blue
CO poisoning 100% O2, hyperbaric O2
Methanol, ethylene glycol Ethanol, dialysis, fomepizole
(antifreeze) poisoning
Opioid OD Naloxone/naltrexone
Benzodiazepine OD Flumazenil
TCA OD NaHCO3 (nonspecific)
Heparin OD Protamine sulfate
Warfarin OD Vit K, fresh frozen plasma
t-PA, streptokinase OD Aminocaproic acid
Erectile dysfunction Sildenafil
Infertility Clomifene
Abortifacient Mifepristone (RU-486)
Peptic ulcers, gastritis, esophageal H2 blockers, omeprazole, lansoprazole
reflux, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Peptic ulcer dz Sucralfate
Prevention of NSAID-induced Misoprostol
peptic ulcers, maintains PDA
Immediate anticoagulation for PE, Heparin
stroke, angina, MI, DVT, can use
during pregnancy
Chronic anticoagulation, can’t use Warfarin (Coumadin)
during pregnancy
Early MI Thrombolytics (Streptokinase,
urokinase, tPA, APSAC)
Decreases incidence/recurrence of Ticlopidine, clopidogrel
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thrombotic stroke, acute coronary


syndrome, coronary stenting
Antipyretic, analgesic, anti- Aspirin & other NSAIDs
inflammatory, antiplatelet
To close a patent ductus arteriosus Indomethacin
Rheumatoid & osteoarthritis COX II inhibitors (Celecoxib,
rofecoxib)
Antipyretic, analgesic, lacks anti- Acetaminophen
inflammatory properties
Addison’s dz, inflammation, immune Glucocorticoids
suppression, asthma
Prophylaxis of asthma, not effective Cromolyn
during active asthmatic attack
Long-acting agent for prophylaxis of Salmeterol
asthma
1st line therapy for chronic asthma Corticosteroids
Acute gout Indomethacin (more common),
colchicine
Chronic gout Probenecid, allopurinol
Life-threatening hyperkalemia, Insulin
stress-induced hyperglycemia
Oral hypoglycemic used to stim Sulfonylureas (Tolbutamide,
release of endogenous insulin in chlorpropamide, glyburide, glipizide)
NIDDM, inactive in IDDM
Oral hypoglycemic, can be used in Metformin
pts w/o islet function
Monotherapy in Type II DM or in “Glitazones”, α-glucosidase inhibitors
combination with other (acarbose, miglitol)
hypoglycemics
Infertility (pulsatile), prostate Leuprolide
cancer (continuous: use with
flutamide), uterine fibroids
Hyperthyroidism Propylthiouracil
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BPH Finasteride
Prostate ca Flutamide
Tx of polycystic ovarian syndrome Ketoconazole, spironolactone
to prevent hirsutism
Suppresses organ rejection after Cyclosporine
transplantation, selected
autoimmune disorders
Kidney transplantation, autoimmune Azathioprine
disorders (incl glomerulonephritis &
hemolytic anemia)
Potent immunosuppressive used in Tacrolimus (FK506)
organ transplant recipients
DOC for chronic tx of simply Levothyroxine (T4)
hypothyroidism (myxedema)
Thyroid storm Propylthiouracil
Tx of angina that consistently Verapamil
decreases the heart rate & can
prevent vasospastic angina attacks
Chemoprophylaxis for chloroquine- Mefloquine
resistant P falciparum endemic
regions
Microcytic anemia of pregnancy Ferrous sulfate
DOC for acute attacks of Chloroquine
nonfalciparum malaria

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