1

Community Views on Mechanisms to Support Local
Livelihoods in the Early Stages of Drought

Reference Number: KRDP/ASAL DM/P-FiM/12-13
January 2013



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Abbreviations
ALDEF Arid Lands Development Foundation
CBO Community Based Organisation
CDP Community Development Programme
COPID Community participatory integrated development
DSSO Disaster Site Security Officer
EC NSA European Commission Non-State Actor
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation
FO Faith Organisation
KRDP Kenya Rural Development Programme
MOH Ministry of Health
NDMA National Drought Management Agency
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
OP Office of the President
P-FiM People First Impact Method
PLWH/A People Living with HIV/AIDS
RC Red Cross including KRC, IFRC and ICRC
SCF Save the Children Federation
UN United Nations
WASDA Wajir South Development Association
WASH Water, sanitation and hygiene
WFP World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organisation
WVI World Vision International


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Table of Contents

Executive Summary ……………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
A. Background ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...8
B. Key Findings on impact and its attribution – what is and is not working ………………………………..…8
C. Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..9
D. Limitations .………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………11

PART 1 Community Feedback on P-FiM Exercise ………..………………………………………………12
1.1.0. Positive Impact Areas ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
1.1.1. Access to & quality of education ….…………………………………………………………………………………13
1.1.2. Targeted humanitarian assistance .…………………………………………………………………………………15
1.1.3. Health and health facilities …………….………………………………………………………………………………16
1.1.4. WASH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
1.1.5. Food Security and nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………18
1.1.6. Social organisation …………………………..…………………………………………………………………………….18
1.1.7. Communication infrastructure ……………………………………………………………………………………….19
1.1.8. Access to business loans …………………………………………………………………………………………………20

1.2.0. Negative Impact Areas…………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
1.2.1. Famine and food insecurity …………………………………………………………………………………………….21
1.2.2. Social disintegration ……………………………………………..………………………………………………………..24
1.2.3. Financial hardship ………………………………………………….……………………………………………………….26
1.2.4. WASH related health risks ……………………………………….………………………………………………………27
1.2.5. Poor education quality ……………………………………………..……………………………………………………..28
1.2.6. Increased disease and lack of access to health facilities …………………………………………………..29
1.2.7. Lack of participation in resource decisions ……………………………………………………………………….30
1.2.8. Lack of integration of youth ……………………………………………………………………………………………..30
1.2.9. Poor infrastructure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..31
1.2.10. Growing Dependency and Loss of Livelihoods ………………………………………………………………….32

1.3.0. Neutral Impacts ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….33
1.3.1. Decline in children's health (water borne diseases) ……………………………………………………………33

1.4.0. Analysis of the Drivers of Impact………………………………………………………………………………………34

PART II KRDP / EC Focus Questions merged with Community Priority Issues ……………….36

2.2.0. Community Feedback to Focus Questions ………………………………………………………………………….37
2.2.1. How can community involvement help develop programmes that improve impact, increase
resilience and reduce dependency and poverty? ………………………………………………………………………….37
2.2.2. How can community entry points be improved to ensure that the whole community is part of
the decision making process? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..38
2.2.3. How can organisations be made more accountable to communities? ………………………………… 39
2.2.4. How can management and governance of programmes be improved to ensure good the
delivery of good projects and positive impact? ……………………………………………………………………………..39
2.2.5. How does drought impact on you at different times of the year and why? ………………………….40
2.2.6. What do you do to reduce the impact of drought especially at the early stages? ………………..41

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2.2.7. What additional support do you need to offset drought especially at the early stages & why?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….42
2.2.8. Who in the community should receive cash transfers and why? What criteria should be used?
What is the risk on gender relations? ………………………………………………………………………………………….43
2.2.9. When is the best time to receive cash and why? (When cash transfer is of most benefit in
protecting livelihoods from drought) …………………………………………………………………………………………..44
2.2.10. For how long do you need to receive cash transfers and at what intervals? …………………...45
2.2.11. How much cash should be given per household in a cash transfer and why? (What size of
cash transfer would be meaningful and appropriate?) ……………………………………………………………….45
2.2.12. What criteria should be used e.g. geographically, socially, or by wealth ranking? …………..46
2.2.13. What are the risks in giving cash transfers or non cash items and how can they be reduced or
eliminated e.g. impact on mobility; impact on markets, on gender relations? ……………………………47
2.2.14. How should communities participate in the cash transfer process and what difference will
community participation make e.g. as part of the management process? …………………………………48
2.2.15. What kind of information do you need to inform you about early drought and when and how
should you be given the information? ……………………………………………………………………………………….49
2.2.16. Additional comments from the team on feedback from the Groups? …………………………….50

3.0. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Annex 1 Terms of Reference …………………………………………………………………………………………53
Annex 2 Field Exercise Participants ……………………………………………………………………………….56
Annex 3 People First Impact Method Summary…………………………………………………………….57


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Authorship
The impact findings, attribution results and responses to focus questions in the report are the
statements, views and perspectives of representative community groups, as openly shared by them
with inter-agency teams of Kenyan personnel which were structured and trained in ways to limit
agency and project bias. These statements faithfully present the voice of the community without
analysis or interpretation by the authors. Gerry McCarthy and Paul O’Hagan People First Impact
Method (P-FIM
©
2010) present these findings in the report which are not necessarily the views of
KRDP or the EC.

Acknowledgments
This report was commissioned by KRDP/EC and the exercise was convened and organised in Wajir
County by the NDMA. We would like to acknowledge all the 16 organisations who committed staff to
the exercise. The openness, transparency and professionalism of NDMA and partners in the process
including convening and logisical support was exceptional. We would like especially to thank the
NDMA staff who did an excellent job convening and organising the exercise.


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Executive Summary
The purpose of this exercise is improve the quality of the National Drought Management Authority’s
(NDMA) response in the early stages of drought and its relevance to the communities it serves. This
is achieved by exploring community-level views on the mechanisms which best support livelihoods
and resilience. One P-FiM process was piloted with a cross-section of the community in Wajir county
where the Hunger Safety Net Programme (HSNP) is operational. This is a pastoralist area where a
proportion of the population is mobile and a range of interventions by multiple agencies are
underway or have recently been implemented. The purpose was to complement NDMA’s knowledge
of community-level perceptions of the measures and approaches, including cash transfers, which
best protect livelihoods during the early stages of drought. The exercise results contribute to the
fourth strategic objective in NDMA’s draft strategic plan, which is to ‘protect the livelihoods of
vulnerable households during drought crises’.

Between 21 to 27 December 2012, 43 frontline staff from 16 organisations in Wajir Country, North
Eastern Province, Kenya, conducted participatory field work on an inter-agency basis to give
communities a voice, identify, attribute impact and harvest community views on humanitarian
assitance in times of drought. Agencies involved were from Administrative Government
Departments, Community Based Organisations, National and International NGOs. The findings
recorded in this report reflect the voices of 165 people in 11 representative community groups along
with the views of the Kenyan agency personnel who participated in the exercise.

The P-FiM exercise findings provide a picture of the overall context in Habaswein from the
community perspective and an understanding of where the cash transfer programme fits alongside
other strongly felt community priorities. Feedback from community focus group discussions and
frontline agency staff shows that connectedness to community felt needs and priorities and their full
participation in all areas of the programme cycle needs to be significantly improved.

Drought was not considered the primary cause of negative impact. When asked about vulnerability,
people spoke about orphans, the elderly, people living with disabilities – those that suffer
permanent vulnerable that is severely heightened during drought. Association of vulnerability to
pastoralists as victims of drought, did not arise until people focused on the impact that drought and
climate change is having. In this regard, they make a distinction between between permanent and
seaosonal vulnerability. When focusing on the seasonal vulnerablity of pastoralists due to the impact
of drought, their first priority is to address the primary causes of drought. They want secure
livelihoods not handouts and the need for cash transfers should be seen in terms of helping them
endure the drought and build livelihoods. This analysis and response was across the baord; disabled,
children, pastoralists, dropouts, women, elders, religious leaders all focused on wanting an end to
relief and handouts even for the most vulnerable. The alternative is deepening poverty. The HSNP
programme was not discussed with communities (or indeed any project), however, the depth of
appreciation for forms of vulnerablity demonstrated an appreciation for those focused in the HSNP
programme alonside those who are seasonally vulnerable.
There is a consistent logic in how people think that a cash transfer programme should work. All cash
transfer programmes should be based on full engagement with the community; identifyng who
should benefit and what criteria shuld be used; how the transfer should be given with least amount

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“The exercise should not just
be about giving communities a
voice but should also be about
giving agency staff a voice as
we are often also not included
in the development of projects
… we are just given the job of
implementing them”.
Agency staff member
of disruption and avoid cuasing people to move to settlements; timeframe based on local drought
conditions (an important determining factor); the end of drought and end of cash transfers should
occur when livestock (shoats) begin having young as it is only then that milk is available as a staple
food and cash income – the beginning of rains does not mean that livelihoods are back to normal.
The timeframe for cash transfers to those who are permanetly vulnerable is longer-term but these
groups should also be working themselves out of poverty. A consistent message.

There is need for research to understand the impact that cash is having on existing and new
settlements as it was reported that the growth of existing and new settlements is being strongly
accelerated due to agency handouts. The people are disturbed by this and they feel it is
unsustainable, leading to increased vulnerability and a reduction in livelihood resilience.

There is logic in giving cash to women. However in a number of cases, it leads to serious domestic
conflict by creating divisions between men and women where no division existed. Beneficiary
selection criteria should be developed fully with the community. By adopting a community led
identification of cash beneficiaries the recipients will be accountable to the community and the
community will monitor when abuse of cash occurs and what action should be taken e.g. warning or
removal from the programme. This will ensure that the right families receive the support, that the
support is used to purchase essential goods and services and not be the cause of domestic conflict.

Cash is not the top priority. Having sustainable livelihoods is. Improved livestock market prices and
market information are highly important. The low value of livestock at the onset of drought
contributes directly to loss of income and livelihoods and the need for cash and food support.
Livestock market reform and information is more important than cash transfers and should be
integrated into regular early warning information along with information on drought warning,
disease etc. Communities point to critical factors such as; water (for livestock, families, irrigation);
manageable herd sizes (not just as a drought mitigation action but as a basis for sustainable livestock
farming); being able to have and sell milk and meat products all year round through drying
processes; managing their environment properly so that they maximize pasture and fodder for their
livestock and disease management through timely information and vaccination programmes.

Community engagement – there is strong feeling that
agencies do not properly engage people in programme
assessment, design, planning, implementation, monitoring,
criteria setting and impact measurement. Engagement
with communities must be addressed so that projects
target the right issues with positive impact acheived. In
this regard, the groups stated that all projects (whether
emergency or development) should produce positive
results that build sustainable livelihoods. This is not the
case as most emergency projects do not have long-term
perspectives and often result in increased vulnerability.

Understanding context is essential if programmes are going to produce positive results. Agencies
cannot understand context unless they engage fully with communities. By only working with ‘gate

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keepers’ agencies will not understand the context properly and may actually be contributing to
corrupt practices by not properly engaging the views of communities in understanding needs and
developing good projects.

Community entry points should be representative of all groups especially the vulnerable.
Accountability should operate at many levels but primarily agencies should be accountable to
communities and communities should be also be able to engage directly with donors.

Health and education – numerous examples were given of how important both sectors are to the
community but badly planned or unfinished projects means that project results and impact are often
a lot lower than they should be.

Agencies should focus capacity building of communities to help them participate in their own
development; producing accurate market information in relation to livestock prices and price trends;
differences on the impact of drought especially pointing out where there may be pasture and water;
engage people in developing existing and new small businesses.

Early warning is not just about weather and weather forecasts. It must be about likely scenarios and
the local understanding of their implications so that people can make correct decisions for
themselves e.g. whether to sell or retain livestock; whether to move or stay and when; whether to
kill newly born livestock to preserve the mothers; whether to vaccinate, de-worm or slaughter etc.
Information is critical if pastoralists are to make the right decisions.

Society and livelihoods are changing. There is a prevailing doubt among some groups that the
pastoralist way of life can survive in the future as a result of drought, new settlements, bad planning,
poor livestock markets and changes in the attitudes of young people etc.

People want long term approaches focussed on addressing the root causes of drought and
alternative livelihoods including small scale businesses as people.


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A. Background
The NDMA is a statutory body established under the State Corporations Act (Cap 446) of the Laws of
Kenya. Its Legal Notice gives it the mandate to ‘establish mechanisms which ensure that drought
does not become famine and that the impacts of climate change are sufficiently mitigated’. Drought
management may be defined as the actions taken on a continuous basis to prevent, mitigate or
prepare for the adverse impacts of drought and to build drought-resilient communities and nations.
The key to effective drought management is timely action. Droughts are predictable, slow-onset
phenomena, which makes it possible to intervene at a very early stage in their evolution in order to
mitigate their worst effects. As well as the obvious benefit of reduced human suffering, early action
has been shown to be far more cost-effective than delayed emergency response.

The contingency planning and financing system managed by the NDMA has evolved over many
years. Contingency funds are allocated to drought-affected counties on the basis of objectively
verifiable changes in drought conditions. The indicators monitored through the drought early
warning system allows these changes to be observed at the very earliest phase of a drought - before
any sign of stress is apparent. In addition to the temporary use of cash as a form of humanitarian
response, the HSNP provides an unconditional and regular cash payment to around 69,000 of the
most food insecure families in four arid counties: Turkana, Marsabit, Mandera and Wajir.
1
This is a
social protection measure: these families experience chronic food insecurity regardless of drought
conditions. A particularly innovative feature of HSNP is its payments infrastructure, through which
traders dispense the cash through biometric smart cards held by the registered beneficiaries. Cash
may be redeemed at any time, thus minimising disruption to people’s normal routine (particularly
important for mobile pastoralists). Phase 2 of HSNP will start in 2013, and in preparation for this, a
comprehensive registration of all households in the four counties is underway. The NDMA will use
this registration data to scale up cash transfers to a much wider number of people than the regular
HSNP recipients at times of drought stress using drought contingency funds.

B. Key Findings on impact and its attribution – what is and
is not working
Following are the areas of most highly ranked change and impact and whether working or
not working in peoples lives. The people say:
What is working? What is not working?
Access to and education quality 28% Famine and food insecurity 33%
Targeted humanitarian support 16% Social disintegration 18%
WASH 13% Poor education quality 8%
Food security and nutrition 13% WASH related health risks 8%
Health and health facilities 12% Increased disease, poor access to health facilities 8%
Social organisation 9% Lack of participation in resource decisions 8%
Mobile coverage 6% Financial hardship 7%
Access to business loans 3% Lack of integration of youth 5%
Poor infrastructure 5%

1
HSNP is financed by DFID.

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In some areas people reported positive impacts in some sectors, others reported negative
impact in the same sectors – indicating uneven impact coverage. Negative impacts relating
to famine, food insecurity; social disintegration and; lack of participation in resource
decision making clearly emerged in focus questions and elaborated in Part II of the report.

Positive impact drivers Negative impact drivers
NGOs 31% Government 35%
Government 29% Community 24%
Community 24% Events e.g. drought, flooding etc 16%
Events e.g. drought, flooding etc 4% NGOs 11%
Other 4% Business 8%
Business 4% UN agencies 4%
UN agencies 3% Red Cross 1%
Red Cross 1% Others 1%

C. Methodology
People First Impact Method (P-FiM) is a methodology that allows communities to speak for
themselves in identifying the important changes in their lives and to whom/what these are
attributable to was used. The starting point is people and communities, not organisations and
projects. P-FiM recognises that the primary driving force in ensuring accurate and cost-effective
interventions, sustainable processes and outcomes is people and communities. The approach
highlights some of the wider dynamics within the social, political and economic life of a community
about which implementing agencies may not be fully aware. It thus enables stakeholders to ‘take the
temperature’ in order to align their work more closely with local priorities.

The field work was carried out by Kenyans who were Somali speakers with two years as the
reference period for the exercise. All community groups spoke Somali. Recommendations are drawn
from the impact differences identified and responses to the focus questions. A deliberate “goal free”
approach was used in the first field work using inter-agency teams of three. This was followed by
goal focussed discussions during a consecutive field exercise to determine the impact of the EC
funded programme and to go deeper into issues shared by communities in the first ‘goal free’
discussion.

The inter-agency team participants received two days training in participatory communication, open
questioning, listening, understanding bias, integrated human development etc. They were deployed
in teams of three as facilitators, reporters and observers from different organisations (to avoid single
agency bias) to meet the representative community groups. Training was essential to identify stages
and quality of communication and to accurately record declarations of impact. The participants
randomly selected and prioritised in a ranking exercise the following groups whom they felt were a
cross section of the community, to achieve the exercise objectives of giving communities a voice,
identifying and attributing impact. This was done by people who know the language, area and
culture and are trusted and accepted as “sons and daughters” in the community.


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No. Selected for field work Place Rank
1 Pastoralists Hare 25
2 Village Elders Kursin 18
3 Pastoralist Drop Outs Lagdima Habaswein Town 17
4
Orphans Kibilay Habaswein Town 16
5 Religious Leaders / Elderly Central Habaswein Town 15
6 People Living With Disabilities Adimasajida (Habaswein) 13
7 Female Youth Dilmanyale 12
8 Women Lagbogol 11
9 Health Workers Abakore 10
10 Male Youth Quoqar 10
11 Children Machesa 10

A total of 11 discussions with community groups including vulnerable people were conducted. 165
people participated in the discussions. Participants of varying ages included adults, youth and
children - 58% male and 42% female.

Group impact statements form the report findings and recommendations. These qualitative
statements have been substantiated quantitatively through a systematic grouping and ranking by
their frequency of occurrence. To ensure the reliability and objectivity of the findings, scoring and
ranking exercises were an integral part throughout the debriefing and feedback in plenary to reduce
single agency bias on the results, to accurately record statements and test assumptions and findings.
Focus was not on what the teams “thought” but on what the groups “said” and at what
communication level. Participants in the group discussions declared 72 impact statements
categorised as positive, negative or neutral – 39 negative, 32
positive and 1 neutral.

The first exercise established a level of acceptance, respect and
trust between the community groups and inter-agency teams
that ensured the quality and honesty of the second discussion.
People in the groups found the opportunity to freely talk about
the most important things that happened to them as
therapeutic and liberating. After decades of humanitarian
action in North Eastern Kenya focussed mostly on agency and
project centric data collection for assessments, proposals and
0
50
100
150
200
Girls Boys Women Men Youth F Youth M Total
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

P
a
r
t
i
c
i
p
a
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t
s


Disagregation of Representative Discussion Groups
70
95
Female Male
Representative Group
Gender Disagregation

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reports the people were generally not used to an approach focussed on establishing qualitative two
way communication within communities themselves that recognised and valued their lived
experience and knowledge. They very much welcomed the approach.

The second ‘goal focussed’ field exercise was conducted by the same inter-agency teams and with
the same representative community groups in the same locations. It comprised of 15 questions
based on the TORs merged with key issues raised by groups in the P-FiM exercise. The inter-agency
team further refined the questions to assist the discussion with the community groups. The focus
group headings are given in Part II below.

D. Limitations
This was a very well prepared field exercise thanks to the NDMA who had mobilised and sensitised
community groups before and during the process. This meant that communities were ready and
available to meet the field teams and were clear on the exercise objective. Equally the NDMA had
convened a good gender balanced representation of participants and agencies working in the area
to carry out the exercise. The logistics for the training and the two field exercises was excellent
including the collaboration with agencies on the ground who provided personnel and transport.
Given the size of Wajir County the only limitation might be the geographical scale and number of
exercises carried out in the time available.



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Part 1: Community Feedback on P-FiM Exercise
The Community Feedback report comprises impact statements and attribution from inter-agency
goal free discussions with 11 community groups in Habaswein, Wajir County. The main headings
represent the most important issues raised across the 11 groups followed by a presentation of how
the various groups related to the specific heading. There is a summary box under each heading that
sets out the Key Findings and Recommendations that the findings generate. The P-FiM apporach
ensured that the statements made by the community are recorded. This is validated by the inter-
agency team feedback within the exercise. The tables and graphs demonstrate levels of importance
the community groups give to different issues especially to assist analysis and decision making. Both
quantitative and qualitative feedback is measured in this way using the P-FiM approach.

This exercise was carried out to provide KRDP/EU, NDMA and all stakeholders, including the
community, a comprehensive overview of the wider context in Habaswein in particulare and Wajir in
general. The process provided an important entry point and basis for further focus discussion on
issues the community feel strongly about (e.g. agency participation, cash/handouts, settlements,
dependency, pastoralism & altnerative livelihoods etc.) and issues that KRDP/EU and NDMA wanted
the community to discuss (e.g. cash/voucher transfers, response at the onset of drought, community
engagement, beneficiary criteria etc.).

Following the P-FiM exercise, the inter-agency team of 36 people discussed how best to merge the
major issues coming from the commity and those from KRDP/EU. The merging of issues ensured that
the community felt engaged and that their issues were discussed. They were being respected and
taken seriously. Th focus questions were discussed during the second group discussion. These
findings are set out in Part II of the report.

In addition to the P-FiM and Focus Discussion exercises, the personnel from the participating
agenceis gave their feedback to the same questions at the end of the exercise. The agency feedback
report is in Annex 5.


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1.1.0. Positive Impact Areas


The 73 impact statements have been consolidated into categories - positive, negative and neutral.
The 31 positive impact differences are reflected above and show the areas or sectors where people
felt most positive change had taken place. These are reported in detail below.

1.1.1. Access to and quality of education

Key Findings
 Improved access to, enrolment and quality of education in some locations is a change most
appreciated by communities.
 Presence and retention of girls in school has significantly improved.
 This represents changes in community attitudes and commitment to education.
 While progress has been made serious educational capacity deficits exist.
 Education is viewed by communities as a route to alternative livelihoods.
 Community initiative has been the main driver for attracting education investment
Recommendations
 Education infrastructure and capacity needs to significantly keep up with enrolment and
retention as students progress to higher grades
 The enrolment of qualified including female teachers should be supported

The children at Machesa felt that access to education is very important. They pointed out that of 14
children in the group (6 girls and 9 boys) only one was not at school. They appreciated the role of
their parents and the community in supporting them to go to school and said that even members
from the community had gone from home to home encouraging parents to send their children to
school. They were grateful to the community for this. They were happy that the government had
constructed 6 classrooms funded by CDF. In the past they could not attend school and many children
now do. They said that the 6 classrooms were not enough as next year they will go to class 7 and
there is no classroom for class 7 students. They are asking the government what will happen. The
children were emotional and shed tears when relating how important education is for them.
9
5
4 4 4
3
2
1
Access to &
quality of
education
Targetted
assistance
Health and
health facilities
WASH Food Security
and nutrition
Social
organisation
Communication
infrastructure
Access to
business loans
N
o
o
f
I
m
p
a
c
t
S
t
a
t
e
m
e
t
s

Wajir Positive Impact Areas

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“Girls no longer go into early or
forced marriages. Girls can now
make a choice on who and when to
marry. The impact is positive.”
Form 4 graduate
SCF had built 3 good latrines - especially appreciated by the girls as before they had no toilets and no
privacy. They appreciate the latrines, the government (MOE & CDF), SCF, those who cook the food
and the community for giving them the chance to be educated.

The Community Health Workers group expressed that the benefits of the Abakore secondary school
is significant to their children and the wider community. The community requested the government
to build the school and the response was positive. They said the government and community should
be given equal credit as drivers of this initative.

Learning and less early marriages through increased girl child education emerged as positive impacts
in the Dilmanyale Female Youth Group discussion. Compared to the past, access to education and
girls remaining at school is much better. Previously girls were not allowed to go to school. Parents
now know the importance of education for girls as well as boys and the women appreciate this.

Sharing grievances and concerns by girls in schools was
felt to be a positive difference brought about by
establishment of monthly ‘girl-child forums’. Women felt
that the practice of forced and early marriage has been
almost stopped. The community was considered the main
impact driver for the postive change in attitude towards
the girl-child in society. The MOE received positive impact
attribution for the work it has done to facilitate girl-child
education. NGOs in the sector were positively referenced but also challenged for not addressing
serious deficits e.g. the need for more classrooms and schools, more trained teachers including
female teachers and better teacher-pupil ratios in classes. This was the perspective of the
community group.

According to the Male Youth group at Qopar improved literacy levels originated in 2008 due to a
youth initiative. Successive drought meant that a lot of livestock were lost - their only livelihood
source. The youth felt that depending on livestock alone was risky. It would be good to try other
things and adopt a semi-pastoral approach rather than a totally nomadic lifestyle. They proposed to
build a school. They felt that they could not move forward without education and that it was an
investment in their future. They presented their proposal to NGOs, the UN and government and it
was funded by the constituency development fund (CDF). It is now an important service. The youth
attributed the driver for this impact as the community and praised the CDF for funding and putting
the structure in place. While the teacher numbers are not adequate, literacy has improved. The
youth can now read and write. Women call their children to write their family names on jerricans
before going to market and children help their parents to write their names. This is something they
are proud of.

Children used to waste a lot of time in the bush. The pastoralist dropout group can see a major
change in the approach of children due to free primary education. A lot of this difference in
behaviour and attitude is due to the community who encouraged and supported their children to go
to school. The MOE and MOF supported the initiative financially and made it happen by constructing
schools and appointing teachers. NGOs such as WV supported education through the school feeding

16
programme. Local businesses contributed by under taking fund raising initiatives. The group said this
was positive as initially there was no primary education in their society.

For the pastoralist group at Hare access to education has increased through construction of classes.
The people came up with the idea from the start. They were supported by government through the
MOE to construct classrooms, recruit teachers and other staff. A UN agency gave books and they
received further support from WASDA, SCF and USAID. The Kenya Red Cross constructed latrines.
The CDF helped construct the classes. It was important for the community.

1.1.2. Targeted humanitarian assistance

Key Findings
 Cash transfer programmes were more appreciated than food aid.
 Cash transfer programmes that were jointly designed with communities at the outset were
better understood.
 Cash was not unanimously appreciated and this is explored in sections Part II.
Recommendations
 Interventions such as livestock vaccination must be done properly for effective results.
 Issues concerning improving the cash transfer system are outlined in Part II

The mothers in the female youth group said the cash transfer programme had really helped them
survive and changed their livelihoods – they were able to buy food for their children. At times they
are given cash and at other times food and while they appreciate the food, cash makes the biggest
difference. They received cash for a 10 month period when they needed it most. They appreciated
WASDA and Oxfam GB for the work they did in this and gave them equal credit.

The youth at Qopar also said that WASDA and Oxfam introduced a cash transfer programme that
had a very important impact on the community as it gave families an income to buy basic goods and
that they did not have to rely totally on the sale of their animals - especially difficult during drought.
The cash interventions by these agencies helped them a lot.

A project initiative by WFP, SCF UK, WASDA has provided people with food and greatly assisted
families to have a nutritious diet in their homes. This was greatly appreciated during the drought
and at a time when families had lost a lot of livestock. All positive impact attribution was given to the
NGOs and UN involved in the programme by the youth at Qopar.

The elders shared how the cash transfer idea started. They were being cared for through targeted
feeding. Within that programme and in discussion with WASDA and Oxfam they came up the cash
transfer plan whereby WASDA, ALDEF and Oxfam gave them cash on a regular basis so that they
could sustain themselves. The elders were very positive about the support as the idea was first
discussed with them and they see it as a better form of support as they can buy their own things.
They felt good about the project and the benefit to them. The Ministry of Social Services participated

17
The children feel the community
should do more to address hunger.
“We have to accept what the
children are saying. Let us not be
defensive. Let us accept fully what
they are telling us”. This comment
received applause from the group.
P-FiM Field Exercise Team Member
in the programme and local ‘rich men’ and Religious Organisations supported the initiative with
funding to help the poor sustain themselves.

The elders said that they had lost a lot of their livestock due to recurring severe drought and disease.
They appreciated that in recent weeks there was vaccination of livestock for Rift Valley Fever (RVF)
by the government veterinary department. The community played an important role as they
mobilized themselves to ensure their livestock were vaccinated. There was good collaboration
between the pastoralists and the veterinary department. They understand and believe that it is
important to vaccinate their animals at the right time i.e. before the rainy season. However, many in
the community still fear that vaccinations can result in livestock abortion (based on bad vaccination
practices in the past where healthy animals were contaminated by sick animals as the process uses
the same needle for each). The veterinary department provided education, vaccines and carried out
the vaccination properly and facilitated the whole process. UN agencies such as FAO and NGOs such
as SCF supported the programme. The elders felt it was successful.

People living with disabilities reported that they survived the drought due to external and internal
support e.g. from the Office of the President (OP), NGOs like Islamic Relief and the wider
community. They attributed most impact to the government followed by Islamic Relief and the wider
community. Those in the community who had little food shared theirs with neighbours who had
nothing. The OP provided water and food relief and Islamic Relief assisted with food and non food
items. They also received remittances from their own people who work outside the area.

The orphan group expressed how they often lack shelter, clothing and money to buy school uniforms
and how much they appreciate support received from relatives, well wishers and NGOs.

The children of Machesa Primary School spoke about the
terrible impact that hunger had on their families causing
loss of livestock and livelihoods. They said their livestock
were made very weak due to lack of rain. They appreciated
the role that government and WASDA played in supporting
the school feeding programme. The children equated
hunger with the death of their livestock and not necessarily
drought itself. The issue of hunger, loss of livelihood and
livestock is negative but they considered the response as
positive e.g. government for providing school feeding and
WASDA for providing relief food.

1.1.3. Health and health facilities
Key Findings
 Improvements in health care were largely driven by communities themselves.
 Support from various actors especially government has been important in realising
improvements in health

18
Recommendation
 Coverage of health facilities is inadequate and continued expansion is encouraged especially the
recruitment of qualified medical staff and provision and management of medicines

Building the Abakore Community Health Unit was a community driven initiative. They requested
support from the Ministry of Community Health Services. SCF supported. In the past, women gave
birth at home which was risky. Through the work of NGOs like SCF, community based health workers
were trained and women given advice on when they should go to the clinic to deliver. This was felt
by them to be an important change.

For the Elders and Religious Persons in Habaswein family income and wellbeing has improved due to
reduction in diseases such as HIV infection. The role religious leaders played in informing the
community on the dangers of HIV AIDS was significant. The community feels it played a positive role
by holding to its values in addressing this. The Ministry of Health (MOH) provided services and
behaviour change communication programmes along with NGOs. Given the driving force of the
community at all levels they attributed most positive impact to the community.

The pastoralist community at Hare initiated a plan by identifying the need for a health centre and
giving the land for construction. The MOH provided medicines and personnel to staff the centre.
WHO, UNICEF, WV, SCF, Red Cross and WASDA contributed to the construction of the health centre.
The pastoralist group felt good that they now had their own health centre.

Initially the group in Lagdima were pastoralists but they lost their livestock during the drought and
now they stay in the settlement at Lagdima. There is a community health centre there with
adequate facilities. The community is given some attribution as they donated the site. Most
attribution is allocated to the government through the MOH and Ministry of Finance (MOF). SCF
also provided health facilities.

1.1.4. WASH
Key Findings
 Communities are gaining increasing consciousness of the importance of proper waste disposal
 Improvement in potable water access is highly appreciated by communities
 Potable water access is driving income generating activity among youth through sale of water
Recommendations
 Availability of fresh water remains a critical challenge.
 Agencies complete water projects fully so that positive outcomes are achieved

A key impact intervention for the female youth group was that of NGOs like WASDA and Oxfam GB
in digging waste pits or ‘dust bins’ for rubbish. Each week families take their rubbish to the pit to be
burned. They feel this is good for their environment. The NGOs provided wheelbarrows, spades and
pangas to collect the rubbish and transport it to the pits. The community felt that since the issue of
rubbish collection was their issue and that they are doing most of the work they see themselves as

19
the main driver of this change. They gave equal attribution to NGOs since they provided the tools
and dug the pits. Care of their environment is an important issue for these women.
For the male youth group at Qopar improved water storage made a positive impact. It was
supported by the CDF and also by WV. They now have a well built underground water tank where
they can access drinking water during the dry season and drought. It is an important development
for the community and they attributed this impact to CDF, WV and the community.
Access to water made a positive difference according to the pastoralist dropout group. The youth
are very eager to provide water for the town through the use of donkey-carts.
The pastoralists at Hare also spoke about improved access to water due to boreholes and pans. The
community is happy with the project even though they only played a small part in it. The MOW and
Arid Lands played the major role in the construction of the boreholes and pans. UNICEF, WASDA and
SCF also participated in these activities.

1.1.5. Food Security and nutrition

Key Findings
 The importance of milk and milk products as a staple food and the school feeding programme
 Nutritious food contributing to treatment of HIV-AIDS
Recommendation
 Develop milk and meat processing so that surplus milk and meat can used drought

According to people living with disabilities good rains in 2012 have increased food and milk
production. There is currently a lot of milk available on the market. The male youth in Quoquar
appreciated the improved nutrition in the community due to good rains with more milk and
vegetables available. Children in Machesa said that the school feeding programme is very important
and they attributed praise to the government, the UN and NGOs for supplying the schools with food.
The elders and religious leaders in Ndege Habaswein Improved health from increased production
(less HIV infections) – community, government and WASDA and ALDREF

A WFP, SCF and WASDA programme provided people with food that greatly assisted families to have
nutritious food in their homes. This was greatly appreciated during the drought when families had
lost a lot of livestock. Attribution was given to the NGOs and UN agency involved by the male youth
group at Qopar.

1.1.6. Social organisation

Key Findings
 New Constitution positively viewed as enhancing the status of women
 Increased trend towards individual land ownership
 Social organisation of vulnerable groups makes a key difference in their access to support

20
“Sooner or later women will become
the leaders in this area and we are
going to find ways to develop this
place properly”.
Women’s Group Lag-Balal
“If I have a problem I can call my son
and if he has something (money), he
can send to me using his phone".
Lag-Balal Women’s Group Member
Recommendation
 Attention to the social dynamics social dynamics and inclusion of communities in all initiatives

Women at Lag-Balal are experiencing change in their status
as a result of the new constitution. They are happy with
the new constitution and they see it as something that the
community has helped to achieve along with the
government. Both were viewed as equal impact drivers by
them. The community voted for it and the government
made it possible. The women spoke about poor leadership
as a major issue as it affects all parts of their lives - poor delivery of services such as health,
managing the environment, putting preparedness plans in place to address drought and flooding etc.
They said that they can do a lot to develop their lives but that leadership should improve. When men
meet to discuss and take action on issues they do not involve women. The new constitution will
change how women engage in the future. It will defend their right to also be leaders. They will no
longer depend on men and will change things themselves. They will fight for leadership and they will
fight for their rights.

Traditionally, there was no land ownership in the Somali society as land was owned by the
community. Now everyone wishes to have their own plot of land. The pastoralist dropout group
consider land ownership as positive. The community has taken the lead on the move towards land
ownership and the government through the Ministry of Land (MOL), Ministry of Planning and Local
Government are facilitating individual land ownership. NGOs assisted groups to purchase plots.

The Disabled at Adimasajida in Habaswein formed a group to advocate for their issues and to
manage their affairs. They did this completely on their own and so they attributed the community
full praise. They said that they had to take this action as their rights were not being respected and
they were not receiving what was due to them. It was a positive outcome based on a negative
experience.

1.1.7. Communication infrastructure
Key Findings
 Increased mobile coverage helps family communication and remittance transfer using Mpesa
 Communities view mobile coverage as an important indicator of progress
Recommendation
 Attend to the social dynamics and inclusion of communities in all initiatives

The community at Abakore requested Safaricom to provide
network coverage and finally it was installed. It is an
important development. One woman in the Lag-Balal
group said that her son stays in Nairobi and it is good she
can speak to him often to know how he is doing. The

21
“We formed a group of ten women. Each contributed Kes10,000 and we started a clothing shop.
The business continued and after some time we felt we needed to invest more money and each
contributed a further Kes10,000. Later we learned that The Women’s Enterprise Fund was lending
money to women’s groups. We applied for Kes100,000 and were granted the loan and invested in
the business along with our own money. From that time the business is doing well and we have
also opened a butchery where we slaughter animals and sell the meat”.
Women’s Group Member
women said mobile phones are making a very big difference to their lives. They gave the
government credit for giving the license to Safaricom and they gave most recognition Safaricom as it
has really assisted them.
1.1.8. Access to business loans

Key Finding
 The importance of women’s groups formed by women to develop their own businesses.
Recommendations
 Iinvest more in supporting the development of local structures and local businesses
 Attend to the social dynamics and inclusion of communities in all initiatives

Many women are members of Women’s Groups. They shared how they had developed their
businesses through pooling their own funds and accessing loan schemes e.g. Kulan, Nasri and
Towfiq. Other women shared similar experiences and that their way of life was improved by this as
they are better able to cater for their families. It as an important and positive impact in their lives.




22
1.2.0. Negative Impact Areas

From the 73 statements made by community groups, 39 were negative. These are reflected in the
grpah below and show the areas or sectors where people felt most negative change had taken place
followed by a detailed report on negative findings.

1.2.1. Famine and food insecurity
Key Community Findings
 Poor disease management for livestock and people impacts negatively on livelihoods
 Drought is undermining belief in the pastoralist way of life
 ‘Kenya is a stable country with structures in place – why is so little being done’
 The need for local businesses as alternative livehoods
 The UN not addressing the problem of dangersous waste being dumped in Wajir
 Poor disaster risk management and planning makes disaster impact worse
 NGOs contribute to the problem by not addressing the causes, only the consequences
 The community, government and agencies are to blame for poor environmental magagement
Recommendations
 There is need for comprehensive risk management plannign that engages communities fully as
the people say that poor management contributes directly to loss of livelihoods and poverty.

For people living with disability a serious negative impact was loss of livelihood and livestock. Animal
and Human Diseases badly affected their livelihoods and they attribute this negative impact to the
government and drought. While drought and disease are the cause they feel that if government had
put proper measures and veterinary services in place, the impact of disease on livestock and people
would have been less despite drought. Poor disease management is an important issue.

13
7
3 3 3 3 3
2 2
Famine and
food insecurity
Social
disintegration
Financial
hardship
WASH related
health risks
Poor education
quality
Increased
disease and lack
of access to
health facilities
Lack of
participation in
resource
decisions
Lack of
integration of
youth
Poor
infrastructure
N
o
.

O
f

I
m
p
a
c
t

S
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t
s

Wajir Negative Impact Areas

23
One woman said she had a small
dam to irrigate her vegetable garden
and feed 30 goats. When the
drought came, the dam dried and
the goats died and her crop was
lost. When the rains came there was
a lot of flooding and her small dam
was washed away. She was left with
nothing.
Women’s Group Member
Lag-Balal
After the discussion was complete, the team
listened to the on-going conversation the
elders were having over tea. They said
people were being registered as part of a
relief programme and they wondered when
that programme would come to them. They
were told the process may begin possibly in
two months as work was slow. In their
discussion they said NGOs are bringing a
number of problems such as making people
dependent. Many NGO programmes are
unsustainable and as a result, the people
are even more vulnerable and dependent at
the end of a project than when the project
started. Life thirty years ago was much
better than it is now. The team felt this was
an important issue to be recorded and
reported even though it was not discussed
in the formal discussion.

Agency Staff Member

For the elders at Kursin a negative impact was the loss of their livelihoods due to prolonged and
frequent drought. The long distances they travelled with their livestock during the drought made
their livestock even weaker and more prone to disease. The lack of proper and adequate food due to
loss of livestock meant that people became
weaker and also more vulnerable to diseases such
as measles. During the drought their remaining
livestock were thin, gave no milk and could not be
sold or slaughtered. They are now living in abject
poverty in a remote part of the county. Drought
has made them lose the belief that their livestock
can provide them with the kind of good livelihood
they had in the past.

One of the elders compared conditions between
Kursin to similar places in Somalia. Even though
he had not been to Somali, he had heard from
those who travel there, that water is being piped
long distances to assist people and livestock. How
can Kenya a stable country not do the same?
Kenya has not been at war. Government agencies
are operational and there are many NGOs working
in the area. We are people of this country with
legal rights and yet we are still missing the basic
things of life, especially water. They are
considering what their options are and whether
they will re-settle their community elsewhere.
Survival in Kursin is difficult. They see no way out
unless a solution is found by government, well-wishers or NGOs to address their needs.

NGOs such as SCF UK, WV, WASDA and Oxfam said to them that since livestock farming is no longer
possible and there is not enough rain to grow crops, they should form themselves into small
business groups contributing their own money. They have formed the groups, made their
contribution but up to now have not received support
from any agency according to them.

The women’s group at Lag-Balal said that over the past
three years there was severe drought resulting in
malnutrition, poverty and pastoralist drop-outs. Most
people in the area are pastoralists or agro-pastoralists and
lost 90% of their livestock as there was no water or
pasture. Many people in the community were reduced to
poverty. The impact of the drought and the flooding
meant that many people lost everything and the women
feel very distressed. They blame the drought and flooding
most but also attribute negative impact to the community

24
“What has really concerned them is
they have never been involved in
the decision making processes of
NGOs who carry out actions such as
food distribution with little
engagement of the community.”
Pastoralist Drop Out Group
“The community has to take a lot of
responsibility, as famine is
determined significantly by the way
the environment is managed.
Drought itself does not cause
famine - people contribute to it by
poor natural resource
management.”
Pastoralist Drop Out Group
especially for tree cutting and charcoal burning which changes the environment. They attribute
responsibility to the government and UN for not sensitising the community on how to avoid or
reduce the impact of drought and flooding and for not putting early warning systems or contingency
plans in place. They consider that the UN is responsible for allowing and not challenging people who
come to their area to dump waste that produces a green gas that is damaging their land.

The pastoralist dropout group also spoke about the
negative impact of natural disasters especially drought.
While drought is a natural event, the community
contributes to the impact of drought by poor land
management. The government is responsible for not
engaging in disaster risk management and working with
the community to address the issue on time. NGOs are a
negative impact driver for not addressing the cause of the
disaster but only consequences. They feel that the
business community wish for natural disasters to occur so
that they increase their income from the sale of relief
items and relief food.

They said that food insecurity has been a major factor for
the past two years as a negative impact of drought.
Polygamy contributes to the problem ‘as a man with three
wives cannot support them and it leads to more hungry
people’. Some NGOs have not used their resources
properly. They recounted how one NGO sent five vehicles
at one time to monitor one small food distribution project.
They said that NGOs are negligent on how they make
decisions, impose their plans on the community and do
not engage the community or ask them what kind of
support they require. For example, for the past three years NGOs have been distributing maize and
beans as relief food even though it is not the preferred or traditional food. The business community
contributes negatively to food insecurity through hording goods until prices shoot up.

While the elders know that drought is affecting them badly, they also blame themselves for the poor
way they manage their environment that results in damage to pasture and vegetation. The
government has not come up with measures to manage the environment properly. The elders see
this as a serious issue that has to be addressed as drought is not the only thing that is affecting
pasture and water. The community is contributing in a negative way also. They spoke about local
people who burn the bush and pasture to prepare for farming and that no one is taking action to
prevent this from happening. They said that NGOs are not addressing the problem; they do not
educate and inform people on the dangers that such land clearing can cause and the terrible impact
it has on land, pasture and vegetation. The impact of drought is not something new and NGOs and
others should be learning from the past. They recalled serious droughts in 1973, 1992, 1995, 2005,
2006, 2009 and 2011 where they lost a lot of people and livestock. NGOs and agencies are still only
responding to the effects of drought and not addressing the causes.

25
The people of Abakore said the impact of drought and famine was severe. They blamed nature for
the impact and not the government or agencies. The major impact was the high number of animals
that died especially cattle and goats and resulted in food shortages and famine.

1.2.2. Social disintegration

Key Findings
 The community view administrative government as most corrupt along with business people
 NGOs were viewed as colluding with chiefs and administration officers and do not deal directly
with the community
 How orphans and girl-child orphans are treated is a cause of concern. Girls are treated as
immporal even when they have not done anything wrong
 Family disintegration is taking place as they are forced to break up and move apart due to
drought.
 Disabled people were excluded from their own programme by corrupt officials
 Food given by WFP, WASDA and OP was appreciated
 Food and cash handouts is causing people to move to settlements that is undermining resilience
 Frequent and prolonged drought is forcing them to change from the pastoralist way of life
 Agencies just give aid and to not ask what alternatives communities want to engage in
Recommendation
 The communities raise serious issues that must addressed if cash transfers are going to have
maximum positive benefit. It cannot be implemented in isolation from these challenges

For the Elders and Religious People in Habaswein, the community view administrative government
offices as most corrupt along with business people. NGOs were also attributed negatively as often
they only deal with chiefs and administration officers as community entry points - not with the
community directly. By working only with these people NGOs were viewed as contributing to corrupt
practices. Business people received negative attribution as they benefit from food stolen from the
government for re-sale.

The orphans in Habaswein said they lacked their most basic needs such as shelter, bedding, clothing
and medical care. The orphans said that they can only get work when times are good. When times
are bad and there is drought they suffer most. Other families are already suffering. That the children
were willing to say that they lacked parental love and care is significant and it emphasises an
important challenge for the wider community to be addressed. This is a societal issue and challenge
that is recognised in Islamic tradition and Somali culture. The orphans feel very bad having lost a
parent or parents and society makes life even harder by calling them derogatory names like Agon,
Raja and Rajaw that make them feel even more alone and rejected. Families that are already poor,
face an additional heavy burden when they have to cater for orphaned children. Orphaned children
are often abandoned as a result. In Somali culture, parents speak highly of their children. But an
orphan especially an orphan girl has no one to speak up for her and is a social outcast.


26
“Drought is not caused by the
government and if we choose to
work in Garissa we cannot blame
the government for that. But we can
blame the government for not
assisting us to protect our
livelihoods during the drought or
helping us be prepared for the
drought that caused us to leave.”
Elders Group
A programme was initiated by the Ministry of Social Services to identify and support disabled
persons to benefit from the Disabled Support Programme. The District Social Services Officer came.
Instead of meeting with the disabled he only liaised with leaders such as the Chiefs who gave him a
list of those who should receive disabled benefits. Many genuine disabled persons were not included
and did not benefit from the programme - while non disabled persons benefited. They attributed
this negative impact to community leaders and the government, especially the DSSO and the chiefs
for corruption and bad management.

They said that even though they are positive about the new constitution, community and
government leaders are not concerned about disabled and vulnerable groups. They attributed
negative impact to the Office of the President and community leaders equally. They said that the
government, especially the Office of the President is not making any effort to ensure that the
disabled receive the support they should get. It is an issue they feel strongly about.

The elders at Kursin spoke about family disintegration. Families, who would normally be together,
were forced to move in search of work to settlements, towns and cities. This is bad as it breaks up
families and undermines the traditional way of life of the family and community. Family
disintegration does not mean the breakup of a family - more that families are forced to move apart
just to survive. Recurring drought meant that they lost most of their livestock and that their pastoral
way of life is no longer reliable. As a result they were depending on the OP and NGOs such as
WASDA for assistance. The impact of drought on family life was very upsetting and they blamed the
drought. They are grateful for the support from the OP and WASDA and the food aid given by WFP.

The elders discussed that the distribution of food, cash and other items by agencies was causing
people to come and live in settlements and towns and this is not sustainable. It is based on
handouts. For many, movement to settlements is a matter of survival. Families move to settlements
to get relief and others to try to change their way of life from livestock to small business. A man who
has lost all his livestock and has a wife and children is forced to look for whatever is possible. Some
men will escape the family and run away and ‘get lost’ leaving the woman to fend by herself.

The elders said that the food given is not sufficient and
cannot be relied on. They consider whether they should
move to new places to better their lives. Movement to
settlements has become a coping mechanism as they can
at least get some handouts there. They see all this change
as a disintegration of their livelihoods and families which
is a worry to them – ‘the centre cannot hold’. The
pastoralist elders are living in a county and there are
agents of government operating, so most attribution goes
to the government as the main driver of negative impact
for its failure to act. Their pastoral livelihood system was
appreciated, however frequent and prolonged drought
was forcing them to change. They said lack of disaster
preparedness by the government is a major weakness.


27
Their traditional way of life is nomadic. With the loss of their livestock, the elders see a major change
in their way of life with a move towards permanent settlements; a move from a nomadic to a settled
way of life. This is a major issue for them. They see drought as the main cause of this impact as they
have lost a lot of livestock and are forced to travel far in search of water and pasture. The impact has
both positive and negative consequences; the care and support of the wider community is good; but
the government is not providing enough aid and water; NGO interventions both help and contribute
to the changed way of life; due to drought, the new settlements are changing their way of life.

According to the pastoralist dropout group the community has moved from their traditional way of
life and are having to adapt to the new life in settlements and towns. The World Food Programme
through food distribution is creating dependency along with NGOs such as WASDA, SCF and WV.
They do not engage the community to seek for alternatives to relief food. They do not ask whether
people can do other things or if they have ideas to create small businesses so that they move from
depending on food aid. Instead, they just come and distribute food. The level of communication was
low as the group was not very open to discuss the sensitive issues they raised and they said that they
themselves were contributing to the problem.

1.2.3. Financial hardship

Key Findings
 Hi inflation of basic foods is a serious challenge especially at the onset of drought
 The government should control prices as traders constantly raise prices
 During the drought vulnerable groups such as orphans have no hope
 The cost of farm items such as milk and meat also increases so inflation is across the board
Recommendation
 Research into how the market performs for livestock, milk and basic food items at the onset of
drought and during drought is required to determine how big a livelihoods factor it is

For the past three years there has been high inflation having a negative impact. The price of basic
commodities such as sugar substantially increased at a time when they had lost their livelihoods due
to loss of livestock. They attribute most negative impact to the government as it should try to bring
prices under control. They blame business men and traders for hording as ‘today they say there is no
sugar and when the price increases they raise it from Kes100 to Kes150 for the same sugar’. They
feel strongly about this and said that … “the experienced person sees far”.

When a person says that today they are broke it may mean that they have hope of getting
something tomorrow. But when a person says they have nothing it means that they have nothing
today and no hope for tomorrow. The orphans said that they often feel like this.

The People Living with Disabilities said there was high increase in food prices especially during the
drought. The traders were mostly blamed for that. The cost of milk also increased a lot as there was
little milk due to the drought and the farmers were blamed for that high increase.


28
1.2.4. WASH related health risks

Key Findings
 Basic WASH issues are not being addressed which increases disease and vulnerability
 The community, government and NGOs should do more to prevent the spread of disease
 Frequent borehole breakdown results in no water with community to blame for selecting the
wrong people to manage the borehole and the community contribution
 There is a serious problem with saline water that is not fit for people and livestock.
Recommendation
 Water remains a constant problem in terms of availability, quality and management. All actors
should address the challenges posed by water as integral to building resilience.

The children of Machesa complained that when people use the bush as a toilet they contaminate the
dam water and that livestock also make the water dirty. This causes diseases such as cholera,
dysentery and vomiting. They felt strongly that health risks were not being addressed. They
appreciated the water tanks and pans but felt that more care should be taken to prevent the spread
of disease. They feel that government, the community and NGOs are responsible and can do more.

The main source of water in Abakore is the borehole and frequent breakdown has a negative impact
on the people of Abakore as it is the only permanent source of water. When it is not working, the
people suffer and have to depend on water trucking to survive with their animals. The borehole is
managed by a community water committee and community borehole operators on a day by day
basis. The Abakore group attributed blame to the community for selecting the wrong people to
manage and operate the borehole as community income collected is not used for maintenance. They
attribute negative impact to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation as it should do more to assist the
community to manage the project properly. They said that some agencies such as SCF, World Vision,
WASDA and WFP have talked about doing something but have not taken any action. The group felt
that these actors should do more and not delay.

Due to the heavy rains there was a large increase of mosquitoes and malaria and other diseases.
People living with disabilities attributed this to the rains but also the MOH for not distributing
treated bed nets and treating places where mosquitoes breed.

Pasture and water is always scarce. The settlement at Kursin has two boreholes and the water in
both is saline and unfit for people and livestock. They can only use the water for livestock by drawing
it from the boreholes, leaving it overnight for the sediment to settle before giving to animals.
Drinking water is provided by NGOs using water tankers and by traders selling water. They were very
bitter and angry about the water situation. Elders blamed the government most as there was no
plan in place to help them address the challenges they face. They said that local businesses had poor
food stocks. They blamed the frequent drought for causing their problem.


29
1.2.5. Poor education quality

Key Findings
 School security is a serious issue for children. They blame community and government equally
 Being an orphan means being excluded from participating normally in society
 Quality of education is undermined by large numbers of students in each class
 Teachers are not trained. No female teachers to relate with female students on personal issues
 They blame the community for not producing female teachers and government for not recuriting
 Education is seen as essential for future development and must be addressed
Recommendation
 As with water, education should be properly addressed

Lack of security in the school compound is an issue. Thieves had entered the school at Machesa
twice in 2012 and the children do not feel safe. They said the compound should be properly fenced
so that they can learn without fear that the school may be attacked. The children blame the
community and the government in equal measure.

An orphan child may have lost one or both parents – usually the father. Being an orphan means a
child cannot participate in normal society such as attending school, Madrassas etc according to the
orphans experience at Habaswein.

The female youth group complained of poor education. They said the result of poor education is
large numbers of pupils per class. One mother said … “you might find 100 students in class one and
you can imagine the outcome”. The mothers of Dilmanyale said that there is a problem with
teachers; they are not enough, not trained and there are no female teachers. A woman in the group
said it is very bad when male teachers distribute sanitary pads to female students. A sensitive issue
that upset the women a lot … “the girls are too shy to approach a male teacher on such issues. It
should not happen”. Due to the poor quality of education, the women said the performance of
their children was poor even compared to previous years. In the past there were better teachers and
numbers of children were lower so the situation was manageable. They attributed equal negative
impact to the community and the MOE for the poor education standards. They blame the
community, as women and girls do not want to become teachers and prefer office jobs and to work
in towns. Poor education is an issue the community feel strongly about and are strongly united over.

The same literacy project mentioned by the male youth at Qopar had also impacted on them
negatively due to few teachers which is the fault of the government. While the community now
appreciates the importance of education and they want education for their children and for
themselves, they are disappointed that more teachers have not been appointed to the school. This is
a negative impact and they blame the community as teachers must come from the community but
mostly they blame the government for not appointing teachers and properly finishing the job they
started. There are only 2 teachers for 6 classes which is not workable.


30
1.2.6. Increased disease and lack of access to health facilities

Key Findings
 Poor health facilities is a serious problem especially very poor maternity facilities
 Clinics are poorly staffed with untrained staff and medicines are being sold leaving people at risk
 The community asked whether their statements will be heard by the authorities?
 The community is most to blame for contamination of the water point
 Poor management of health facilities and bad water is causing people to die
Recommendation
 Health care is another serious issue to be addressed especially to mitigiate drought

The mothers in the female youth group complained about the health facility in Dilmanyale - there
are no laboratory services. Health centre personnel are not qualified and diagnosis is made based
on observation alone and medication prescribed on that basis – they may think it is malaria but it
may be typhoid. There is no maternity ward for women. They deliver their babies at home attended
by traditional birth attendants who often do not have the basic equipment. Women face a lot of
problems during childbirth due to poor services and untrained staff. And sometimes the person in
charge is an untrained man who is dealing with women’s issues. Staff turnover is high. Attribution
goes to the whole community and especially to the Ministry of Health (MOH) who is mostly
responsible for an issue that impacts negatively on the whole Dilmanyale Location. They said that
clinic medicines are being sold and not used for the people. During the feedback presentation, the
team and women’s group were highly commended for the quality of the discussion and the honest
way they raised important issues. The mothers queried whether issues raised in Dilmanyale will be
heard at the highest level. It was explained that their issues will be accurately recorded in the report
and shared with relevant authorities and all participating agencies in the exercise.

The women’s group at Lag-Balal said the contamination of the main water source was a serious
problem. They have one dam and the dam water is contaminated. The colour of the water changed
and smelled very bad and they could no longer use it. They either travel 6km round trip to get clean
water or buy water from venders at Kes40 for 20lt from those who fetch water using donkeys. From
using the contaminated water, many children became sick especially from typhoid and dysentery.
Malaria is also a major problem. The community settlement is located near the dam and the people
use the area as an open toilet which causes the water to be contaminated during the rainy season.
Families throw their rubbish near the dam which contaminates the water and those who slaughter
animals throw the inedible animal parts in the dam area. The women say it is the community itself
that is most to blame. They went to the chief and the police to ask them to prevent people from
contaminating the dam but they received no support. The District Public Health Officer and the
National Environmental Management Agency (NEMA) were also attributed blame as they should
have taken action to work with the community to keep the dam and the dam area clean. The impact
is increased health risk especially to their children, increased cost of water and increased time used
to fetch water. The water should be clean and free and locally available but it is not.


31
The women say they face a serious problems giving birth as there is no maternity service and many
women die as a result ... “when a woman gets labour pains it is one of the most frustrating and
frightening moments of her life”. There is one dispensary and government staff are not there
permanently, so a woman in labour may not be assisted to give birth. The staff say they are always
busy working with agencies and NGOs doing other health work. One of the women in the group is a
midwife. She said that if a woman has complications and cannot be assisted at the dispensary, she
must be referred to the hospital in Wajir 60km away. As there is no public transport, the woman and
her family must find some means of transport to avoid putting her and her childs life at serious risk.
The women were very emotional relating cases where families could not find transport or did not
have money and women bled to death when they could have been saved with a proper local health
service in the village.

1.2.7. Lack of participation in resource decisions
Key Findings
 Genuine disabled persons were not consulted or included in a government support programme
 The blamed the community leaders and the DSSO
 The community appreciate support of agencies but agencies do not ask them their views
Recommendation
 Corruption can be partly addressed by open and full engagement of communities

A programme was initiated by the Ministry of Social Services to identify and support disabled
persons to benefit from the Disabled Support Programme. The District Social Services Officer (DSSO)
came but instead of meeting with the disabled he only liaised with leaders such as the Chiefs who
gave him a list of those who should receive disabled benefits. Many genuine disabled persons were
not included and did not benefit from the programme while non disabled persons benefited. They
attributed blame to community leaders and the government especially the DSSO and the chiefs for
corruption and bad management.

The children at Machesa said that while they appreciated the latrines provided by SCF. SCF had not
asked for their views and whether they wanted or needed latrines. SCF came to the school and
decided that the school needed latrines and built them.

1.2.8. Lack of integration of youth

Key Findings
 Corruption is a problem espeically for youth employment with government most blamed
 Government should ensure equal treatment of all citizens
 The community should give youth money to buy khat wich is a serious issue for youth
 Businesses and NGOs are responsible for cultural decay as they introduce foreing influences
Recommendation
 As in other parts of Kenya, the use of khat by the youth is a serious community problem that has
to be addressed as it results in crime, idleness and serious family problems

32
According to the Elders and Religious Persons group there is high youth unemployment due to lack
of jobs and corruption due to favouritism, clanism and nepotism. Government received the highest
negative attribution especially the Ministry of Youth and Sports. The Ministry of State for
Immigration and Administration was cited for harassment of youth e.g. when a person does not
have an identity card. The government was given the largest share of negative attribution as it
should ensure equity and equality for all citizens. The UN and NGO bodies were viewed as dividing
their resources on a Clan basis and therefore received some negative attribution. The business
community was viewed to be failing to create sufficient inclusion and job opportunities for the
youth. Increased idleness by youth is a serious problem due to lack of opportunities and excessive
use of khat. The community was allocated most negative attribution as it fails to address the
problem and provides the youth with money to purchase khat (an issue for cash transfer). The
government is failing to address the problem of youth idleness and the business community for
failing to create more jobs. The government through the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture is
failing in its mission. The business community and NGOs contribute to the decay in culture and the
negative impact of foreign influences. The business community provide substances abused by youth.

1.2.9. Poor infrastructure

Key Findings
 Spread of disease due to poor hygiene practices in selecting and butchering of animals
 Poor quality of roads and lack of mobile phone network undermines markets
 The government is most to blame for not ensureing basic services
 The spiralling prices of basic foods is again raised as a serious issue
Recommendation
 Markets and access to markets requires basic infrastructure and the women see mobile phones
as a necessity for the commercial and social life of the community. Better services be provided.

Some mothers commented that the practice of butchering animals is poor mainly due to the lack of
qualified public health officers to oversee animals for slaughter. It is a serious health concern as
animals are slaughtered in homes and the meat is sold in the market and animal diseases are
common. Lack of proper butcheries and qualified public health officers is a serious health issue. The
constant increase in food prices is a major concern to the women. The cost of basic goods and foods
increases daily. A kilo of sugar that was Kes60 is now Kes150 – over a very short period. ‘We don’t
know how we can survive with such price increases and it is a very negative impact on us’.

The women felt very strongly about issues relating to bad market management and the negative
impact on them and their families and livelihoods. They attributed blame to their own community,
the government and most to bad business practice. The price of an item such as sugar means that
something as important as taking tea is no longer possible. It is terrible.

The women said that most of them have mobile phones but they are just useless as there is no
network, no power and often no phones available. The women now see phones as important for
their lives. When there is no power, no network and no phones the impact is terrible on their social
and economic lives and even issues of security. The women complained about the poor quality of

33
the roads especially during the rainy season making travel and access to services and markets very
difficult. They blamed the community and business to some degree for these problems but most
blame was attributed to government. The women felt strongly about these issues.

1.2.10 Growing Dependency and Loss of Livelihoods

Key Community Findings
 Giving free food and cash without addressing the underlying causes of drought and poverty
increases dependency and poverty.
 People are not asked if they can do things for themselves – they are just given handouts
 People have move from traditional pastoral way of life and are adopting new things
 There is need for investment in small business opportunties to diversify livelihoods
Recommendation
 Research and investment in small business enterprise is required to build livelihoods

The elders and religious leaders of Habaswein said that the temporary supply of cash transfers and
other interventions reduces resilience and self-reliance. The government through the Ministry of
Social Welfare was attributed most responsibility along with NGOs and the UN because they give
free food and free cash and do not address the problems that free cash and food creates.

Pastoralist dropouts at Lagdima said the community has moved from their traditional system of
living and they are not adapting to the new life in the settlements and the towns. The World Food
Programme through the food distribution programme is creating dependency in the society. Another
is the NGOs such as WASDA, SCF and WV do not engage the community to seek for alternatives to
relief food. They do not ask whether people can do other things or if they have ideas to create small
business so that they move from depending on food aid – instead, they just come and distribute
food. The level of communication was low as the group was not very open to discuss the issues given
how sensitive it was for them and they themselves were contributing to the problem.

34
1.3. Neutral Impact
Neutral impact refers to the impact of interventions that are viewd by the community as both
positive and negative e.g. a borehole with water but unfit for livestock and people, food aid and
handouts that save lives but create dependency, the right intervention but at the wrong time etc.
Neutral impact usually refers to interventions that have innacurate assumptions, the wrong timeline,
poor engagement, poor targeting and no alternative actions considered etc.
1.3.0. Decline in children's health (water borne diseases)

Key Community Findings
 Agencies do their best to provide servcies but the outcome is poor resulting in neutral impact
that is very frustrating for communities as there are associated costs and negative impacts when
results are neutral or negative.
Recommendations
 Assumptions and risks assoicated should be fully considered with the community at the concept
and design phase of a project to maximize success and consider other options
 Projects should be fully thought through and agencies should engage communities in
considering alternatives if projects fail or objectives are not achieved

A borehole was drilled by WASDA that increased the water quantity of the community. However, the
water in the borehole is not fit for human consumption due the high salinity level. During the test
pumping of the borehole, the whole community was very excited as the water flowed for 24 hours
and the livestock drank their fill. It was a great moment and full of hope that they had enough water
and that the water was at least good for their livestock. But following a laboratory test, they learned
that the water was not fit for either livestock or people. So the borehole was left without a pump as
the water could not be used. It is very frustrating for the community and they feel very upset that
the borehole does not work. For them it is a neutral impact as the agencies tried to give them water
but the water was not good. Most of the neutral impact was caused by the NGO as the NGO should
have tested the quality of the water first. The community continue to rely on pans for their water
but the water from the pans is not adequate and so the problem of water remains.



35
1.4. Analysis of the drivers of impact


The analysis in this section examines what is working or not working from the perspective of
representative community groups. This weighs accountability from the perspective of the affected
population to reflect the performance of all actors (including the community itself) – which may be
helpful to government, donors and decision makers. Stakeholders are rated positively, negatively
and neutrally. Each impact statement receives a 0-10 score attributed to different actors / factors
that people see as creating change in their lives. These totals are combined giving the results in the
charts above and shown against the numbered left axis.

The size of the attribution column (positive, negative, neutral) is important. If the height of the
positive attribution column is greater than the corresponding negative attribution column then an
actor or group of actors may feel they are on the right track. However the size of negative or neutral
attribution should be seriously considered, as should the overall size of the attribution to external
humanitarian actors (even when positive). If negative or neutral impact outweighs the positive
impact an actor or actors are making, or if the attribution column of positive impact by external
actors is too high, then this provides an opportunity for reflection, further community discussion and
a possible change of strategy, to ensure that positive local community, government, business and
civil society results are increased. In a healthy development context; community, government, local
business and local civil society action should be strong and provide the foundation for a robust and
locally sustained response.

A review of the positive attribution results clearly demonstrates the substantial positive space
occupied by the community, Administrative Government and NGOs over the past two years.

In some instances groups named agencies both positively and negatively in their statements.
Sometimes, people may not know how to differentiate between agencies and the community
appreciation of organisations is often horizontal regardless of whether an agency is large or small.
UN agencies are in some cases funding NGO, FO and government activities, and this is sometimes
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Wajir Impact Attribution
Negative Impact Positive Impact Neutral Impact

36
unknown by communities. What matters to them is what and who are having results from their
perspective. This underlines the fact that sector performance is collective from the perspective of
those on the receiving end, and that organisations are not insulated from judgement on
performance by the affected populations. The results above show (albeit from a relatively small
representative group) who and what people feel are responsible for these impacts. The situation on
the ground is dynamic in relation to long-term changes and can vary considerably from area to area.
The graphs provide a clear appreciation of the context within which actors are working.

In terms of negative impact, forces within the community are clearly driving negative impact
whether through social prejudice, cultural attitudes or poor livestock and farming practice etc. This
is followed by action, inaction or lack of coverage by administrative government departments, e.g.
not enough coverage of education, water supply and health services. Attribution to an event is
primarily the 2011 drought. Learning from the attribution results raises important questions about
the need to build positive links between communities, local actors and local government. In terms
of neutral impact differences this is largely due to getting a response half right but not completely.


37
PART II
KRDP / EC Focus Questions merged with Community Priority Issues
1. How can community involvement help develop programmes that produce better impact,
increase resilience and reduce dependency and poverty?
2. How can community entry points be improved to ensure that the whole community is included
in the decision making process?
3. How can organisations be made more accountable to communities?
4. How can management and governance of programmes be improved to ensure sustainable
project impact?
5. How does drought impact on different livelihood systems at different times of the year and why?
6. What do you do to reduce the impact of drought especially at the early stages?
7. What additional support do you need to offset drought especially at the early stages & why?
8. Who in the community should receive cash transfers and why? What criteria should be used?
What is the risk on gender relations?
9. When is the best time to receive cash and why? (When cash transfer is of most benefit in
protecting livelihoods from drought).
10. For how long do you need to receive cash transfers and at what intervals?
11. How much cash should be given per household in a cash transfer and why? (What size of cash
transfer would be meaningful and appropriate?).
12. What criteria should be used e.g. geographically, socially, or by wealth ranking?
13. What are the risks in giving cash transfers or non cash items and how can they be reduced or
eliminated e.g. impact on mobility; impact on markets, on gender relations?
14. How should communities participate in the cash transfer process and what difference will
community participation make e.g. as part of the management process?
15. What kind of information do you need to inform you about early drought and when and how
should you be given the information?

2.2.0. Community Feedback to Focus Questions

2.2.1. How can community involvement help develop programmes that
improve impact, increase resilience and reduce dependency and
poverty?
Key Findings
 Agencies limiting their engagement with communities by meeting leaders such as chiefs.
 Community entry points should engage all groups in the community; children, elders, women,
religious leaders, youth, disabled, businesses, government
 Representation builds ownership and transparency ensuring that the right people receive
benefits
 Training and capacity building needed so various groups can participate in discussion, decision
making, monitoring and evaluation, accountability and knowing their rights

38
 Plans should be communicated through barazas etc. so the community is fully informed
 Civic education that builds knowledge on participation and rights
Recommendation
 Agencies should ensure that entry points allow full and open access to all groups in the
community so they participate fully and to lower corruption.












2.2.2. How can community entry points be improved to ensure that the
whole community is part of the decision making process?
Key Findings
 Agencies are limiting their engagement with communities by meeting leaders such as chiefs.
 Community entry points do not engage all groups in the community; children, elders, women,
religious leaders, youth, disabled, businesses, government
 Ownership and transparency is not being built
 There is need for training and capacity building so that various groups can participate in
discussion, decision making, monitoring and evaluation, accountability and to know their rights
 Plans should be communicated through barazas etc. so the community is fully informed
 Civic education that builds knowledge on participation and rights

Recommendation
 Community entry points are just that … entry points. Agencies should ensure that entry points
allow open access to all groups so they participate fully.





6
4
2
Involvement at all project
stages
Communities knows what
their needs are / Better
needs identification
Appropriate ideas, actions
and programmes that
have long-term benefits
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Improving impact, resilience, reduce dependency
and poverty
8
3
2
Inclusive gender
balanced
representation of
all groups
Elders Chief (local
administration)
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Improvement of community entry points

39

2.2.3. How can organisations be made more accountable to communities?
Key Findings
 Government and agency plans are not shared publicly with the community
 Agencies are not transparent and open about their objectives, budgets and plans
 Communities do not have direct links with donors which would improve accountability and cost
effective programmes
 Representative local committees should be in place to monitor, evaluate, report, provide
feedback and challenge bad practice
 Communities should have their own structures for accountability – feedback mechanisms should
use community systems and located in the community and not the agency
Recommendations
 Agencies should engage in pre-project discussion with communities setting out possible budget,
plans, start-up time and timeframe, capacity to work etc. so the community can share its views
so that a workable programme with achievable objectives can be developed.
 Community involvement in M&E and Impact Measurement should be standard









2.2.4. How can management and governance of programmes be improved
to ensure good the delivery of good projects and positive impact?
Key Findings
 Prior discussion with communities on project design and planning is essential
 Groups and committees should be trained to enable them contribute fully
 Even short-term emergency projects should have long-term benefits that the community
support and agree to before hand
 People who abuse resources should not be protected. The community should expose them.
 Representatives should be elected/endorsed by the community before engaging with agencies
Recommendation
 For communities to own, manage and provide a governance structure on project outcomes
requires that they be involved in management and governance from the outset.
7
6
4
3
Public sharing of
plans at barazas /
increased
transparency on all
information
Communities
involved at all
project cycle stages
Inclusive and
respresentative
decentralised
project monitoring
committees
Community
complaints /
monitoring
structures and not
those of agencies
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Improving Accountability to Communities

40








2.2.5. How does drought impact on you at different times of the year and
why?

Key Findings
 The impact of drought is loss of pasture, water, increased disease, bad market prices, lack of
food and milk and all this forces people to take action
 In the dry season period prior to rains there is increased pasture and vegetation burning that
contributes to drought as the land cannot survive.
 In the early stages of drought there is massive livestock migration; sale of animals to get income
when possible to avoid losing livestock later; retain smaller herds to mitigate loss of pasture and
water and have breeding stock for the future.
 In the early stages of drought people still have options; sell healthy livestock, use income to buy
food and fodder, move livestock to better areas, treat for disease.
 As the drought progresses, there are few options as livestock lose weight and cannot be sold,
fodder and food prices increase, diseases strike livestock and people, there is high inflation and
family income is finished so the situation becomes extremely critical
 As the drought continues there is an increase in settlements and those going to settlements as
there are no alternatives and they are attracted by the kind of support agencies give
 Agencies usually do not provide support at the early stages. It usually comes late when the
situation is chronic and lives and livelihoods are threatened as more people lose livestock.
Recommendation
 There is an important link between what is done to mitigate the impact of drought at the early
stages and the subsequent need for external support (e.g. cash and/or food). It is important that
agencies be fully aware of this and engage actively with communities to address it – before aid.




3 3 3 3
Community public
awareness / feedback
on programme
Involve womens groups
/ project steering
committees
Community should
have a voice before
and at all project stages
Election of people
representative of
whole community (not
just gatekeepers)
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y


r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Improving project management & governance

41
9
5 5 5
3 3
Livestock
deaths
Loss of
livelihoods /
income
Disease Poverty /
dependency
Loss of life /
malnutrition /
starvation
Migration to
settlements for
relief / work
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Top ranked drought impacts

2.2.6. What do you do to reduce the impact of drought especially at the
early stages?
Key Findings
 Livestock are sold to get income before the animals become thin and weak
 Herds are reduced to manageable sizes so they can survive the drought
 Family income is used to purchase fodder and water for remaining livestock
 Weak animals are slaughtered as they have no market value. New born animals are slaughtered
as they only weaken the mother who cannot produce milk and both may die if she suckles her
calf
 If it is not a recurring drought, they travel to areas where there may be pasture and water
 Livestock offtake programmes provide alternative income as market prices are very low
 People migrate with their animals and others to towns and settlements to look for work and
support
 Drought is directly associated with bad community practices as well as changes in the climate
Recommendation
 Groups stated often that they reduce livestock numbers at the onset of drought to raise income,
avoid losing stock during the drought and retain viable herds. The focus on viable herd numbers
should be considered as a long-term development issue now that the concept is localized.




6
5
3
2 2
Inadequate pasture,
water, food
Low livestock prices Climate change / rain Pasture destruction
by bush burning (lack
of community unity /
commitment)
Lack of rain
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Top ranked causes of drought impacts

42

2.2.7. What additional support do you need to offset drought especially at
the early stages & why?
Key Findings
 Awareness campaigns to inform communities of the pending drought, for what duration, of
what severity and what its impact may be including accurate weather forecasts
 There should be proper livestock marketing and market information available so people can
decide when and where to sell livestock to avoid having to sell at throwaway prices
 Emergency water supplies should be in place as water is essential for people and livestock
 Train communities on drought preparedness so that they can make better choices
 Government should control food prices especially during drought when prices become very high
 Livestock should be vaccinated before the drought to avoid the risk of disease
 Water provision and canal / irrigation channels should be set up to ensure water supply
 Early warning systems that involve communities and use of traditional signs should be in place to
help pastoralists make the right decisions well in advance
 There is need for communities to be involved in contingency planning to ensure plans are put in
place that address their immediate and long-term needs

Recommendation
 The issue of markets and poor livestock prices was raised a lot and there is need to address the
issue of how livestock markets operate and to ensure that pastoralists get the best prices for
their livestock as this is critical to family income and also central to the cash and voucher debate
6
5
4 4
3
Reduce livestock herd
size / livestock sale
Migration for pasture
and water
Livestock off take / de-
stocking programmes
Cry out for support
from Government /
NGOs
Stock food (maize /
sorghum) / Dry meat /
savings / Buy hay /
animal feed
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Measures to reduce drought impact

43

2.2.8. Who in the community should receive cash transfers and why?
What criteria should be used? What is the risk on gender relations?
Key Findings
 Groups were unanimous that a representative community committee should identify the most
needy using local criteria (e.g. wealth ranking) setting out those who should receive cash
 The community has criteria to identify the most vulnerable as those at risk of hunger and disease
during drought requiring additional support. Vulnerability criteria be decided locally
 They focused on vulnerable groups demonstrating an awareness and care for those in need
 There is a gender risk as cash given only to the woman in the home can create tension and
violence that may not have existed to that point and that can have serious results.
 Women are seen as having the most domestic responsibility and it makes sense for them to
manage cash for domestic needs. Men deal mostly with livestock and so they too require cash.
How the community engages in determining how cash is given is critical to both

Recommendations
 There is need for an integration of vulnerability as community groups identify the needs of those
who are destitute and the needs of pastoralists – but not in an integrated way.
 Community should decide who should receive cash, how and when. And set out local bylaws on
what will happen to those who abuse cash (e.g. chewing miraa, not working, not supporting
their family). This must be addressed locally with external actors fully engaged to achieve a
workable solution. Giving cash just to the women in the home solves one problem and creates
others

8
4 4
2
Drought awareness raising /
early warning information
weather forecasts
Livestock marketing
information
Water harvesting / pans /
irrigation channels from
existing water sources to
produce crops / water for
livestock / Emergency
boreholes at grazing areas /
de-silting
Cash transfers
C
o
m
m
u
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i
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y

r
a
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k
i
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g

Priority support areas

44












2.2.9. When is the best time to receive cash and why? (When cash transfer
is of most benefit in protecting livelihoods from drought).
Key Findings from the Community Focus Groups
 Most vulnerable should receive cash all the time as their status does not change. This was
qualified as the community should ensure other initiatives are followed so even the most
vulnerable should try to be self sufficient and not become dependent
 Cash transfers should be given during emergencies such as drought, flooding and serious disease
to livestock as pastoralists become vulnerable in these scenarios
 Some say cash to be given at the start of drought to mitigate the drought
 Others say pastoralists sell healthy livestock at the start of drought to reduce herd size and use
the money to buy fodder and water.
 As drought continues, there is growing need to provide cash as money is finished and there is no
income and pastoralists need money for their families and livestock to survive

Recommendation
 Logical to focus cash at the start of drought before vulnerability sets in but should be done
alongside improved markets, disease management, access to fodder etc. Should not be given in
isolation










11
2
WHEN: During drought / flood
emergencies /disease outbreaks
WHY: When people cannot sell livestock
is when they are most vulnerable and in
need of cash
C
o
m
m
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n
i
t
y

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

When and why receive cash?
8
Most vulnerable e.g. widows, orphans, elderly, critically ill, female
headed households, disabled, poor, divorcees, pastoralist drop outs,
cattle rustling victims, child / female headed households
C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

r
a
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k
i
n
g

Cash transfer recipients

45
2.2.10. For how long do you need to receive cash transfers and at what
intervals?
Key Findings
 Cash is required at the outset of drought to mitigate impact (retain reduced herd), and during
drought to help families survive and purchase food, fodder, water.
 Cash is also required during recovery even after rains; it takes livestock at least six months to
begin producing young and milk – meat and milk are staple foods and income
 So much depends on the extent and duration of a drought so the middle part of the drought can
extend indefinitely so timeframe is determined by drought duration.
 Cash transfers should not extend past the recovery phase as assistance to pastoralists
 Non-pastoralists e.g. dropouts, those living in settlements, the most vulnerable also experience
drought but in different ways and therefore have different timelines
 Cash should be used to assist in business and enterprise development
Recommendation
 While recommended periods differ, duration of cash transfers should depend on the drought
and the recovery period after the drought. It should not extend past the recovery period













2.2.11. How much cash should be given per household in a cash transfer
and why? (What size of cash transfer would be meaningful and
appropriate?).
Key Findings
 Even though the amount recommended varies considerably, there is agreement that the
amount should be determined by what is required to survive on a day by day basis.
 The issue of inflation especially during drought is raised as a basis to increase the amount
 Amounts also vary during different times and depending on vulnerability
 The community should be fully engaged in determining who should receive and how much
5
3 3
7
6 months (depending
on emergency)
Up to recovery period /
livestock starting to
produce young
3-5 years (depending
on extent of drought)
Monthly
A
g
e
n
c
y

s
t
a
f
f

r
a
n
k
i
n
g

Propoposed cash transfer duration

46
Recommendation
 Further research is required to understand the level and impact of inflation at the outset of
drought and how cash transfers may impact on food prices and the development of markets











2.2.12. What criteria should be used e.g. geographically, socially, or by
wealth ranking?
Key Findings from the Community Focus Groups
 They emphasized the need for the community to determine the criteria for those who should
receive cash, when and for how long
 Community committees should be representative and elected locally as much depends on their
capacity and how they work with agencies
 Key criteria issues are; pastoralists who depend on livestock totally
 Location; especially those in remote areas, those in settlements who are already vulnerable
 Geographically; those areas most affected by drought should be targeted
 Size of population matters as areas that are densely populated are more vulnerable
 Wealth ranking is clearly the most favoured way – community based
 The importance of supporting and developing local businesses is important
Recommendation
 Beneficiaries being accountable to the community as the community has selected them presents
an opportunity to revise how such projects are managed, monitored and evaluated

14
6
AMOUNT: 5,000-10,000Ksh WHY? Currency depreciation /
inflation / High cost of basic
goods
C
o
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m
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r
a
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k
i
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g

Proposed cash amount and rationale
10
5
4
2 2
Wealth ranking method Vulnerability level Dry / remote areas Semi rural / semi urban
areas (those who have
lost livelihoods /
pastoralist dropouts)
Community based
screening criteria
C
o
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Selection criteria

47

2.2.13. What are the risks in giving cash transfers or non cash items and
how can they be reduced or eliminated e.g. impact on mobility;
impact on markets, on gender relations?
Key Findings
 Discussion, decision making and criteria setting should be transparent and open and engage the
community and agencies – everyone wants money so it must be transparent.
 There is fear that cash transfers will lead to inflation of basic goods
 There is a fear that cash will attract more people to existing settlements and result in the
creation of new settlements with greater dependency created
 Cash will be used to buy unessential things such as miraa and will make men lazy and unwilling
to work thus making the situation even more difficult
 How cash is distributed is a concern especially for women in remote areas having to leave their
families / livestock unattended as well as incurring high costs of travel
 Women who leave home for long periods can lead to problems of jealousy in the home and lead
to more conflict between husbands and wives
 To reduce the problem, cash can be transferred through selected shopkeepers and money
accessed when required
 Giving the money to women creates conflict in the home – creating a problem to solve one
 Those who receive should be selected and registered by the community so that if they abuse the
benefit they can be cautioned or removed
 Cash transfer can lead to double registration of persons who move from place to place and
register in each location
 Frequent monitoring and evaluation that includes the community is essential
 Cash for productive work should be used to avoid laziness and growing dependency
 Lack of phone network is a problem in remote parts where Mpesa does not work. Vouchers and
using local traders as cash outlets can address the problem
Recommendations
 The need for cash transfers is hinged heavily on the impact of drought on markets, the fall in
livestock prices and increase in basic goods. There is need to review the primary causes that
underline the need for cash and vouchers e.g. if livestock prices remained good, if viable herd
sizes were farmed, if the land was better managed etc. the need for cash may be reduced.
 Pastoralists are requesting that short-term emergency funding that only responds to the impact
of drought be balanced with long-term interventions that address the primary causes
 Research is needed to consider why water is a problem and fodder cannot be produced so that
smaller herds are sustained through the drought without handouts.


48
Risks Rank
Dependency 8
Distort market operations 5
Household discord leading to domestic violence 5
New settlement creation / migration to area of cash transfer / reduced production 2
Lowers capacity for resilient lifestyle 2
Hatred and resentment because not everyone would receive the cash 2
Insecurity mostly where the parcef (sp) delivery method used 2
Double registration of mobile people e.g. pastoralists 1
Risk reduction measures Rank
Use MPESA 3
Proper beneficiary selection / Target most needy vulnerable groups 2
Use of local agents and local traders to transfer payments 2
Market research 1
Cash for work 1
Frequent monitoring and evaluation 1

2.2.14. How should communities participate in the cash transfer process
and what difference will community participation make e.g. as part
of the management process?
Key Findings
 Community representatives should participate fully in developing the project
 There should be public awareness campaigns to inform the community on what is planned
 The emphasis should be on building livelihoods and communities can lead on advising what will
or will not work even when cash is being distributed
 A community screening committee with criteria to screen who should benefit
 Ensure that the community own the project and outcomes by participating fully
 The community know who the most vulnerable are and should oversee their selection
 Community involvement will result in accurate planning and sustainable results – not being
achieved at the moment
 Community involvement will improve accountability of agencies to the community, of the
community to itself and of agencies to donors
Recommendation
 Community participation was raised as a major issue to be addressed. While benefits have been
stated, there may be others that have not been explored fully e.g. improved value for money,
small business opportunities, inward investment initiatives etc. Further open focus discussion is
required on an inter-agency / community basis

49

2.2.15. What kind of information do you need to inform you about early
drought and when and how should you be given the information?
Key Findings
 Information on how to mitigate drought should be shared e.g. on how to store food such as
producing milk powder and dried meat that can be stored as food and for sale
 Information should be shared through the media especially in relation to pending drought and
expected impact e.g. BBC Somalia, KBC, Wajir Radio, through barazas, by text message
 There is need for frequent and accurate weather forecasts to inform people about weather
patterns (drought, flooding, disease) well in advance so that people can plan
 Planned agency activities should be communicated openly and transparently so that
communities can share their views. The timeliness of projects is critical
Recommendations
 The need for information is emphasized. The information should be accurate and timely and
given in ways that pastoralists can access. Information should encompass market issues
including livestock and commodity prices and trends so that pastoralists can plan when and
where to sell.
 Early warning is more than a focus on drought or flood forecasting. It should encompass market
information, trends in markets, disease management, information on planned interventions.
12
2
1 1
All stages from beginning
to end / management /
decision process
Ownership / positive
outcomes
Trust / accountability /
community
empowerment
Increase effectiveness /
efficiency
C
o
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r
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Community participation
11
7
5
2 2 2
Early warning Up-to-date
weather reports
/ rainfall patterns
and forecasts
Livestock market
prices
Information on
animal disease
outbreaks
Updates on
water and
pasture
availability
Destocking and
livestock offtake
programmes
C
o
m
m
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n
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t
y

r
a
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k
i
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g

Information required

50























2.2.16. Additional comments from the team on feedback from the
Groups?

When formal group discussion had ended, some of the informal dicussion was recorded as the
teams felt that the issues raised were pertinent. These are recorded below. In particular the;
emphasis on continuing cash transfers if done properly, if not, it should be stopped; the need for
business alternatives and that livestock are more productive than cash.

Key Findings
 “If the projects had been planned with the community, then we could have moved forward very
far by now” … children’s group.
 In the first discussion the communities said that we took time to listen and develop trust with
them that meant they were open and honest in both discussions
 The first discussion was very important as it prepared the ground for the second discussion
where the elders were even more open and honest about their issues.
 Cash transfers should continue if proper strategies and procedures put in place with only
deserving people receiving cash – if this is not possible, the cash transfer programme should be
stopped.
3
2
1 1 1
As early as
possible
Beginning of
drought
Before drought Before start of
rainy season
At all stages
C
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Information timing
9
3
2 2
Local FM
stations
Barazas /
Community
meetings
Bulletins Indigenous
traditional
knowledge,
information and
communication
systems
C
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r
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Trusted and accessible communication channels

51
 The women said that during the rains they have a lot of milk and meat and a lot of the milk is
wasted as the market is flooded and all that food and income is lost – let us develop businesses
that produce milk powder and dried meat
 One elder went as far as saying that support to develop kitchen gardens is better than cash
transfers; irrigation schemes, even re-stocking of sheep and goats is better than a cash transfer –
cash does not produce, livestock and gardens produce
 They were very happy with the discussion with the people and wanted to know when they will
be called again so that they can discuss and share more.
Recommendation
 Cash transfer on its own is not a solution. The community make the point a lot and strongly. It
must be properly done and must be done in a way that integrates markets, long-term
development, proper engagement of pastoralists etc. They do not want handouts, they want
sustainability.



52
3.0. Conclusion

The P-FiM exercise in Habaswein that combined goal free discussion with a wide cross section of
representative community groups produced a significant overview on how these people view their
lives and livelihoods. It also provides rich insights into how they view those who engage with and
support them. The inter-agency approach that engaged personnel from 16 agencies on the ground
demonstrated the importance of ‘agencies working together’ to try to understand their working
context in a much deeper and insightful way. The impact of the process and outcomes on the
community is extremely important. This approach is something new to them in spite years of
agency engagement with them. That they were given the opportunity to discuss their views, ideas,
fears, challenges, hopes and anxieties openly within a respectful and trusting process allowed them
to engage and share significant issues for them and those serving them.

The KRDP/EU in collaboration with NDMA provided the opportunity for views to be shared and
feedback to be received on the KRDP/EU question areas. The openness and trust achieved during
the P-FiM discussion allowed for further indepth discussion by the community on issues significant
to them and to NDMA.

At a time when the EU, DFID and the Government of Kenya are considering major investment in
social, humanitarian and development planning and programmes, it is essential that local
communities be given their rightful place in the discussion to share their views and wisdom to shape
this process. The community is saying that regular poor engagement with the community produces
poor programme results; discussion with gate keepers alone is not enough as the whole community
should be involved; information should be shared openly and transparently; if cash and handouts
are given without proper engagment with communities and due consideration for potentially good
and bad outcomes, it may result in greater poverty. Pastoralism is changing and communities know
this – they want to be proactive in considering other livelihoods and businesses; they want basic
services in education, health, WASH, security, infrastructure, markets and livestock etc. They want
programme objectives, outcomes and impact discussed fully with them; assistance at the onset of
and during drought should focus on addressing the root causes (e.g. poor livestock markets, poor
disease management, poor management of the environment, need to reduce herd sizes, new
businesses to develop livestock and livestock products such as powdered milk and meat drying, early
warning that is practical and timely etc.). They want cash transfers to be part of the solution and not
part of the problem. They fear dependency that results in spiralling poverty. The Hunger Safety Net
Programme for the most vulnerable along with cash and voucher transfers to those who are
seasonally vulnerable are significant interventions that can greatly assist vulnerable ASAL
communities cope and ‘protect their livelihoods during crisies caused by drought, flooding and
disease’. The community can and should play its full role in the discussion in designing,
implementation, monitoring and impact measurement of these initiatives.





53
Annexe 1 Terms of Reference
The National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) is a statutory body established under the
State Corporations Act (Cap 446) of the Laws of Kenya. Its Legal Notice gives it the mandate to
‘establish mechanisms which ensure that drought does not become famine and that the impacts of
climate change are sufficiently mitigated’.
2


Drought management may be defined as the actions taken on a continuous basis to prevent,
mitigate or prepare for the adverse impacts of drought and to build drought-resilient communities
and nations. The key to effective drought management is timely action. Droughts are predictable,
slow-onset phenomena, which makes it possible to intervene at a very early stage in their evolution
in order to mitigate their worst effects. As well as the obvious benefit of reduced human suffering,
early action has been shown to be far more cost-effective than delayed emergency response.

In its efforts to ensure a timely response, one of the most important tools at the NDMA’s disposal is
the drought contingency fund. Contingency finance operates under more flexible procedures than
regular government disbursement channels. The contingency planning and financing system
managed by the NDMA is well-respected and has evolved over many years of experience.
Contingency funds are allocated to drought-affected counties on the basis of objectively verifiable
changes in drought conditions. The indicators monitored through the drought early warning system
allows these changes to be observed at the very earliest phase of a drought, well before any sign of
stress is apparent.

While the NDMA has confidence in the technical quality of the contingency planning and financing
system, it wishes to complement its knowledge by understanding more fully community-level
perceptions of the measures and approaches which will best protect their livelihoods during the
early stages of drought. One of these measures is cash transfers, which, along with vouchers and
other forms of credit, are increasingly being used by agencies instead of food aid.

In addition to the temporary use of cash as a form of humanitarian response, the Hunger Safety Net
Programme (HSNP) provides an unconditional and regular cash payment to around 69,000 of the
most food insecure families in four arid counties: Turkana, Marsabit, Mandera and Wajir.
3
This is a
social protection measure: these families experience chronic food insecurity regardless of drought
conditions. A particularly innovative feature of HSNP is its payments infrastructure, through which
traders dispense the cash through biometric smart cards held by the registered beneficiaries. Cash
may be redeemed at any time, thus minimising disruption to people’s normal routine (particularly
important for mobile pastoralists). Phase 2 of HSNP will start in 2013, and in preparation for this, a
comprehensive registration of all households in the four counties is underway. The NDMA will be
able to use this registration data to scale up cash transfers to a much wider number of people than

2
It is understood that it is not possible for a ‘drought’ to become a ‘famine’, given that the two are
completely different phenomena. The legal wording is generally interpreted to mean that while drought
is inevitable, its worst effects can be avoided through strategies to reduce risk and build resilience.
Further, the term ‘mitigation’ is used here in its everyday sense of ‘avoiding a problem’, and not as used
under the climate change regime (i.e. of reducing greenhouse gas emissions).
3
HSNP is financed by DFID and operates, like the NDMA, under the Ministry of State for Development of
Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands.

54
the regular HSNP recipients at times of drought stress using drought contingency funds. However, in
order to do so, it needs a fuller understanding from likely target communities of when such transfers
would be most effective, of what size, for whom, and for how long, and how they might compare
with more conventional forms of drought response.

Purpose
The purpose of this consultancy is to improve the quality of the NDMA’s response in the early stages
of drought and its relevance to the communities it serves. This will be achieved by exploring
community-level views on the mechanisms which will best support their livelihoods during the early
stages of drought. The exercise will contribute to the fourth strategic objective in the NDMA’s draft
strategic plan, which is to ‘protect the livelihoods of vulnerable households during drought crises’.

Methodology
People First Impact Method (P-FiM) is a methodology that allows communities to speak for
themselves in identifying the important changes in their lives and to whom/what these are
attributable. The starting point is people and communities rather than organisations and projects. P-
FiM recognises that the primary driving force in ensuring accurate and cost-effective interventions
and sustainable processes and outcomes is people and communities. The approach highlights some
of the wider dynamics within the social, political and economic life of a community about which
implementing agencies may not be fully aware. It thus enables stakeholders to ‘take the
temperature’ in order to align their work more closely with local priorities.

The P-FiM team will be accompanied by relevant officers from the NDMA / HSNP to help clarify the
technical aspects of the drought management and social protection systems, where this may be
required.

Scope of work
One P-FiM process will be piloted in one pastoralist area within one of the four counties where HSNP
is operational. The chosen pilot area should meet the following criteria:
 A range of interventions by multiple agencies are underway or have recently been implemented,
including HSNP, the benefits of which the community will be able to evaluate.
 A pastoralist area, where a proportion of the population is mobile.
 A secure area, where the P-FiM discussions will not be affected by conflict.

The P-FiM process should elicit views from a cross-section of the community (which should include,
for example, mobile pastoralists, settled households, traders, religious leaders, and local political
authorities) on the following issues:
 The impact of drought on different livelihood systems at different times and the reasons why
this impact differs.
 The local/indigenous coping strategies and drought mitigation mechanisms which communities
use to protect their livelihoods and which of these can best be supported by the NDMA and
other external actors.
 The impact of different mechanisms and approaches used by external actors (both government
and non-state actors) in supporting local livelihoods and economies in the early stages of
drought.

55

With regard to cash transfers in particular:
 Timing: When a cash transfer would have most benefit in protecting livelihoods from drought,
and for how long the transfer should be made.
 Scale: What size of cash transfer would be meaningful/appropriate.
 Targeting: Who should benefit (whether defined geographically, socially, or by production
system), what the targeting criteria should be, and why.
 Risk management: What risks are involved, and how these might be reduced or eliminated (for
example, impact on gender relations; impact on mobility; impact on markets).
 Management: How these transfers will link with the ongoing HSNP programme; how
communities could be part of the management of the process.

The process should be informed by a strong social analysis of the community in question, which
takes intra and inter-household dynamics into account, and ensures that the perspectives of those
who are often excluded from these discussions (such as minority clans, the poorest women, or those
living in pockets of deprivation) are clearly heard.



56
Annex 2 Field Exercise Participants
No. Name Postion Name of Organisation
1 Adan Husssein Dugow Driver WASDA
2 Ibrahim Jubasa Board Member WASDA
3 Muhuba Hassan M & E Officer WASDA
4 Ahmed Billow Osman Project Officer WASDA
5 Abdi Mohamed Emil Driver NDMA
6 Issack Abdille SLDO NDMA
7 Hassan kalmoy Data Officer NDMA
8 Abdi hakim Khalif Finance Assistant NDMA
9 Gedi Mohamed Driver NDMA
10 Mulki Abdi Field Officer ALDEF KENYA
11 Ahmed Ali Mohamed Project Officer ALDEF KENYA,WAJIR EAST
12 Omar Adan Driver ALDEF KENYA,WAJIR EAST
13 Mohamed kureish FSL coordinator ALDEF KENYA,WAJIR EAST
14 Yahya Dahir Admin. officer WAJIR PEACE
15 Ahmed Abdi Program Assistant WAJIR PEACE
16 Adan Ragow Hassan Program Assistant DISTRICT MARKETING COUNCIL,WAJIR
17 Kaltuma Abdullahi Admin Assistant DISTRICT MARKETING COUNCIL,WAJIR
18 Hussein Ali Abdirahman Officer DISTRICT MARKETING COUNCIL, WAJIR
19 Abdiaziz Ali Child protection Assistant SAVE THE CHILDREN INT.,WAJIR EAST
20 Abdi omar Community Mobilization Officer SAVE THE CHILDREN INT. WAJIR SOUTH
21 Rashid Bashir Driver SAVE THE CHILDREN INT.,WAJIR SOUTH
22 Mohamed Ali salah Tutor Ministry of Education,Wajir
23 Dagane Hussein AEO Ministry of Education Habaswein
24 Katra Mohamed Tutor Ministry of Education Habaswein
25 Gedi A. Abdi Adult Education Officer Ministry of Education Habaswein
26 Abdi M. Digale Public health officer Ministry of Health,Abakore
27 Saadia Hassan Nurse Ministry of Health, Habaswein
28 Abubakar Issack Nurse Ministry of Health Habaswein
29 Rahma Abdikadir Nurse Ministry of Health Habaswein
30 Daud.Y Guliye DLPO Ministry of livestock Wajir East
31 Mohamed A.Emil DAO Ministry of Agriculture Habaswein
32 Rukia Ibrahim Technician Ministry of Agriculture Habaswein
33 Daud M. Dahir Chairman COPID, CBO, Habaswein
34 Abdiwelly Ali Secretary COPID, CBO, Habaswein
35 Farah Abdullahi Vice Chairman Bidii Welfare Group Habaswein
36 Amran Haret Abdi Office Assistant Bidii Welfare Group Habaswein
37 Omar Bashir Member Pidad, CBO, Habaswein
38 Shamsa Mohamed Amey Office Assistant Kenya National Library Service Habaswein
39 Nesteha Fille Elmi Deputy Librarian Kenya National Library Service Habaswein
40 Nathif Maow Record keeper Kenya National Library Service Habaswein
41 Abdinasir Aden Mohamed Assistant Program Officer World Vision, Habaswein
42 Ahmed H. Ali TO KRDP
43 Robert Muriuki Driver KRDP
44 Gerry McCarthy Trainer Consultant
45 Paul O’Hagan Trainer Consultant


57


“P-FIM is fantastic in
successfully putting
people first.”




“P-FIM is fantastic in
successfully putting
people first.”


Annex 3 People First Impact Method (P-FiM) Summary
P-FIM is a simple low cost methodology that fully allows communities to speak for themselves, in identifying
impact changes in their lives and what the drivers of impact difference are attributable to. In this way the
starting point is people and communities and not organisations and projects. It is a powerful tool that
highlights issues humanitarian and development agencies may often be poorly aware of. P-FiM as a
mainstream approach and tool directly complements aspects of Sphere, the Good Enough Guide, Participatory
Impact Assessment (Tufts) and HAP etc. P-FiM enables humanitarian actors to accurately ‘take the
temperature’ in order to properly align interventions with local priority issues, ensure they are engaging
properly and where they can have the greatest possible impact. P-FiM simply recognises the primary driving
force of people and communities at all stages of an intervention as essential. It adds value to existing
collaborative and inter-agency initiatives. The method has been used in multiple inter-agency exercises e.g. in
2010/12 in South Sudan, Haiti, Sudan (West Darfur), Liberia and Kenya with excellent results and high
spontaneous buy-in by participants and agencies.

Potential P-FIM Benefits to Agencies:
(i) Impact measured in the context where a programme or programmes are delivered
(ii) A series of P-FIM actions will provide a basis for advocacy/mainstreaming of people first approaches.

P-FIM takes a representative geographical area (e.g. 1-5 year programme) of people and communities who are
getting on with their lives. Local people are trained on P-FiM who have basic development skills, understand
language and culture and are trusted locally. The method (i) enables a qualitative process where primary
changes are openly discussed with representative groups making up a community - whether positive, negative
or indifferent - and recorded (ii) the method then works backwards to determine in a quantitative way where
change is attributable to e.g. leadership in the community, government actions, local business, NGO, UN etc.
The method makes no assumptions about impact and what drives it - with often surprising impact results
revealed. It is community owned and driven. P-FiM fundamentally asks “So what?” questions . . . “So what
difference has that made to people’s lives?” and “who or what is responsible for the change or impact?”

There are two biases that often colour project and organisational impact evaluation approaches:

 What impact are we actually having? Typically organisations and their programmes are the focus of
impact/ evaluation measurement to meet standard quality, accountability and donor requirements.
 How can we know the actual impact of a project/programme if we only consider projects and
organisations? What about the depth and breadth of what is around the project or organisation in terms
of change impacts? P-FIM measures impact in the context of the project and as such, the impact of the
project can be tested.

While participatory approaches and accountability at community level are given increased importance, the
standard organisation/project focus is still emphasised by donors and agencies. A typical end of project impact
evaluation involves external (sometimes local) evaluators who carry out desk and field exercises to determine
the positive or negative qualitative and (mostly) quantitative impact achieved by a project (which in itself is
important). However, by over focusing on the organisation and project and the role of external evaluations -
the full honest views of local people and communities on what is working or not working (or whether correct
or needed in the first place) and what other factors (often not actions of the project) have caused impact - are
typically unheard or not considered.

Why People First Impact Method (P-FIM)? Our fundamental question is “Are we doing things right and are
we doing the right things?” To put this into a programme/project context, the assumption column of a
logframe requires that donors and agencies fully consider the wider context to ensure that proposed
programmes are relevant. In this way it can be said that ‘impact lives in the assumptions’ - weak assumptions
lead to inappropriate responses. P-FIM references ‘project cycle approaches’ and effectively links with other
evaluative / impact tools in humanitarian and development contexts. It is a simple methodology that can
bridge an essential gap within existing approaches.

The knowledge base and pedigree underpinning P-FiM draws on key concepts from Existentialist and
Personalist Philosophy, Psychosocial Methods and beyond. It is an integrated and holistic view of human

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nature, freedom and potential - people’s needs and rights. Key concepts are: people come first; local
relationships of trust are fundamental; people have a right to life with dignity; a non agency centric and non
project approach facilitates objectivity and honesty; an integrated holistic appreciation of human development
is vital; quality and depth of respectful communication with people is essential.

Experience 2010-2012: 381 national staff from 147 agencies have been trained and engaged 3,521 disaster
affected people in multiple inter-agency exercises as part of major evaluation and Evaluation exercises with
FAO, UNHCR, UNICEF, CARE and Save the Children, War Child Canada, ACT Alliance, Trocaire and Norwegian
Church Aid in Kenya, South Sudan, Haiti, Sudan (Darfur), Liberia and Burundi.

For more information: contact@p-fim.org or http://www.linkedin.com/pub/people-first-impact-method-p-
fim/53/339/841