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Recommended Actions

From

Community Views on Mechanisms to Support Local Livelihoods in the Early Stages of Drought

Reference Number: KRDP/ASAL DM/P-FiM/12-13

Funded by the European Union

14
th
February 2013



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Purpose of the Table:
The table below is based on the actual recorded statements made by community 11 groups during the inter-agency P-FiM exercise carried out
in Habaswein in Wajir County in December 2012. It should therefore be read in tandem with the exercise reports. The key findings and
recommendations that emerged from the exercise are summarized here to assist in providing a succinct appreciation of the findings and
recommendations made by the community groups. It is also important to note that most points made below were further endorsed by the
inter-agency team that comprised 26 frontline staff from 16 agencies (government, INGOs, LNGOs, Faith Organisations, CBOs) operating in
Wajir County. The generic headings were selected by the P-FiM consultants to group the findings. There is no order of importance and some
repetition is unavoidable due to the varied nuance of the statements made.
No Findings from Community
Statements
(By Generic Heading)
Recommended Action Responsible Agent Time-frame Management
Response

1.0 Importance of P-FiM Process
1.1 P-FiM action worked well (16
agencies; 36 staff; 170 people in
11 groups)
 Continue to capture community voice
in open inter-agency process to inform
wider context and priority issues
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Every year in
varied parts of
the county

1.2 P-FiM ‘goal free’ & ‘focus
question discussion’ provided
depth of understanding of context
including key sectors and services
from the community perspective
 Use P-FiM type approaches to properly
understand context, gain in-depth
insight into key sectors and services
from the community perspective
 Emphasis on sustainable, cost-effective
outcomes
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Every year in
varied parts of
county

1.3 Ensure community participation
in strategy / policy development
in newly devolved structures
 Use P-FiM type approaches to properly
understand context, gain in-depth
insight into key sectors and services
from the community perspective
 Emphasis on sustainable, cost-effective
outcomes
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Every year in
varied parts of
county

2.0 Good Communication
2.1 Communication with communities  Agree criteria for community NDMA in support of Every year in

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by agencies is very poor, resulting
in poor planning, negative results,
waste of money and increased
poverty
engagement at county level
 Carryout regular in-depth consultative
procedures
 Agencies address fundamental
problem of poor communication
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
varied parts of
county e.g. as
part of each new
intervention
2.2 Lack of full engagement with
communities leads to corrupt
practices.
 Adopt community based open and
transparent processes
 Information should be shared openly
and transparently and be two-way
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Ahead of
expected drought
During planning
process

2.3 Communities to elect / select
those to represent them in
agency, government meetings
 Community representatives elected /
selected by community groups e.g.
women, elders, youth, pastoralist
dropouts, disabled, SMEs, children
 Representative group hold regular
meetings with government, agencies
 Regular referral to the wider
community
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Ahead of
expected drought
During planning
process with
donors

3.0 Issues with Cash Transfers
3.1 Cash alone is not the answer. It
must engage the community and
be integrated with long-term
development programmes
 Cash transfer programmes be
integrated into long-term community
based development strategies and
programmes
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Ahead of
expected drought
During planning
process

3.2 The community identifies
destitute and seasonally
vulnerable but stresses that
handouts create dependency –
agencies must focus on building
resilience
 All interventions must encompass long-
term sustainable results.
 Avoid giving handouts in isolation
 Engage communities first
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Ahead of
expected drought
During planning
process

3.4 Amount of cash required  Adopt a flexible approach in line with
varied local conditions, varied needs
 In line with immediate/recovery needs
 And with severity, duration of drought
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
planning and
design


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3.5 Cash to be given at onset of
drought
 Cash to be used to mitigate the impact
of drought
 Given with due regard to livestock
markets and other income strategies
 Cash should be ceased once normal
food / income is restored (note 3.7)
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
planning and
design

3.6 Cash transfers for the most
vulnerable is long-term. But even
these groups should be working
themselves out of poverty not
becoming dependent.
 Most vulnerable groups should also be
supported to develop alternative
livelihoods.
 Avoid creating dependency

NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

3.7. Locally processed milk and meat
to preserve food and extend
income from sales – save excess
milk/ meat during rains to offset
drought, create local jobs
 Focus value addition such as food/milk
processing plants.
 Marketing of animal products locally
and abroad – job creation
 Household food storage systems
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

3.8 The end of cash transfers should
occur when livestock (shoats)
begin having young as it is only
then that milk is available as food
and income – the beginning of
rains does not mean the end of
drought or that livelihoods are
back to normal.
 Cash transfers should be timed to
coincide with return to family food and
income
 Essential to understand local context
to know when drought starts and ends
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

3.9 Focus on cash distribution
through wives on the home is
leading to domestic conflict
Lack of proper engagement is
causing other problems
 Adopt community based M&E where
communities identify and monitor the
use of cash for basic needs
 Avoid creating further problems
through lack of understanding of
context and failure to fully utilize
community capacity on M&E
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

4.0 Engagement with Donors
4.1 Communities to elect / select
those to represent them in
 Community representatives elected /
selected by community groups e.g.
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Ahead of
expected drought


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agency, government meetings women, elders, youth, pastoralist
dropouts, disabled, SMEs, children
 Representative group hold regular
meetings with government, agencies
 Regular referral to the wider
community
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
During planning
process
4.2 To improve accountability,
communities should engage with
donors e.g. through use of P-FiM
 Through regular exercises such as P-
FiM all stakeholders can be informed
of the community perspective
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Ahead of
expected drought
During planning
process
Evaluations

5.0 Primary Causes; Flexible Programmes; Early Warning
5.1 Develop flexible programmes to
allow changes when context
outcomes or results are negative
and can be improved by timely
appropriate changes
 Agencies develop programmes that
allow change to ensure positive results
 Agency front-line staff to have much
greater say in decision making
 Donors support flexible programmes
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Programme
design and donor
contract
negotiations

5.2 First priority is to address the
primary causes of drought as
donors and agencies focus too
much on the results of drought
 Shift focus to addressing core problems
 Understand context as basis for timely
and accurate engagement

NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Programme
design and donor
contract
negotiations

5.3 Early warning systems and issues
should be practical and focused
on pastoralist needs e.g. changes
in livestock markets, disease etc.
Disaster early warning must be
practical and help pastoralists
make good decisions
 Change parameter of early warning to
focus accurate community based
information needs
 Early warning directly linked to early
intervention that includes; accurate
information; need for and timing of
support; time-frame of support etc.
 Avoid abstract information that does
not inform / relate to community or
agency local planning and decisions
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
Programme
design and donor
contract
negotiations

Regular Early
Warning Bulletins

5.4 Early warning should address local
needs as information is critical if
 Accurate market information in
relation to livestock prices and trends;
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Scenario planning
Early warning


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pastoralists are to plan and make
the right decisions.

 Variance on local drought impact;
where there is pasture and water;
 Scenarios that include local knowledge
of implications to inform pastoralist
decisions e.g. sell or retain livestock;
move or stay and when; kill newly born
livestock to preserve mothers; whether
to vaccinate, de-worm or slaughter etc.
Agencies,
Community
Structures
bulletins
Programme
design
6.0 Accountability
6.1 Build/support peer accountability
within the community to offset
abuse, ensure the right people
benefit and avoid projects
creating social problems within
households
 Beneficiaries accountable to the
community who identified them
 Community M&E systems to ensure
cash transfers are used properly
 Local penalty structures in place
 Avoid creating social problems thru ill-
designed programmes
NDMA in support of
County Teams &
Operating Agencies
& Community
Structures
On-going M&E
6.2 Accountability should operate at
many levels but primarily agencies
should be accountable to
communities and communities
should be able engage directly
with donors
 Establish community accountability
mechanisms
 Be developed and owned by
communities (not agency owned)
 Use mechanisms that record local
views, ideas, issues that are openly
shared with donors
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

6.3 Build community capacity to help
them participate in their own
development;
 Agencies re-think capacity building
based on community engagement and
ownership of process and outcomes

7.0 Resilience not Handouts
7.1 People want secure livelihoods,
not handouts
 Radical change in agency attitude that
provides support that supplements
livelihood development and avoids
creating dependency
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
NGOs, Community
Structures
Programme
design and donor
contract
negotiations

7.2 Cash transfers be based on full
engagement with community;
timeframe based on local drought
 Community identifying who should
benefit and criteria to be used
 Transfers given with least disruption
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
NGOs, Community
Programme
design and donor
contract


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conditions (an important
determining factor)
 Avoid the creation of settlements
based on handouts that only increase
poverty
Structures negotiations
7.3 Creation of settlements that
increases poverty and
vulnerability
 Research to determine impact of cash
on new settlements

NDMA and County
structures
Strategic planning
and policy

7.4 Cash transfer time-frame in line
with drought and recovery period
 Timing is critical to ensure that cash
transfers do not undermine livelihoods
 Timing plans should fully engage
community groups (note 7 above)
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
NGOs, Community
Structures
Programme
design and
contract
negotiations

8.0 Development & Emergency Programmes should produce positive long-term results
8.1. Cash is not the top priority –
sustainable livelihoods is
 Cash transfers should be justified
 Should be integrated into long-term
sustainable actions
 Should not be the primary focus
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

8.2 All projects (whether emergency
or development) should produce
positive results that build
sustainable livelihoods. This is not
happening
 Humanitarian and development
programmes should contribute to long-
term solutions
 Agencies re-think their emergency
interventions
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

8.3 Engage people in developing
existing and new businesses.
 Focus new business opportunities for
alternative livelihoods
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

9.0 Lack of Understanding of Context
9.1 Understanding context is essential
if programmes are to produce
positive results.
As agencies do not understand
context properly they contribute
to corrupt practices by only
working with the local elite
 Avoid contributing to corrupt practice
by proper engagement with
communities
 Agencies understand context by
engaging fully with communities.
 Only working with ‘gate keepers’ is not
enough – complicit corruption
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design


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9.2 Community entry points should
have representatives of all groups
especially the vulnerable.
 Establish local representative forums
 Cross section of community groups
represented
 Forum mandated by community
 Establish two-way communication
 Community takes the lead whenever
possible
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

9.3 Badly planned and unfinished
projects mean that project results
and impact are a lot lower than
they should be.
 Assumptions and risks should be based
on community perspectives to avoid
poor design and negative outcomes
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

9.4 The pastoralist way of life is
changing due to drought; changes
in lifestyle; changes in youth
expectations etc. pastoralists
want long-term solutions that
address root causes and issues
 Engage pastoralists in considering
changes in pastoralist way of life and
the development of sustainable
solutions
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

9.5 Need to have manageable
livestock herd sizes not just during
drought but as a drought
mitigation measure
 At the outset of drought to consider
manageable drought herd sizes.
 Consider viable herd sizes as a drought
mitigation action
NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design

9.6 Health and education are
essential sectors
Proper infrastructure is essential
for communities to develop
themselves
 Focus on essential services
 Focus on infrastructure

NDMA in support of
County Teams,
Agencies,
Community
Structures
Programme
design