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Full text of "A short history of Aryan medical
science, by H. H. Sir Bhagvat Sinh ee"
Columbia <Hnit)er^ftj>
Coege of !f)2>trian"# ano $urgeoitg
&'( )ri% *%+-
( ,H-./ H0,/-.1
(.1(2 M340C(+ ,C032C3
4igiti5e6 b7 t8e 0nternet (rc8i9e
in 20:0 ;it8 fun6ing from
-%en *no;le6ge Common"
( ,H-./ H0,/-.1
(.1(2 M340C(+ ,C032C3
H)H) ,ir ?H(@A(/ ,02H B33C k)c)i)e)
M)4)C 4)C)+)C ++)4)C >).)C)D)3)
/H(*-.3 ,(H3? -> @-24(+
E0/H /32 D+(/3,
F o n $ o n
M(CM0++(2 (24 C-)C +t6)
23E 1-.* < /H3 M(CM0++(2 C-MD(21
D.->3,,-. ,0. E0++0(M /.23.
M)?)C ++)4)C 4)C)+-C 4),CC >).),)C etc)
02 CH3.0,H34 .3M3M?.(2C3 ->
M(21 H(DD1 H-.,
'/bi" "mall Eolunte i" in"cribe6
8i" grateful %u%il an6 a6mirer
/8e literature of (r7an Me6icine i" "o 9a"t an6
co%iou" t8at it i" im%o""ible to 6o a6eJuate ju"tice
to it" 8i"tor7 ;it8in t8e com%a"" of a "mall
manual) /8e "cience i" ackno;le6ge6 on all
8an6" to be of great antiJuit7C an6 contain" a
mine of information not to be altoget8er 6e"%i"e6
b7 t8e "tu6ent" of me6icine of our 6a7) ,8oul6 it
be a%%roac8e6 in a "%irit of fairne"" an6 inJuir7C
%o""ibl7 it mig8t 6i"clo"e t8e germ" of not a fe;
of t8e mar9ellou" 6i"co9erie" in t8e realm of
Me6icine of ;8ic8 t8e %re"ent centur7 i" ju"tl7
%rou6C an6 affor6 a 6iligent "c8olar am%le "co%e
an6 material" for com%ari"on bet;een t8e ol6
an6 t8e ne; "7"tem"C ;it8 a 9ie; to "u%%l7 t8e
6eficiencie" of t8e one or t8e ot8er for t8e benefit
of mankin6) (n elaborate an6 com%lete 8i"tor7
of Hin6oo Me6ical ,cience i" a great 6e"i6eratum)
0f t8i" 8umble attem%tC 8o;e9er im%erfect an6
fragmentar7C "8oul6 in6uce an7 of m7 rea6er"
to "et 8im"elf "eriou"l7 to t8e ta"k of com%iling
from original "ource" a more rea6able an6 com-
%re8en"i9e 8i"tor7C 0 "8all con"i6er m7 labour to
8a9e been ;ell "%ent)
?) ,) B)
@on6alC :GH5)
CH(D) D(@3
0) 3arl7 Ci9ili"ation of t8e Hin6oo"C ) ) ) ::
00) (ncient Eriter" on Hin6oo Me6icineC ) ) 2K
000) /8e Hin6oo /8eor7 of CreationC ))) K0
0A) Hin6oo Dractice 6uring Derio6 of 2ubilit7C K5
A) Drinci%le" of H7giene a" un6er"too6 b7 t8e
Hin6oo"C 5I
A0) /8eor7 of 0n6ian Me6icineC )))) G5
A00) 0n6ian Materia Me6icaC :0:
A000) Hin6oo Eriter" on ^3tiolog7C 4iagno"i" an6
/reatmentC :5:
0L) Mualitie" of a D87"ician an6 8i" Drogno"i"C ) :I:
L) 0n6ian ,urger7 N it" *i"e an6 >allC ) ) ) :OI
L0) Aici""itu6e" of 0n6ian Me6icine an6 ,urger7C ) :GO
L00) Conclu6ing .emark"C )))))) 20:
?ibliogra%87C 20O
0n6eP an6 @lo""ar7C 2:O
+0,/ -> 0++,/.(/0-2,)
Dlate" 0)-A0)
D8armaceutical (%%aratu")
Dlate" A00)-L)
,urgical (%%liance" an6 0n"trument")
,H-./ H0,/-.1
(.1(2 M340C(+ ,C032C3)
CH(D/3. 0)
3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 -> /H3 H024--,)
r%H3 8i"tor7 of (r7an Me6icine form" an
in"e%arable c8a%ter of t8e 8i"tor7 of (r7an
ci9ili"ation) /8e ;or6 Q (r7an Q i" 8ere u"e6 in
;8at t8e Hin6oo" belie9e to be t8e original an6
onl7 %ro%er "en"e) 0t 8a" been cu"tomar7 of
late 7ear" to gi9e it a muc8 ;i6er meaningC "o
a" to make it 6enote t8e "u%%o"e6 original
%eo%leC from ;8omC accor6ing to t8e Ee"tern
3t8nologi"t"C Celt" an6 /euton"C 0talian" an6
@reek"C Der"ian" an6 Hin6oo"C are all 6e"cen6e6)
/8e "imilaritie" ;8ic8 mo6ern "cience 8a" 6i"-
co9ere6 bet;een "uc8 outl7ing member" of a
"u%%o"e6 original "tock a" t8e Celt" an6 t8e
Hin6oo"C 8a9e le6 certain "c8olar" to belie9e
:2 3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 RC8a%) 0)
t8at t8e ance"tor" of t8e"e nation" ;ere fir"t
li9ing toget8er in t8e Cauca"u"C but after;ar6"
"e%arate6C t8e Hin6oo" migrating into 0n6iaC
;8ere t8e7 "ettle6 ;it8 t8eir familie" after
conJuering t8e aboriginal tribe") /8i" t8eor7
i" 3uro%ean in it" conce%tionC an6 i" not
acce%te6 b7 t8e 0n6ian" in generalC ;8o call
t8em"el9e" autoc8t8onou") /8e 0n6ian ,a9ant"
a66uce internal an6 ePternal e9i6ence to "8o;
t8atC far from being out"i6er"C it ;a" %o""ible
for t8e earl7 Hin6oo" to 8a9e "ent colonie"
be7on6 t8e frontier") 0t i" no %art of our
%re"ent %ur%o"e to attem%t to com%o"e t8i" con-
tro9er"7) 0t i" enoug8 to note at "tarting t8at
t8roug8out t8e"e %age" t8e term Q(i7anQ i"
u"e6 to 6e"ignate t8e QHin6oo"CQ to ;8om alone
it i" a%%lie6 bot8 in common %arlance an6 in
t8eir "acre6 book")
/8e Hin6oo" call t8eir countr7 Q(r7a9artaCQ
or t8e abo6e of t8e (r7an") MauuC t8e ancient
la;-gi9erC a%%lie" t8e name to t8e tract of lan6
bet;een t8e Himala7a an6 t8e Ain687a range"C
from t8e ea"tern to t8e ;e"tern "ea S an6 teac8e"
t8at t8e ?ra8man" born ;it8in t8at tract are
"uitable teac8er" of t8e "e9eral u"age" of men)
+atterl7 t8e ;8ole countr7 from t8e Himala7a"
C8a%) :)T -> /H3 H024--,) :3
to Ca%e ComorinC an6 from t8e 0ra;a67 an6 t8e
?a7 of ?engal to t8e 0n6u" an6 t8e Ee"tern
"eaC came to be recogni"e6 a" (r7a9arta) 0t
i" a beautiful countr7 ;it8 natural boun6arie")
0t enjo7" t8e "iP "ea"on" of t8e 7earC an6 t8e
%o"ition of it" mountain" an6 it" "ea" gi9e" it
a 9ariet7 of climateC ina"muc8 a" it %o""e""e"
t8e 8otte"tC coole"tC an6 t8e mo"t tem%erate %lace"
of re"ort) /8e countr7 ;a" a cra6le of learning
for t8e ;8ole ;orl6C an6 8i"tor7 bear" ;itne""
to t8e fact t8at man7 a nation t8at no; ;alk"
;it8 it" 8ea6 erect ;oul6 8a9e been no;8ere
8a6 it not borro;e6 con"i6erabl7 from t8e
intellectual "tore8ou"e of t8e ancient Hin6oo")
/8i" countr7 ;a" at t8e %innacle of glor7 ;8en
ot8er nation" ;ere eit8er not in ePi"tence or
;ere ;allo;ing in cra"" ignorance) Mo"t of t8e
"cience"C ;8ic8 t8e %re"ent centur7 boa"t" of
"o muc8C ;ere not unkno;n to t8e ancient
Hin6oo" S an6 one 8a" but to look into t8eir
;riting" to "ee ;8et8er t8e trut8" %ro%oun6e6
b7 t8em "ome t8ou"an6" of 7ear" ago 6o not
"till en6ure in t8eir natural fre"8ne"")
/8e Hin6oo" ;ere t8e fir"t to culti9ate ("-
tronomical ,cience UB7oti"8a)) (ll mo6ern
a"tronomer" a6mit t8e great antiJuit7 of t8eir
:K 3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 RC8a%) 0)
ob"er9ation") Ca""iniC ?aill7C an6 Dla7fair 8a9e
"tate6 t8at ob"er9ation" taken b7 Hin6oo ("-
tronomer" u%;ar6" of 3000 7ear" before C8ri"t
are "till ePtantC an6 %ro9e a con"i6erable 6egree
of %rogre"" alrea67 ma6e at t8at %erio6) /8e
ancient Hin6oo" fiPe6 t8e Calen6arC ob"er9e6
an6 %re6icte6 t8e ecli%"e"C an6 ;ere acJuainte6
;it8 t8e %8a"e" of t8e moon an6 t8e motion"
of t8e "e9eral %lanet") (ccor6ing to Mr Cole-
brookeC t8e7 ;ere more correct t8an Dtolem7
in t8eir notion" regar6ing t8e %rece""ion of t8e
0n Mat8ematic" U@anita) t8e Hin6oo" 8a6
attaine6 a 8ig8 6egree of %roficienc7) /8e7
in9ente6 t8e 6ecimal "7"temC t8e 6ifferentialC
integral an6 infinite"imal calculi) /8e ;orl6
o;e" to t8em t8e in9ention of numerical "7mbol")
/8e7 al"o 6i"co9ere6 @eometr7 U?8oomiti) an6
/rigonometr7 U/riconamiti)C in bot8 ;8ic8
"cience" t8e7 ma6e great a69ance") Mo"t of
t8e cre6it gi9en to D7t8agora" for t8e 6i"co9er7
of mat8ematical trut8" %ro%erl7 belong" to t8e
ancient Hin6oo")
/8eir kno;le6ge of C8emi"tr7 ;a" not meagre)
/8e7 ;ere familiar ;it8 t8e %re%aration of "ul-
%8uricC nitricC an6 muriatic aci6" S t8e oPi6e" of
C8a%) 0)T -> /H3 H024--,) :5
co%%erC ironC lea6C tinC an6 5inc S a" ;ell a" man7
c8lori6e"C nitrate"C "ul%8ate"C an6 carbonate")
/8e "age Danini ;a" t8e fir"t to teac8 t8e
formati9e %rinci%le" of ;or6"C an6 8i" "7"tem
of @rammarC calle6 ("8ta687a7i N t8e fir"t in
t8e ;orl6 N i" t8e a6miration of Ee"tern an6
3a"tern "c8olar") +ePicogra%87 ;a" kno;n to
t8e (r7an" long before it" acJuaintance ;a"
ma6e b7 an7 ot8er nation in t8e ;orl6) 0n
t8e Ae6ic +iterature it i" treate6 un6er t8e 8ea6
of 2ig8antu)
Mu"ic a%%ear" to 8a9e been culti9ate6 to
t8e 8ig8e"t %itc8 of %erfection b7 t8e (r7an"C
;8o ;ere t8e fir"t to in9ent t8e @amut) /8eir
mu"ic i" "7"tematic an6 refine6)
0n6ia i" t8e 8ome of arc8itectural beaut7)
4ome"C cu%ola"C minaret"C an6 man7 ingeniou"
;ork" of arc8itecture ;8ic8 8a9e "too6 t8e
tem%e"t of timeC te"tif7 to t8i" fact in "ilent
eloJuence S an6 t8e ancient @reek"C ;8o are
%rai"e6 for t8eir "kill in t8i" %articular artC o;e6
not a little to t8e Hin6oo") 4r E) E) Hunter
"u%%o"e" t8at (lePan6er t8e @reat left arti"t" in
0n6ia to co%7 t8e 0n6ian "t7le of arc8itectureC
;8o im%orte6 it into t8eir mot8er countr7)
48anur-Ae6a i" an ol6 "cience ;8ic8 treat"
:I 3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 RC8a%) 0)
of t8e art of ;arC an6 mention" 6ifferent
kin6" of ;ea%on" cla""ifie6 un6er four 8ea6" <
U:) Mukta Umi""i9e)C a" t8e 6i"cu"C etcC U2)
(muBcta Unon-mi""i9e)C a" t8e ";or6C etc) U3)
Muktamukta Ubot8 mi""i9e an6 non-mi""i9e)C a"
t8e ja9elinC etc) UK) 1antra-mukta Umac8ine-
%rojectile)C a" t8e arro;C etc) /8e arm7 con-
"i"te6 of infantr7C ca9alr7C car-fig8ter" an6
;arrior" fig8ting on ele%8ant") /8e7 ;ere
kno;n b7 t8e name of Da6atiC ("89aru68aC
.at8aru68aC an6 @ajaru68a re"%ecti9el7) /8e
Hin6oo" 8a9e 8a6 from a %rime9al %erio6 a
fig8ting cla"" calle6 t8e *"8atri7a")
Hin6oo +a; i" a" ol6 a" t8eir religion) Manu
i" t8e ol6e"t of Hin6oo ;riter" on +a; S an6 8i"
book of 0n"titute" "till form" t8e ba"i" of t8e
Hin6oo "ocial fabric) 0t i" an im%ortant recor6
of Hin6oo "ociet7 at lea"t t8ree t8ou"an6 7ear"
ol6) -t8er ;riter" on +a;C like 1ajna9alk7aC
Dara"8araC etc)C are al"o 8el6 in great re9erenceC
an6 are "till Juote6 a" 8ig8 aut8oritie" in 6e-
ci6ing "ubtle %oint" of 6i"%ute)
0n6ia out-6i"tance" all t8e countrie" in t8e
;orl6 in t8e 6omain of D8ilo"o%87) /8ere are
"iP "7"tem" of 0n6ian D8ilo"o%87C calle6 4ar-
"8ana"C or Q Mirror" of *no;le6ge)Q /8e"e are
C8a%) 0)T -> /H3 H024--,) :O
27a7a or logicalC ,ank87a or 6i"criminati9eC
Aai"8e"8ika or atomicC 1oga or contem%lati9eC
Miman"a or ritualC an6 Ae6anta or t8e en6 of
kno;le6ge) /8e aim an6 object of t8e"e "c8ool"
i" to "ol9e t8e %roblem of Creation) /8e Hin6oo"
8a9e a %a""ion for %8ilo"o%87C an6 8a9e gi9en
t8eir be"t energie" to t8e better un6er"tan6ing
of t8e "ubject) /8e7 ;ere t8e fir"t nation to
6i"tingui"8 bet;een matter an6 "%irit) E8ile
t8e ;orl6 at large 8a" been bu"7 confining it"
attention to 6ea6 matter an6 it" %ro%ertie"C t8e
Hin6oo from t8e 9er7 6a;n of 8i"tor7 8a"
6e9ote6 8im"elf "taunc8l7 to t8e "tu67 of t8e
"%irit) Drofe""or MaP Muller ju"tl7 ob"er9e"
t8at t8e 0n6ian (r7an li9e" t8i" life ;it8 a full
con"ciou"ne"" of 8i" being a tem%orar7 "ojournerC
;8o 8a" no %ermanent intere"t ;8ate9er in t8e
t8ing" of t8i" ;orl6) ?eing gi9en to "%iritual
%ur"uit" rat8er t8an to eart8l7 comfort"C 8e i"
b7 nature better fitte6 to "ol9e t8e %roblem of
ePi"tence ;8ic8 %u55le" man7 a t8inker an6
meta%87"ician of our age)
(ll t8e"e branc8e" of learning take t8eir origin
from t8e book of religion calle6 t8e Ae6a
U*no;le6ge)C from ,an"krit 9i6 U+atinC 9i6ere)C
to kno;) /8i" t8e 0n6ian" belie9e to be t8e
^ ?
:G 3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 RC8a%) 0)
*no;le6ge of t8e ni9er"al ,%iritC a" 6i"tin-
gui"8e6 from t8e kno;le6ge of an in6i9i6ual
mortal) /8e (r7an" belie9e t8at t8e creation
8a" a makerC ;8o i" eternal an6 i" ;it8out a
cau"eC an6 ;8oC a" He 8a" e9ol9e6 t8e ni9er"e
out of Hi" inner con"ciou"ne""C i" a *no;ing
?eingC an6C being *no;ing an6 3ternalC i" all
Ha%%ine"" ;8ic8 kno;" no 6iminution) /8e
Ae6a i" "u%%o"e6 to be Hi" re9eale6 kno;le6ge)
*no;le6geC t8e7 belie9eC i" acJuire6 an6 not
create6) 0f kno;le6ge coul6 be create6C in"truc-
tionC t8e7 argueC ;oul6C a" a ruleC become futile)
>rom time immemorial it i" being 8an6e6 6o;n
from fat8er to "onC from %rece%tor to 6i"ci%le)
/8e 0n6ian" t8erefore trace all kno;le6ge un6er
t8e "un from t8e ,u%reme Hig8C ;8o i" t8e
fountain-8ea6 of learningC 0"8ana" "ar9a9i6-
7anam U1ajur Ae6)C i)e)C +or6 of all kin6" of
kno;le6geC t8e "ource from ;8ic8 all kno;le6ge
flo;") ,o t8e7 ;ill ne9er acce%t a "tatement
unle"" it i" "u%%orte6 b7 t8e te"timon7 of ;8at
8a" been re9eale6 to t8em in t8eir ,cri%ture"C or
b7 t8e te"timon7 of b7gone age") /8eir line of
in9e"tigation t8u" e""entiall7 6iffer" from t8at
follo;e6 b7 t8e mo6ern in9e"tigator"C ;8o are
"olel7 gui6e6 b7 t8eir intelligence in e"tabli"8ing
C8a% +T -> /H3 H024--,) :H
a trut8C ;8ic8 mu"t remain un6er trial until
,cience in it" %rogre""i9e cour"e 8a" reac8e6 it"
/8e Ae6a" are four in numberC 9i5) < N .ig
Ae6aC 1ajur Ae6aC ,ama Ae6aC an6 (t8ar9a
Ae6a) Ee ;ill not %au"e to 6i"cu"" t8e 9ariou"
%oint" b7 ;8ic8 t8e ?ra8man"C ;8o are t8e
cu"to6ian" of t8e "acre6 lore of 0n6iaC tr7 to
e"tabli"8 t8e eternit7 of t8eir in"%ire6 ;riting")
,uffice it to "a7C t8at in com%uting time b7
regular 6i9i"ion" an6 a""igning 6ate" to e9ent"
of antiJuit7C t8e i6ea" of t8e 3a"tern an6 t8e
Ee"tern %eo%le ;i6el7 6iffer) ,ome Ee"tern
aut8oritie" a""ert t8at man 6i6 not ePi"t on t8e
"urface of t8e eart8 %rior to ?)C) 3000 S ;8ile in
0n6ian co"mogon7 6ee6" are recor6e6 of %er"on"
"ai6 to 8a9e flouri"8e6 in t8e %re9iou" 1uga" or
c7cle" of time t8u" 6i9i6e6 < N
*rita 1uga la"te6 for :CO2GC000 7ear")
/reta 1uga la"te6 for :C2HIC000 7ear")
4oaj%ara 1uga la"te6 for GIKC000 7ear")
*ali 1uga ;ill la"t for K32C000 7ear")
/8e *ali 1uga i" t8e %re"ent age of t8e
;orl6C an6 i" "ai6 to 8a9e begun on >ri6a7C t8e
:Gt8 >ebruar7C ?)C) 3:02) /8e"e c7cle" go on
20 3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 RC8a%) 0)
re9ol9ing like t8e ;8eel on it" aPleC an6 bear
"ome re"emblance to t8e gol6enC "il9erC bra5en
an6 iron age" of t8e @reek") 39en t8e 3uro%ean
c8ronologi"t"C ;8oC accor6ing to t8e Hin6oo"C are
al;a7" 6i"%o"e6 to mo6erni"e e9ent"C a6mit t8at
t8e Ae6a" mu"t 8a9e been com%o"e6 about K000
7ear" ago) 0t 8a" not been "8o;n t8at an7
"%ecific book ;a" ePtant at a time ;8en t8e
Ae6a" ;ere not in ePi"tence) /8i"C at an7 rateC
make" t8e Ae6a" ol6er t8an an7 ot8er ;riting
on t8e "urface of t8e eart8) 0n t8e ;ork" of
Manu an6 Danini ;8oC accor6ing to t8e Ee"tern
-rientali"t" flouri"8e6 in ?)C) G00 UEil"on) an6
?)C) I00 U@ol6"tiicker) re"%ecti9el7C t8e Ae6a" are
6e"cribe6 a" eternal U(na6i)) /8u" in %oint of
antiJuit7 t8e Ae6a" "tan6 %re-eminentl7 t8e fir"t)
,ome 3uro%ean "c8olar"C attem%ting to tran"late
%ortion" of t8e Hin6oo ,cri%ture" b7 t8e 8el% of
grammar an6 6ictionar7C but failing to gra"% t8e
real meaningC 8a9e N an6 no ;on6er N "uccee6e6
in belittling t8e "ublime i6ea" t8erein containe6)
>or t8e true inter%retation of an ePtremel7 ol6
an6 e"oteric ;orkC taug8t an6 learnt b7 t8e
initiate" onl7C mu"t be acJuire6 from t8o"e ;8o
8a9e from generation" %a"t "tu6ie6 it "7"temati-
call7 ;it8 t8e 8el% of t8e ke7 t8e7 %o""e"") ,tillC
C8a%) 0)T -> /H3 H024--,) 2:
accor6ing to t8e "8o;ing of t8e"e 9er7 "c8olar"C
t8e ci9ili"ation of t8e Aeclic %erio6 can com%are
fa9ourabl7 ;it8 t8e ci9ili"ation of our mo6ern
time") /8e Ae6ic (r7an culti9ate6 8i" lan6
U9i6e .ig Ae6aC iii) GC ;8ic8 "a7" < V +et t8e
bullock" carrW^ t8e loa6 an6 t8e culti9ator" till t8e
groun6 S let t8e %loug8 cut u% t8e eart8 ;ell V)C
an6 li9e6 in neat an6 8an6"ome man"ion" U9i6e
.ig Ae6aC i) 2 < V0 3art8C gi9e u" large an6
8abitable %alace" # V)) He ;ore neck ornament"
an6 ear ring") /8e %atriarc8 con"i6ere6 it 8i"
"acre6 6ut7 to be a ;arriorC an6 8e atten6e6
militar7 cla""e" for 8i" e6ucation) He ;a" %ro-
tecte6 b7 8i" armour X.ig Ae6aC i))S mu"ician"
;ere em%lo7e6 to c8ant 87mn") 3le%8ant"
;ere traine6C an6 8or"e" ;ere gorgeou"l7 ca%ari-
"one6) (rti"an" ;ere liberall7 %atroni"e6 for
t8eir manufacture") /8e 1aju9 Ae6a mention"
;ea9er"C "cul%tor"C car%enter" an6 ot8er arti"an"C
be"i6e" almo"t all t8e article" of manufacture
generall7 u"e6 b7 a refine6 "ociet7) Eomen ;ere
;ell 6re""e6C an6 8el6 a 8ig8 "ocial %o"ition) /8e
%eo%le 8a6 a69ance6 in %olitical con6ition) /8e
*ri"8na 1ajur Ae6a Ui) 2-H) mention" king"C
Jueen"C comman6er"-in-c8iefC coac8-6ri9er"C magi"-
trate" U%ui/i687ak"8a)C 9illage officer"C trea"urer"C
22 3(.+1 C0A0+0,(/0-2 RC8a%) 0)
re9enue collector" Ub8aga6ug8)C an6 ot8er acce"-
"orie" of an e"tabli"8e6 go9ernment) Hone"t7 in
mercantile tran"action" i" referre6 to in .ig Ae6aC
iii) IC ;8erein al"o are mentione6 "tone-built
citie") -t8er reference" mig8t be gi9en re%re-
"enting t8e Ae6ic (r7an a" ;ell 9er"e6 in ;ar
an6 %olitic"C brig8tC cle9erC mercifulC rig8teou"
an6 6e9ote6 to t8e %rotection of 8i" famil7)
,ome Ee"tern "c8olar" 8a9e 8a5ar6e6 an o%inion
t8at t8e Ae6ic (r7an" ;ere not acJuainte6 ;it8
t8e art of ;ritingS) ?ut t8i" "tatement i" not
"u%%orte6 b7 e9i6ence) -n t8e contrar7C ;e
meet bot8 in t8e .ig Ae6a an6 t8e 1ajur Ae6a
;it8 "uc8 eP%re""ion" a" lik8itam U;ritten)C
k8urb8uj U%en)C 9ac8am %a"87an U"eeing t8e
;or6"C i)e)C rea6ing) an6 "o fort8) /8e religion
an6 %8ilo"o%87 inculcate6 in t8e Ae6a are
ackno;le6ge6 to be of t8e "ublime"t c8aracter)
(ll t8i" unmi"takabl7 %ro9e" t8at t8e (r7an"
;ere t8e mo"t enlig8tene6 race in t8e 6a;n of
8i"tor7) ,uc8 a "tate of ci9ili"ationC ;8ic8 ePer-
ci"e" a %otent influence on 0n6ian "ociet7 e9en to
t8i" 6ateC coul6 not 8a9e been attaine6 in a 6a7)
0t mu"t 8a9e reJuire6 a long cour"e of trainingC
an6 mu"t take t8e nation back to t8e remote"t
antiJuit7) E8en t8e "tate of ci9ili"ation ;a" "o
C8a%) 0)T -> /H3 H024--,) 23
%erfectC an6 ;8en all "ort" of u"eful "cience" ;ere
regularl7 "tu6ie6C t8ere "8oul6 be no ;on6er if
t8e "cience of Me6icine too recei9e6 it" "8are of
attention) /8i" ,cience form" %art of t8e Ae6a"C
an6 i" calle6 V (7ur Ae6aV or t8e V ,cience of
+ife)V 0t i" ba"e6 on .ig Ae6a in "o far a" it
relate" to t8e kno;le6ge of me6icineC ;8ile t8e
"urger7 it treat" of "eem" to 8a9e 6eri9e6 it"
origin from t8e (t8ar9a Ae6a) /8oug8 an
%a Ae6a or ,u%%lemental Ae6aC t8e "cience
i" con"i6ere6 to be co-ePi"tent ;it8 t8e V >ir"t
/eac8erCV ;8o i" t8e V %rimar7 cau"e V of t8e
;8ole uni9er"e) /8e "cience 8a" %a""e6 t8roug8
9ariou" 9ici""itu6e") 0t ;ill not t8erefore be out
of %lace to trace it" origin an6 6e9elo%ment a"
"uccinctl7 a" %o""ible)
2K (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
CH(D/3. 00)
(2C032/ E.0/3., -2 H024-- M340C023)
(, 8a" been "tate6 in t8e %rece6ing c8a%terC
t8e Hin6oo" belie9e t8atC like all t8eir
ot8er "cience"C t8e "cience of Me6icine 8a" been
re9eale6 to t8em) 1ajur Ae6aC C8a%ter A)C
"%eak" of @o6 a" V Drat8amo 4ai97o b8i"8akCV
i)e)C t8e Vfir"t 4i9ine D87"icianCV V;8o 6ri9e"
a;a7 all 6i"ea"e")V (not8er Ae6ic 9er"e a66re""e"
Him a" V ?8i"8aktamam t9a b8i"8ajam "8rn-
nomiV Y ;8ic8 mean"C V 0 8ear /8ou art t8e be"t
among %87"ician")V 3l"e;8ere He i" "t7le6 Vt8e
6e%o"itar7 of all "cience"C an6 %87"ician for all
;orl6l7 ill")V ?ra8maC or t8e fir"t member of
t8e Hin6oo tria6C ;a" t8e fir"t to %ro%oun6 t8e
Healing (rt) He com%o"e6 t8e (7ur Ae6aC
con"i"ting of one 8un6re6 "ection" Ua687a7a") of
one 8un6re6 "tan5a" U"8loka") eac8) /8i" "acre6
me6ical ;ork treat" of t8e "ubject of lifeC 6e"cribe"
Z ?ig Ae6aC ii) OC :I)
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 25
t8e con6ition" ten6ing to %rolong or "8orten lifeC
6;ell" on t8e nature of 6i"ea"e"C t8eir cau"e" an6
met8o6" of treatment) 0t i" t8e ol6e"t me6ical
book of t8e Hin6oo"C an6 i" 6i9i6e6 into eig8t
%art" or tantra") /8e"e are < N
:) ,8al7a N ,urger7) /8i" inclu6e" t8e
met8o6" of remo9ing foreign bo6ie"C of
u"ing "urgical in"trument"C of a%%l7ing
ban6age"C an6 of treating 9ariou" "urgical
2) ,8alak7a N /reatment of 6i"ea"e" of %art"
"ituate6 abo9e t8e cla9icle"C "uc8 a" t8e
6i"ea"e" of t8e e7e"C no"eC mout8C ear"C
3) *a7a-c8ikit"a N @eneral 6i"ea"e" affecting
t8e ;8ole bo67C "uc8 a" fe9erC 6iabete"C
K) ?8oot-9i67a N 4emoniacal 6i"ea"e") /8i"
c8a%ter 6e"cribe" t8e mean" of re"toring
b7 %ra7er"C offering"C me6icine"C etc)C
6erange6 facultie" of t8e min6 "u%%o"e6
to be %ro6uce6 b7 6emoniacal %o""e"-
5) *aumara-b8rit7a N Management of c8il6ren
N com%ri"ing t8e treatment of infant"
an6 t8e 6i"ea"e" t8e7 are "ubject to)
2I (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
I) (ga6a N (nti6ote" for %oi"on" N mineralC
9egetableC an6 animal)
O) .a"a7ana N /reat" of me6icine" %re"er9-
ing 9igourC re"toring 7out8C im%ro9ing
memor7C an6 curing an6 %re9enting 6i"-
ea"e" in general)
G) Aajikarana N 4e"cribe" t8e mean" of in-
crea"ing t8e 9irile %o;er b7 gi9ing tone
to t8e ;eakene6 organ" of generation)
?ra8ma taug8t (7ur Ae6a to 4ak"8%raja%atiC
;8o in turn eP%oun6e6 it to ("89ini *umar"C
V t8e t;in "on" of t8e ,un)V /8e t;in brot8er"
;rote im%ortant ;ork" on me6icine an6 "urger7C
an6 ;ere t8e 6i9ine %87"ician") Man7 87mn" in
t8e .ig Ae6a are a66re""e6 to t8e"e t;in go6"C
from ;8ic8 it a%%ear" t8at me6icine an6 "urger7
;ere full7 a%%reciate6 b7 t8e ancient"C an6 8el6
in 8ig8 e"teem b7 t8em) ,ome of t8e ;on6erful
o%eration" %erforme6 b7 t8em are al"o recor6e6)
( legen6 in t8e .ig Ae6a t8u" 6e"cribe" t8eir
"kill < ( certain "age name6 4a687anc8i 8a6
learnt t8e "cience of ?ra8ma-9i67a from 0n6ra
un6er an inter6iction not to teac8 it to an7 one
el"eC t8e %rece%tor t8reatening to cut off 8i"
%u%ilQ" 8ea6 in ca"e of an7 infringement of t8e
com%act) /8e ("89in"C anPiou" to learn t8e
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 2O
"cience from t8at "ageC 8it u%on t8e follo;ing
%lan) /8e7C b7 un6ertaking to %re"er9e 8im from
t8e ;rat8 of 0nclraC %re9aile6 on t8e "age to
communicate 8i" kno;le6ge to t8em) /8enC ;it8
8i" con"entC t8e7 took off 8i" 8ea6C re%lace6 it
"kilfull7 ;it8 t8at of a 8or"eC an6 acJuire6 t8e
;i"8e6-for kno;le6ge) 0n6raC ;8en 8e came to
kno; t8at 4a687anc8i 8a6 broken t8e con-
tractC "truck off t8e "ageQ" eJuine 8ea6) /8e
("89in"C being ePcee6ingl7 %roficient in "urger7C
rejoine6 t8e original 8ea6 t8at 8a6 been carefull7
%re"er9e6) /8e feat ePcite6 uni9er"al a%%ro-
bation) ?ut "ome of t8e fa"ti6iou" go6" took
ePce%tion to t8e mo6e of learning a6o%te6 b7 t8e
("89in") /8e cutting off oneQ" %rece%torQ" 8ea6C
t8oug8 ;it8 t8e be"t of intention"C ;a" 6enounce6
a" an atrociou" act S an6 a" a con"eJuenceC t8e
("89in" ;ere outca"te6 b7 t8e go6" for t8e
un%ar6onable "inC an6 refu"e6 a6mittance to t8eir
"8are in t8e "acrificial rite") /8e brot8er" t8en
8a6 recour"e to a "age name6 C87a9anaC ;8oC
t8oug8 9er7 ol6 an6 6ecre%itC 8a6 ne;l7 marrie6
,ukan7aC a 7oung an6 c8arming 6aug8ter of king
,ara7ati) /8e %87"ician" %re"cribe6 8im an
electuar7C ;8ic8 "oon free6 8im from 8i" 6ecre%i-
tu6eC re"tore6 8im 8i" 8ealt8C 7out8C an6 9igourC
2G (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
an6 %rolonge6 8i" life U.ig Ae6aC i) ::OC :3))
/8e reci%e i" "till kno;n b7 t8e name of V C87a-
9ana (9ale8a)V /8e "ageC out of gratitu6eC
%romi"e6 t8e ("89in" to interce6e in t8eir be8alfC
an6 to "ecure to t8em t8e continuance of t8e liba-
tion of ,oma at t8e "acrifice") He in6uce6 8i"
fat8er-in-la;C king ,ara7atiC to %erform a "acrifice)
E8en t8e time for 6i"tributing t8e libation
arri9e6C C87a9ana offere6 to t8e ("89in" t8e "8are
6ue to t8em) 0n6ra took umbrage at t8i"C an6
;a" going to 8url 8i" t8un6erbolt at t8e "ageQ"
8ea6 ;8en 8e foun6 8i" arm "u66enl7 %aral7"e6)
/8e ("89in" cure6 0n6ra of 8i" %aral7"i"C an6 b7
6int of t8eir "kill an6 kno;le6ge "oon got t8em-
"el9e" re-a6mitte6 into ca"teC an6 obtaine6 t8eir
u"ual "8are of "acrificial foo6) /8e"e %87"ician"
are al"o gi9en cre6it for joining again t8e 8ea6
an6 bo67 of 1ajnaC "on of 3uc8iC ;8ic8 ;ere
"e9ere6 b7 3u6ra) 0n t8e ancient ,an"krit
;riting" ;e often rea6 of battle" bet;een t8e
4e9ata" an6 ("ura") 0n ca"e" of broken leg"C
t8e "urgeon" u"e6 to "ub"titute Viron-leg"V N
(7a"in-jang8am N U9i6e .ig Ae6aC i) ::IC :5)C
an6 to furni"8 artificial e7e" in %lace of t8o"e
%lucke6 out U.ig Ae6aC i) ::IC :I)S arro;"
lo6ge6 in t8e bo6ie" of t8e ;arrior" ;ere "kilfull7
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 2H
ePtracte6C an6 t8eir ;oun6" %rom%tl7 6re""e6 b7
t8e arm7 "urgeon") /8e ("89in" are re%ute6 to
8a9e gi9en ne; teet8 to Doo"8aC ne; e7e" to
?8ag6e9aC an6 to 8a9e cure6 C8an6rama" of
con"um%tion) /8e"e an6 man7 ot8er ;on6erful
cure" effecte6 b7 t8em rai"e6 t8em not onl7 in
t8e e"timation of t8eir com%eer" but al"o of t8e
lor6 0n6raC ;8o became 6e"irou" of "tu67ing t8e
(7ur Ae6aC an6 learnt it from t8em)
0n6ra taug8t t8e "cience to 8i" %u%il (tre7aC
;8o ;rote "e9eral ;ork" bearino- 8i" nameC amono-
;8ic8 mig8t be mentione6 8i" V (tre7a ,am8itaCV
in fi9e %art"C containing KIC500 9er"e" in all)
(tre7a i" one of t8e ol6e"t aut8oritie" on Hin6oo
Me6icineC an6 "e9eral later ;riter" 8a9e ba"e6
t8eir treati"e" on 8i" ;ork) He im%arte6 8i"
kno;le6geC among ot8er"C to (gni9e"8aC ?8e6aC
BatukarnaC Dara"8araC *"8ira%ani an6 HaritaC
all of ;8om 8a9e 6i"tingui"8e6 t8em"el9e" a"
aut8or" of me6ical ;ork" t8at 8a9e been 8an6e6
6o;n to %o"terit7) (gni9e"8aQ" V 2i6ananjanaCV
or treati"e on 4iagno"i"C i" "till a6mire6) V Harita
,am8itaV i" a "tan6ar6 bookC ;8ic8 a%%ear" to
8a9e been 6ictate6 b7 (tre7a in re%l7 to HaritaQ"
Jue"tion" S for eac8 c8a%ter en6" ;it8 t8e ;or6"C
V ,ai6 b7 (tre7a in an";er to HaritaCV ,ome
30 (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
are le6 to belie9e t8at V(tre7a ,am8itaV an6
V Harita ,am8itaV are i6entical) /8i" 6oe" not
"eem to be correct) >or t8e ;ell-kno;n aut8or
of V ?8a9a%raka"8a V Juote" "e9eral 9er"e" from
(tre7a ;8ic8 are not foun6 in Harita)
C8arakaC an earl7 me6ical ;riterC gi9e" t8e
origin of t8e 8ealing art u%on t8e eart8 a"
follo;" < N
-nce u%on a time "ome 6i"tingui"8e6 "age"
8a%%ene6 to meet on t8e Himala7a mountain"C
among t8em being (ga"tiC ("89ala7anaC ("itaC
?a6ara7anaC ?alik87aC ?8ara69ajaC C87a-
9anaC 4e9alaC 48aum7aC @ala9aC @argaC @au-
tamaC @ob8ilaC HaritaC Hiran7ak"8aC Bama
6agniC *am7aC *anka7anaC *a%injalaC *a"8-
7a%aC *at7a7anaC *aun6in7aC *u"8ikaC +an-
gak"8iC Maitre7aC Markan6e7aC 2ara6aC
Dara"8araC Darik"8akaC Dula"t7aC ,ank87aC
,ankrit7aC ,8akune7aC ,8an6il7aC ,8aralomaC
,8aunakaC Aaije%a7aC Aaik8ana"aC Aama6e9aC
Aa"i"8t8aC Ai"89amitraC an6 man7 ot8er") (ll
of t8em ;ere ;ell 9er"e6 in %8ilo"o%87 an6
%racti"e6 religiou" au"teritie") /8e "ubject of
t8eir con9er"ation ;a" t8e V ill" t8at fle"8 i"
8eir to)V /8e7 began to com%lain < V -ur bo67C
;8ic8 i" t8e mean" of attaining t8e four aim"
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 3:
of lifeC 9i5)C 9irtueC ;orl6l7 %ur"uit"C %lea"ureC
an6 liberationC i" "ubject to 6i"ea"e" ;8ic8
emaciate an6 ;eaken itC 6e%ri9e t8e "en"e" of
t8eir function"C an6 cau"e ePtreme %ain) /8e"e
6i"ea"e" are great im%e6iment" to our ;orl6l7
affair" an6 bring on %remature 6eat8) 0n t8e
face of "uc8 enemie"C 8o; can men be 8a%%7 [
0t i" nece""ar7 t8erefore to fin6 reme6ie" for
"uc8 6i"ea"e")V /8e7 turne6 to "age ?8aracl-
9ajaC an6 t8u" a66re""e6 8im < N
V "ageC t8ou art t8e fitte"t %er"on among
u" < @o t8ou to t8e t8ou"an6-e7e6 0n6raC ;8o
8a" "7"tematicall7 "tu6ie6 t8e (7ur Ae6aC an6 b7
acJuiring from 8im t8e kno;le6ge of t8at "cience
free u"C "ageC from t8e "courge of 6i"ea"e")V
V ,o be itCV "ai6 t8e "age S ;8o at once ;ent
to 0n6ra an6 t8u" acco"te6 8im < N
V +or6C 0 8a9e been 6e%ute6 b7 t8e
%arliament of "age" to learn from 7ou t8e
reme6ie" for t8e 6ireful 6i"ea"e" t8at afflict
mankin6) 0 %ra7 7ouC t8ereforeC to teac8 me
t8e (7ur Ae6a)V
0n6ra ;a" %lea"e6 ;it8 t8e object of 8i"
mi""ionC an6 taug8t 8im t8e (7ur Ae6a in all it"
%art") ?8ara69aja recounte6 t8e %rece%t" 8e
8a6 acJuire6 to t8e ot8er "age" ;8o 8a6 6e%ute6
32 (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
8imC an6 ;it8 t8e kno;le6ge of t8e "cience t8e7
;ere able to li9e long in 8ealt8 an6 8a%%ine"")
2o 8i"tor7 of t8e earlie"t ;riter" on Me6icine
in 0n6ia ;oul6 be com%lete ;it8out a mention of
C8araka an6 ,u"8rutaC ;8o are con"i6ere6 b7
t8e nati9e" to be t8e 8ig8e"t aut8oritie" in all
me6ical matter") C8araka i" "ai6 to 8a9e been
an incarnation of ,8e"8a N t8e ,er%ent-go6 ;it8 a
t8ou"an6 8ea6" N ;8o i" "u%%o"e6 to be t8e 6e-
%o"itar7 of all "cience"C e"%eciall7 of me6icine)
0t ma7 be %arent8eticall7 note6 8ere t8at t8e
"er%ent in all age" 8a" recei9e6 6i9ine 8onour"C
an6 from t8e remote"t antiJuit7 8a" been 8el6 in
t8e greate"t 9eneration a" an emblem of ;i"6om
an6 immortalit7 b7 t8e 3g7%tian"C @reek"C an6
ot8er ancient nation" a" ;ell a" b7 t8e Hin6oo")
V ,er%ent" ;ere "acre6 to i3"cula%iu"C t8e @recian
go6 of t8e me6ical artC becau"e t8e7 ;ere "7mbol"
of reno9ationC an6 ;ere belie9e6 to 8a9e t8e
%o;er of 6i"co9ering 8ealing 8erb" V U4r ,mit8))
/8e 8iero%8ant" of 3g7%t "t7le6 t8em"el9e" t8e
V ,on" of t8e ,er%ent-go6CV a" t8e "er%ent ;a" t8e
emblem of ;i"6om an6 eternit7) -%8ite-;or"8i%
;a" %re9alent among t8e Be;" 2000 7ear" ?)C)
/8e fift8 6a7 of t8e mont8 of ,8ra9ana U;8ic8
fall" in t8e rain7 "ea"on) i" to t8i" 6a7 8el6 b7
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 33
t8e Hin6oo" a" "acre6 to t8e "er%entC ;8ic8 i"
;or"8i%%e6 eit8er ali9e or in effig7 b7 e9er7
mi"tre"" of a famil7) >or it i" belie9e6 t8at
le%ro"7C o%8t8almiaC an6 c8il6le""ne"" are t8e
%uni"8ment of t8o"e ;8o in former li9e"C or in t8e
%re"ent oneC ma7 8a9e kille6 a "nakeC an6 t8at it
i" onl7 b7 "er%ent-;or"8i% t8at t8e"e %enaltie"
can be a9erte6) C8arakaC t8e "on of Ai"8u68aC
a learne6 MuniC flouri"8e6 6uring t8e Ae6ic
%erio6) ,ome belie9e 8im to 8a9e been born at
?enare" 320 7ear" ?)C) He ;a" t8e greate"t
%87"ician of 8i" 6a7C an6 8i" V C8araka ,am8ita V
i" "till 8el6 to be a "tan6ar6 ;ork on Me6icine)
,u"8rutaC on t8e ot8er 8an6C 6ilate" more on
,urger7 t8an on Me6icine) Hi" ;ork V ,u"8ruta V
i" t8erefore 8el6 in 8ig8 e"teem b7 nati9e Aai6-
7a" a" an aut8orit7 on ,urger7) ?ot8 t8e ;ork"
are com%en6ium" of t8e (7ur Ae6a) ,u"8ruta ;a"
a "on of Ai"89amitraC a contem%orar7 of *ama)
Eit8 8i" fat8erQ" %ermi""ionC ,u"8ruta an6 8i"
"e9en brot8er" ;ent to 4e9o6a"aC king of
?enare"C to "tu67 Me6icine) (" C8araka i"
belie9e6 to be an incarnation of t8e ,er%ent-go6C
"o i" 4e9o6a"a belie9e6 to be an incarnation of
48an9antabiC t8e 6i9ine %87"icianC reco9ere6
from t8e ocean along ;it8 t8irteen ot8er .atna"
3K (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
Ugem") ;8ic8 8a6 been lo"t in t8e 4eluge)
48an9antari i" "ai6 to 8a9e come out of t8e
ocean ;it8 a cu% of (mritaC or t8e be9erage of
immortalit7 S an6 8e take" in 0n6ia t8e %lace
occu%ie6 b7 i3"cula%iu" among"t t8e @reek")
Ha9ing learnt (7ur Ae6a from 4e9ocla"a or
*a"8irajaC a" 8e i" ot8er;i"e calle6C ,u"8ruta an6
8i" com%anion" returne6 8ome an6 ;rote in6e-
%en6ent ;ork" on Me6icine an6 ,urger7) ?ut
,u"8ruta ePcelle6 t8em all) Hi" ;ork ;a" tran"-
late6 into (rabic before t8e en6 of t8e G t8
centur7 a)c) 0t 8a" been tran"late6 into +atin
b7 He%ler an6 into @erman b7 Auller") C8araka
;a" al"o tran"late6 from ,an"krit into (rabic in
t8e beginning of t8e Gt8 centur7C an6 V 8i" name
re%eate6l7 occur" in t8e +atin tran"lation" of
(9icennaC 3a5e"C an6 ,era%ion V UHunter)) He
;a" %o"terior to (gni9e"8aC for 8e "tate" t8at 8e
recei9e6 t8e material" for 8i" book from t8at
learne6 "ageC ;8o"e ;ork 8e re-ca"t)
/8e nePt aut8orit7 on Hin6oo Me6icine i"
Aagb8ataC ;8o flouri"8e6 about t8e "econ6
centur7 before C8ri"t) He ;a" an in8abitant of
,in68C in Ee"tern 0n6ia) 0n 8i" ;ork calle6
V ("8tanga-8ri6a7aCV 8e ackno;le6ge" t8e a""i"t-
ance 6eri9e6 from t8e ;riting" of C8arakaC ,u"8-
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 35
rutaC (gni9e"8aC ?8elaC an6 ot8er" ;8o 8a6 gone
before 8im) He al"o ;rote anot8er ;ork calle6
V ("8tanga-,angra8aCV on ;8ic8 Dan6it (runa-
6atta ;rote a commentar7) Aagb8ataQ" "t7le i"
9er7 clear an6 conci"eC an6 t8ro;" muc8 lig8t on
"e9eral ob"cure %a""age" in 8i" %re6ece""or"Q ;ork")
( %o%ular cou%let 6e"cribe" Aagb8ataC ,u"8rutaC
an6 (tre7a a" t8e t8ree great me6ical aut8oritie"
for t8e t8ree 1uga" N *aliC 49a%araC an6 *rita
re"%ecti9el7) (mong t8e "tu6ent" of Hin6oo
Me6icine t8e t8ree ;riter" are kno;n b7 t8e
name of V Ari68a /ra7iCV or t8e V -l6 /ria6)V
Coming nearer to our %erio6 ;e meet ;it8 t8e
name of Ma68a9a or Ma68a9ac8ar7aC ;8o
;rote "e9eral ;ork" embracing almo"t all branc8e"
of Hin6oo learning) He ;a" born in *i"8kin68aC
no; calle6 @olkon6aC in ,out8ern 0n6iaC an6
;a" Drime Mini"ter to .aja Aira ?ukka of Aija7-
anagarC in t8e : 2t8 centur7) He ;a" a brot8er of
,a7anaC t8e aut8or of t8e great Commentar7 on
t8e .ig Ae6aC to ;8ic8 ;ork Ma68a9a i" "ai6 to
8a9e contribute6) ?e"i6e" t8e V ,ar9a-6ar"8ana-
"angra8aCV or 6i""ertation on t8e "iP "c8ool" of
Hin6oo %8ilo"o%87C an6 t8e "c8olia on t8e four
Ae6a"C "t7le6 V Ma68a9a Ae6art8a Draka"8aCV t8e
V Danc8a6a"8i V Uon Ae6antic %8ilo"o%87)C VMa6-
3I (2C032/ E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
8a9a ArittiV Uon @rammar)C V Ma6lia9a 2i6ana V
Uon Me6icine)C V*ala Ma68a9aV Uon ("tronom7)C
V A7a9a8ara Ma68a9a V Uon Hin6oo +a;)C
V (c8ara Ma68a9a V Uon t8e u"age" of t8e ?ra8-
mana")C an6 V ,8ankara 4ig9ija7a V U+ife of
,8ankarac8ar7a) are "ome of 8i" numerou" ;ork")
0n 8i" me6ical ;ork our aut8or 6;ell" ePclu"i9el7
on t8e 6iagno"i" of 6i"ea"e") He 8a" treate6 t8e
"ubject "o ;ell t8at 8i" aut8orit7 on t8i" branc8
of Me6ical ,cience i" 8el6 to be in6i"%utable)
/8e nati9e 6octor" are often 8ear6 to re%eat t8i"
,an"krit "tan5a < N
2i6ane Ma68a9a" "8re"8t8a"C
,utra"t8ane tu Aagb8ata" <
,8arire ,u"liruta" %rocta"C
C8ar alca" tu c8ikit"ake)
0t mean" < Ma68a9a i" unri9alle6 in 4iagno"i"C
Aagb8ata in Drinci%le" an6 Dractice of Me6icineC
,u"8ruta in ,urger7C an6 C8araka in /8era%eutic")
0n 8i" ol6 age Ma68a9a became an a"ceticC an6
a""ume6 t8e name of Ai67aran7a U Q fore"t of
learningQ ))
/8e nePt celebrate6 ;riter on Hin6oo me6icine
i" ?8a9a Mi"8raC aut8or of t8e V ?8a9a Dra-
ka"8a)V /8i" %87"ician li9e6 in :550 () aC an6
;a" con"i6ere6 to be t8e be"t "c8olar of 8i" time
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 3O
in Ma6ra 4e"8a Uin 2ort8- Ee"t of 0n6ia)C V a
je;el of %87"ician" an6 ma"ter of t8e ,8a"tra")V
0n 8i" ;ork 8e "ummari"e" t8e %ractice of all t8e
be"t %re9iou" ;riter" on Me6icine) /8e clearne""
of 8i" "t7le an6 t8e ePcellence of 8i" arrangement
8a9e t8ro;n a floo6 of lig8t on man7 ob"cure an6
6i"%ute6 %a""age" of t8e ancient ;riter" S an6 8i"
im%ortant com%ilation mark" t8e la"t re9i9al of
(7ur Ae6ic literature among t8e Hin6oo") /8e
;ork i" 8ig8l7 e"teeme6 b7 nati9e 6octor" in all
%art" of 0n6ia a" an in9aluable treati"e on Hin6oo
me6ical "cience) 0t i" con"i6ere6 a t8e"auru" of
u"eful information gleane6 from t8e 9a"t fiel6 of
me6ical literature of t8e %a"t) 0n t8e time of
?8a9a Mi"8raC 0n6ia 8a6 commence6 to come into
contact ;it8 "ome of t8e 3uro%ean nation"C
notabl7 t8e Dortugue"eC ;8o ;ere attracte6 to
0n6ia b7 commercial %ur"uit") ( "7%8ilitic 6i"ea"eC
in ;8ic8 8an6" an6 feet are affecte6C ;a" common
among t8e Dortugue"e) ?8a9a Mi"8ra treat" of
t8i" affection at lengt8 un6er t8e name of >iranga
.ogaC i)e)C Dortugue"e 6i"ea"e) /8e ab"ence of a
corre"%on6ing ,an"krit termC an6 t8e name U V >ir-
anga .oga V ) gi9en to t8e mala67C ;oul6 "ugge"t
t8at it ;a" intro6uce6 into 0n6ia b7 t8e Dortu-
gue"e) ?8a9a Mi"8ra 6e"cribe" t8ree "tage" of t8e
3G (2C032/ E30/3., -2 RC8a%) 00)
6i"ea"eC namel7 ?a87a UePternal)C (b87antara
Uinternal)C an6 ?a8irantara UePter-internal)) /8e
6i"ea"e in it" fir"t "tage i" curable S in t8e "econ6C
;8en t8e joint" become in9ol9e6C it i" cure6 ;it8
6ifficult7 S ;8ile in it" t8ir6 "tageC ;8en it "%rea6"
bot8 ePternall7 an6 internall7C t8e affection i" %ro-
nounce6 a" altoget8er incurable) -ne afflicte6
;it8 t8e mala67 become" lean an6 ;eakC 8i" no"e
"ink" 6o;nC 8i" ga"tral fire become" 6imC an6 8i"
bone" turn 6r7 an6 crooke6) Mercur7C catec8uC
,%ilant8e" oleraceaC an6 8one7 in certain %ro%or-
tion"C are recommen6e6 a" a reme67) -t8er
reci%e" are al"o gi9en) ?8a9a Mi"8ra ;a" t8e
fir"t to make mention of certain me6icinal 6rug"
of countrie" ot8er t8an 0n6ia) >or in"tance 8e
V ?a6ak"8ani 2a"%a"iCV i)e)C V (mritaCV fruit of
V*8ora"ani Aac8aCV i)e)C (coru" Calamu" of
*8ora"an S
V Dara"ika Aac8aCV i)e)C (coru" Calamu" of
Der"ia S
V ,ulemani *8arjuraCV i)e)C 6ate fruit of ,uleman)
?a8a9a Mi"8ra ;a" an in8abitant of ?enare"C
;8ere 8e i" "ai6 to 8a9e 8a6 no le"" t8an four
8un6re6 %u%il")
C8a%) 00)T H024-- M340C023) 3H
/8en follo;e6 ,8arng68araC "on of 4amo6araC
;8o ;rote a treati"e bearing 8i" name) /8e ;ork
i" 6i9i6e6 into t;ent7-fi9e c8a%ter"C an6 i" 9er7
%o%ular in Ee"tern 0n6ia) ,maller ;ork" like
V Aai67amrita V b7 ?8atta More"89arC "on of
?8atta Manek Ua)c) :I2O)C VAai67a Bee9anaV
b7 +olimbraja Ua)c) :I33)C V ?o%a6e9a ,8atakaV
b7 ?o%a6e9aC "on of *e"8a9aC V Aai67a Aallab8a V
b7 Ha"ti Ua)c) :IO0)C V C8ikit"a ,angra8aV b7
C8akra6attaC V C8ikit"anjana V b7 Ai67a%atiC an6
ot8er"C are freJuentl7 con"ulte6 b7 t8e nati9e
K0 /H3 H024-- /H3-.1 RC8a%) 000)
CH(D/3. 000)
/H3 H024-- /H3-.1 -> C.3(/0-2)
r%H3 Hin6oo" 8e"itate to gi9e an7 "7"tem t8e
name of "cience or ,8a"traC if it 6oe" not
6irectl7 or in6irectl7 lea6 to a correct kno;le6ge
of t8e *o"mo"C an6 to t8e attainment of beatitu6e
an6 6eli9erance from all %ain an6 mi"er7) /8e
ultimate object of Me6ical ,cience i" t8erefore
"tate6 to be to gain t8at kno;le6ge ;8ic8 con"i"t"
in 6i"criminating t8e %rinci%le" of t8e material
;orl6 from t8e cogniti9e %rinci%leC t8e immortal
"oul) (ccor6ing to Hin6oo 6octrineC t8e ;8ole
creation i" t8e re"ult of t8e coming toget8er of
Duru"8a U"%irit)C an6 Drakriti Umatter)) /8e
"%irit i" infiniteC immortalC "entient an6 bli""ful)
Matter i" lifele""C but %o""e""e" a creati9e force
an6 %ro%ertie" of goo6ne""C %a""ion an6 a%at87)
,ome "a7 t8at matter 8a" no "e%arate ePi"tence at
all) 0t i" onl7 a manife"tation of "%iritC an6 ;8at
i" kno;n b7 t8e name of t8e material ;orl6 i"
C8a%) 000)T -> C.3(/0-2) K:
onl7 a "erie" of im%re""ion" of t8e "%irit) -t8er"
maintain t8at matterC t8oug8 8el%le"" ;it8out
"%iritC i" co-eternal Mat8 it S an6 ;8en it come"
into union ;it8 t8e "%iritC it become" acti9e
an6 %rocreant) 0t i" not inten6e6 to 6;ell at
lengt8 on t8e 6etail" of t8i" "7"tem) ,uffice it
to "a7C t8at it recogni"e" Man a" a microco"m
%o""e""ing %art" corre"%on6ing to t8e globeC an6
6e"cribe" 8im a" ma6e u% of t8e follo;ing t;ent7-
fi9e %rinci%le" Utatt9a") < N
:) Drakriti or 2atureC %rime cau"e of all
t8ing"C t8e uni9er"al material cau"e
U%rima matriP))
2) ?u668i N 0ntelligenceC t8e fir"t "te% in t8e
e9olution of Drakriti)
3) (8ankara N ,elf-con"ciou"ne"")
K) Mana"N Min6)
5) ,8ab6a N ,oun6C ru6iment of et8er)
I) ,%ar"8a N /ouc8C ru6iment of air)
O) .oo%a N >ormC ru6iment of fire)
G) .a"a N /a"teC ru6iment of ;ater)
H) @an68a N ,mellC ru6iment of eart8)
: 0) ,8rotra N -rgan of 8earing)
::) /9ak N -rgan of touc8)
: 2) Bi89a N -rgan of ta"te)
:3) C8ak"8u N -rgan of "ig8t)
K2 /H3 H024-- /H3-.1 RC8a%) 000)
:K) @ra8ana N -rcran of "mell)
:5) Aak N -rgan of "%eec8)
:I) Dant N -rgan of %re8en"ion)
:O) Da6 N -rgan of locomotion)
:G) Da7u N -rgan of ePcretion)
: H) %a"t8a N -rgan of generation)
20) (ka"8a N 3t8er)
2:) Aa7u N (ir)
22) /eja"N >ire)
23) (%N Eater)
2K) Drit89i N 3art8)
/8e Duru"8aC or t8e ,oulC i" t8e 25t8 %rinci%leC
;8ic8 re"i6e" in t8e bo67) 0t i" e9erla"tingC
intelligentC en6le""C all-%er9a6ingC bli""fulC im-
mortalC calmC %ureC an6 one ;it8out a "econ6)
/8e"e %rinci%le" are arrange6 V in or6er of t8eir
6e9elo%ment)V /8e 8uman organi"mC an6 for t8e
matter of t8at t8e ;8ole creationC t8u" con"titute6
b7 t8e combination of Duru"8a an6 DrakritiC i"
re%re"ente6 in t8e m7"tical ;ork" of t8e Hin6oo"
b7 a figure forme6 b7 6ra;ing a 8ori-
5ontal line acro"" a %er%en6icular oneC
;it8 t8e en6" turne6 roun6 like arc"
of a circle t8u" < N
/8e four %oint" of t8e cro"" re%re"ent in "uc-
ce""ion birt8C lifeC 6eat8C an6 immortalit7C ;8ile
C8a%) 000)T -> C.3(/0-2) K3
t8e circle i" t8e "7mbol of t8e eternal ePi"t-
ence) /8o"e ;8o 8a9e "tu6ie6 t8e "ubject are
tr7ing to rea6 t8e e"oteric meaning of t8e
C8ri"tian Cro"" in t8i" lig8t) 0t i" curiou" t8at
t8e "ign of t8e Cro"" i" to be foun6 in almo"t all
t8e religion" of t8e ;orl6C ancient an6 mo6ern)
/8e Duru"8a i" t8e in"trumental cau"e of t8e
uni9er"eC ;8ile Drakriti i" it" material cau"e)
/8e 8uman bo67 i" t8erefore belie9e6 to be t8e
re"ult of t8e joint o%eration of t8e"e t;o %rin-
/8e creation i" of t;o kin6"C animate an6 inani-
mate) /8e animate creation i" aoSain "ub-6i9i6e6
b7 t8e Hin6oo" into four cla""e"C namel7C 6b8ija
U"%routing)C a" tree"C %lant"C etc) S ,9e6aja U%ro-
6uce6 from ";eat or ;armt8 of t8e eart8)C "uc8 a"
bug"C mo"Juitoe"C etc) S (n6aja Uo9i%arou")C a"
fo;l" an6 re%tile" S an6 Bara7u U9i9i%arou")C a" man
an6 bea"t") 0n t8e 8uman "tructureC t8e fat8er
re%re"ent" Duru"8aC an6 t8e mot8er Drakriti)
E8en bot8 are 7oung an6 "trong t8e off"%ring i"
-f t8e "e9eral %art" of t8e bo67C t8e 8airC nail"C
teet8C arterie"C 9ein"C ten6on" an6 "emen 6eri9e
t8eir origin from t8e fat8erS ;8ile mu"cle"C 8eartC
bloo6C marro;C fatC li9erC "%leen an6 inte"tine"
KK H024-- /H3-.1 -> C.3(/0-2) RC8a%) 000)
o;e t8eir formation to t8e mot8er) /8e 6e9elo%-
ment of t8e bo67C it" com%lePionC %o;erC an6
con6ition are t8e %ro6uct" of c87le S ;8ile kno;-
le6geC %erce%tionC lifeC 8a%%ine""C an6 mi"er7 are
t8e function" t8at come into o%eration un6er t8e
6irect influence of t8e "oul) /8e Hin6oo me6ical
;ork" mention t8e %o""ibilit7 of a ;oman uniting
;it8 anot8er ;oman in "ePual embrace an6
begetting a bonele"" foetu") /8e7 al"o belie9e
t8at a ;oman un6er certain con6ition" ma7
become %regnant b7 t8e influence of 6reaming S
an6 t8e7 t8u" eP%lain t8eir belief in "uc8
unnatural birt8" a" of "er%ent"C "cor%ion" an6 t8e
like) 0n "uc8 a ca"e bot8 t8e ;oman an6 8er
%ro6uction are looke6 u%on a" 9er7 "inful)
C8a%) 0A)T D.(C/0C3 4.02@ 2?0+0/1) K5
CH(D/3. 0A)
H024-- D.(C/0C3 4.02@ /H3 D3.0-4 -> 2?0+0/1)
( E-M(2 i" con"i6ere6 nubile 6uring t8e
men"trual e%oc8C ;8ic8 la"t" generall7 from
t8e t;elft8 to about t8e fiftiet8 7ear) 4uring
t8e men"trual flo; "8e i" "trictl7 %ro8ibite6 from
intercour"e ;it8 8er 8u"ban6) ,8e i" enjoine6 to
"lee% on a gra"" be6C to "8e6 no tear"C an6 to take
no bat8) ,8e i" not to %are 8er nail"C an6 "8oul6
neit8er run nor a%eak alou6) ,8e "8oul6 not
a%%l7 oil or "an6al to 8er bo67 S an6 "8e "8oul6
take care not to eP%o"e 8er"elf to inclement
;eat8er) (n7 6i"regar6 of t8e"e rule" i" regar6e6
a" being injuriou" to t8e off"%ring) 0f "8e crie"
6uring t8e mont8l7 %erio6C t8e c8il6 ;ill contract
an e7e 6i"ea"e) /8e "mearing of t8e bo67 ;it8
oil ;ill make t8e c8il6 le%rou") 0f "8e "lee%"
6uring t8e 6a7 it ;ill become 6ull an6 "luggi"8)
0t ;ill become 6eaf if "8e 8ear" a 9er7 great noi"eC
an6 in"ane if "8e "%eak" too lou6l7) /8e %erio6
for im%regnation i" t8e fir"t "iPteen 6a7" after t8e
a%%earance of t8e men"e" S of t8e"eC 8o;e9erC t8e
fir"t four 6a7" are not recommen6e6) /8e be"t
KI H024-- D.(C/0C3 RC8a%) 0A)
%erio6 for conce%tion i" from t8e fift8 to t8e
"iPteent8 6a7) Conce%tion take" %lace b7 t8e
union of t8e fecun6ating .ela" U"%erm) of t8e
male ;it8 t8e .aja" Ugerm) of t8e female) 0t i"
belie9e6 t8at "8oul6 t8e conce%tion be on e9en
6a7"C N t8at i" to "a7C on t8e "iPt8C eig8t8C tent8C or
t;elft8 6a7C N t8e "eP of t8e infant ;ill be male S if
on an o66 6a7 t8e "eP ;ill be female) ,ome are
of o%inion t8at a male c8il6 i" forme6 ;8en t8e
miPture 8a" a "tronger element of "emen S an6
t8at ;8en V .aja" V or t8e germ %re6ominate" a
female c8il6 i" forme6) 0f t8e "emen 9irile i"
6i9i6e6 into t;o b7 t8e V local ;in6CV t;in" re"ult)
/8e "eP of t8e infant in t8e ;omb can be
6etermine6 b7 certain "ign") 0n t8e ca"e of a
male foetu" t8e form of t8e uteru" i" roun6 S t8e
rig8t e7e a%%ear" larger t8an t8e left S t8e rig8t
brea"t begin" to "ecrete milk before t8e left S t8e
rig8t t8ig8 become" more %lum% S t8e counte-
nance look" brig8t an6 c8eerful S t8e ;oman
6e"ire" foo6 of a V ma"culine V Y kin6C an6 6ream"
of mangoe" an6 ;ater lilie") 0n t8e ca"e of a
Z 0n ,an"krit a" ;ell a" in all t8e Aernacular 6ialect" of 0n6ia
t8e gen6er of noun" i" 6etermine6 not b7 t8e 6i"tinction of "eP
onl7) (nimate an6 inanimate object" are alike eit8er ma"culineC
feminineC or neuter) 0t i" 6ifficult to re6uce t8e u"age of t8e
language on t8i" %oint to fiPe6 rule") ?roa6l7 "%eakingC t8ing"
t8at con9e7 t8e i6ea of largene""C "trengt8C coar"ene"" an6 firmne""
are ma"culineC an6 t8o"e t8at are "mallerC ;eakerC finer an6 more
6elicate are "ai6 to be feminine)
C8a%) 0A)T 4.02@ 2?0+0/1) KO
female foetu"C t8e o%%o"ite are t8e "ign"C an6 t8e
form of t8e uteru" i" o9oi6) /;in" are 6iagno"e6
b7 a me6ian 6e%re""ion along t8e ab6omen)
E8en t8e "i6e" of t8e ;oman become fullC an6 t8e
bell7 %rotuberantC an6 ;8en t8e form of t8e
uteru" i" 8emi"%8ericalC t8e ;omb i" "u%%o"e6 to
contain an im%otent)
0m%otent" are of fi9e kin6"C namel7C ("ek7aC
,ugan68iC *umb8ikaC 0r"87aka an6 ,8an6a) /8e
la"t i" ab"olutel7 im%otentC %o""e""ing no 9irile
%o;er ;8ate9er) /8e re"t are relati9el7 "oC more
or le"")
?arren ;omen are 6i9i6e6 into fi9e cla""e"C an6
are kno;n b7 t8e name" of *aka 9an687a Ucro;-
barren)C ;8o bear" onl7 once in a lifetime like t8e
cro;"C ;8ic8 are "u%%o"e6 to la7 egg" onl7 once S
(na%at7aC ;8o i" inca%able of concei9ing at all S
@arb8a "ra9iC ;8o can concei9e but al;a7" mi"-
carrie" S Mrita 9at"aC ;8o"e off"%ring 6o not
"ur9i9e t8eir birt8 S an6 ?alak"8a7aC ;8o i"
"terile on account of %87"ical ;eakne"") (ll
t8e"eC ePce%t t8e fir"tC are ca%able of being cure6
b7 a%%ro%riate me6ical treatment)
0t i" %articularl7 6e"irable to gratif7 a ;oman
6uring %regnanc7 ;it8 e9er7t8ing "8e ma7
concei9e a ;i"8 for) >or in ca"e 8er ;i"8e" are
not grante6 t8ere i" a %robabilit7 of t8e c8il6
KG H024-- D.(C/0C3 RC8a%) 0A)
becoming 6eforme6 an6 6efecti9e) ,8e "8oul6
be ke%t 8a%%7 an6 contente6C "8oul6 ;ear ;8ite
clot8e" an6 ornament"C an6 a9oi6 6i"agreeable
"ig8t" an6 "mell"C an6 "ePual an6 ot8er ePcite-
ment" S "8oul6 take ea"il7 6ige"tible foo6 S "8oul6
neit8er remain 8ungr7 nor eat too muc8) ,8e
i" enjoine6 not to touc8 a 6irt7C ugl7C or 6efecti9e
;omanC an6 i" a69i"e6 not to li9e in a lonel7
8ou"e or to 8a9e 8er be6 9er7 8ig8)
Darturition generall7 take" %lace after nine
calen6ar mont8"C ;8en t8e foetu" i" full7 6e9el-
o%e6) ,ometime" t8e %erio6 of ge"tation ePten6"
to t8e tent8C ele9ent8C or e9en t8e t;elft8 mont8
in ePce%tional ca"e") 0t i" lai6 6o;n t8at t8e
l7ing-in room "8oul6 be cleanC an6 not le"" t8an
eig8t cubit" longC an6 four cubit" broa6C ;it8
9entilator" in t8e nort8 or t8e ea"t ;all) >our
ol6 an6 eP%erience6 mi6;i9e" "8oul6 be at 8an6
to ren6er nece""ar7 a""i"tance) /8e7 "8oul6 be
tru"t;ort87C "kille6 in t8eir ;orkC obligingC an6
8a9e t8eir nail" cut clo"e) E8en t8e time of
6eli9er7 6ra;" nearC t8e7 "8oul6 lubricate t8e
genital tract ;it8 ";eet oilC an6 one of t8e four
"8oul6 t8u" a69i"e t8e ;oman in labour < V
+a67C 6o bear 6o;n ;8en 7ou are incline6 to 6o
"oC but not ot8er;i"e S "train gra6uall7C an6 to
t8e utmo"t of 7our %o;er ;8en t8e c8il6 reac8e" Q
C8a%) 0A)T 4*02@ 2?0+0/1) KH
t8e orificeC until it i" eP%elle6 ;it8 t8e after-
birt8)V ntimel7 "training make" t8e c8il6 6eafC
6umbC 8unc8backe6C a"t8maticC con"um%ti9eC or
;eak) 0n ca"e" of com%licate6 labour ob"tetric
o%eration" are recommen6e6) 0f t8e c8il6 6ie"
in uteroC t8e ;oman feel" t8ir"t7C "uffer" from
8ar6 breat8ingC langui"8e"C an6 become" in"en"ible)
Drom%t mea"ure" "8oul6 t8en be taken to "a9e
t8e life of t8e %atient) Harita recommen6"C
among ot8er mea"ure"C t8e u"e of a "urgical
in"trument calle6 (r68a-c8an6raC ;it8 ;8ic8 t8e
arm" of t8e c8il6 "8oul6 be am%utate6 an6 taken
out an6 t8en t8e bo67) 0n ca"e" of te6iou" labour
a %a"te of a 6rug calle6 +angali U@lorio"a
"u%er8a) i" to be a%%lie6 o9er t8e 87%oga"trium
to 8a"ten 6eli9er7)
/8o"e ;8o are gi9en to "u%ernatural belief" 6ra;
a 6ouble triangle interlace6C one tri-
angle %ointing u%;ar6C t8e ot8er
6o;n;ar6C ;it8 certain m7"tic letter"
;ritten ;it8in) /8i" figureC 6ra;n
on a metal %lateC i" "8o;n to t8e ;oman in
birt8-t8roe an6 %lace6 un6er 8er be6 to 8a"ten
6eli9er7) 0n ca"e" of te6iou" labour t8e me6ical
;ork" of t8e Hin6oo" mention certain c8arm" an6
incantation" ;8ic8 are "u%%o"e6 to ren6er t8e
6eli9er7 ea"7) 0t i" curiou" to note t8at t8e u"e
50 H024-- D.(C/0C3 RC8a%) 0A)
of c8arm"C tali"man"C an6 incantation" a" reme6ial
mea"ure" in "ickne"" can be trace6 to almo"t all
t8e nation" on our globe)
( ;oman in 8er confinement "8oul6 be mo"t
%articular about 8er regimen) ,8e "8oul6 take
no Q cooling foo6CQ an6 "8oul6 ab"tain from all
bo6il7 ePertionC from "ePual intercour"eC an6 from
anger) ,8e "8oul6 eat mo6eratel7 an6 continue
t8e nece""ar7 fomentation) 48an9antari "a7"
t8at t8e ;omanQ" %erio6 of confinement i" o9er
after a mont8 an6 a 8alfS t8oug8 "8e "8oul6 be
allo;e6 re"t for full t8ree mont8") 2o matter
reJuire" greater attention t8an t8e Jualit7 of t8e
mot8erQ" milk) @oo6 milk miPe" rea6il7 ;it8
;ater ;it8out c8anging colourC contain" no fila-
ment"C an6 i" ;8iteC coolC an6 not too t8ick)
Milk ;8ic8 ;8en miPe6 ;it8 ;ater float" on t8e
"urface or "ink" 6o;nC or ;8ic8 form" 7ello;
"%8erule" an6 i" "tick7 an6 a"tringent in ta"teC i"
ba6) ( ;oman can im%ro9e 8er milk b7 taking
green gram gruel for foo6 an6 a 6ecoction of
Datol U/ric8o"ant8e" 6ioica)C 2imba UMelia
a5a6irac8ta)C ("ana U?ri6elia tomento"6)C 4aru
UDinu" 6eo6ar6)C Dat8a UCi""am%elo" glabra)C
Mur97a U,an"e9iera 5e7lanica)C @a6uc8i U/ino"-
%ora cor6ifolia)C *aturo8ini UDicorr8i5a kurroo)
an6 6r7 ginger) 0f t8e em%lo7ment of a ;et-
C8a%) 0A)T 4.02@ 2?0+0/1) 5:
nur"e be in6i"%en"ableC "8e "8oul6 be "electe6 from
t8e ca"te to ;8ic8 t8e mot8er belong"C "8oul6
be of mi66le ageC "ecreting goo6 an6 "ufficient
milkC an6 8a9ing a male c8il6) ,8e "8oul6 be of
goo6 6i"%o"itionC al;a7" c8eerfulC ePcee6ingl7
kin6C obe6ientC contente6C ;ell-be8a9e6C of goo6
%arentageC trut8fulC an6 ;illing to treat t8e
c8il6 a" 8er o;n) 0t i" %reju6icial to t8e c8il6Q"
8ealt8 to be "uckle6 b7 a nur"e ;8o 8a" %en-
6ulou" mammaeC or i" tallC "8ortC cor%ulentC t8inC
%regnantC fe9eri"8C fatigue6C 8ungr7C carele""
about foo6C gluttonou"C "ulk7C meanC immoralC
6i"ea"e6C or "uffering from %ain of an7 kin6) /8e
me6ical ;ork" of t8e Hin6oo" refer to certain
rite" ;8ic8 are ob"er9e6 b7 "ome e9en no; on
t8e occa"ion of "uckling t8e c8il6 for t8e fir"t
time) /8e mot8er 8a" to be cleanC ;ell-cla6C an6
to "it facing t8e ea"t) ,8e t8en ;a"8e" 8er
rig8t brea"t an6 "Juee5e" out "ome milk from it)
/8e fat8er or t8e %rie"t t8en "%rinkle" a little
;ater o9er t8e infantC reciting an incantationC t8e
mot8er or t8e nur"e kee%ing 8er 8an6 on t8e
rig8t brea"t all t8e time) /8e incantation i" to
t8i" effect <N V C8il6C let t8e ,ea of Milk Y fill
t8e Mammae ;it8 milk for t8eeC an6 be t8ou
"trong an6 8a%%7 for e9er) lo9el7-face6 la67C
Z /8e ancient Hin6oo co"mogra%87 6i9i6e6 t8e ;orl6 into
"e9en 49i%a" or continent"C eac8 "urroun6e6 b7 a ,agara or "eaC
an6 t8e *"8eera-,agara or t8e ,ea of Milk ;a" one of t8em)
52 H024-- D.(C/0C3 RC8a%) 0A)
let t87 c8il6 li9e long b7 6rinking t8e nectar-like
milkC ju"t a" t8e go6" are able to li9e for 9er7
man7 7ear" b7 6rinking t8e be9erage of immor-
talit7)V /8e infant i" t8en taken b7 t8e mot8er
on 8er la%C it" 8ea6 being ke%t to;ar6" t8e nort8C
an6 nur"e6 gentl7) ,u"8ruta "a7" t8at if "ome
milk be not t8ro;n a;a7C a" recommen6e6 abo9eC
t8e bab7 "uffer" from %ukingC coug8 an6 a"t8ma)
E8en t8e mot8er 8a" no milkC an6 it i" 6ifficult
to %rocure a ;et-nur"eC t8e c8il6 "8oul6 be fe6 on
co;Q" or goatQ" milk) 0t "8oul6 al;a7" be 8an6le6
gentl7C an6 ne9er 6i"turbe6 in "lee% nor ma6e to
"lee% again"t it" inclination) (nointingC bat8ingC
(njan Ua certain a%%lication to t8e e7e")C an6 "oft
clot8ingC are al;a7" goo6 for infant") /8e
mot8erQ" milk ma7 be t8ickC 8otC aci6C "cantC "altC
or Q "oft)Q /8e la"t kin6 i" t8e be"tC an6 make"
t8e c8il6 "trongC 8ealt87C an6 8an6"ome) /8e
ot8er kin6" of milk are injuriou" to t8e c8il6 an6
cau"e 9ariou" 6i"ea"e") ( mot8er 8a9ing "cant
milk ma7 take ;it8 a69antage milk miPe6 ;it8
black %e%%er an6 long %e%%erC ;8ic8 ;ill %romote
t8e "ecretion) ,imilarl7C %o;6ere6 long %e%%erC
6r7 gingerC an6 Haritaki U/erminalia C8ebula)
miPe6 ;it8 clarifie6 butter an6 treacleC if taken
in t8e form of an electuar7C ;ill a""i"t t8e "ecern-
ment con"i6erabl7) Harita "a7" t8at a %re%ara-
tion of 6r7 gingerC long %e%%erC black %e%%erC t8e
C8a%) 0A)T 4.02@ 2?0+0/1) 53
t8ree m7robalan"C 48ana UCorian6rum "ati9um)C
1a9aniC ,8ata9ari U("%aragu" tomento"u")C Aaclia
U(coru" Calamu")C ?ra8mi UH76rocot7lc a"iatica)
an6 ?8argiC gi9en ;it8 8one7 to t8e infantC ;ill
accelerate t8e %o;er of "%eec8 an6 im%ro9e t8e
9oice) /8e memor7 an6 intelligence of t8e c8il6
can be greatl7 im%ro9e6 b7 gi9ing it an electuar7
of @a6uc8i U/ino"%ora cor6ifolia)C (%amarga
U(c87rant8e" a"%era)C Ai6anga U3mbelia ribe")C
,8ank8a%u"8%i U Clitoria /ernatea)C Aac8a U(coru"
Calamu")C Haritaki U/erminalia C8ebula)C 6r7
gingerC an6 ,8ata9ariC ;it8 clarifie6 butter)
( %a""ing reference "8oul6 no; be ma6e to t8e
"e9eral rite" %erforme6 b7 t8e Hin6oo" from con-
ce%tion to 6eli9er7C an6 from t8e time of birt8
e9en until after 6eat8) /8e"e rite" are t;ent7-
fi9e in numberC but t8e %rinci%al one" are "iPteenC
calle6 t8e "iPteen ,an"kara") /8e"e are < @ar-
b8a68anaC a ceremon7 %erforme6 %re9iou" to
conce%tionC t8at i"C ;8en t8e 8u"ban6 meet"
8i" ;ife for t8e fir"t time on 8er attaining
maturit7 < Dun"a9anaC a fe"ti9al 8el6 on t8e
;ifeQ" %ercei9ing t8e fir"t "ign" of %regnanc7 S it-
i" generall7 %erforme6 in t8e t8ir6 mont8 <
(na9alob8anaC a rite %erforme6 to a9ert
mi"carriage < ,imantonna7anaC t8e ceremon7 of
%arting t8e 8air of a ;oman on 8er entering
t8e fourt8C "iPt8C or eig8t8 mont8 of ge"tation <
5K H024-- D3(C/0C3 RC8a%) 0A)
BatakarmaC rite" at birt8C among ot8er" %utting
g8ee into t8e c8il6Q" mout8 ;it8 a gol6en "%oonC
before cutting t8e cor6 < 2amakaranaC naming
t8e little one on t8e ele9ent8C t;elft8C or an7 ot8er
au"%iciou" 6a7 < 2i"8kramanaC taking t8e infant
out of t8e 8ou"e ;8en t8ree mont8" ol6 to "ee
t8e moon in t8e t8ir6 lig8t fortnig8t < ,ur7ani-
lokanaC t8e ceremon7 of "8o;ing t8e "un to
t8e c8il6 ;8en four mont8" ol6 < (nna%ra"8anaC
fee6ing t8e bab7 ;it8 it" fir"t 6i"8 of rice in t8e
"iPt8 or eig8t8 mont8 < *arna9e68aC t8e cere-
mon7 of boring t8e c8il6Q" ear"C generall7 %er-
forme6 in o66 mont8" after birt8 < C8u6akaranaC
t8e rite of "8a9ing t8e 8ea6 "a9e one lockC calle6
V C8u6a V or cre"tC in t8e fir"t or t8ir6 7earC an6
not later t8an t8e fift8 7ear < %ana7anaC t8e
in9e"titure ;it8 t8e "acrificial t8rea6C ;8ic8 fall"
from t8e left "8oul6er to t8e rig8t 8i%C for a
?ra8man in t8e eig8t8 an6 not later t8an t8e
"iPteent8 7ear S for a *"8atri7a in t8e ele9ent8
an6 not later t8an t8e t;ent7-"econ6 7ear S an6
for a Aai"87a in t8e t;elft8 an6 not later t8an
t8e t;ent7-fourt8 < t8i" ceremon7 mark" t8e com-
mencement of "tu6ent-life < Ma8anam7aC an
initiator7 rite generall7 four 6a7" after t8e la"tC
;8en t8e @aetreeZ i" taug8t an6 re%eate6<
Z V/8e mo"t "acre6 an6 mo"t uni9er"all7 u"e6 of all Ae6ic
C8a%) 0A)T 4.02@ 2?0+0/1) 55
,ama9artanaC a ceremon7 on t8e "tu6entQ" com-
%letion of 8i" "tu6ie" an6 return 8ome after 8a9ing
%a""e6 t8irt7-"iPC eig8teenC or at lea"t nine 7ear"
in "tatu %u%illari<Z Ai9a8aC marriage < t8e la"t i"
,9argaro8anaC or t8e funeral rite) ?e"i6e" t8e
abo9e t8ere are ot8er ceremonie" ;8ic8 are %er-
forme6 eit8er 6ail7C mont8l7C 7earl7C or occa"ion-
all7C t8e object of all of t8em being more or le""
t8e %re"er9ation of 8ealt8 bot8 of bo67 an6 min6)
(n7 6i"comfort in t8e bo67 i" calle6 a 6i"ea"e)
4i"ea"e" are cla""e6 un6er four 8ea6"C 9i5)C (gan-
tuka Uacci6ental)C "uc8 a" a fall or a cut S ,8arira
U%87"ical)C "uc8 a" 8ea6ac8eC fe9erC 67"enter7C
coug8C etcC S Mana"a Umental)C a" in"anit7C fearC
griefS ,9ab8a9ika Unatural)C a" t8ir"tC 8ungerC
"lee%) 3ntire free6om from t8e"eC b7 t8e a%%li-
cation of %ro%er reme6ie"C i" t8e a9o;e6 object
of me6ical "cience) /8e %re9ention of 6i"ea"e i"
con"i6ere6 b7 t8e Hin6oo" to be of greater im-
%ortance t8an it" cure) (ccor6ingl7C t8eir me6ical
;ork" la7 great "tre"" on certain rule" of con6uct to
be ob"er9e6 all t8e 7ear roun6) (" t8e"e %rece%t"
enable u" to %ee% into t8e %rinci%le" of H7giene a"
un6er"too6 b7 t8e ancient"C it ;ill be ;ell no; to
6e9ote "ome "%ace to a "8ort "ummar7 of t8em)
Z /8i" "8o;" t8at t8e Hin6oo ,cri%ture" 6o not enjoin c8il6-
5I D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
CH(D/3. A)
D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3
r%H3 im%ortance of a kno;le6ge of t8e c8arac-
teri"tic" of t8e countr7 one li9e" in attracte6
t8e earl7 attention of t8e ancient") Countrie"
;ere generall7 arrange6 into t8ree cla""e"C namel7C
(nu%aC BangalaC an6 Mi"8ra) (nu%a i" a moi"t
an6 mar"87 countr7 inter"ecte6 b7 numerou"
ri9er"C lake"C an6 mountain" S an6 containing
";an"C crane"C gee"eC 8are"C %ig"C buffaloe"C 6eer
an6 ot8er ;il6 animal"C a" ;ell a" a 9ariet7
of fruit an6 9egetable"C inclu6ing %a667C "ugar-
cane an6 %lantain tree) 0n "uc8 a countr7
V %8legmatic V 6i"ea"e" an6 V affection" of t8e
;in6 V are 9er7 common) Bangala i" a 6r7
countr7 ;8ere ;ater i" "carce S ;8ere ,8ami
U(cacia farne"iana)C *areera U Ca%%ari" a%li7llaWZC
(rka UCalatro%i" gigantea)C Deelo U,al9a6ora
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) 5O
in6ica)C an6 jujube tree" aboun6 S ;8ere t8e
fruit" are ePcee6ingl7 ";eetC an6 bea"t" like
6onke7"C bear" an6 "%otte6 6eerC are "een in
great number) 0n "uc8 a countr7 t8e 6i"ea"e"
of V bile an6 bloo6 V are freJuent) Mi"8ra i"
a countr7 ;8ic8 8a" all t8e a69antage" of (nu%a
an6 Bangala ;it8out t8eir 6i"a69antage") 0t i"
neit8er too moi"t nor too 8ot) ,uc8 a countr7
i" naturall7 t8e be"tC a" it %romote" 8ealt8 an6
longe9it7) ( c8ange recommen6e6 to a %atient
on t8e %rinci%le un6erl7ing t8e abo9e cla""ifi-
cation i" "u%%o"e6 to 8a"ten 8i" reco9er7) (
man "uffering from a V %8legmatic 6i"or6er V
mig8t ;it8 a69antage go to a Bangala countr7C
an6 in t8e "ame ;a7 one "uffering from biliar7
com%laint" mig8t %rofit b7 re"orting to an
(nu%a countr7) 0t i" t8e 6ut7 of t8e %87"ician
to %re"er9e t8e 8ealt8 of 8i" %atient b7 kee%ing
t8e 9ariou" 8umour" in 8i" bo67 in eJui%oi"eC
an6 a kno;le6ge of t8e climate" i" in6i"%en"able
to 8im) (fter acJuiring kno;le6ge of t8e
countr7C t8e Hin6oo" 8a9e got to atten6 to
t8eir %er"onal 6utie" in a %re"cribe6 manner)
0t i" goo6 for a 8ealt87 man to ri"e earl7 in
t8e morningC t8at i"C about an 8our before "un-
ri"eC an6 remember Ai"8nooC t8e %re"er9ing %o;er
5G D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
of nature) >or t8e obtainment of longe9it7
t8e name" of ("89att8amaC ?aliC A7a"aC Hanu-
manaC Aib8i"8anaC *ri%aC Dar"8uramaC an6 Mark-
an6e7aC ;8o are long-li9e6 an6 are "u%%o"e6 to
be "till li9ingC t8oug8 age" 8a9e rolle6 b7C are
al"o to be recalle6 to memor7) /8e fir"t t8ing"
a %er"on "8oul6 look at an6 touc8 after ri"ing
from be6 are cur6"C g8ee Uclarifie6 butter)C a
looking-gla""C ,ar"a%a "ee6"C ?il9a UB3gle Mar-
melo")C @oroc8ana Ua 7ello; %igment)C an6 gar-
lan6" of flo;er" S an6 if 8e 6e"ire" a long life
8e "8oul6 6ail7 look at 8i" face reflecte6 in
g8ee) He "8oul6 t8en an";er t8e call" of
nature ;it8 8i" 8ea6 co9ere6) /8en 8e "8oul6
clean 8i" teet8 ;it8 a toot8 %a"te or %o;6er)
/8e "ub"tance" generall7 u"e6 for t8e %ur%o"e
are %o;6ere6 tobaccoC "altC or burnt betel-nutC
or "ome com%oun6 %re%aration of 6rug" "uc8
a" %e%%erC 6r7-gingerC long %e%%er an6 Bijbal
ULant8oP7lum r8et"a)) /8e mo"t common toot8-
bru"8 i" a ten6er t;ig of ?a9ala U(cacia
arabica) S but t8e me6ical ;ork" recommen6
ot8er t;ig"C to ;8ic8 ;on6erful %ro%ertie" are
a"cribe6) ( bru"8 of (rka t;ig gi9e" "trengt8 S
of Aata U>icu" in6ica) gi9e" brig8tne"" to t8e
face S *aranja UDongamia glabra) en"ure" 9ie-
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) 5H
tor7 S Di%%ala U>icu" religio"eZC) bring" ;ealt8 S
BujubeC goo6 6innerS MangoC 8ealt8S *a6amba
U2auclea Ca6amba) "8ar%en" memor7S C8am%aka
UMic8elia C8am%aca) im%ro9e" t8e organ" of
"%eec8 an6 8earing S Ba"mine a9ert" ba6 6ream" S
,8iree"8a U(cacia ,eri""a) %romote" 8ealt8 an6
%ro"%erit7S (%amarga U(c87rant8e" a"%era) in-
crea"e" %atience an6 t8oug8tfulne"" S Domegranate
an6 Cone""i bark im%ro9e bo6il7 beaut7 S ;8ile
a toot8-bru"8 of @unja U(bru" %recatoriu")C
*atalaC HintalaC ?ri8a68araC *etaki UDan6anu"
o6orati""imu")C 6ate or cocoa treeC make" a man
Q im%ure)Q Der"on" "uffering from certain 6i"ea"e"
are %ro8ibite6 from u"ing t8e toot8-bru"8) (fter
cleaning t8e teet8 t8e tongue i" %oli"8e6 b7 mean"
of a "cra%erC ;8ic8 ma7 be of gol6C "il9erC or
co%%erC or e9en of a "%lit t;ig ten finger"
long) /8en t8e mout8 i" rin"e6 ; O it8 col6 ;ater
"e9eral time" an6 t8e face ;a"8e6) /8i" %ro-
ce"" kee%" t8e mout8 free from 6i"ea"e) /8e
;a"8ing of t8e mout8 ;it8 col6 ;ater i" a
nece""ar7 a6ju9ant to reme6ie" for a%8t8aeC
%im%le"C 6r7ne"" of an6 burning "en"ation in
t8e mout8) Ea"8ing ;it8 luke;arm ;ater
remo9e" %8legm an6 ;in6C an6 kee%" t8e mout8
moi"t) /8e no"e i" %re"er9e6 from 6i"ea"e b7
I0 D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
6ro%%ing into it a little ra%e-"ee6 oil e9er7
6a7) /8i" ten6" to kee% t8e mout8 ";eetC
im%ro9e" t8e 9oiceC an6 %re9ent" t8e 8air turn-
ing gra7) E8ite antimon7 a%%lie6 to t8e con-
juncti9a ;it8 a lea6 or 5inc %encilC be"i6e"
making t8e e7e" beautifulC en"ure" acute 9i"ion)
?lack antimon7 of t8e ,in68u mountain can be
u"e6 e9en in it" unrefine6 "tate) 0t remo9e"
t8e irritationC burningC 87%er"ecretion of mucu"
an6 %ainful lac8r7mationC ren6er" t8e e7e" beau-
tifulC an6 enable" t8em to "tan6 t8e glare an6
t8e ;in6) -ne ;8o i" fatigue6C fe9eri"8C 8a"
ke%t 9igil" or taken a mealC "8oul6 ab"tain from
a%%l7ing antimon7 to 8i" e7e") /8e nail"C bear6C
an6 8air are to be ke%t clean an6 trimme6C
an6 are to be cut e9er7 fift8 6a7) /8i" %ro-
mote" "trengt8C 8ealt8C cleanline""C an6 beaut7)
/8e 8air "8oul6 be combe6S an6 t8e looking-
gla"" "8oul6 be in con"tant u"eC a" t8at ten6" to
t8e im%ro9ement of t8e com%lePion an6 t8e
%rolongation of life) /8e 8air in t8e no"e-
"8oul6 not be %ulle6 outC a" 6oing "o ;ill im-
%air t8e e7e"ig8t) .egular ePerci"e "8oul6 be
taken e9er7 6a7) 0t make" t8e bo67 lig8t an6
acti9eC t8e limb" "trong an6 ;ell-6e9elo%e6C an6
t8e ga"tral fire increa"e" "o muc8 t8at an7 kin6
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) I:
of foo6 i" "oou 6ige"te6) D87"ical ePerci"e i"
t8e "ure"t mean" of getting ri6 of "luggi"8-
ne"") 0t i" al;a7" beneficial to t8o"e taking
foo6 ric8 in fat") 0t i" mo"t ;8ole"ome 6uring
"%ring) 3Perci"e after 6inner or after "ePual
intercour"e i" injuriou") 0t i" not recommen6e6
at all for one "uffering from a"t8maC con"um%-
tionC an6 c8e"t 6i"ea"e) -9er-ePertion i" 6e%re-
cate6) /8ere are 9ariou" kin6" of %87"ical
ePerci"e"C in-6oor an6 out-6oor) ?ut "ome of
t8e Hin6oo" "et a"i6e a %ortion of t8eir 6ail7
;or"8i% for making "alutation" to t8e ,un
b7 %ro"tration") /8i" met8o6 of a6oration
affor6" t8em "o muc8 mu"cular acti9it7 t8at
it take" to "ome ePtent t8e %lace of %87"ical
Derfume6 oil "8oul6 be rubbe6 o9er t8e bo67C
e"%eciall7 o9er t8e 8ea6C ear"C an6 "ole" of t8e
feet) Me6icate6 oil" 6imini"8 fatigueC %romote
"trengt8C comfortC an6 "lee%C an6 im%ro9e t8e
colour of t8e "kinC kee% it "oft an6 8ealt87C
an6 t8u" contribute to t8e %rolongation of life)
/8e anointing of t8e 8ea6 ;it8 oil %re9ent"C
or 8el%" to cureC 6i"ea"e" of t8e "cal%C an6
a""i"t" t8e gro;t8 of 8air) ,imilarl7C 6ro%%ing
oil into t8e ear" %re9ent" ear 6i"ea"e") /8e ear-
I2 D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
6ro%"C if t8e7 con"i"t of 9egetable juiceC "8oul6
be u"e6 before eatingC an6 if of oilC after "un-
"et) -il ;ell rubbe6 into t8e "ole" of t8e feet
"trengt8en" t8e leg" an6 %re9ent" (""uring of
t8e "kin) 0t al"o in6uce" "lee% an6 im%ro9e"
t8e 9i"ion) (" "er%ent" ne9er go near an
eagleC "oC it i" "ai6C 6i"ea"e" 6o not a%%roac8
a %er"on ;8o i" in t8e 8abit of taking %87"ical
ePerci"e an6 anointing 8i" limb" ;it8 oil) /8e
;8ole bo67 i" energi"e6 if anointe6 before t8e
6ail7 bat8) ?ut t8e anointment i" 6e%recate6
in fre"8 ca"e" of fe9er"C in6ige"tionC anaemiaC or
9omiting) 0t i" al"o to be a9oi6e6 b7 one ;8o
8a" taken a cat8artic) (nointment i" follo;e6 b7
bat8ing) 39er7 Hin6oo i" reJuire6 to bat8e Y at
Z (mong Hin6oo" bat8ing i" inclu6e6 a" %art of t8eir religion"
6ut7) ManuQ" or6inance i" < N V 3arl7 in t8e morning let 8im 9oi6
f"ece"C bat8eC 6ecorate 8i" bo67C clean 8i" teet8C a%%l7 coll7rium to
8i" e7e"C an6 ;or"8i% t8e go6"V Ui9) 203)) 1ajna9alk7a al"o
recommen6" ablution a" one of t8e reJuire6 religiou" ob"er9ance"
Uiii) 3:K)) (" a ruleC bat8ing i" a %re-recjui"ite to t8e morning mealC
t8oug8 not a fe; of t8e 8ig8er cla""e" %erform ablution before taking
t8eir e9ening meal al"oC a" ;ell a" after touc8ing an7 unclean t8ing)
Hin6oo" boa"t t8at t8e7 are t8e mo"t cleanl7 nation in t8e ;orl6C
an6 t8i" "tatement i" borne out b7 a remark of ,ir Eilliam HunterC
;8o "a7" < V 0t i" nee6le"" to "a7 t8at t8e 0n6ian Hin6oo"
"tan6 out a" ePam%le" of bo6il7 cleanline"" among ("iatic race"C
an6C ;e ma7 a66C among t8e race" of t8e ;orl6) /8e ablution" of
t8e Hin6oo 8a9e %a""e6 into a %ro9erb) Hi" religion 6eman6"
t8emC an6 t8e cu"tom of age" 8a" ma6e t8em a %rime nece""it7 of
8i" 6ail7 life)V
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) I3
lea"t once e9er7 6a7) ?at8ing after a meal i" in-
juriou") ( col6 bat8 i" a %re9enti9e of bloo6-
6i"ea"e"C ;8ile a 8ot one 8a" an alterati9e effect)
/8e 6ail7 u"e of an emblic m7robalan bat8 %re-
"er9e" t8e black colour of t8e 8air an6 en"ure" life
for a 8un6re6 7ear") /oo 8ot a bat8 i" injuriou"
to t8e e7e") /o bring t8e ;ater for ablution" to
t8e reJuire6 tem%eratureC it i" 6irecte6 t8at 8ot
;ater "8oul6 be a66e6 to col6C but t8at col6 ;ater
"8oul6 ne9er be a66e6 to 8ot ;ater) (n ol6
%87"ician name6 Hari"8c8an6ra "a7" < V menC
a ;arm bat8C fre"8 milkC a 7oung 6am"elC an6
mo6erate u"e of fatt7 article" of foo6C are con-
6uci9e to 7our 8ealt8)V Der"on" "uffering from
agueC col6C 6iarr8oeaC 67"%e%"iaC ear affection"C
or e7e 6i"ea"e"C "8oul6 ab"tain from bat8ing)
E8en t8e bat8 i" o9erC t8e bo67 i" to be
carefull7 rubbe6 6r7 ;it8 a to;el an6 %ro%erl7
0t ma7 be note6 b7 t8e ;a7 t8at t8e Hin6oo"C
a" a ruleC ne9er bat8e in a nu6e "tate eit8er at
8ome or in %ublic) /8ere i" a religiou" inter-
6iction again"t eP%o"ure of t8e %er"on UManuC 9i)
K5)) 0n col6 ;eat8er "affronC "an6alC an6 black
aloe" are a%%lie6 to t8e bo67 S in "ummerC a %a"te
of "an6alC cam%8orC an6 (n6ro%ogon muricatu" i"
IK D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
recommen6e6C an6 in t8e rain7 "ea"on t8e bo67
ma7C ;it8 a69antageC be "meare6 ;it8 a %re%ara-
tion of "an6alC "affron an6 mu"k) @oo6 men are
a69i"e6 ne9er to %ut on 6irt7 clot8e"C a" t8e7
cau"e irritation an6 ot8er 6i"ea"e" of t8e "kinC
an6 make one look 6i"re%utable) -ne "8oul6
;ear flo;er" an6 ornament" accor6ing to oneQ"
ta"te an6 mean") >ragrant flo;er" an6 lea9e"
beautif7 t8e bo67C ePcite amorou" %a""ionC Qan6
6ri9e a;a7 e9il "%irit") @ol6 i" 8ol7C au"%iciou"C
an6 a gi9er of contentment) Dreciou" "tone"
%o""e"" t8e efficac7 of a9erting e9il e7e" an6 e9il
influence" of t8e %lanet"C a" ;ell a" ba6 6ream"
an6 ;icke6 intention") C8araka a66" t8atC after
t8e %urification of t8e bo67 an6 before meal"C it
i" %ro%er to 6e9ote "ome time to t8e ;or"8i% of
t8e (lmig8t7)
( man "8oul6 take 8i" meal" t;ice a 6a7 N in
t8e morning bet;een nine an6 t;el9e oQclockC an6
in t8e e9ening bet;een "e9en an6 ten) /8e meal"
"8oul6 not be taken in a %ublic %laceC a" it i" "ai6
t8at eatingC co8abiting an6 an";ering t8e call"
of nature "8oul6 al;a7" be 6one in %ri9ate) (
6inner-"er9ice of gol6 i" t8e be"t from a me6icinal
%oint of 9ie;C an6 it i" "u%%o"e6 to be t8e be"t
tonic for t8e e7e) 3ating out of "il9er i" eJuall7
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) I5
efficaciou" in %romoting 8e%atic function") (
"er9ice of 5inc im%ro9e" t8e intelligence an6
a%%etite) >oo6 "er9e6 in bra"" uten"il" %romote"
;in6 an6 8eatC but cure" %8legmatic 6i"or6er"
an6 eP%el" ;orm") /8e u"e of "teel or gla""
9e""el" cure" c8loro"i"C jaun6ice an6 intume"-
cence) ( "tone or cla7 "er9ice bring" on %o9ert7)
Eoo6en %late" are goo6 a%%eti"er"C but 8el% t8e
"ecretion of %8legmatic 8umour) /8e u"e of cer-
tain lea9e" a" %late" act" a" an anti6ote again"t
%oi"on) E8en at 6innerC a ;ater jug ;it8 a cu%
"8oul6 be %lace6 on t8e rig8t 8an6) ( co%%er
9e""el i" t8e be"t for t8e %ur%o"e) /8e nePt be"t
i" an eart8en %ot) Ae""el" ma6e of cr7"tal an6
la%i" la5uli are al"o %ure an6 cooling) 0t i" goo6
to take a little rock-"alt an6 fre"8 ginger before
entering t8e 6ining-roomC a" t8i" i" "u%%o"e6 to
;8et t8e a%%etite an6 clear t8e t8roat) C8araka
"a7" t8at one "8oul6 not "it to 6inner facing t8e
nort8) ManuQ" 6ictum on t8i" %oint i" "ome;8at
6ifferent) He "a7" t8at one 6e"iring longe9it7
"8oul6 face t8e ea"t ;8ile 8a9ing 8i" meal S one
6e"irou" of fame mu"t face to t8e "out8 S of
;ealt8C to;ar6" t8e ;e"t S an6 one 6e"iring true
kno;le6ge "8oul6 "it looking to;ar6" t8e nort8
Uii) 52)) ,8oul6 one 8a%%en to %a"" flatu" 6uring
II D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
a meal 8e i" to lea9e off eating an6 not to take
an7 foo6 6uring t8e 6a7) /8e name of VHanu-
manaC "on of (njanee V i" mentione6 to a9ert t8e
influence of e9il e7e"C an6 al"o t8e name of t8e
,u%reme ?eingC ;8o Vi" t8e >ire re"i6ing in t8e
bo6ie" of li9ing creature"C ;8ereC joine6 ;it8 t8e
t;o "%irit" ;8ic8 are calle6 Drana an6 (%anaC
He 6ige"t" t8e foo6 ;8ic8 t8e7 eatC ;8ic8 i" of
four kin6"V U?8ag9at @itaC P9) :K)) /8e four
kin6" of foo6 abo9e referre6 to are Ua) t8o"e to
be ma"ticate6 ;it8 t8e teet8C a" brea6S Ub) t8o"e
licke6 ;it8 t8e tongueC a" c8utne7 S Uc) t8o"e
"ucke6 in ;it8 t8e li%"C a" mango S an6 U6) t8o"e
"im%l7 imbibe6C a" liJui6") /8e 9ariou" 6i"8e"
are "er9e6 one after anot8er in a %re"cribe6 or6er
an6 are %ut in t8e %lace" a""igne6 to t8em) /8e
foo6 %lace6 before one i" to be treate6 ;it8 6i9ine
re"%ectC "uc8 treatment being con6uci9e to 8ealt8
an6 "trengt8 UManuC ii) 55)) Domegranate"C
"ugar-caneC an6 "imilar t8ing"C "8oul6 be eaten
fir"t an6 ne9er at t8e en6 of 6inner) 0t i" goo6
to take 8ar6 an6 but7raceou" "ub"tance" in t8e
beginningC "oft 9ian6" in t8e mi66leC an6 t8e
liJui6" to;ar6" t8e en6 of t8e meal) ,imilarl7C
";eet" are to be taken fir"t S "alt an6 aci6 t8ing"
nePt S an6 %ungentC bitterC an6 a"tringent t8ing"
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) IO
at t8e en6) /8e 6inner "8oul6 be fini"8e6 ;it8 a
6raug8t of milkC or /akra U;8e7) miPe6 ;it8 ;ater)
-ne "8oul6 not 8urr7 o9er 8i" meal") @orman6-
i"m i" to be a9oi6e6) Half t8e ca9it7 of t8e
"tomac8 i" to be fille6 ;it8 foo6C a Juarter ;it8
;aterC an6 t8e remaining %art i" to be left em%t7)
Eater ma7 be taken no; an6 t8en 6uring t8e meal S
if taken in t8e beginning it retar6" 6ige"tionC an6
8a" a ten6enc7 to make one lean S if taken at t8e
en6 it %ro6uce" obe"it7 UAagb8ata)) ( t8ir"t7
man "8oul6 not eat before Juenc8ing 8i" t8ir"tC
an6 a 8ungr7 one "8oul6 not 6rink before taking
"ome foo6) (n7 6i"regar6 of t8e fir"t rule cau"e"
tumourC an6 of t8e "econ6 6ro%"7) ,u"8ruta
6ra;" %articular attention to t8e a69antage" of
6ining at fiPe6 8our"C an6 recommen6" t8at t8e
foo6 once taken off t8e "to9e "8oul6 ne9er be
8eate6 o9er t8e fire again) -ne mu"t "tu67 t8e
nature of t8e foo6 before eating itC for t8e foo6
one eat" 8a" muc8 to 6o ;it8 t8e 6e9elo%ment of
t8e min6C an6 it i" t8e min6 t8at make" a man
eit8er goo6C ba6C "tu%i6C or ;icke6) V /8ere are
t8ree "%ecie" of foo6 6ear unto all men) /8e
6i"tinction" are ba"e6 on t8e in8erent Jualit7 or
@una of t8e foo6) /8e foo6 t8at i" 6ear unto
t8o"e of t8e ,at9a @una UJualit7 of goo6ne"") i"
IG D.02C0D+3, -D H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
"uc8 a" increa"e" t8eir lifeC t8eir %o;erC an6 t8eir
"trengt8C an6 kee%" t8em 8a%%7C contente6C an6
free from "ickne"") 0t i" %lea"ing to t8e %alateC
nouri"8ingC "ub"tantialC an6 congenial to t8e
bo67) /8e foo6 t8at i" co9ete6 b7 t8o"e of t8e
3ajo @una UJualit7 of %a""ion) i" eit8er 9er7
bitterC "ourC "altC 8otC %ungentC a"tringentC or 9er7
8eatingC an6 gi9et8 not8ing but %ain an6 mi"er7)
(n6 t8e 6elig8t of t8o"e in ;8om t8e /amo @una
UJualit7 of 6arkne"") %re9ailet8C i" "uc8 a" ;a"
6re""e6 t8e 6a7 before an6 i" out of "ea"on S 8a"
lo"t it" fla9our an6 8a" gone %utri6 S t8e lea9ing"
of ot8er" an6 all t8ing" t8at are im%ureV U?8ag-
9at @itaC 9ii) G-:0)) /8o"e ;8o 6e"ire to 8a9e
t8e Jualit7 of goo6ne"" "8oul6 take t8e foo6 u"e6
b7 t8e V ,at9ika" V an6 not ot8er") E8en t8e
meal i" o9erC t8e mout8 i" "cru%ulou"l7 cleane6C
bot8 in"i6e an6 outC b7 ;aterC "o al"o t8e 8an6")
,alt ma7 be u"e6 to remo9e t8e grea"ine"") (n7
%article" of foo6 "ticking bet;een t8e teet8 "8oul6
be %icke6 out) /8e e7e" "8oul6 be gentl7 "troke6
;it8 t8e ;et 8an6"C a" t8i" 8a" t8e effect of
im%ro9ing t8e 9i"ion) /8en a %ra7er i" offere6
to (ga"t7aC (gniC an6 Aa6a9anala Ut8e ,ub-
marine >ire ;8ic8 i" "u%%o"e6 to 6e9our t8e
;ater" of t8e ocean) to t8e follo;ing effect < V0
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) IH
8el% me to 6ige"t t8e foo6 0 8a9e eaten S let
me 8a9e t8e 8a%%ine"" re"ulting from ;ell-
6ige"te6 foo6 S an6 relie9e me from all 6i"ea"e")V
MangalaC ,ur7aC an6 ("89inikumara" are al"o
%iou"l7 remembere6C a" t8e mention of t8eir
name" i" "ai6 to %o""e"" t8e %o;er of 8el%ing
t8e 6ige"ti9e organ") (fter 6innerC aloe-"moking
or t8e c8e;ing of Dan Ubetel-leaf) ;it8 certain
aromatic" an6 "%ice" i" a69i"ableC for it 8a" t8e
%ro%ert7 of eP%elling t8e %8legm ;8ic8 increa"e"
after 6inner) /8e Dan i" a"tringentC eP8ilarantC
aromaticC "timulantC carminati9eC a%8ro6i"iacC
Q lig8tCQ an6 8eating) 0t i" a goo6 %8legmagogueC
generate" "emen an6 bloo6 in t8e bo67C an6
le""en" ;in6 an6 fatigue) /8e 9ariou" ingre6ient"
miPe6 in certain %ro%ortion" ;it8 t8e betel-lea9e"
are catec8uC limeC betel-nutC car6amumC clo9eC
nutmeg an6 "ome ot8er "%ice") 0n t8e ma"ti-
cator7 to be taken in t8e morning t8e Juantit7
of betel-nut ma7 be a little more t8an at ot8er
time" S at noon catec8u ma7 be a little in ePce"" S
an6 at nig8t t8e %ro%ortion of lime ma7 be a
trifle more) 0t remo9e" all fetor from t8e breat8C
im%art" fragrance to itC an6 im%ro9e" t8e 9oice)
/8e Dan i" not beneficial to t8o"e ;8o are "uffer-
ing from toot8 an6 e7e 6i"ea"e"C ;8o 8a9e taken
O0 D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
an o%ening me6icineC or ;8o are in an intoPicate6
"tate) Ealking a 8un6re6 %ace" after 6inner
%romote" lifeC ;8ile remaining "itting bring" on
i6lene"") .unning after taking oneQ" meal i" tant-
amount to running after 6eat8) 0t mu"t t8ere-
fore be a9oi6e6) (fter a brief loungeC t8e be"t
t8ing to 6o i" to lie 6o;n on t8e left "i6e for
a ;8ileC a" t8i" %o"ition fa9our" 6ige"tion) (t
t8i" time t8e Hin6oo" generall7 un6ergo t8e
%roce"" of "8am%ooing N ;8ic8 i" but anot8er
name for ma""ageC N flePionC ePten"ionC rotationC
%ronationC "u%inationC a66uctionC ab6uction an6
circum6uction of t8e 9ariou" %art" of t8e bo67C
a" ;ell a" racking t8e joint" an6 em%lo7ing gentle
blo;" an6 frictionC forming %art of t8e mani%ula-
tion) /8i" %urifie" t8e fle"8C bloo6C an6 "kinC
eP8ilarate" t8e min6C bring" on "lee%C cure" 6i"ea"e6
%8legmC ;in6 an6 fatC 6imini"8e" fatigueC an6
increa"e" internal 8eat) /8e %ractice i" %eculiar
to Hin6oo"C an6 i" referre6 to in t8eir ancient
;ork") ,8am%ooing in one form or anot8er 8a"
been %racti"e6 from immemorial age" b7 t8e
C8ine"eC t8e @reek"C an6 t8e .oman"C ;8oC accor6-
ing to "ome Ee"tern aut8oritie"C "eem to 8a9e
obtaine6 it" kno;le6ge from t8e Hin6oo") 0t i"
of 9ariou" kin6"C an6 t8e barber ca"te in 0n6ia
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) O:
i" "u%%o"e6 to be eP%ert in t8e art) 0t i" a great
curati9e agent in t8e treatment of com%laint"
connecte6 ;it8 t8e ner9ou" "7"temC an6 al;a7"
%ro6uce" t8e mo"t agreeable "en"ation) /8e
a69antage" of "8am%ooing 8a9e begun to be
a%%reciate6 b7 t8e Ee"tern Me6ical ,cienceC
;8ic8 no longer 8e"itate" to recogni"e ma""age
a" a t8era%eutic agent) /8i" fact i" 9ie;e6 ;it8
"ati"faction b7 t8e Hin6oo"C ;8o fon6l7 8o%e to
"ee in t8e "e9eral "cientific 6i"co9erie" of t8e
Ee"t t8e re9i9al an6 "al9ation of t8eir o;n
me6ical loreC ;8ic8C in"tea6 of being treate6 a"
em%iricalC ;ill be recogni"e6 a" t8e collecti9e
;i"6om of t8o"e ;8o 8a9e 8a6 6ue regar6 to
"cience an6 t8eor7) 0n 0n6iaC %eo%le N e"%eciall7
t8e male" N are in t8e 8abit of being "8am%ooe6
more a" a matter of luPur7 t8an an7t8ing el"e)
>emale %atient" are o%erate6 u%on b7 female
eP%ert" onl7) 3Pce""i9e in6ulgence in ma""ageC
a" in e9er7t8ing el"eC i" 6e%recate6)
,lee%ing in t8e 6a7-timeC ePce%t in "ummerC
i" 6i"courage6) 0t i" allo;e6 to t8o"e ;8o are
gi9en to ;alking an6 ri6ing long 6i"tance"C
an6 ;8o are in t8e 8abit of un6ergoing muc8
%87"ical ePertionS al"o to c8il6ren an6 t8e "ickC
a" ;ell a" to t8o"e ;8o can V control t8eir "lee%CV
O2 D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
t8at i"C t8o"e ;8o can 6i"%en"e ;it8 "lee% at
nig8t if t8e7 "lee% 6uring t8e cla7) 0mme6iatel7
after 6inner it i" 8ig8l7 injuriou" eit8er to ba"k
in t8e "unC "it b7 t8e fire"i6eC ";imC ri6eC runC
fig8tC "ingC take %87"ical ePerci"eC or "tu67) (
"en"ible man "8oul6 ne9er 8a9e "ePual inter-
cour"e in t8e 6a7-timeC a" t8at "8orten" life)
(fter taking a little re"tC one ma7 engage 8im-
"elf in 8i" 6ail7 a9ocation) (n e9ening con"titu-
tional i" %articularl7 recommen6e6C a" it make"
t8e "en"e" acti9eC ePcite" t8e action of t8e "tomac8
an6 t8e "kinC an6 im%ro9e" t8e intelligence)
E8en going outC t8e 8ea6 "8oul6 al;a7" be
%rotecte6 ;it8 a lig8t turbanC an6 t8e feet ;it8
"8oe") 0t i" not "afe to %ut on "8oe"C clot8e"C
an6 garlan6" u"e6 b7 ot8er")Z (n umbrella
ma7 be u"e6 in t8e 8ot an6 rain7 "ea"on") -ne
"8oul6 ne9er be ;it8out a ;alking-"tickC a" it
%rotect" 8im again"t bea"t"C %re9ent" fatigueC
an6 V a66" 6ignit7 to t8e in6i9i6ual)V He "8oul6
not look at t8e reflection of 8im"elf in ;aterC
nor "8oul6 8e enter t8e ;ater "tark nake6)
-ne i" to be al;a7" in6u"triou"C an6 "8oul6
ne9er neglect t8e call" of nature) (n ol6)
Z /8i" a69ice "8o;" t8at t8e Hin6oo" ;ere not blin6 to t8e
ri"k of contagion)
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) O3
manC a %an6itC a 6octorC a king an6 a gue"t
"8oul6 al;a7" be re"%ecte6) /8e organ" of
"en"e "8oul6 be neit8er o9ertaPe6 nor allo;e6
to remain i6le) 0t i" 8armful to "ee t8e ri"ing
or t8e "etting "unC to carr7 an7 bur6en on
t8e 8ea6C or to "lee% on a torn be6 or un6er
a tree)
,uc8 a line of con6uct i" con6uci9e to long
lifeC 8ealt8C an6 fame) Ha9ing taug8t 8o; to
be8a9e 6uring t8e 6a7-timeC t8e ancient Hin6oo
;riter" on me6icine 8a9e lai6 6o;n rule" of life
to be ob"er9e6 6uring t8e nig8t) /8e7 6irect
t8at 6innerC co8abitationC "lee%C "tu67 an6 ;alk-
ing in t8e "treetC are not to be in6ulge6 in
at "un"et) /8e c8ance" of enjo7ing t8e moon-
lig8t "8oul6 not be mi""e6C a" it i" cool an6
"oot8ingC an6 increa"e" t8e "ePual a%%etite an6
%o;er") ,u%%er "8oul6 al;a7" be lig8t) Cur6"
are to be a9oi6e6 at nig8tC an6 mu"t ne9er be
u"e6 ;it8out t8e a66ition of "ome "alt) ,ePual
intercour"e "8oul6 be in mo6eration onl7) Eit8
t8e Hin6oo" t8e object of t8e marital relation
i" not "o muc8 t8e gratification of t8e animal
%a""ion a" t8e fulfilment of an obligation) 0t i"
enjoine6 on t8em to beget a %rogen7 N a %utra
U"on)C or a%utri U6aug8ter)) /8e ;or6 V %utra V i"
OK D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
6eri9e6 from V %uCV 8ellC an6 V traCV to liberateC
an6 mean" one ;8o can liberate t8e Mane" from
8ell) >or t8e common belief i"C t8at a" long a"
one 6oe" not 8a9e off"%ringC e"%eciall7 male off-
"%ringC 8i" Mane" are 6oome6 to %er6ition) -ne
67ing ;it8out a "on i" offere6 no "al9ation)
Marriage among t8e Hin6oo" i" t8erefore a reli-
giou" "acrament an6 not a "ocial contract) /o
beget a "on i"C ;it8 t8emC to liJui6ate t8e 6ebt
t8e7 o;e to t8eir ance"tor") 2o one ;oul6
like to be calle6 c8il6le""C a" t8at i" eJui9alent
to a fru"tration of t8e real object of matrimon7)
,ometime"C o;ing to 6i"%arit7 of age bet;een
t8e 8u"ban6 an6 ;ifeC or o;ing to 6efect" in
t8e generati9e organ" of t8e one or t8e ot8erC
or bot8C a "ucce""ful in"emination i" not %o"-
"ible) Eit8 a 9ie; to remo9e t8e"e 6i"abilitie"
t8e "age Aat"a7anaC an aut8or ;8o ;rote about
t8e beginning of t8e C8ri"tian era 8i" book
calle6 V *ama"utra"CV or V (%8ori"m" of +o9eCV
%re"cribe" "ome reme6ie") He allu6e" in 8i"
;riting" to t8e ;ork" of "e9en earlier aut8or"
on t8e "ame "ubject) Hi" 6i"ci%le *oka 8a"
earne6 a ;i6er %o%ularit7) He 6e"cribe" t8e
9ariou" cau"e" t8at %re9ent conce%tionC an6
recommen6" reme6ial mea"ure") (mong ot8er
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) O5
reme6ie" 8e la7" %articular "tre"" on Do"tureC
;8ic8C accor6ing to 8imC 8a" great influence on
t8e female %el9ic organ" S an6 8e in6icate" cer-
tain %o"ition" a" facilitating im%regnation an6
curing internal 6i"or6er") Y He 6e"cribe" a" man7
a" eig8t7-four %o"ition" or ("ana"C ;8ic8 ma7
be re"orte6 to un6er 9ar7ing con6ition"C an6 a66"
t8at t8e"e %o"ture" not onl7 8eig8ten t8e %lea-
"ure of t8e momentC but act a" a mean" of
en"uring fecun6ation) -;ing to t8e ePtreme
6elicac7 of t8e "ubject treate6 of b7 t8i" ;riterC
8i" ;ork 4e .ebu" Aeneri"C t8oug8 tran"late6
into "e9eral language" of ("iaC a%%ear" al;a7"
to 8a9e been 8el6 in 6oubtful re%ute) ?utC
a%art from a la7manQ" %oint of 9ie;C it 6e"er9e"
to be a%%reciate6 b7 t8e me6ical %rofe""ionC
;8ic8 8a" onl7 recentl7 recogni"e6 Do"tural
/reatment a" a ne; an6 u"eful t8era%eutic
met8o6 in @7naecolog7) /8e "ubject i" "till in
it" eP%erimental "tage S but ;8en t8e time come"
for a uni9er"al recognition of Do"ture a" a
curati9e agentC t8e Me6ical ,cience of 0n6ia
;ill be able to claim t8e cre6it of 8a9ing
been t8e fir"t to %ro%oun6 t8e t8eor7) /8e
me6ical ;ork" of t8e Hin6oo" 8a9e from t8e
Z Cf) +ucretiu"C ?ook 0A)
OI D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
earlie"t %erio6 recogni"e6 t8e influence of
Do"ture in %arturitionC an6 6e"cribe6 in 6etail
t8e %o"ition" ;8ic8 ;omen in labour "8oul6
a6o%t) ( "age name6 DatanjalaC t8e foun6er
of t8e 1oga %8ilo"o%87C ;8o flouri"8e6 about
?)C) 200C in 8i" ;ork calle6 V 1oga ,utra"CV
%re"cribe" 9ariou" ("ana" or Do"ture" for %re-
9enting an6 curing 6i"ea"e" to ;8ic8 a"cetic"
an6 ot8er" %racti"ing ab"tract me6itation an6
"eeking "eclu"ion from t8e ;orl6 ma7 be "ubject
6uring t8e %erformance of %87"ical au"teritie")
0t ;ill be clear from t8e"e fact" t8at t8e Hin-
6oo" ;ere not ignorant of t8e ;8ole"ome effect
of Do"ture)
,ePual intercour"e i" %ro8ibite6 for t8e fir"t
four 6a7" after t8e a%%earance of t8e men"trual
flo;C a" ;ell a" on t8e Gt8C :Kt8C an6 :5t8 6a7"
of bot8 t8e fortnig8t" N lig8t an6 6ark S on t8e
anni9er"ar7 6a7" of 6ea6 %arent"C nig8t" %re-
9iou" to t8e anni9er"arie" S on A7ati%ata Ut8e
"e9enteent8 of t8e a"trological 1oga")C Aai68rata
Ut8e t;ent7-"e9ent8 a"trological 1oga)C ,ankranti
Ut8e %a""age of t8e "un or %lanetar7 bo6ie" from
one "ign of t8e 5o6iac to anot8er) S in t8e 6a7-
timeC at mi6nig8tC an6 6uring an ecli%"e) -ne
aut8orit7 a69i"e" men to a9oi6 fle"8C 8one7C oilC
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) OO
an6 ;omanQ" com%an7 on ,un6a7"C if free6om
from 6i"ea"e be 6e"ire6) 0t i" al"o "ai6 t8at
V%utri6 fle"8C ol6 ;omenC t8e autumnal "unC
8alf-cur6le6 milkC an6 morning co8abitation an6
"lee% are fatal)V (gainC ,u"8ruta i" of o%inion
t8at t8e carnal 6e"ire ma7 be gratifie6 at t8e
inter9al of a fortnig8t in "ummerC an6 at t8e
inter9al of not le"" t8an t8ree 6a7" in ot8er
"ea"on") /8o"e ;8o 8a9e eaten a 8ea97 mealC
are 8ungr7C t8ir"t7C im%atientC bo7i"8C ol6C ;it8
ac8ing limb" an6 %re""e6 ;it8 t8e call" of
natureC "8oul6 ab"tain from t8e in6ulgence)
0t i" not %ro%er to %ee% into t8e %ri9ac7 of
a be6-c8amber) ?ut t8e ancient ;riter" on
Me6icine an6 .eligion 8a9e not omitte6 to
%re"cribe rule" of con6uct to be ob"er9e6 e9en
t8ere) Hiran7ake"8i a69i"e" t8e 8ou"e;ife to
lig8t t8e lam%C an6 kee% t8e be6 in goo6 or6er)
,8e "8oul6 make a bo; to 8er 8u"ban6C an6
a%%roac8 t8e be6 after remo9ing 8er bo6ice)
/8e retention of t8e bo6ice i" "u%%o"e6 to bring
on ;i6o;8oo6) ,8e i" to ePclu6e black a%%arelC
;8ic8 8a" t8e effect of making t8e %rogen7
;icke6 an6 6egenerate) ,8e i" to %ut on clean
clot8e"C 6eck 8er bo67 N t8e no"e e"%eciall7 N
;it8 je;el"C to a%%l7 co8ol to t8e bor6er" of 8er
OG D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
e7e-li6"C an6 re6 oPi6e of lea6 U,in6ura) to 8er
fore8ea6C an6 c8e; t8e Dan miPe6 ;it8 t8e
u"ual "%ice") ?ot8 t8e 8u"ban6 an6 ;ife "8oul6
be in mo"t c8eerful "%irit") /8ere "8oul6 be no
"ign of %ain or "orro; on t8e face of eit8er) /8e
;ife i" t8en to ;a"8 t8e feet of 8er lor6C rub
fragrant %o;6er" o9er 8i" bo67C an6 burn incen"e
before 8im) ,8e %lace" before 8im milk boile6
;it8 "ugarC nutmegC "affronC almon6 an6 mu"k
to 6rinkC an6 8er"elf 6rink" ;8at i" left) ,8e
t8en offer" 8im betel-nut an6 9ariou" "%ice"
;ra%%e6 in a betel-leafC an6 t8en re"t" 8er 8ea6
on 8i" feetC take" 8im for 8er @o6C an6 call" to
min6 t8e name" of ;ort87 men t8at 8a9e
flouri"8e6 in t8e famil7C or of an7 celebrate6
"age or ;arrior or 8ol7 %er"on) /8e 8u"ban6
al"o remember" 8i" CreatorC an6 %ra7" to be
ble""e6 ;it8 a goo6 c8il6) Y He t8en in6ulge" in
coition ;8en t8e breat8 i" flo;ing t8roug8 8i"
rig8t no"tril) >or it i" "ai6 t8at V 6innerC
e9acuation of t8e bo;el"C co8abitationC "lee%C
inter9ie; ;it8 king"C fig8ting an6 taking me6i-
Z (ll t8i" "8o;" t8at t8e Hin6oo" belie9e in t8e influence on t8e
off"%ring of t8e mental im%re""ion" of t8e %arent" at t8e time of it"
conce%tionC an6 recogni"e6C age" agoC @enaetolog7C or t8e "cience of
begetting 8ealt87 an6 beautiful c8il6renC ;8ic8 i" ju"t beginning to
recei9e attention in ot8er countrie")
C8a%) /)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) OH
cineC "8oul6 be 6one ;8en t8e breat8 i" %a""ing
t8roug8 t8e rig8t no"tril)V (fter intercour"eC it
i" beneficial to bat8eC or at an7 rate to ;a"8 t8e
8an6"C feetC an6 ot8er %art"C 6rink "ou% or milkC
eat article" of foo6 miPe6 ;it8 treacleC o%en t8e
;in6o;"C an6 go to "lee%) /8e lam% "8oul6 be
ePtingui"8e6 b7 t8e ;ifeC ;8o i" t8en to occu%7
a "e%arate be6) -ne "8oul6 not "lee% ;it8 t8e
8ea6 to;ar6" t8e nort8) ,lee%ing ;it8 oneQ"
8ea6 to;ar6" t8e "out8 i" "u%%o"e6 to %rolong
life) -ne %a""e" a 6ream7 nig8t b7 kee%ing 8i"
8ea6 to;ar6" t8e ;e"tC an6 get" ;ealt8 b7 kee%-
ing it to;ar6" t8e ea"t) ( "oun6 an6 Juiet "lee%
i" "ecure6 b7 muttering t8e name" of t8e V >i9e
Ha%%7 ,lee%er"CV namel7C (ga"tiC Ma68a9aC
Muc8akan6aC *a%ilaC an6 ("tika) 2ot8ing i"
"o beneficial a" to go to "lee% regularl7 an6
ri"e earl7) 0f a man culti9ate" t8e 8abit of
6rinking eig8t anjali" Ua mea"ure forme6 b7
%utting t8e 8an6" toget8er an6 8ollo;ing t8e
%alm") of ;ater e9er7 morning at "unri"eC 8e
;ill be free from t8e effect" of ol6 age an6
"uc8 6i"ea"e" a" 8aemorr8oi6"C inflammation"C
8ea6ac8eC "8ooting %ainC an6 biliou" affection"C
an6 ;ill li9e for a 8un6re6 7ear") 0f one i"
accu"tome6 to 6rink a "mall Juantit7 of ;ater
G0 D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
t8roug8 t8e no"e in"tea6 of t8roug8 t8e mout8C
8i" e7e"ig8t ;ill im%ro9eC an6 8i" 8air ;ill not
turn gra7)
/8e abo9e %rece%t" ma7 be mo6ifie6 a little
;it8 t8e c8ange of "ea"on") 0n6ia 8a" t8e a69an-
tage of enjo7ing "iP "ea"on"C eac8 ;it8 a regular
6uration of t;o mont8") /8e7 are < N
,8i"8iraC t8e 6r7 "ea"on Uroug8l7 Banuar7 an6
Aa"antaC ,%ring UMarc8 an6 (%ril))
@ree"8maC t8e 8ot "ea"on UMa7 an6 Bune))
Aar"8aC t8e rain7 "ea"on UBul7 an6 (ugu"t))
,8ara6C t8e "ultr7 "ea"on U,e%tember an6
HemantaC t8e fro"t7 "ea"on U2o9ember an6
4uring t8e fir"t t8ree "ea"on" t8e "un remain"
to t8e nort8 of t8e eJuator) /8e effect of t8e
"un on 9egetation at t8i" time i" not of t8e
be"t) He i" "u%%o"e6 to ab"orb t8e juice" of
me6icinal 8erb" an6 im%art to t8em 8eating
%ro%ertie") 0n t8e remaining t8ree "ea"on" t8e
effect of t8e "unQ" ra7" on t8e 8erbaceou" %lant"
i" 9er7 beneficialC an6 t8e 9egetable" %ro6uce6
in t8i" %art of t8e 7ear %o""e"" cooling %ro-
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) G:
0n ,8i"8iraC ;8en t8e climate i" col6 an6 6r7C
t8e morning meal "8oul6 ne9er be neglecte6C an6
%ungentC acri6 an6 "alt t8ing" "8oul6 be %arti-
cularl7 u"e6) /8e bo67 "8oul6 be "meare6 ;it8
oil S before bat8C %87"ical ePerci"e i" %articularl7
recommen6e6 in t8i" "ea"on) E8eatC jagger7C
riceC Ma"8a UD8a"eolu" ra6iatu")C meatC ne;
grainC "e"amum an6 ma""age are 8ig8l7 agreeable)
,affron an6 mu"k ma7 be a%%lie6 to t8e bo67)
/8e clot8ing "8oul6 be ;arm)
Aa"anta %romote" %8legmatic 6i"ea"e"C "o
emetic" ma7 be taken ;it8 a69antage in t8i"
"ea"on) ?o6il7 ePerci"e i" al"o beneficial) 4r7C
%ungentC lig8t an6 8eating "ub"tance" are to be
"electe6 for foo6C an6 "lee% in t8e 6a7-time "8oul6
be a9oi6e6) /8e "ea"on i" generall7 un8ealt87C
an6 in it t8e %87"ician" 6ri9e a roaring tra6e)
/e%i6 bat8" are a69antageou") E8eat an6 rice
u"e6 for foo6 "8oul6 be a 7ear ol6) /8e 8otte"t
%art of t8e 6a7 ma7 be "%ent ;it8 %rofit in a
gar6en aboun6ing in flo;er" an6 9er6ureC ;8ic8
ob"truct t8e 6irect ra7" of t8e "un)
0n @ree"8ma t8e "un ab"orb" t8e %8legm
"ecrete6 in t8e bo67) 0t i" t8erefore a69i"able
to eat "uc8 article" a" ma7 make u% for t8e lo""
of t8e %8legm) ,;eetC oil7C coolingC lig8t an6
G2 D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323 RC8a%) A)
liJui6 tiling" are recommen6e6) ,ugarC cur6"C
"ou% an6 milk ma7 be freel7 u"e6) ( noon-6a7
na% i" a goo6 %ro%87lactic in t8i" "ea"on) Moon-
lig8t i" 8ealt8ful) DungentC "alt an6 aci6
article" "8oul6 be "8unne6) 0n6ulgence in at8le-
tic ePerci"e a" ;ell a" "8am%ooing i" 6e%recate6)
Aar"8a gi9e" ri"e to ;in6 com%laint") (" %al-
liati9e"C ";eetC "ourC an6 "aline "ub"tance" "8oul6
be u"e6 for foo6) ,itting near t8e fire"i6e i"
%rofitableC an6 "8am%ooing i" goo6) Cur6" "8oul6
not be taken ;it8out being miPe6 ;it8 black
%e%%er) E8eatC rice an6 Ma"8a are goo6 to eat)
Eell-;ater or rain-;ater ma7 be u"e6) Humi6it7
an6 eP%o"ure to t8e ea"t ;in6C or to t8e "unQ"
ra7"C "8oul6 be guar6e6 again"t S "o al"o "ie"taC
fatigue an6 ";imming) ,lee%ing on t8e groun6
floor i" not a69i"able in t8i" "ea"on)
,8ara6 gi9e" ri"e to bile 6i"tem%er") Clarifie6
butterC milkC ;8ite "ugar-caneC gameC ;8eatC
barle7C ki6ne7-bean an6 rice ma7 be "electe6 for
foo6) ,;eetC a"tringent an6 bitter t8ing" "8oul6
be %referre6) .ain-;aterC an6 ;ater ;8ic8 i"
eP%o"e6 to t8e "unQ" ra7"Z in t8e 6a7-time an6
moonQ" ra7" at nig8tC "8oul6 be u"e6 for 6rinking
Z 39i6entl7 t8e Hin6oo" full7 a%%reciate6 t8e %urif7ing influence
of t8e "olar ra7")
C8a%) A)T (, 243.,/--4 ?1 /H3 H024--,) G3
%ur%o"e"C an6 t8e ;ater a" a rule "8oul6 be
fetc8e6 in t8e morning) /8e u"e of cam%8orC
"an6al-;oo6 an6 lig8t clot8e" i" recommen6e6)
>lo;er"C moonlig8tC %la7ing in t8e ;ater an6 lig8t
an6 cooling article" of foo6 are "alutar7) -n t8e
ot8er 8an6C cur6"C ePerci"eC "ourC %ungentC 8ot
an6 aci6 t8ing"C an6 eP%o"ure to t8e "unC are
injuriou") /8i" i" t8e mo"t un8ealt87 "ea"on in
0n6iaC an6 i" a%tl7 6e"cribe6 b7 a common
,an"krit 8emi"tic8C V Aai67a"7a "8ara6i mataC
%ita c8a ku"umakara"V ;8ic8 mean" V t8e
autumn i" t8e mot8erC an6 t8e "%ring t8e fat8erC
of t8e %87"ician)V >or t8e Aai67a" are ne9er "o
bu"7 a" in t8e t;o un8ealt87 "ea"on"C ;8ic8 %ro-
9i6e t8em ;it8 t8e mean" of li9eli8oo6) V Ma7
7ou li9e a 8un6re6 ,8ara6"V i" a common form
of bene6iction among t8e Hin6oo") Durgati9e"
to e9acuate t8e bileC an6 bloo6letting in "trong
%er"on"C are con6uci9e to 8ealt8 in t8i" "ea"on)
0n Hemanta t8e rule" of con6uct to be ob"er9e6
are "imilar to t8o"e %re"cribe6 for ,8i"8ira)
/8e"e %ractical %rece%t" 8a9e recei9e6 t8e "eal
of "anction an6 a%%ro9al from t8e Hin6oo re-
ligionC ;8ic8 8a" ma6e t8em bin6ing on t8e
%eo%leC ;8o "till cling to t8emC t8oug8 foreign
in9a"ion" an6 inte"tine 6i""en"ion" 8a9e materiall7
GK D.02C0D+3, -> H1@0323) RC8a%) A)
affecte6 t8eir ot8er "ocial 8abit" an6 t8eir %olit-
ical influence) Hi"tor7 make" mention of no
ot8er nation t8at 8a" "ur9i9e6 "o man7 counter-
acting force") 0f Mega"t8ene"C ;8o ;rote about
0n6ia in ?)C) G00C or Hiouen /8"eangC t8e C8ine"e
%ilgrimC ;8o gra%8icall7 6e"cribe" 8i" eP%erience"
of 0n6ia in t8e O t8 centur7 a)cC ;ere to ri"e from
t8eir gra9e" an6 re9i"it t8e countr7C t8e7 ;oul6
"carcel7 8a9e occa"ion to alter t8eir fir"t im%re"-
"ion" about t8e manner"C cu"tom"C an6 t8e 6ail7
%ractice" of t8e Hin6oo") /8i" %ro9e" %rett7
clearl7 t8at t8e 9ariou" ob"er9ance" an6 87gienic
6irection" %re"cribe6 for t8e gui6ance of t8e
Hin6oo" are ba"e6 on too "oli6 a foun6ation to
be ;8oll7 6e"tro7e6 or ra6icall7 affecte6 b7 t8e
ra9age" of time) ?7 t8eir 6ail7 an6 "ea"onal
%ractice" t8e Hin6oo" are 6irectl7 an6 in6irectl7
6efen6ing t8em"el9e" again"t t8e a%%roac8 of
6i"ea"e") ?ut 6i"ea"e" often 6o come in "%ite of
%re9enti9e mea"ure"< /8eir me6ical ;ork"C t8ere-
foreC %re"cribe reme6ie" for curing t8em) /8eir
t8eor7 of t8e nature of 6i"ea"e" i" "ome;8at
6ifferent from t8at recogni"e6 b7 mo6ern "cience)
?ut it 8a" t8e merit of being original) (n6 a" it
8a" been in 9ogue for centurie"C it ;ill be ;ell tof
6e"cribe it briefl7 in a "e%arate c8a%ter)
C8a%) A0)T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) G5
CH(D/3. A0)
/H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023)
/240(2 Me6ical ,cience attribute" all morbi6
%8enomena to t8e 6i"or6ere6 con6ition of t8e
t8ree %rinci%al 8umour" in t8e bo67C calle6 4o"8a"C
9i5)C ;in6C bile an6 %8legm) /8e"e flui6" %er9a6e
t8e ;8ole microco"m of man) ,o long a" t8e"e
are in t8eir normal con6ition t8e bo67 remain"
8ealt87) 0f t8e7 be 6erange6 t8e7 "ubject it to
all "ort" of 6i"or6er") /8e t8ree 8umour" fill t8e
;8ole bo67 ;8ic8 t8e7 "u%%ort S 7et t8e %rinci%al
"eat of ;in6 UA(/() i" bet;een t8e feet an6 t8e
umbilicu" S of bile UD0//()C bet;een t8e umbilicu"
an6 t8e 8eartS an6 of %8legm U*(>()C bet;een t8e
8eart an6 t8e 9erteP) Ein6 %re6ominate" in ol6
ageC bile in mi66le ageC an6 %8legm in c8il68oo6)
39ening i" t8e time for t8e %re6ominance of ;in6C
an6 noon an6 morning for t8e %re9alence of bile
an6 %8legm re"%ecti9el7) ,imilarl7C t8e influence
GI /H3-.1 -> 0240(2V M340C023) RC8a%) A0)
of ;in6 i" great after t8e foo6 in t8e "tomac8 i"
6ige"te6S ;8en t8e action of t8e "tomac8 i" 8alf
6oneC or ;8en t8e foo6 i" in a "emi-6ige"te6 "tateC
bile get" t8e a"cen6enc7C an6 %8legm 8ol6" ";a7
in t8e commencement of t8e %roce"" of 6ige"tion)
E8en ;in6 %re6ominate"C 6ige"tion become"
irregular S ;8en bile i" abun6antC it i" accel-
erate6 S un6er t8e controlling influence of %8legmC
6ige"tion become" ;eak) >or %erfect 6ige"tion t8e
t8ree 8umour" mu"t be in t8eir %ro%er %ro%ortion)
0f ;in6 i" %re6ominant t8e bo;el" become co"ti9e S
;8en bile i" in ePce"" t8e7 become loo"e S ;8en
%8legm %re6ominate"C t8e bo;el" remain in t8eir
normal con6ition) ( %ro%er eJuilibrium of t8e
t8ree alone kee%" t8e bo67 8ealt87) ,ometime"
6efect in t8e 8umour" i" congenital) 0n t8at ca"e
biliou" 6iat8e"i" i" con"i6ere6 better t8an ;in67C
an6 %8legmatic better t8an eit8erC t8oug8C on t8e
;8oleC an7 6i"or6er in t8e 8umoral function" i"
un6e"irable) /8e car6inal 8umour"C A(/(C D0//(
an6 *(>(C are eP%re""e6 in 3ngli"8 b7 ;in6C bileC
an6 %8legm re"%ecti9el7 S but t8e7 con9e7 more
meaning t8an t8eir 3ngli"8 eJui9alent" are
ca%able of eP%re""ingC a" ;ill a%%ear from a "8ort
6e"cri%tion of eac8)
39er7 mo9ement of t8e bo67 6e%en6"C accor6ing
C8a%) A0) T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) GO
to t8e Hin6oo t8eor7C on A(/ (C ;8ic8 alone
%o""e""e" moti9e %o;er) 0t i" "u"ce%tible of
taking on Jualitie" b7 contactC but it i" naturall7
6r7C lig8tC coolC "8ar%C fine an6 moti9e) 0t i" of
fi9e kin6"C 6i"tingui"8e6 from one anot8er accor6-
ing to t8e function" t8e7 %erform in t8e organi"m)
/8eir name" are 6anaC DranaC ,amanaC (%ana
an6 A7ana)
6ana i" "ituate6 in t8e neckC abo9e t8e
"ternum) 0t i" b7 t8i" ;in6 t8at one can "%eakC
"ingC an6 utter "oun6") E8en it become" 6efec-
ti9eC it %ro6uce" 6i"ea"e" in t8e %art" abo9e t8e
Drana i" "ituate6 in t8e c8e"t an6 %a""e"
t8roug8 t8e mout8 an6 no"eC an6 i" t8e mean" of
re"%iration an6 %erforming 6eglutition) E8en it
i" 6erange6 it %ro6uce" 8iccoug8C a"t8maC etc)
,amana i" in t8e "tomac8C in t8e neig8bour8oo6
of t8e ga"tric fire) 0t con9ert" t8e foo6 intro6uce6
into t8e 6ige"ti9e canal into a nouri"8ing juiceC
an6 "e%arate" t8e juice from t8e refu"e ;8ic8 i"
to be rejecte6 from t8e bo67) E8en 9itiate6 it
cau"e" 67"%e%"iaC 6iarr8oea an6 colic)
(%ana i" locate6 in t8e 87%oga"trium) 0t"
function i" to eP%el faece"C urineC "emenC men"trual
flui6 an6 t8e foetu") E8en 9itiate6 it cau"e" con-
GG /H3-31 -> 0240(2 M340C023) RC8a%) A0)
"ti%ationC 6i"ea"e" of t8e rectumC uret8raC bla66er
an6 "eminal 6i"or6er")
A7ana %er9a6e" t8e ;8ole bo67C an6 energi"e"
it b7 con9e7ing t8e flui6" o9er t8e 6ifferent %art")
0t %ro6uce" t8e flo; of ";eat an6 bloo6C an6 t8e
9ariou" mo9ement" of t8e bo67 are all 6e%en6ent
on it) (n7 6erangement of it gi9e" ri"e to all
"ort" of bo6il7 com%laint") V 0f all t8e fi9e kin6"
of ;in6 are 6i"ea"e6 t8e bo67 %eri"8e")V ,ome
;riter" recogni"e fi9e more 9ital air"C an6 call
t8em 2agaC *oormaC *rikalaC 4e9a6attaC an6
48ananja7aC t8eir re"%ecti9e function" being
eructationC nictationC "ternutationC 7a;ning an6
inflation of a cor%"e)
D0//( i" naturall7 8otC liJui6C 7ello;C bitterC
but aci6 ;8en 9itiate6C lig8t an6 oil7) 0t %ro-
6uce" animal 8eatC an6 i" of fi9e kin6")
Dac8aka N it" "ituation i" bet;een t8e "tomac8
an6 t8e "mall inte"tine" UDak9a"8a7a)C ;8ic8 are
t8e "eat of t8e fire of 6ige"tion) 0t a""i"t"
6ige"tion an6 im%art" 8eat to t8e ;8ole bo67 an6
"e%arate" t8e nouri"8ing juice U.a"a) an6 6ejecta)
2ati9e ;riter" 6o not "eem to be unanimou" in
t8eir o%inion about t8e nature of t8e Vfire of
6ige"tion)V 0n t8e o%inion of "omeC t8i" bile
an6 t8e bo6il7 fire are i6entical S ot8er" t8ink
C8a%) A0)T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) GH
6ifferentl7) /8e aut8or of t8e V .a"a-%ra6i%a V
6e"cribe" t8i" fire a" an ePcee6ingl7 minute
8eating "ub"tance "ituate6 in t8e mi66le of t8e
na9el) 0t communicate" 8eat to t8e bile an6
6ige"t" t8e foo6 recei9e6 in t8e "tomac8) 0n t8e
large"t animal it i" no larger t8an a barle7 corn S
in "maller animal" it i" a" "mall a" a "e"amum
"ee6C ;8ile in ;orm" an6 in"ect" it i" a" minute
a" t8e %oint of a 8air)
.anjaka remain" in t8e li9er an6 t8e "%leenC
an6 im%art" re6ne"" to t8e e""ential juiceC ;8ic8
t8en become" bloo6)
,a68aka i" in t8e 8eart) 0t "8ar%en" t8e
memor7C t8e intelligenceC an6 t8e un6er"tan6-
(loc8aka 8a" it" "eat in t8e e7e"C an6 "u%%ort"
t8e %o;er of 9i"ion)
?8rajaka i" "ituate6 in t8e "kinC to ;8ic8 it
gi9e" brig8tne"" an6 a 8ealt87 colour) 0t ab"orb"
a%%lication" ma6e to t8e "kinC an6 im%ro9e" t8e
*(>( i" ;8iteC 8ea97C oleaginou"C 9i"ci6C
cooling an6 ";eetC but become" "alt ;8en
6efecti9e) 0t i" of t8e follo;ing fi9e "ort"C
accor6ing to t8e localit7 in ;8ic8 it i" "ituate6 <
*le6ana i" in t8e "tomac8) 0t moi"ten" t8e
H0 /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) RC8a%) A0)
foo6C an6 "trengt8en" t8e 6ifferent organ" of t8e
(9alambana i" "ituate6 in t8e 8eartC t8e
"8oul6er-joint"C an6 t8e trik U"terno-cla9icular
.a"ana i" in t8e t8roat an6 t8e tongueC ;8ic8
it kee%" moi"tC an6 b7 mean" of it ;e 6i"criminate
t8e ta"te" of 6ifferent kin6" of foo6)
,ne8ana i" in t8e 8ea6C ari6 refre"8e" t8e
organ" of "en"e b7 kee%ing t8em moi"t)
,8le"8ana i" "ituate6 in t8e joint"C ;8ic8 it
lubricate" an6 kee%" rea67 to %erform t8eir
0t i" ea"7 to fin6 out from certain "ign" a" to
;8ic8 of t8e 8umour" i" in ePce"" in a %articular
in6i9i6ual) >or in"tanceC a %er"on con"titutionall7
"ubject to ePce""i9e ;in6 i" generall7 6arkC leanC
8a" 6r7 an6 "cant7 8airC i" "u"ce%tible to col6C
garrulou"C jealou"C im%atientC in t8e 8abit of kee%-
ing a;akeC ;alk" fa"tC i" not 9er7 fon6 of ;omenC
an6 8a" fe; c8il6ren) He often 6ream" of fl7ing
or climbing) Aagb8ata "a7" t8at t8e 6ogC t8e
8areC t8e camelC t8e 9ultureC t8e ratC t8e co; an6
t8e o;lC are b7 nature "ubject to ;in6 8unoour)
( %er"on ;it8 biliou" tem%erament i" fairC leanC
re6-e7e6C %rematurel7 gra7C timi6C intelligentC
C8a%) O:T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) H:
irritableC enter%ri"ingC %rou6C lo9ing "elf-%rai"eC
kin6-8earte6 S a 8uge eaterC often feeling t8ir"t7
an6 8ungr7C fon6 of "cent" an6 flo;er"C ";eetC
bitterC a"tringent an6 col6 foo6C an6 "%irit" 6i"-
tille6 from mola""e" S 8a" goo6 memor7C an6
6ream" of fire an6 lig8tning) /8e tigerC t8e
monke7C t8e catC t8e ;olf an6 t8e "%i6erC are "ai6
to be biliou" b7 nature)
( %8legmatic %er"on 8a" a fair com%lePionC
long an6 black 8airC broa6 c8e"t S like" bitterC
a"tringent an6 8ot 6iet S i" "trong an6 forbearingC
true to 8i" ;or6C courteou"C %iou"C an6 intelligentC
but "lo; in ;ork S i" fon6 of 9ocal an6 in"trumental
mu"ic a" ;ell a" lec8erou"C take" 6elig8t in %87"ical
ePerci"e an6 i" con"tant in lo9e) He often 6ream"
of ri9er" an6 %on6") /8e eagleC t8e ";anC t8e
lionC t8e 8or"e an6 t8e oPC are "ai6 to 8a9e %8leg-
matic con"titution")
Ein6 i" engen6ere6 b7 fa"tingC ;atc8ingC
jum%ingC "e9ere ePerci"eC an6 ePce""i9e in6ulgence
in "ePual intercour"e S bile b7 9er7 8otC 6r7
an6 bitter foo6C an6 intoPicating 6rink"C a" ;ell
a" b7 anger an6 ePce"" in 9ener7 S an6 %8legm
b7 ;ant of "lee%C "lee%ing in t8e 6a7-time an6
eating ;it8out a%%etite)
?e"i6e" t8e t8ree 8umour" 6e"cribe6 abo9eC
H2 /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) RC8a%) A0)
"e9en more e""ential %art" or "u%%orter" of t8e
bo67 are enumerate6C an6 are calle6 48atu"C or
t8e con"tituent %art") /8e7 are .a"a Ul7m%8-
c87le)C .akta Ubloo6)C Man"a Ufle"8)C Me6a" Ufat)C
("t8i Ubone)C Majja Umarro;) an6 ,8ukra U"emen))
/8eir re"%ecti9e function" are to cau"e %lea"ure b7
circulationC to energi"eC to %la"terC to lubricateC to
"u%%ortC to fill t8e ca9it7 of t8e bone"C an6 to
(" 8a" been "tate6 abo9eC t8e .a"aC ;8ic8
%ermeate" t8e ;8ole bo67 b7 circulating t8roug8
t8e 48amanie"C i" a nutriti9e flui6 ePtracte6 b7
inte"tinal ab"or%tion from t8e foo6 ;8ic8 8a"
been "ubjecte6 to t8e action of t8e 6ige"ti9e
organ") 0t i" %urel7 ;8iteC ";eetC an6 coolingC
an6 kee%" a man in goo6 "%irit") E8en t8e flui6
in it" circulating cour"e enter" t8e "%leen an6 t8e
li9erC it" ;8ite colour turn" to re6C an6 it i" t8en
kno;n b7 t8e name of V bloo6)V ?loo6 i" forme6
into fle"8C fle"8 into fatC fat into boneC bone into
marro;C an6 marro; into "emen) .a"aC ;8en
6efecti9eC become" acri6 or aci6C an6 engen6er"
6i"ea"e"C "ometime" %oi"oning t8e ;8ole "7"tem)
.akta Ubloo6)C ;8ic8 i" 8ea9ier t8an .a"aC
al"o circulate" in t8e 9e""el" a""igne6 to it) /8i"
t8eor7 of t8e motion of t8e bloo6 t8roug8 t8e
C8a%) A0)T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) H3
6ifferent 9e""el" of t8e bo67 i" ;ort87 of attentionC
for it "et" u% t8e ancient Hin6oo" a" claimant"
for t8e 8onour" gi9en to Eilliam Har9e7 for
6i"co9ering t8e circulation of t8e bloo6 in :I2G)
Har9e7C no 6oubtC ;a" t8e greate"t eP%erimenter
of 8i" ageC an6 6e"er9e" t8e 8ig8e"t cre6it for
lea9ing a QQgloriou" legac7V to mo6ern D87"iolog7
b7 "cientificall7 eP%laining t8e t8eor7 of t8e
circulation of t8e bloo6) ?ut it i" %o""ible for
8im to 8a9e recei9e6 8i" in"%iration from earlier
;riter"C ;8o 8a9e taug8t "omet8ing "imilarC if not
;it8 "o muc8 %reci"ion) 0f t8e ancient Hin6oo
;riter" on Me6icine 6o not make mention of t8e
circulation of t8e bloo6 a" freJuentl7 an6 eP-
%licitl7 a" t8e7 6o of t8e circulation of t8e .a"aC
it i" becau"e t8ere i"C accor6ing to t8emC little
6ifference bet;een t8e t;o ePce%t in t8eir colour
an6 "%ecific gra9it7) ?ot8 are flui6C but .a"a i"
a finer liJui6C ;8ic8 "u%%ort" t8e bo67 an6 i"
t8e 9er7 e""ence of ePi"tence) ?loo6C minu"
it" colouring ingre6ient"C i" .a"a) 0t ma7 be
calle6 C87leC or rat8er +7m%8-c87leC t8oug8
t8e Hin6oo ;riter" gi9e it a ;i6er "ignificance
t8an t8e 3ngli"8 ;or6 i" ca%able of bearing) /8e
function of circulation i" common to bot8 t8e
flui6") >or .a"aC it i" 6i"tinctl7 "tate6 t8at
HK /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023)
from t8e 8eart it i" %ro%elle6 b7 t8e A7ana
Aa7u to circulate t8roug8 t8e arterie" an6 9ein" S
an6 t8at it nouri"8e" t8e bo67C a" ;ater con-
9e7e6 t8roug8 t8e canal irrigate" t8e fiel6)
/8i" to "ome ePtent an";er" t8e 6e"cri%tion of
t8e circulation t8eor7) /8e circulation of t8e
bloo6 i" al"o mentione6 b7 "e9eral earl7 ;riter"C
;8o eac8 an6 all a"cribe t8e %ro%ert7 of C8ala
Umotion) to t8e bloo6) HaritaC in 8i" ;ork calle6
t8e Harita ,am8itaC ;8ic8 "ome belie9e to be
ol6er t8an ,u"8rutaC refer" to t8e circulation of
t8e bloo6 in 6e"cribing a 6i"ea"e calle6 V Dan-
6urogaV U(naemia)) He "a7" t8at t8i" 6i"ea"e
i" "ometime" cau"e6 b7 ";allo;ing cla7C ;8ic8
"ome %er"on" are in t8e 8abit of 6oing) V/8e
claW^ t8u" eaten block" t8e lumen of t8e "e9eral
9ein" an6 "to%" t8e V circulation of t8e bloo6)V
/8e aut8or of ?8a9a%raka"8aC ;8o i" a centur7
ol6er t8an Har9e7C Juote" t8e follo;ing cou%let
bearing on t8e circulation of t8e bloo6 < N
48atoonam %ooranam "am7ak
,%ar"8ajnanam a"am"8a7amC
,9a"8;a"u c8ara6 raktam
*ur7ac8 c8an7an gunan a%i)
V ?loo6C b7 circulating t8roug8 it" 9e""el"C
fill" t8e 48atu" ;ellC cau"e" %erce%tionC an6
C8a%) A0)T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) H5
%erform" ot8er function" Uof nouri"8ing an6
(gain <
1a6a tu 8u%itam raktam
,e9ate "9a9a8a" "8ira"C
/a6a"7a 9i9i68a roga
Ba7ante rakta"amblia9a")
V E8en 6efecti9e bloo6 circulate" t8roug8 it"
9e""el" it cau"e" man7 bloo6 6i"ea"e")V
,imilar %a""age" can be tran"cribe6 from e9en
earlier ;riter") ?ut t8e abo9e Juotation" are
enoug8 to "ati"f7 a ca"ual rea6er t8at t8e circula-
tion of t8e bloo6 ;a" not unkno;n to t8e earl7
Man"a Ufle"8) i" bloo6 6ige"te6 b7 8eat an6
t8ickene6 b7 ;in6) /8i" al"o %ro6uce" De"8i
Umu"cle)) /8ere are fi9e 8un6re6 mu"cle" in t8e
bo67 of a male) 0n female" t8ere are four
8un6re6 an6 ninet7-"e9en)
Me6a" Ufat) i" %ro6uce6 b7 t8e 6ige"tion of
t8e fle"8 b7 t8e internal fire) 0t" %rinci%al
"eat i" in t8e ab6omen)
("t8i Ubone) i" fat 6ige"te6 b7 t8e internal
fire an6 t8ickene6 b7 t8e ;in6) (ccor6ing to
,u"8rutaC t8ere are 300 bone" in t8e bo67)
C8araka inclu6e" t8e cartilage" of t8e ear"C e7e-
HI /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) RC8a%) A0)
li6"C no"eC an6 t8e lar7nPC an6 make" t8e number
30I) -f t8e"e :20 bone" are in t8e limb" N t8e
arm" an6 leg" N ::G in t8e trunkC an6 I3 in t8e
8ea6 an6 t8e neck)
Majja Umarro;) i" "ituate6 ;it8in t8e bone"C
an6 gi9e" a "8ining a%%earance to t8e bo67)
,8ukra U"emen) i" forme6 in male" b7 t8e
e""ential %art" of marro; miPe6 ;it8 bloo6) 0t
i" t8e "u%%ort of t8e bo67 an6 t8e root of
%regnanc7) 0n t8e female t8e 3a"a i" con9erte6
once a mont8 into men"e"C t8e analogue of
"emen in t8e male) E8en conce%tion take"
%laceC t8e men"trual flui6 i" 6i9erte6 to t8e
mammar7 glan6" an6 form" milk) rineC f"ece"C
";eatC cerumenC free ePtremit7 of t8e nail"C 8airC
eP%ectoration"C tear"C c8a""ie an6 na"al mucu"C
are con"i6ere6 im%uritie" of t8e bo67)
/8ere are "iP ("8a7a" or 8ollo; 9i"cera for
8ol6ing %8legmC un6ige"te6 foo6 Uama)C bileC
;in6C fa"ce" an6 urine) ( female 8a" t8ree more
for 8ol6ing t8e foetu" an6 milk) ,e9en "maller
9i"ceraC for 8ol6ing "ome of t8e e""ential %art"C
are calle6 *ala" or rece%tacle") /8e 8uman
bo67 contain" 2:0 joint" or ,an68i"C of ;8ic8
IG are mo9able an6 t8e re"t are immo9able)
/8ere are IG joint" in t8e u%%er an6 lo;er
C8a%) A0)T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) HO
ePtremitie" N all mo9able N 5H in t8e trunkC an6
G0 in t8e 8ea6 an6 neck) /8e joint" are boun6
toget8er b7 H00 ,na7u" Uligament")C t8u" 6i"-
tribute6 < I00 in t8e u%%er an6 lo;er ePtremitie"C
230 in t8e trunkC an6 O0 in t8e 8ea6)
/8ere are altoget8er O00 9e""el" in t8e bo67C
;it8 "iPteen larger one" calle6 *an6ara"C an6
t;ent7-four calle6 48amani") Ein6C bileC bloo6
an6 %8legm 8a9e eac8 a number of 9e""el"
a""igne6 to t8em) /8e 8uman bo67 al"o com-
%ri"e" "iPteen Bala" or %lePu"e"C "iP *oorc8a"
Ularger glan6" [)C four *ajju" or c8or6like "truc-
ture"C "e9en ,ee9ani" or "uture" ;8ic8 "8oul6
ne9er be bore6C fourteen bone-grou%"C fourteen
,imanta" or "u%%orter" of t8e grou%" an6 "e9en
la7er" of "kin) /8e name" of t8e "e9en la7er" are < N
(9ab8a"iniC containing t8e 9e""el") 0t" t8ick-
ne"" i" one eig8teent8 of a barle7 corn) 0t i"
"o calle6 becau"e it V "8ine" V b7 t8e bile calle6
+o8ita Ubloo6-re6) i" t8e "iPteent8 %art of
barle7 in t8ickne"") 0t i" in t8i" la7er t8at
%im%le" originate)
,89eta U;8ite) i" of a ;8ite colourC an6 i"
one-t;elft8 %art of a barle7 grain in t8ickne"")
0t i" t8e "eat of cutaneou" eru%tion")
HG /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) RC8a%) A0)
/amra Uco%%er-coloure6) i" a membrane an
eig8t8 %art of a grain of barle7 in t8ickne"")
Ae6ini U"en"ible) i" t8e t8ickne"" of t8e fift8
%art of a grain of barle7) 3r7"i%ela" begin" in
t8i" la7er)
+o8ini 8a" t8e t8ickne"" of a barle7 corn an6
i" t8e "eat of tumour)
Man"a68ara Ufle"8-8ol6ing) i" t8e t8ickne""
of t;o barle7 corn") 0t retain" t8e mu"cle" in
t8eir %lace" an6 i" t8e "eat of boil")
/8e"e la7er" are 6i"tingui"8able onl7 in t8e
region of t8e bell7 an6 a fe; ot8er %art")
( manQ" bo67 8a" nine orifice" N t;o no"tril"C
t;o ear"C t;o e7e"C t8e mout8C t8e anu" an6 t8e
meatu" urinariu") /8e female 8a" t8ree moreC
namel7C t8e o%ening" of t8e lactiferou" 6uct" an6
t8e orifice of t8e 9agina)
Hin6oo anatom7 recogni"e" certain Marma"-
t8ana" U9ital" [) in t8e bo67 ;8ic8 are mo"t
e""ential to life an6 to "oun6 8ealt8) /8e7 are to
be carefull7 %re"er9e6 again"t all injur7C an6 are
arrange6 in fi9e grou%" accor6ing to t8eir region"
an6 t8e con"eJuence" t8e7 %ro6uce ;8en ;oun6e6 <
Ua) %art" ;8ic8 if ;oun6e6 cau"e imme6iate 6eat8 <
t8ere are nineteen "uc8 S Ub) t8o"e ;8ic8 if in-
jure6 cau"e a lingering 6eat8 < t8ere are t8irt7-
C8a%) A0)T /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M340C023) HH
t8ree of t8i" kin6 S Uc) "uc8 a" im%air t8e
limb" if ;oun6e6 < t8ere are fort7-four of t8e"e S
U6) %art" ;8ic8 ;8en "lig8tl7 ;oun6e6 %ro6uce
inten"e %ain < t8e number of "uc8 %art" being
eig8t S an6 Ue) 9ital %art" ;8ic8 %ro6uce fatal
re"ult" if foreign bo6ie" locate6 t8erein be eP-
tracte6 < of t8e"e t8ere are t8ree in t8e bo67)
(ll t8e"e %art" are 6e"cribe6 at lengt8C an6
"urgeon" are %articularl7 ;arne6 to a9oi6 o%era-
tion" on t8e"e)
/8e "cience of (r7an Me6icine i"C a" ;e 8a9e
"eenC ba"e6 on t8e t8ree morbific 6iat8e"e")
/8e"e 6i"%o"ition" are born ;it8 man N na7C it i"
a""erte6 t8at t8ere i" no "ub"tance in t8e uni-
9er"e ;8ic8 6oe" not o;e it" formation to t8e
8umour" in more or le"" %ro%ortion) /8e 8umoral
%at8olog7 of t8e ancient (r7an" 8a" been in
ePi"tence for age") 4iagno"i" ma6e on t8e
%rinci%le of t8i" t8eor7C an6 me6icine" a6mini"-
tere6 in conformit7 ;it8 it" teac8ing"C 8a9eC "a7
t8e Hin6oo"C ;orke6 %rett7 "ucce""full7 in 0n6ia)
/8i" t8eor7 "eem" to 8a9e been borro;e6
from t8e Hin6oo" b7 Hi%%ocrate" UKI0 ?)C))C
t8e >at8er of @reek Me6icineC an6 to 8a9e re-
taine6 it" 8ol6 on t8e me6ical "c8ool" of 3uro%e
for more t8an 2000 7ear") /o 6i"car6 t8e t8eor7
:00 /H3-.1 -> 0240(2 M34/C023) RC8a%) A0)
a" t8oug8tle"" an6 barbarou" i"C urge it" a69ocate"C
unju"tifiable) /8e e%it8et" are "trongl7 re"ente6
b7 t8e (r7an %87"ician"C ;8o com%lain t8at t8eir
"cience 8a" not been %ro%erl7 "tu6ie6 an6
ePamine6 b7 mo6ern in9e"tigator"C ;8o 8a9e con-
6emne6 it on in"ufficient 6ata) /8e7 areC 8o;e9erC
taking comfort in t8e 8o%e t8at mo6ern me6ical
"cienceC in t8e cour"e of it" on;ar6 marc8C or
on reac8ing it" goal of %rogre""C ma7 %o""ibl7
lan6 it" 9otarie" on t8e 9er7 t8eor7 ;8ic8 t8e7
8a9e at %re"ent rejecte6)
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :0:
CH(D/3. A00)
0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C()
r>0H3 Materia Me6ica of t8e Hin6oo" i" a
mar9el to t8e mo6ern in9e"tigator) 0n it
are full7 6e"cribe6 t8e %ro%ertie" of 6rug" belong-
ing to t8e animalC 9egetableC an6 mineral king-
6om"C an6 of t8e article" of foo6 e""ential to t8e
maintenance of 8ealt8 an6 "trengt8) /8e t8eor7
;8ic8 form" t8e ba"i" of t8e in9e"tigation i"C
t8at e9er7 "ub"tanceC ;8et8er animalC 9egetableC
or mineralC %o""e""e" fi9e %ro%ertie"C namel7C
.a"aC @unaC Aeer7aC Ai%akaC an6 Drab8a9a)
:) .a"a" Uta"te") are "iP N ";eetC "ourC "altC
bitterC %ungentC an6 a"tringent) -f t8e"e t8e
fir"t i" more re"torati9e t8an t8e "econ6C t8e
"econ6 more "o t8an t8e t8ir6C an6 "o on) /8e
fir"t t8ree ta"te" U";eetC "ourC an6 "alt) are anta-
goni"tic to ;in6 8umourC an6 t8e ot8er t8ree
to %8legmatic 6i"or6er") ("tringentC bitter an6
:02 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C () RC8a%) A00)
";eet ta"te" %acif7 biliar7 com%laint" S ;8ile "altC
"our an6 %unge4t %romote t8e "ecretion of bile)
/8e 6ifferent ta"te" %o""e"" 6ifferent %ro%ertie"C
;8ic8 are t8u" 6e"cribe6 < N
Ua) Ma68ura U";eet) ta"te 8a" t8e %ro%ert7
of increa"ing 9irilit7C %romoting "trengt8 an6
"ecretion of milk in ;omenC im%ro9ing t8e e7e-
"ig8tC "trengt8ening t8e bo67 an6 germinating
;orm") 0t i" beneficial to c8il6renC a6ult"C t8e
;oun6e6C t8e bal6 an6 t8e feeble)
Ub) (mla U"our) %romote" a%%etite an6 6ige"-
tionC i" cooling to %erce%tion but 8eating in
effect S cure" ;in6 6i"or6er"C i" laPati9eC but ba6
for "emen) Habitual u"e of it cau"e" ambl7o%ia
an6 ot8er 6i"ea"e")
Uc) +a9ana U"alt) i" tonicC relaPe" t8e bo;el"C
6era4ge" bile an6 %8legmC cau"e" flacci6it7C
lo;er" t8e acti9it7 of t8e "ePual function" an6
%romote" %er"%iration) 0f continuall7 taken it
turn" t8e 8air ;8ite)
U6) *atu U%ungent) i" 8otC 6e"tro7" ;orm"C
6imini"8e" t8e "ecretion of milk an6 6rie" t8e
no"e S %romote" a%%etite an6 le""en" t8e fat in
t8e bo67) 0t im%ro9e" t8e intelligenceC but
6e"tro7" "trengt8 an6 beaut7)
Ue) /ikta Ubitter) i" coolingC alle9iate" t8ir"tC
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :03
faintingC fe9erC an6 burning "en"ation S cure"
bloo6 6i"ea"e"C but cau"e" 6erangement of ;in6)
/aken in ePce""C it cau"e" "8ooting %ain in t8e
Uf) *a"8a 7a Ua"tringent) 8eal" ;oun6"C %ro-
6uce" co"ti9ene"" an6 "often" t8e "kin) 0f a"trin-
gent "ub"tance" are freJuentl7 taken t8e7 "tiffen
t8e bo67C ";ell t8e ab6omen an6 cau"e %ain in
t8e 8eart)
2) @una U9irtue) i" t8e in8erent %ro%ert7 of
a 6rug cau"ing a %articular effect ;8en u"e6
eit8er internall7 or ePternall7)
0n6ia i" a 9a"t an6 fertile countr7C an6 8a"C
a" ;e 8a9e "ai6 beforeC t8e a69antage of enjo7-
ing all t8e %erio6ical "ea"on" of t8e 7ear) /8i"
circum"tance make" it an enc7clo%ae6ia of t8e
A3@3/(?+3 Eorl6) /8e ancient (r7an" 8a9e
taken t8e trouble to ePamine an6 "tu67 all t8e
8erb" t8at came un6er t8eir ob"er9ationC an6
cla""ifie6 t8em into @rou%" or @ana") C8araka
gi9e" fift7 grou%" of ten 8erb" eac8C ;8ic8 8e
t8ink" Vare enoug8 for t8e %ur%o"e" of an or6i-
nar7 %87"icianCV t8oug8 at t8e "ame time 8e a66"C
t8at V t8e number of grou%" can be increa"e6 to
an7 ePtent)V ,imilarl7C ,u"8ruta 8a" arrange6
OI0 8erb" in t8irt7-"e9en "et" accor6ing to "ome
:0K 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
common %ro%ertie") -t8er ;riter" 8a9e a66e6 to
t8e li"tC ;8ic8 form" an intere"ting literature of
t8e Materia Me6ica of 0n6ia) /8e7 8a9e al"o 6e-
"cribe6 t8e %ro%er "ea"on" for gat8ering t8e 8erb"C
t8e %erio6 of t8eir gro;t8C ;8en t8e7 %o""e"" t8eir
6i"tincti9e %ro%ertie"C t8e localitie" from ;8ic8 t8e7
"8oul6 be collecte6C an6 t8e manner of treating
t8emC ePtracting t8eir acti9e %rinci%le"C an6 %re-
"er9ing t8em) ,ome of t8e grou%" mentione6 b7
t8e 0n6ian ;riter" are gi9en belo; < N
:) (ngamar6a%ra"8amana U(nti"%a"mo6ic)C a"
Ai6arigan68a UCo"tu" "%ecio"u"))
2) (nulomana UCat8artic)C a" Haritaki U/er-
minalia C8ebula))
3) (r"8ogna UHaemo"tatic)C a" 0n6ra7a9a
U Erig8tia anti67"enterica))
K) (rta9ot%a6aka U3mmenagogue)C a" Boti"8-
mati UCar6io"%ermum Helicacabum))
5) ("8marig8na U+it8onl7tic)C a" @rok"8ura
U/ribulu" terre"tri"))
I) (9ri"87a U(na%8ro6i"iac)C a" ?8oo"trina
U(n6ro%ogon "c8cenant8u"))
O) ?8e6ana UDurgati9e)C a" *atuki UDicorr8i5a
G) C8ar6inigra8ana U(nemetic)C a" 4a6ima
UDunica granatum))
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :05
H) C88e6ana U+aPati9e)C a" Maric8i UDi%er
:0) 4a8a%ra"8amana U(nti%7rotic)C a" "8ira
U(n6ro%ogon nar6u"))
::) 4amb8a U3"c8arotic)C a" ?8allataka U,emi-
car%u" (nacar6ium))
:2) 4ee%anee7a U,tomac8ic)C a" Di%%alimoola
UDi%er longum))
:3) @arb8a"ra9i U3cbolic)C a" @rinjana U4aucu"
:K) @ra8i UCarminati9e an6 3P"iccati9e)C a"
Beeraka UCuminum C7minum))
:5) Hikkanigra8a U(nti"ingultu")C a" ,8at8i
UHe67c8ium "%icatum))
:I) B9ar8ara U(nti%7retic)C a" Deelu U,al9a6ora
:O) *afa8ara U(nti%8legmagogue)C a" ?ib8ee-
taka U/erminalia bellerica))
:G) *afakara UD8legmagogue)C a" 0k"8u U,ac-
c8arum officinarum))
:H) *an6ug8na U(nti%"oric)C a" C8an6ana U,an-
talum album))
20) *an6ura U.ubefacient)C a" *a%ikac88u
UMucuna %rurien"))
2:) *ant87a U3P%ectorant)C a" ?ri8ati U,olanum
:0I 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
22) *ar"87akara U(ntifat)C a" @a9e68u Ua kin6
of corn))
23) *rimig8na U(nt8elmintic)C a" Ai6anga
U3mbelia ribe"))
2K) *rimikrit UAermi%arou")C a" Mat8a UD8a"eo-
lu" aconitifoliu"))
25) *u"8tag8na U(nti"corbutic)C a" Hari6ra
XCurcuma 'e6oaria))
2I) +alag8na U(nti"ialagogue)C a" Batifala
UM7ri"tica mo"c8ata))
2O) +alot%a6aka U,ialagogue)C a" (kalakarab8a
U,%ilant8e" oleracea))
2G) +ek8ana U+iJuefacient)C a" Aac8a U(coru"
2H) Ma6aka U0nebrient)C a" 48attura U4atura
30) Mootra"angra8ana U(nuretic)C a" Di%-
%alac88ala UCorteP >icu" religio"a))
3:) Mootra9irec8anee7a U4iuretic)C a" *a"8a
UDoa c7no"uroi6e"))
32) 2i6ra8ara U(nti87%notic)C a" ,8igrubeeja
UMoringa %ter7go"%erma))
33) 2i6rakara UH7%notic)C a" *akajang8a
UCa%%ari" "e%iaria))
3K) 2iromakara U4e%ilator7)C a" .ala U,8orea
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :0O
35) Ditta8aba U(ntic8oleric)C a" *amala
U2elumbium "%ecio"um))
3I) Dittakara UC8olagogue)C a" /9ak UCinnamo-
mum Ca""ia))
3O) Draja"t8a%ana U(necbolic)C a" Ai"8nukranta
U39ol9ulu" 8ir"utu"))
3G) Dramat8i U(nti%87"ical)C a" Hingu U2ar-
t8eP ("afceti6a))
3H) Dra"a9aka UDarturifacient)C a" ?eej%ura
RCitru" aci6a))
K0) Drati9a"a U(ntibromic)C a" *ar%oora
UCam%8ora Jfficinarum))
K:) Duri"8a"angra8ana U("tringent)C a" Dri-
7angu UDanicum miliaceum))
K2) 3a"a7ana U.eju9ene"cent)C a" @uggula
U(m7ri" %enta%87lla))
K3) .ec8ana UH76ragogue)C a" /ri9rita U0%o-
mcea /er%et8um))
KK) .o8ana U3%ulotic)C a" /ila U,e"amum
K5) ,ammo8ana U(nae"t8etic)C a" Ma67a UAina
KI) ,am"8o68ana U3metic an6 Durgati9e)C a"
4e9a6ali U+uffa ec8inata))
KO) ,ankoc8ana UCon"tringent)C a" Ma7ofala
UMuercu" infectoria))
:0G 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
KG) ,anjee9a"t8a%ana U.e"torati9e)C a" Bata-
man"i U2ar6o"tac87" jataman"i))
KH) ,8amanee7a UCalmati9e)C a" (mrita UCoc-
culu" cor6ifoliu"))
50) ,8eeta%ra"8amana U(ntalgi6e)C a" (garu
U(Juilaria agalloc8um))
5:) ,8iro9irec8ana U,ternutator7)C a" (ga"t7a
U(gati gran6ifiora))
52) ,8ofakara U3%i"%a"tic)C a" ,noo8ee
R3u%8orbia /irucalli))
53) ,8ool%ra"8amana U(nticolic)C a" (jamo6a
UDt7c8oti" ajo;an))
5K) ,8ot8a8ara U4i"cutient)C a" (rani UDremna
55) ,8rama8ara U.efrigerant)C a" 0k"8u U,ac-
c8ar um Jfficinarum))
5I) ,8ronita"t8a%ana U,t7%tic)C a" *e"ara
U Crocu" "ati9u"))
5O) ,8ukrajanana U,%ermato%oietic)C a"
*"8eerakakoli UHe67"arum gangeticum))
5G) ,8ukrala U/onic)C a" .i"8ab8aka UHeleBc-
tere" i"ora))
5H) ,8ukra"8o68ana U,emen-im%ro9er)C a"
*u"8t8a U,au""urea la%%a))
I0) ,89a"a8ara U(nta"t8matic)C a" 3la
U(momum elettarum))
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C( :0H
I:) ,ne8o%aga U4emulcent)C a" Ai6ari U?at-
ata" %aniculata))
I2) ,ran"ana U4ra"tic)C a" .ajataru UCa""ia
I3) ,tan7ajanana U@alactagogue)C a" ,8ata-
%u"8%a UDim%inella (ni"um))
IK) ,t8aul7akara U>at-former)C a" Dana"a
U(rtocar%u" integrifolia))
I5) ,9ar7a UAoice - im%ro9er)C a" Ma68uka
U@l7c7rr8i5a glabra))
II) ,9e6o%aga U4ia%8oretic)C a" Dunarna9a
U?oer8aa9ia 6iffu"a))
IO) /ri"8nanigra8ana U>rigorific)C a" 48ana
UCorian6rum "ati9um))
IG) Aajeekara U(%8ro6i"iac)C a" ("89agan68a
UD87"ali" "omnifera))
IH) Aamana U3metic)C a" Ma6ana U.an6ia
O0) Aarn7a UCo"metic)C a" Manji"8t8a U.ubia
O:) Aatakara U>latu"-%ro6ucer)C a" Aallaka
U4olic8o" "inen"i"))
O2) Ae6ana"t8a%ana U(no67ne)C a" ,8iree"8a
UMimo"a ,eri""a))
O3) Ai"8a U/oPic)C a" Aat"anab8a U(conitum
::0 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
OK) Ai"8ag8na U(ntitoPic)C a" 2irgun6i U AiteP
O5) A7a7a7i U,e6ati9e)C a" ?8anga UCannabi"
(gni9e"8aC a 6i"ci%le of C8arakaC enumerate"
no le"" t8an fi9e 8un6re6 cla""e" of me6icinal
agent"C arrange6 accor6ing to t8eir real or
"u%%o"e6 9irtue" in curing 6i"ea"e") ( fe;
cla""e" 8a9e been "electe6 from t8i" an6 ot8er
"ource" an6 note6 abo9e) /8e c8ief notable
feature in connection ;it8 t8e nomenclature of
t8e 0n6ian %lant" i"C t8at in "e9eral ca"e" t8eir
name" are 6e"cri%ti9e eit8er of t8eir c8aracter or
%ro%ert7) ( fe; in"tance" of name" 6e"cri%ti9e
of t8e %rominent "%ecific c8aracter of t8e 8erb
ma7 be gi9en < N
Ua) ?rac87ram%8u" "onc8ifoliu" i" calle6
(k8u-karni Urat-eare6)C a" t8e lea9e" of
t8e %lant re"emble t8e ear" of a mou"e)
Ub) (coru" Calamu" i" calle6 gra-gan68a
U"trong-"melling)C becau"e it gi9e" off a
9er7 %ungent o6our)
Uc) Clitoria /ernatea i" calle6 @o-karni Uco;-
eare6)C from t8e "u%%o"e6 re"emblance of
t8e "ee6" to t8e ear" of a co;)
U6) (conitum feroP i" calle6 Aat"a-nab8a
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() 0ll
UcalfQ" na9el)C becau"e t8e root re"emble"
in a%%earance t8e umbilical cor6 of a
Ue) ,a%in6u" emarginatu" i" "t7le6 ?a8u%8ena
U9er7 foam7)C a"C like "oa%C it" berr7 %ro-
6uce" muc8 frot8 ;8en agitate6 ;it8
Uf) .icinu" communi" i" calle6 C8itrabeeja
U"%otte6-"ee6)C becau"e of t8e "ee6 being
mottle6 ;it8 ;8iteC bro;nC or 6ark
Ug) Mimo"a "en"iti9a i" calle6 +ajjalu U"87)C
from it" lea9e" mimicking "en"ibilit7 b7
fol6ing t8em"el9e" at t8e "lig8te"t touc8)
XTF) /ribulu" terre"tri" i" calle6 /rikantaka
Ut8ree-%rickle6)C becau"e it" fruit i" arme6
;it8 t8ree t8orn")
Ui) 4atura alba i" calle6 @8anta-%u"8%a
Ubell-flo;er)C from t8e "8a%e of it" flo;er")
UB) Ca""ia fi"tula i" calle6 4eerg8a-fala Ulong-
%o6)C becau"e it" %o6 i" c7lin6ricalC about
t;o feet in lengt8C an6 one to one inc8
an6 a 8alf in 6iameter)
/8e follo;ing are a fe; name" 6e"cri%ti9e of
t8e in8erent 9irtue of t8e 8erb < N
Ua) (m7g6alu" communi" i" calle6 Aata9airee
::2 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
U;in6-enem7)C a" it cure" 6i"or6er" of
t8e ;in6)
Ub) 3mbelia ribe" i" calle6 *rimi-g8na U;orm-
killer)C from it" ant8elmintic %ro%ertie")
Uc) Ca""ia /or a i" kno;n b7 t8e name of
4a6ru-g8na Uitc8-curing)C a" it i" "u%-
%o"e6 to be 9er7 efficaciou" in curing
t8e itc8)
U6) Coleu" aroma ticu" i" name6 Da"8ana-
b8e6i U"tone-breaker)C a" it" juice i" "ai6
to %o""e"" t8e %ro%ert7 of 6i""ol9ing
Ue) /riant8ema obcor6ata i" calle6 ,8ot8a-
g8nee Uintume"cence-curing)C from t8e
u"e of it" root in 6i"%er"ing morbi6
U=) -%8elia C8iretta i" name6 B9arantaka
Ufe9er-en6ing)C for it i" "u%%o"e6 to c8eck
Ug) /8e9etia neriifolia i" calle6 Dlee8a-g8nee
U"%leen-curing)C being cre6ite6 ;it8 t8e
%o;er of curing "%lenic 6i"or6er")
U8) /erminalia bellerica goe" b7 t8e name of
*a"a-g8na Ucoug8-curing)C becau"e it
cure" %ulmonar7 catarr8C
Ui) ,emicar%u" (nacar6ium i" kno;n a"
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() ::3
(ru"8kara Ue"c8ar-cau"ing)C becau"e ;8en
a%%lie6 to a li9ing %art it" juice gi9e"
ri"e to an e"c8ar)
Uj) Ca""ia (b"u" i" calle6 +oc8ana-8ita Ue7e-
benefactor)C a" it" "ee6" are u"e6 a" e7e-
"al9e to "trengt8en t8e "ig8t)
3) Aeer7a U%o;er) i" t8e t8ir6 of t8e fi9e
%ro%ertie" innate in e9er7 me6ical "ub"tanceC a
kno;le6ge of ;8ic8 i" con"i6ere6 in6i"%en"able
for a %ractical "tu67 of t8e Materia Me6ica) (c-
cor6ing to t8e influence of t8e "un or t8e moon
a me6icine i" belie9e6 to be eit8er 8ot or col6 in
%o;er) 0t i" t8erefore calle6 V "8na- 9eer7aCV
8eatingC or V ,8eeta- 9eer7aCV cooling) Hot agent"
cau"e gi66ine""C t8ir"tC unea"ine""C ";eat an6
burning "en"ation S "u%%re"" coug8 an6 ;in6C but
increa"e bile an6 %romote 6ige"tion) Col6 agent"
le""en bile an6 increa"e ;in6 an6 %8legmC %ro-
mote "trengt8 an6 %lea"ure an6 im%ro9e t8e
bloo6) E8en a me6icine ca%able of %ro6ucing
effect" "imilar to t8e 6i"ea"e to be treate6 i"
a6mini"tere6C orC a" t8e Homceo%at8i"t" ;oul6
%ut itC V ,irnilia "imilibu" curanturV it i" on t8e
%rinci%le t8at a %atient "uffering from t8e effect"
of in8erent 8eat mu"t be treate6 ;it8 a reme67
a%%arentl7 8otC but reall7 cooling in it" effect"C
::K 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
an6 9ice 9er"aC or ot8er;i"e t8e re"ult ;oul6 be
6i"a"trou") /8e general belief of t8e Hin6oo" in
t8e 8ot an6 col6 in8erent Jualitie" of me6icine"
i" full7 "8are6 b7 t8e @reek %87"ician @alenC ;8o
teac8e" t8atC if a 6i"ea"e be 8ot or col6C a me6icine
;it8 t8e o%%o"ite Jualitie" i" to be %re"cribe6)
K) Ai%aka U con"eJuence of action ) i" t8e
c8ange ;8ic8 a me6icine un6ergoe" in t8e organ-
i"m un6er t8e influence of t8e internal 8eat)
E8en a "ub"tance in t8e "tomac8 i" broug8t
into contact ;it8 t8e 6ige"ti9e fire it i" 6ecom-
%o"e6C an6 i" "ometime" recogni"able in anot8er
formC ;it8 it" me6icinal acti9it7 greatl7 mo6ifie6
b7 t8e c8emical c8ange" t8at affect it) /8i"
con9erte6 "tate of t8e "ub"tance i" calle6 it"
Ai%aka) /8e c8emical effect on t8e "iP kin6" of
ta"te" i" eit8er ";eetC "ourC or %ungent) /8e
Ai%aka of ";eetC "ourC an6 %ungent agent"
remain" unaltere6 a" a general rule S t8at of a
"aline "ub"tance become" ";eet S an6 of a"trin-
gent an6 bitterC %ungent) /o t8i" Ua" to mo"t
ot8er rule") t8ere are ePce%tion") .iceC for
in"tanceC i" ";eetC but b7 t8e influence of t8e
bo6il7 tem%erature ;it8inC it turn" "our) C8ebulic
m7robalan" 8a9e an a"tringent ta"teC but b7
c8emical action in t8e organi"m t8e7 become
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C () ::5
";eet) ( ";eet Ai%aka %romote" %8legm but
le""en" ;in6 an6 bile S a "our Ai%aka increa"e" bile
but 6ecrea"e" ;in6 an6 %8legm S ;8ile a Ai%aka
t8at i" %ungent gi9e" ri"e to 6i"or6er" of ;in6
an6 "ub6ue" t8o"e of %8legm an6 bile) 2ati9e
D8armaco67namic" treat of t8e c8ange" ;8ic8
eac8 me6icinal agent un6ergoe" in t8e organi"m)
0n 6etermining t8e %ro%ert7 of an agent an6 t8e
c8emical c8ange" t8at affect itC t8e ancient" 8a9e
a"certaine6 ;8ic8 of t8e fi9e con"tituent element"
N et8erC ;in6C fireC ;aterC an6 eart8 N i" %re6omi-
nant in it" formation) /8e fi9e element" 8a9e
been c8aracteri"e6 b7 t8eir re"%ecti9e Jualitie"
of lig8tne""C 6r7ne""C "8ar%ne""C unctuou"ne""
an6 8ea9ine"") 0t ma7 be note6 8ereC b7 ;a7
of %arent8e"i"C t8at t8i" elemental t8eor7 %reci"el7
accor6" ;it8 t8at of DlatoC Hi%%ocrate"C an6
D7t8agora"C t8oug8 t8e fir"t t;o 6o not "eem
to recogni"e et8er a" an elemental con"tituent)
/o 6etermine t8e %ro%ortion of t8e "e9eral ele-
ment" in t8e formation of a me6icinal 6rugC an6
to 6e"cribe t8e "ub"eJuent c8ange" it un6ergoe"
in t8e li9ing econom7C %re"u%%o"e" "ome kno;-
le6geC on t8e %art of t8e ol6 0n6ian ;riter"C of
c8emical anal7"i" an6 t8e %roce"" of 6ecom-
::I 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
/8e t8era%eutic effect of a me6icinal agent i"
regulate6C not b7 t8e nature of it" in8erent ta"teC
but b7 t8at of t8e ta"te of it" Ai%aka)
5) Drab8a9a Uin8erent nature) i" t8e %eculiar
acti9e force re"i6ing in a 6rug) /8ere are certain
6rug" ;8o"e ta"teC %ro%ert7C %o;erC an6 con"e-
Juence of action are analogou"C an6 7et t8e effect"
%ro6uce6 b7 t8em are Juite 6i""imilar) >or
ePam%leC Ma68u"ra9a U ?a""ia latifolia ) an6
4rak"8a U Aiti" 9inifera) are "imilar in ta"teC
bot8 being ";eet S "imilar in %ro%ert7C bot8
being 8ea97 S "imilar in %o;erC bot8 being
col6 S an6 "imilar in con"eJuence of ga"tric
actionC bot8 remaining ";eet in t8eir Ai%akaC
an6 7et t8e %87"iological effect of t8e former i"
co"ti9e an6 t8at of t8e latter laPati9e) /8i"
in8erent %eculiarit7 of t8e 6rug" i" calle6 t8eir
Drab8a9a) 0n like mannerC C8itraka UDlumbago
5e7lanica) an6 4anti UCroton %ol7an6rum) are
bot8 %ungent to ta"teC lig8t in %ro%ert7C 8ot in
%o;erC an6 %ungent in con"eJuence of ga"tric
action) ?ut C8itraka %romote" 6ige"tionC ;8ile
4anti o%erate" a" a %o;erful %urgati9e) Certain
"ub"tance" "8o; t8eir Drab8a9a in6e%en6entl7
of t8e four con6ition" emunerate6 abo9e) >or
in"tanceC a 8erb calle6 ,a8a6e9i UAernonia
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() ::O
cinerea)C if %rocure6 in a %re"cribe6 manner an6
tie6 on t8e 8ea6C i" "ai6 to cure intermittent fe9erC
t8oug8 a" an or6inar7 me6icineC ;8en a6mini"-
tere6 internall7C it i" an alterati9e an6 a bitter
tonicC an6 it" juice ;8en a%%lie6 ePternall7 i"
"u%%o"e6 to cure le%ro"7 an6 c8ronic "kin-
6i"ea"e") 0t i" un6er t8i" belief t8at %er"on"
acJuainte6 ;it8 t8e Drab8a9aC or efficac7 of
certain object"C a" fruit" or "tone"C ;ear t8em
on t8eir bo6ie" a" %ro%87lactic" again"t certain
6i"ea"e") /8e a"cetic" of 0n6iaC ;8o %refer to be
aloof from "ociet7 an6 %a"" t8eir time in t8e
"olitu6e of t8e jungle"C are "ai6 to be familiar
;it8 t8e ;on6erful %ro%ertie" of rare 6rug"C
;8ic8 go not onl7 to kee% t8eir bo6ie" an6 "oul"
toget8erC but to %rolong t8eir li9e" to a con"i6er-
able ePtent) /8eir kno;le6ge of t8e Drab8a9a
of t8e 6ifferent 8erb"C combine6 ;it8 t8e %ractice
of regulating t8eir breat8ingC i" "u%%o"e6 to gi9e
t8em a longe9it7 Juite be7on6 our com%re8en-
"ion) /8i" kno;le6ge i" 8an6e6 6o;n from
teac8er to %u%ilC an6 form" no "mall 9olume of
t8e un;ritten an6 tra6itional lore on t8e "ubject
of t8e nature an6 %ro%ertie" of t8e 0n6ian curati9e
/8e Materia Me6ica of 0n6ia i" ackno;le6ge6
::G 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
on all 8an6" to be 9er7 9oluminou") ?ut t8e
mo"t noticeable feature in connection ;it8 t8i"
%articular branc8 of (r7an me6ical "cience i"C t8at
unlike ot8er (r7an "cience" it 8a" been u% to a
certain %erio6 a %rogre""i9e one) 3ac8 "ucce""i9e
;riterC after a %atient an6 careful in9e"tigationC
a%%ear" to 8a9e a66e6 ne; 6rug" to t8e ePi"ting
li"tC an6 to 8a9e t8u" conferre6 a la"ting benefit
on mankin6) ,ome of t8e ;riter" em%8aticall7
a""ert t8at all t8e curati9e agent" mentione6 in
t8eir treati"e" 8a9e been t8oroug8l7 te"te6 an6
recommen6e6 after a long %ractical eP%erience)
3ac8 ;riter 8a" of cour"e 8i" o;n met8o6 of
treating t8e "ubject) Ee 8a9e alrea67 referre6
to t8e cla""ification of (gni9e"8a an6 of ,u"8ruta)
/8e latterC in t8e 3Ht8 c8a%ter of 8i" "tan6ar6
;orkC 8a" arrange6 t8e 6rug" into cla""e" accor6-
ing to t8eir %o;er of curing certain 6i"ea"e"C %re-
"cribing from ten to t;ent7-fi9e reme6ie" for eac8
6i"ea"e) He "trongl7 recommen6" t8at %87"ician"
"8oul6 be able to i6entif7 t8e 9ariou" reme6ial
agent" t8e7 8a9e to 6eal ;it8) /8e7 "8oul6
%er"onall7 go to t8e jungle"C an6 ;it8 t8e 8el% of
"8e%8er6"C gra5ier"C a"cetic"C tra9eller"C an6 ot8er"
familiar ;it8 t8e fore"t"C gat8er t8e 8erb" ;8en
t8e7 are in flo;erC taking care to a9oi6 t8o"e
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() ::H
injure6 b7 in"ect"C or gro;ing on "ituation" con-
taining ne"t" of ;8ite ant"C or ;8ere bo6ie" 8a9e
been burnt or burie6C or from groun6 in ;8ic8
t8ere i" muc8 "alt) Ee 8a9e al"o referre6 to t8e
cla""ification of C8arakaC ba"e6 on t8e %ro%ertie"
of 9ariou" "ub"tance") Aagb8ataC in t8e :5 t8
c8a%ter of 8i" %o%ular ;orkC 8a" follo;e6
,u"8rutaQ" met8o6C but t8e conci"e ;a7 of 8i"
6e"cri%tion 8a" a c8arm of it" o;n) /8e met8o6
a6o%te6 b7 t8e aut8or of V 48an9antari 2ig8anta V
i" muc8 t8e "ame a" follo;e6 b7 C8arakaC ;it8
t8i" 6ifferenceC t8at ;8ile t8e latter mention" one
6rug in t8e treatment of "e9eral 6i"ea"e"C t8e li"t
of t8e former i" free from "uc8 a re%etition) /8e
;ork i" of great antiJuit7C but t8e name of t8e
com%iler i" not kno;n) ,ome a"cribe t8e aut8or-
"8i% to 48an9antariC t8e >at8er of 0n6ian Me6i-
cine) ?ut t8i" cannot be correct) >or in t8e
%rologue of 8i" ;ork t8e ;riter offer" 8i" "aluta-
tion" to V t8e 4i9ine 48an9antari a6ore6 alike b7
go6" an6 6emon")V 0n 8i" elaborate ;ork 8e 8a"
treate6 of 3O3 6rug"C ePclu"i9e of mineral")
/8e nePt im%ortant ;riter on me6icinal 8erb"
i" ?8a9a Mi"8raC "on of +ataka Mi"8raC to ;8om
a reference 8a" alrea67 been ma6e in %re9iou"
%age") He 8a" gi9en t8e name" an6 %ro%ertie"
:20 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
of about :50 6rug" more t8an are foun6 in
V 48an9antari 2ig8antaCV "uc8 a" (8i%8ena
Uo%ium)C *8ak8a" U%o%%7 "ee6")C *a"umba
U"afflo;er)C Met8ica Ufenugreek)C Aata9airi
Ualmon6)C etc)
?8a9a Mi"8ra i" follo;e6 b7 .aja Ma6ana%alaC
;8o"e ;ork calle6 V Ma6ana-Aino6a V i" a "econ6
e6itionC a" it ;ereC of t8e V ?8a9a%raka"8a)V He
"eem"C 8o;e9erC to 8a9e augmente6 t8e li"t of
0n6ian %lant" b7 "ome ne; name"C among ;8ic8
mig8t be mentione6 V(kakarab8aV U%ellitor7)C
V (njiraV Ufig)C V Di"tamV U%i"tac8io nut)C VHari-
6rumaV Ugambier)C etc)
Bu"t about 8i" time t8ere flouri"8e6 a learne6
%87"ician name6 2ara8ariC "on of C8an6e"89araC
an in8abitant of ,in8%ur in Ca"8mere) He ;rote
an ePcellent ;ork calle6 V (b8i68ana C8u6amani V
or V.aja 2ig8antaV U.o7al 4ictionar7 of Me6i-
cine)) /8e ;ork ;a" com%o"e6 un6er t8e %atron-
age of t8e *ing of Ca"8mere at t8e timeC an6
t8erefore no %ain" "eem to 8a9e been "%are6 to
make it a" u"eful an6 intere"ting a" %o""ible)
(ccor6ing to "ome ;riter"C 2ara8ari li9e6 in t8e
"e9ent8 centur7 after C8ri"tC t8oug8 t8e ePact
time of 8i" birt8 i" not kno;n) Hi" ;ork i" a
glo""ar7 of me6icinal "ub"tance" ;it8 "%ecification"
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :2:
of t8eir 9irtue") He al"o 6e"cribe" t8e %ro%ertie"
of 6ifferent kin6" of "oil S t8e nature of "oil" "uit-
able for t8e culti9ation of 9ariou" me6icinal
%lant" S 9arietie" of tree"C cereal"C oil"C 9egetable"C
root"C lea9e"C flo;er" an6 fruit" S %ro%ertie" of
fre"8 an6 "alt ;ater" S an6 gi9e"C be"i6e"C a mine
of u"eful information) /8e ;ork i" 9er7 elabor-
ateC an6 i" muc8 9alue6 b7 0n6ian %ractitioner")
/8e or6er ob"er9e6 b7 t8i" ;riter in arranging
t8e 6rug" 6iffer" from t8at of 8i" %re6ece""or")
He cla""ifie" t8e 8erb" into cree%er"C %lant"C tree"
an6 gra""e"C an6 6e"cribe" 8o; eac8 %art of t8em
i" to be u"e6 me6icinall7) /8i" ;riter make"
mention of about a 8un6re6 ne; me6icine" not
to be met ;it8 in t8e ;ork" of 8i" %re6ece""or")
/8e mo"t im%ortant of t8em are < *an6ura
U@7rarclinia 8etero%87lla)C ?ra8ma6an6i U/ri-
c8ola%i" glaberrima)C Binj8ira U/riumfetta angu-
lata)C .u6anti UCre""a cretica)C an6 .u6rak"8a
U3lc?ocar%u" ganitru"))
,8o68alaC ;8o came after 2ara8ariC ;rote a
treati"e on Materia Me6ica bearing 8i" name)
He ;a" a @ujarati ?ra8man b7 ca"teC 8i" fat8er
being a %87"ician name6 2an6ana) Hi" ;ork i"
c8iefl7 ba"e6 on t8e V 48an9antari 2ig8antaCV
to ;8ic8 8e 8a" a66e6 about eig8t7 6rug" a" t8e
:22 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
re"ult of actual in9e"tigation carrie6 on in t8e
fore"t" "uc8 a" Mamanjaka UHi%ian orientali)C
B8ulla%u"8%a U?7o%87tum "en"iti9um)C *eetamari
U(ri"toloc8ia bracteata) S tkantaka U3c8ino%"
ec8inatu")C ?8ringaraja U3cli%ta alba)C etc)
Aai67a More"89ara of (8me6nagarC in t8e earl7
%art of t8e "e9enteent8 centur7 incor%orate6 in
8i" V Aai67amrita V "ome Der"ian 6rug"C a" 0"%8gul
UDlantago 0"%ag8ula) an6 ot8er")
0n t8e beginning of t8e eig8teent8 centur7C a
;ell-kno;n %87"ician of ?enare" com%o"e6 a large
;ork calle6 V (tankatimirab8a"karaCV an im%or-
tant ;ork on t8e 0n6ian 8ealing art) 0n t8e
c8a%ter on Materia Me6icaC 8e 8a" not onl7
a9aile6 8im"elf of t8e labour" of all ;8o 8a6 gone
before 8imC but 8a" t8ro;n a ne; lig8t on "ome
of t8em) /ea i" one of t8e fe; ne; 6rug" 8e 8a"
embo6ie6 in 8i" ;ork) Hi" great-gran6"onC
Aai67a ,o8amjiC ;a" one of t8e mo"t "c8olarl7
an6 celebrate6 %87"ician" in 2ort8ern 0n6ia) He
6ie6 9er7 recentl7)
(bout t8e mi66le of t8e %re"ent centur7C t8at
i" to "a7 in :GIOC Dan6it Ai"8nu Aa"u6e9
@o6bole %ubli"8e6 8i" V 2ig8antaratnakara)V 0t
i" a 9er7 %o%ular ;orkC a" it contain" an e%itome
of all t8e %re9iou" treati"e" on Materia Me6icaC
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :23
"u%%lemente6 b7 about fift7 ne; 8erb" not
referre6 to b7 t8e ol6er ;riter") (mong t8e
ne; name" ;e fin6 3li9aka Ualoe")C (nanna"a
U%inea%%le)C Deruka Ugua9a)C /amak8u Utobacco)C
Duclina Umint)C Me6ica U8enna)C ,ita%8ala Ucu"-
tar6 a%%le)C etc)
/8e 9irtue" of t8e 0n6ian 6rug" ;ere kno;n
not onl7 in t8e countr7 of t8eir birt8C but in
ot8er countrie" a" ;ell) ,ome fi9e centurie"
before C8ri"tC Hi%%ocrate" in 8i" Materia Me6ica
recommen6" "e9eral 0n6ian %lant" mentione6 in
,an"krit ;ork" of muc8 anterior 6ateC a" for
in"tance ,e"amum in6icum Utila)C 2ar6o"tac87"
jataman"i Ujataman"i)C ?o";ellia t8urifera
Ukun6uru)C 'ingiber officinale U"8ringa9era)C
Di%er nigrum Umaric8i)C etc) 0n t8e fir"t cen-
tur7 of t8e C8ri"tian era 4io"cori6e"C a @reek
%87"icianC t8oroug8l7 in9e"tigate6 t8e me6icinal
9irtue" of man7 0n6ian %lant" ;8ic8 ;ere t8en
taken to t8e market of 3uro%eC an6 incor%orate6
in 8i" ePtant book on Materia Me6icaC ;8ic8 for
man7 age" ;a" recei9e6 a" a "tan6ar6 ;ork)
0n t8e "econ6 centur7C Clau6iu" @alenC to ;8o"e
;riting" mo6ern 3uro%ean "cience i" in6ebte6
for man7 u"eful 6i"co9erie"C %ubli"8e6 8i" famou"
;orkC t8e lea6ing o%inion" in ;8ic8 a" to 8ot
:2K 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
an6 col6 me6icine" ;ere borro;e6 from 0n6iaC
;8ere t8e7 "till %re9ail) i3tiu"C a %87"ician of
Me"o%otamiaC ;8o flouri"8e6 in t8e fift8 centur7C
an6 ;8o"e ;ork" on t8e 6i"ea"e" of ;omen are
"till ePtant in @reekC mention" "ome 6rug"C a"
0n6ian nut"C "an6al-;oo6C cocoa-nut"C an6 ot8er
%ro6uct" of 0n6ia) /8e i3gian %87"icianC Daulu"
i3ginetaC ;8o i" "ai6 to 8a9e fir"t notice6 t8e
cat8artic Jualit7 of *8ubarbC an6 ;8o li9e6 in
t8e "e9ent8 centur7C refer" to certain 0n6ian
8erb" in 8i" ;ork) 0n t8e eig8t8 centur7C an6
%robabl7 in t8e centur7 follo;ingC t8e nati9e"
of 0n6ia %racti"e6 a" %87"ician" in ?ag86a6C an6
em%lo7e6 man7 0n6ian 6rug" in t8eir %ractice)
Ee fin6 from t8e book" ;ritten b7 (rabian
an6 3uro%ean tra9eller" of b7gone 6a7"C t8at
about I00 a)cC t8e (rab"C ;8o ;ere t8e mo"t
for;ar6 an6 enter%ri"ing nation of t8eir timeC
u"e6 to bring 9ariou" article" of merc8an6i"e to
0n6ia from t8eir o;n countr7C an6 from countrie"
l7ing on t8e ea"t coa"t of (fricaC an6 took ;it8
t8em from t8e Malabar coa"t in ,out8ern 0n6ia
"%ice" an6 me6icinal 6rug"C an6 "o "%rea6 a
kno;le6ge of t8e"e article" in t8e a6joining
countrie" of 3uro%e) /8i" "tate of t8ing" con-
tinue6 for a long timeC ;8ile t8e Me6ical ,cience
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :25
of 0n6ia ;a" in it" 8e76a7 of glor7) 39er7
im%ortant to;n coul6 t8en boa"t of one or more
me6ical "c8ool"C t8e %u%il" at ;8ic8 u"e6 to
accom%an7 t8eir teac8er" to t8e jungle" to
i6entif7 for t8em"el9e" t8e 9ariou" 6rug" men-
tione6 in t8eir book") /8e %87"ician"C in t8eir
laboriou" re"earc8e"C ;ere 9er7 liberall7 en-
courage6 b7 t8e ruling c8ief" N great an6 "mall N
in all %art" of t8e countr7) ,o long a" t8e7
continue6 to recei9e encouragement from t8e
king"C t8e "cience %ro"%ere6 an6 flouri"8e6) 0t"
6ecline 6ate" from t8e Ma8ome6an in9a"ion" in
t8e tent8 centur7) /8e min6" of bot8 %rince"
an6 %eo%le ;ere 6i"tracte6 b7 t8e"e foreign in-
tru6er") /8e7 ;ere c8iefl7 engro""e6 in taking
mea"ure" for o%%o"ing t8e in9a6er") 0t ;a" onl7
natural t8at 6uring "uc8 a "tate of unre"t an6
6i"or6erC t8e nati9e Aai67a" "8oul6 "lacken t8eir
5eal for making furt8er in9e"tigation" in t8e
0n6ian floraC for ;ant of encouragement) >ar
from being able to follo; u% t8e %ractical %art
of t8eir "tu67C t8e7 8a6 to re"t content ;it8 t8e
t8eoretical kno;le6ge im%arte6 b7 t8eir book"C
an6 to 6e%en6 on or6inar7 grocer" for t8e "u%%l7
of 6rug" reJuire6 for t8eir no"trum") E8en t8e
Ma8ome6an %o;er ;a" firml7 e"tabli"8e6 in
:2I 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
0n6iaC t8e 0n6ian me6icine recei9e6 a ru6e "8ock)
>or t8e Ma8ome6an" broug8t ;it8 t8em t8eir
o;n %87"ician"C calle6 Hakim"C ;8o follo;e6 in
t8eir %ractice t8e 0onian U@reek) "7"tem of
me6icineC generall7 terme6 V 1unani)V n6er
0m%erial %atronage t8e Hakim" began to %ro"%er
at t8e eP%en"e of t8e Aai67a") ?ut e9en at t8e
Ma8ome6an Court" t8e Aai67a" are recor6e6
to 8a9e cure6 man7 intractable 6i"ea"e"C ;8ic8
8a6 baffle6 t8e "kill of t8eir foreign ri9al") 0t i"
e9i6ent t8at 6uring t8e time of t8e Ma8ome6an
rule t8ere ;ere intro6uce6 into 0n6ia "ome ne;
6rug" from (rabiaC Der"iaC an6 (fg8ani"tan)
-%iumC for in"tanceC a%%ear" to be a nati9e
of Ee"tern ("ia) 0t ;a" fir"t im%orte6 into
t8i" countr7 from (rabia) 0t" "%rea6 in 0n6ia
i" "7nc8ronou" ;it8 t8e a69ent of t8e Ma8o-
me6an" ;8o 8a6 a6o%te6 it a" a "uitable "ub"ti-
tute for fermente6 liJuor"C ;8ic8 t8eir religion
6i"countenance") ,8arng68ara an6 Aagb8ata
refer to t8e me6icinal u"e of t8i" articleC ;8ic8
t8e7 call V (8i-%8ena V or "nake-foamC belie9ing it
to be in"%i""ate6 "ali9a of "nake"C %robabl7 from
t8e "7m%tom" of o%ium %oi"on re"embling t8o"e
%ro6uce6 b7 t8e 9enom of "nake") 0t i" u"e6 in
6iarr8oeaC c8ronic 67"enter7C for alla7ing %ainC
C8a%) A00) B 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :2O
an6 %ro6ucing "lee%) /8e 3uro%ean 6octor"
"eem to 8a9e learnt t8e t8era%eutic u"e of o%ium
from 0n6ian %ractitioner"C t8oug8 ,criboniu"
+argu" 8a" notice6 -%ium earl7 in t8e fir"t
centur7) ,ome more 6rug" ;8ic8 8a%%ene6 to
be intro6uce6 into 0n6ia 6uring t8e Ma8ome6an
rule are < N
(lu RDrimu" bocarien"i") i" u"e6 in biliou"
affection" an6 fe9er")
?a6ian Uli6um ani"atum) i" a Der"ian 6rugC
an6 it" oil i" a%%lie6 to t8e joint" in r8eumati"m)
?anaf"8a UAiola o6orata) i" em%lo7e6 in
biliou" affection" an6 con"ti%ation)
@ao5aban U-no"ma bracteatum) i" u"e6 in
le%ro"7C 87%oc8on6ria"i"C an6 "7%8ili")
@ul-e-6au6i UC8r7"ant8emum .oPburg8ii) i"
%re"cribe6 a" a 6emulcent in gonorr8oea)
*erba UDaniti" "uc6nifer) i" anti"%a"mo6ic
an6 "timulant)
*8arjura UD8oeniP 6act7lifera) i" nutriti9e
an6 u"e6 a" 6e"ert)
/8e Mu""ulman rule ;a" "u%%lante6 b7 t8e
3ngli"8C ;8o"e %o;er ;a" firml7 e"tabli"8e6 in
0n6ia in t8e eig8teent8 centur7) /8e 3ngli"8
broug8t ;it8 t8em t8eir o;n 6octor"C ;8o %re-
"cribe6 3uro%ean me6icine"C before ;8ic8 t8e
:2G 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
in6igenou" 6rug" gra6uall7 ga9e ;a7) Ho"%ital"
an6 6i"%en"arie" on Ee"tern mo6el" multi%lie6C
an6 t8e u"e of Ee"tern me6icine" ;a" encourage6
in all %art" of t8e countr7) 2ati9e me6icine"
came to be 6i"car6e6 in fa9our of rea67-ma6e
%re%aration" im%orte6 from 3uro%e) /8i" ;a" a
"eriou" blo; to 0n6ian %8armac7) ?ut 3uro%e
i" "im%l7 %a7ing back t8e 6ebt it o;e6 to 0n6iaC
becau"e it" Materia Me6ica inclu6e" man7 cura-
ti9e agent" of 0n6ian %ro6uctC "uc8 a" < N
(conitum 8etero%87llum U(ti9i"8a))
(llium Ce%a UDalan6u))
(cacia Catec8u U*a6ara))
(l8agi maurorum U1a9a"a))
(l"tonia "c8olari" U,a%ta%arna))
(momum elettarum U3la))
(n6ro%ogon nar6u" U"8ira))
(n6ro%ogon ,c8o"nant8u" U*aturina))
(rtemi"ia "ternutatoria U(gni6amani))
?erberi" +7cium U4aru8ari6ra))
?utea fron6o"a UDala"8a))
Ca""ia lanceolata U,onamuk8i))
Cucumi" Coloc7nt8i" U0n6ra9aruni))
4atura albaC 4atura nigerC etc) U48attura))
Bu"ticia (68ato6a U(taru"8a))
+uffa amara U*atuko"8taki))
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :2H
+inum u"itati""imum U(ta"i))
Mallotu" D8ili%%ien"i" U*a%illaka))
M7rica "a%i6a U*atfala))
-%8elia C8iretta an6 -%8elia angu"tifolia
Dim%inella (ni"um U,8ata%u"8%a))
Dongamia glabra U*aranja))
Dt7c8oti" ajoi9an U(jamo6a))
.icinu" com=muni" U3ran6a))
,al9inia cucullata Un6urkarnika))
,antalum album an6 ,antalum fia9um
,8orea robu"ta U(jakarna))
,tr7c8no" %otatorumC ,tr7c8no" miP 9omicaC
etc) U*atakafala))
/ino"%ora cor6ifolia U@a6uc8i))
Aaleriana Har6;ickii U/agara))
Erig8tia anti67"enterica U0n6ra7a9a))
/8e Hin6oo" from an earl7 6ate 8a9e 6eri9e6
"im%le me6icine" from t8e (20M(+ *ing6om)
/8eir number i" 9er7 large) ( fe; ma7 be
note6 8ere < N
("t8i Ubone) of a goat re6uce6 to a"8e"C an6
forme6 into an ointment ;it8 ot8er ingre6ient"C
i" u"e6 for curing fi"tul"e) Cuttlefi"8 bone"
are al"o u"e6 me6icinall7)
:30 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C () RC8a%) A00)
4anta Utoot8) of t8e ele%8ant i" %re"cribe6 in
46g68a Umilk) i" nutriti9e an6 9itali"ing)
Human milk i" lig8t an6 "trengt8ening an6 muc8
u"e6 in e7e 6i"ea"e") Co;Q" milk increa"e" t8e
"ecretion of "emen) ?uffaloQ" milk in6uce" "lee%
;8en taken in large Juantitie") @oatQ" milk i"
";eet an6 lig8tC an6 i" recommen6e6 in %8t8i"i"
an6 bloo6 6i"ea"e") ,8ee%Q" milk i" 8otC an6
i" belie9e6 to %romote t8e gro;t8 of 8air)
3le%8antQ" milk i" u"e6 in e7e 6i"ea"e"C an6 mareQ"
milk in r8eumati"m) (""Q" milk i" "alti"8C an6 i"
"u%%o"e6 to relie9e coug8 in c8il6ren) CamelQ"
milk i" laPati9eC an6 i" u"e6 in 6ro%"7C a"t8maC
an6 "crofulou" 6i"ea"e") /8e %ro%ertie" of milk
are "ai6 to 9ar7 accor6ing to t8e colour of t8e
animal an6 t8e Jualitie" of t8e %a"ture) /8e
c8ief %re%aration" of milk are 4acl8i Ucur6")C a
fa9ourite reme67 for 6iarr8oea S /akra U;8e7)C
;8ic8 i" refrigerant S 2a9anita Ubutter)C u"e6 in
con"ti%ation S @8rita Uclarifie6 butter)C i" tonicC
emollientC an6 cooling S ,antanika Ucream) i"
@arala U9enom) of "nake" i" u"e6 in
/9ak U"kin)C ;8ic8 a "nake %erio6icall7 ca"t"
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :3:
offC i" "ai6 to be an in"ectici6eC an6 %o""e""e"
"e9eral 8ealing %ro%ertie")
Bala Ucob;eb) of a 8ou"e-"%i6er i" a u"eful
a%%lication for "to%%ing 8aemorr8age)
Baluka Uleec8e") are a%%lie6 for bloo6letting)
Bee9ata Uli9ing creature")C "uc8 a" Matkuna
Ube6-bug)C i" allege6 to cure Juartan fe9er if
";allo;e6) ,imilarl7C a fl7 i" ";allo;e6 to cau"e
*e"8a U8air) of a man ;8en burnt an6 re6uce6
to a"8e"C i" a%%lie6 to "ore" on t8e "kin) /8e
burning of 8air i" al"o re"orte6 to for 6ri9ing
a;a7 "er%ent")
+ak"8a Ulac) i" u"e6 in menorr8agia)
Ma6a Ut8e "ecretion t8at flo;" from an
ele%8antQ" tem%le" ;8en in rut) 8a" it" me6icinal
u"e in ePciting "ePual 6e"ire) ,imilarl7C *a"turi
Umu"k) i" u"e6 in 87"terical 6i"or6er" an6 ot8er
ner9ou" affection")
Ma68u U8one7) i" 6emulcent an6 laPati9eC an6
i" u"e6 bot8 internall7 an6 ePternall7) Hin6oo
;riter" 6e"cribe eig8t kin6" of 8one7C 9i5) < N
Mak"8ikaC "ecrete6 b7 big ta;n7 bee"C an6
con"i6ere6 to be t8e be"tC i" recommen6e6 in
jaun6ice) ?8ramara i" ;8ite an6 cure" "cur97)
*"8au6ra i" "ecrete6 b7 "mall ta;n7 bee" an6 i"
:32 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
u"e6 in gonorr8oea) Dautika i" "ecrete6 b7 tin7
black bee"C i" 8ot in %ro%ert7C an6 cure" "tricture
of uret8ra) C88atra can be 8a6 on t8e Himala7a"
;8ere t8e 8one7comb i" foun6 in t8e "8a%e of a
C88atra or umbrellaC an6 i" em%lo7e6 in eP%elling
;orm") (r687a i" foun6 in Mal;aC an6 i" "ai6
to be 9er7 beneficial in e7e 6i"ea"e") (u6alaka
i" obtaine6 from t8e ant-8ill"C an6 i" goo6 for t8e
9oice) 4alaZ i" t8e juice ePu6e6 from certain
kin6" of flo;er" an6 collecte6 on t8e lea9e") 0t
i" cre6ite6 ;it8 t8e %ro%ert7 of curing nau"ea)
Hone7 of a %articular kin6 of r8o6o6en6ron i"
Ma68ujama U;aP) i" u"e6 in cerate" an6
ointment") 0t i" al"o gi9en in t8e form of
emul"ion in 6iarr8oea an6 67"enter7)
Man"a Ufle"8) of a goat frie6 in oil i" u"e6 in
r8eumati"m) (n e""ence of 6o9eQ" fle"8 i"
%re"cribe6 in %aral7"i")
Me6a" Ufat) of camel or 87ena i" con"i6ere6 a
9aluable local reme67 for gout7 joint")
Mootra Uurine) ;oul6 a%%ear to be a 9er7
u"eful agentC accor6ing to t8e Hin6oo"C an6 8a"
Z /8i" "ub"tance i" a %urel7 9egetable %ro6uctC an6 i" mentione6
8ere becau"e t8e Hin6oo ;riter" 8a9e generall7 cla""ifie6 it ;it8
t8e ot8er 9arietie" of 8one7)
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :33
a 9er7 ;i6e a%%lication) Co;Q" urine i" u"e6
bot8 internall7 an6 ePternall7) 0t i" %re"cribe6
in colic an6 man7 ot8er 6i"ea"e") @oatQ" urine i"
u"e6 in jaun6iceC buffaloQ" in %ile" an6 ele%8antQ"
in bloo6 6i"ea"e") /8e renal "ecretion of t8e
8or"e i" %re"cribe6 for killing ;orm"C of t8e a""
for con"um%tion an6 in"anit7C an6 of t8e camel
for t8e cure of ring;orm) Human urine i"
recommen6e6 for coug8 an6 e7e 6i"ea"e"C an6
urine of a ca"trate6 bullock in ca"e" of anaemia
an6 67"enter7) rine "8oul6C a" a ruleC be
obtaine6 from t8e female S but in t8e ca"e of
t8e 8or"eC t8e a""C t8e camel an6 t8e ele%8antC
t8at obtaine6 from t8e male i" generall7 %referre6)
Mukta U%earl") are taken in a %o;6ere6 "tate
for im%otenc7 an6 con"um%tion)
2ak8a Unail) of a man i" u"e6 in ca"e" of
;oun6"C an6 8or"eQ" 8oof for fumigation an6 in-
termittent fe9er")
Dic88a Ufeat8er) of a %eacock i" "ai6 to cure
8iccoug8) 0t i" al"o belie9e6 t8at "nake %oi"on
;ill not affect one ;earing a ring ma6e of co%%er
ePtracte6 from %eacockQ" feat8er")
Ditta Ubile) of fi"8 an6 ot8er aJuatic creature"
i" 8el%ful in ca"e" of fe9er an6 e7e 6i"ea"e")
Dra9ala Ucoral) i" beneficial in coug8)
:3K 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
Duri"8a U6ung) of a co; i" a%%lie6 to %art"
of t8e "kin t8at ma7 be inflame6 or 6i"coloure6)
0t i" occa"ionall7 gi9en internall7) 0n 0n6ia it
i" u"e6 for %la"tering t8e ;all"C an6 i" "%rea6 on
floor" un6er t8e im%re""ion t8at it %o""e""e"
6i"infecting %ro%ertie") 3le%8antQ" fimu" i" "ai6
to cure le%ro"7) 4ro%%ing" of a 6ome"tic cock
are con"i6ere6 beneficial in colicC an6 t8o"e of a
goat in cutaneou" 6i"ea"e")
,8ank8a Uconc8) relie9e" colic an6 flatulence)
,8ringa U8orn) of a "tag 8a" 9ariou" me6icinal
u"e") Ma6e into a %a"teC it i" a%%lie6 to "%rain"C
contu"ion" an6 fi""ure"C an6 to t8e fore8ea6 in
Aarataka Uco;r7) i" recommen6e6 for enlarge6
/8e M023.(+, u"e6 in me6icine b7 t8e
Hin6oo" inclu6e Metal"C .a"a"C ,alt"C Dreciou"
,tone"C Cla7C etc)
/8e Metal" em%lo7e6 b7 t8e (r7an %87"ician"
are 6i9i6e6 into t;o cla""e" N %rinci%al an6
"econ6ar7) /8e %rinci%al metal" or 48atu" are
"e9enC namel7 < N ,u9arna Ugol6)C .au%7a
"il9er)C /amra Uco%%er)C ?anga Utin)C ,i"aka
Ulea6)C 1a"8a6a U5inc) an6 +o8a Uiron)) /8e
V "econ6ar7 metal" V U"ub"tance" containing an7
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M3MC() :35
of t8e %rinci%al metal" or t8eir com%oun6")
%o""e"" t8e %ro%ertie" of "uc8 metal"C t8oug8 in
a le""er 6egreeC an6 are al"o "e9enC 9i5) < N ,u9ar-
namak"8ika U7ello; %7rite")C /aramak"8ika U;8ite
%7rite")C /utt8a U"ul%8ate of co%%er)C *an"7a
Ubra"")C *eeti Ucalcine6 5inc)C ,in6ura Ure6 oPi6e
of lea6) an6 ,8ilajita Ubitumen))
Dara6a Umercur7) i" treate6 un6er t8e name
of .a"a U%lea"ure)C a" it" %re"ence in t8e com-
%o"ition of me6icine" i" "u%%o"e6 to affor6 great
"ati"faction to t8e Aai67a") 0t i" calle6 t8e
%rinci%al 3a"aC a" 6i"tingui"8e6 from t8e %a-
ra"a" or "econ6ar7 .a"a"C ;8ic8 are @an68aka
U"ul%8ur)C Hingula Ure6 "ul%8i6e of mercur7)C
(b8raka Umica)C Mana""8ila Ubi"ul%8i6e of
ar"enic)C /alaka Uter"ul%8i6e of ar"enic)C ,rotan-
jana U"ul%8i6e of lea6)C /ankana UboraP)C .aja-
9arta Ula%i" la5uli)C C8umbaka Uloa6"tone)C ,fatika
Ualum)C *a"i"a U"ul%8ate of iron)C .a"aka Ucar-
bonate of 5inc) an6 ?o6ara Ulit8arge))
/8e %reciou" "tone" U.atna") mentione6 in
Materia Me6ica are al"o 6i9i6e6 into t;o cla""e"
N %rinci%al an6 "econ6ar7) /8e %rinci%al gem"
are nineC t8eir name" being < Heera U6iamon6)C
Da6maraga Urub7)C 2ila U"a%%8ire)C @arutmat
Uemeral6)C Du"8%araga Uto%a5)C @ome6a Uon7P)C
:3I 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
Aai6ur7a UcatQ" e7e)C Mauktika U%earl) an6 Dra-
9ala Ucoral)) /8e la"t t;o belong to t8e (nimal
*ing6omC but are referre6 to 8ere a" being
inclu6e6 in t8e V nine gem")V (mong t8e
"econ6ar7 "tone" ma7 be mentione6 ,ur7akanta
U"un-"tone)C C8an6ra-kanta Umoon-"tone N a gem
"u%%o"e6 to be forme6 of t8e congeale6 ra7" of
t8e moon)C ,%8atika Ucr7"tal)C Harit"87ama
UturJuoi"e)C *ac8a Ugla"")C an6 "ome ot8er")
Certain kin6" of "an6 an6 cla7 are in common
u"e a" 8ealing agent"C "uc8 a" *8atika Ucarbonate
of calcium)C *ar6ama U876rou" "ilicate of alu-
mina)C @o%ic8an6ana U"ilicate of alumina)C ,ikata
U"ilica)C etc)
/8e %rinci%al "alt" inclu6e6 in t8e Hin6oo
D8armaco%oeia are 2a9a"a6ara Uc8lori6e of ammo-
nium)C ,in68a9a Uc8lori6e of "o6ium)C Dam"8u-
jak"8ara Ucarbonate of %ota""ium)C 1a9ak"8ara
Ucarbonate of "o6a)C an6 ,ur7ak"8ara Unitrate of
?e"i6e" t8e com%oun6" alrea67 enumerate6C
t8e Hin6oo" 8a9e for age" %a"t em%lo7e6 Bangala
U"ubacetate of co%%er)C Man6ura U876rate6 oPi6e
of iron)C Da"8anab8e6a Ucarbonate of iron an6
lime)C 1a"8a6a%u"8%a UoPi6e of 5inc)C .a"a"in6ura
U"ul%8i6e of mercur7)C .a"akar%ura Ucorro"i9e
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :3O
"ublimate)C ,8ank8a9i"8a Uar"eniou" aci6)C an6
"e9eral ot8er metallic %re%aration")
/8e metal" 8a9e been recogni"e6 a" reme6ie"
b7 t8e Hin6oo" from %re8i"toric time") Aeget-
able 6rug" are uni9er"all7 u"e6 a" t8era%eutic
agent") ?ut it i" to be remembere6 t8at %re%ara-
tion" of 9egetable "ub"tance" 6o not kee% ;ell)
/8e ancient (r7an" "eem to 8a9e a"certaine6 b7
%ractical eP%erience t8at 9egetable 6rug"C a" a
general ruleC become inert after a 7earS %o;6er"
%re"er9e t8eir "trengt8 for t;o mont8"C %ill" an6
tincture" for a 7earC an6 oleaginou" %re%aration"
"iPteen mont8") n6er t8e circum"tance"C t8e
(r7an" 8a9eC it i" allege6C 6i"co9ere6 retenti9e
an6 la"ting me6icine"C ;8ic8C far from becoming
;eakene6 in effect un6er t8e influence of timeC
increa"e in "trengt8 in %ro%ortion to t8eir age)
/8e7 8a9e 6e"cribe6 t8e met8o6 of tran"ferring
t8e %ro%ertie" of 9egetable cure" to certain metal"C
;8ic8 inten"if7 t8eir efficac7C an6 retain it a long
time) /8e metal" are "ubjecte6 to 9ariou" %ro-
ce""e" of %urificationC oPi6ationC etc)C before t8e7
can be a6mini"tere6 a" me6icine" for 9ariou"
6i"ea"e") /8e"e Com%oun6" or ?8a"ma"C a" t8e7
are calle6C are "u%%o"e6 to be infinitel7 more
effecti9e t8an t8e 9egetable 6rug"C an6 are al;a7"
:3G 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
gi9en in "mall 6o"e") /8e number of %87"ician"
u"ing mineral reme6ie" i" not large S for t8e
general belief i" t8at t8e metal"C if not carefull7
an6 %ro%erl7 %re%are6C 6o more 8arm t8an goo6)
-nl7 t8o"e ;8o are eP%ert" in t8i" %ractice
in"%ire confi6ence in t8eir %atient") /8e litera-
ture on metallic reme6ie" i" 9er7 9oluminou"
amongS t8e Hin6oo")
(" 8a" alrea67 been "ai6C t8e metal" before
being calcine6 mu"t in t8e fir"t %lace be %urifie6)
4ifferent mo6e" are %re"cribe6 for %urif7ing
6ifferent metal") -ne of t8e "im%le %roce""e"
of %urif7ing gol6 i" to manufacture t8e metal
into t8in %late" S make t8e"e re6-8otC an6 t8en
6i% t8em into ";eet oil S again 8eat t8e %late"
re6 S %lunge t8em into ;8e7 S 8eat t8em a t8ir6
time S cool t8em in co;Q" urine an6 "our gruel S
re%eat t8i" %roce"" "e9en time"C an6 la"tl7 6i% t8e
re6-8ot metal into *ulat8a Ua kin6 of 9etc8))
/8e metal t8en become" %ure an6 free from all
6eleteriou" matter) 0t i" t8en "ubjecte6 to t8e
%roce"" of V killing V or oPi6ationC ;it8 t8e object
of re6ucing it to b8a"ama) -f t8e man7 %ro-
ce""e" 6e"cribe6C t8e follo;ing ma7 be taken a"
an ePam%le < N +et t8e %urifie6 gol6 be melte6
in a crucible ;it8 one-"iPteent8 %art of it"
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :3H
Juantit7 of lea6 S triturate t8e ma"" in lemon
juice an6 make it into a ball S t8en coat it ;it8
%o;6ere6 "ul%8ur S %ut t8e bolu" in an eart8en
%otC an6 co9er it ;it8 anot8er 9e""el of t8e "ame
"i5e S cement t8e t;o toget8er ;it8 a la7er of
;8ite cla7C an6 %lace t8em in t8e mi6"t of fire
ma6e of t;ent7 co;-6ung cake") E8en t8e fire
8a" com%letel7 burnt outC take out t8e ma"" from
t8e crucible) *e%eat t8e %roce"" for "e9en con-
"ecuti9e cla7"C an6 t8en t8e metal become" cal-
cine6C an6 can ea"il7 be re6uce6 to %o;6er) /8i"
gol6 V calP V i" "ai6 to be a goo6 tonicC an6 i"
"u%%o"e6 to cure nearl7 all 6i"ea"e") 0t i" "ai6
to remo9e t8e effect" of ol6 ageC an6 to re"tore
t8e 9igour of man8oo6C to "8ar%en t8e memor7C
im%ro9e t8e 9oice an6 colour of t8e bo67C an6
%romote "trengt8) 0t i" "timulant an6 a%8ro-
,il9er b8a"ma i" %re%are6 in 9er7 muc8 t8e
"ame ;a7C an6 i" 8ig8l7 recommen6e6 in "ePual
;eakne"" an6 obe"it7)
/8e %roce"" of %urif7ing co%%er i" "imilar to
t8at a6o%te6 for gol6) E8en %urifie6C boil t8e
t8in %late" of t8e metal for t8ree 6a7" in lemon
juiceC an6 incor%orate it ;it8 one-fourt8 of it"Q
Juantit7 of Juick"il9er) /8en t8e ma""C miPe6
:K0 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C () RC8a%) A00)
;it8 t;o %art" of "ul%8urC i" to be moul6e6 into
a ball an6 co9ere6 o9er ;it8 a la7er of Dunarna9a
U?oer8aa9ia 6iffu"a) about one inc8 t8ick) Dlace
t8i" in an eart8en %otC an6 roa"t it in Aaluka7-
antra Uan a%%aratu"C "ee Dlate 0A)) for t;el9e
8our") (fter taking it off t8e fireC %ut t8e ma""
into t8e 8ollo;e6 root of ,8urana U(rum Colo-
ca"ia)C co9er it ;it8 a coating of 6ung an6 cla7C
an6 eP%o"e it to 8eat) /8i" make" t8e metal
fit for re6uction to %o;6erC ;8ic8 i" u"e6 in ca"e"
of enlargement of t8e li9er an6 "%leenC gout an6
0n or6er to %urif7 tinC fir"t melt an6 t8en "oak
it t8ree time" in "ucce""ion in oilC ;8e7C *anjika
U"our gruel)C co;Q" urineC an6 la"tl7 in t8e juice
of (rka UCalotro%i" gigantea)) Melt t8e %uri-
fie6 metal in an eart8en crucibleC a66ing to
it t8e %o;6er of tamarin6 an6 ban7an tree
bark" in t8e %ro%ortion of four to one) ,tir an6
rub t8em ;it8 an iron la6le) MiP ;it8 t8e
%o;6er an eJual Juantit7 of /alaka an6 triturate
in an aci6 juice) 3P%o"e it to fire S again a66
one-tent8 of it" Juantit7 of /alakaC an6 again
rub it an6 %ut it o9er a fire) 3e%eat t8e %roce""
ten time"C or until t8e metal i" re6uce6 to b8a"maC
;8ic8 i" "ai6 to be a goo6 reme67 for %ainful
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :K:
micturition an6 ot8er urinar7 6i"or6er") 0t i"
al"o cre6ite6 ;it8 t8e %o;er of curing gonor-
r8oeaC jaun6ice an6 obe"it7)
/8e %roce"" of %urif7ing lea6 i" "imilar to
t8at of tin) 0n or6er to make it fit for me6icinal
u"e co9er t8e ma"" of %urifie6 lea6 ;it8 a coat-
ing of Mana""8ila macerate6 an6 rubbe6 u% in
betel-leaf juiceC %ut it on t8e fire an6 re%eat t8e
%roce"" t8irt7 time"C ;8en t8e metal i" con9erte6
into b8a"maC ;8ic8 i" a 9ermifugeC an6 i" recom-
men6e6 for c8ronic 6iarr8oea)
/8e met8o6 of %re%aring 5inc b8a"ma i" t8e
"ame a" t8at em%lo7e6 for tiu) /8e me6icine
i" a ner9ine tonic an6 i" u"e6 in c8olera an6
0ron i" %urifie6 b7 eP%o"ing it to t8e fire of
a furnace an6 Juenc8ing it t8ree time" "ucce"-
"i9el7 in oilC *anjikaC co;Q" urine an6 *ulat8a)
/8en to t;el9e %art" of t8e metal a66 one of
Hingula an6 triturate in t8e juice of @8ritaku-
mari U0n6ian aloe") for "iP 8our" S eP%o"e it to
t8e fire of @aja%uta Ua "Juare 8ole 6ug in t8e
eart8 about t;o feet 6ee% an6 t;o feet ;i6e
fille6 in ;it8 co;-6ung cake"C in t8e mi6"t of
;8ic8 t8e eart8en 9e""el containing t8e metal
to be roa"te6 i" %ut)) (fter re%eating t8e %ro-
:K2 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
ce"" "e9en time"C iron can ea"il7 be re6uce6 to
b8a"maC an6 i" t8en %re"cribe6 for 8ectic fe9erC
anaemiaC 6ro%"7 an6 brain 6i"ea"e")
Dreciou" "tone"C like metal"C mu"t be "ubjecte6
to t8e %roce""e" of %urification an6 calcination
before t8e7 can be u"e6 t8era%euticall7) 4iamon6
b8a"ma i" cre6ite6 ;it8 man7 ;on6erful %ro-
%ertie") /o %urif7 a 6iamon6 it i" %lace6 in
t8e 8ollo; of a A7ag8ri U,olanum in6icum)
root co9ere6 o9er ;it8 buffaloQ" 6ung) /8i" i"
ke%t o9er a fire 6uring t8e ;8ole nig8tC an6
Juenc8e6 in 8or"eQ" urine in t8e morning) /8e
o%eration i" re%eate6 for "e9en 6a7") /8u" %uri-
fie6 it i" 8eate6 an6 coole6 in a 6ecoction ma6e
of a"afceti6aC ba7 "alt an6 gruel) @o t8e "ame
roun6 for t;ent7-one 6a7"C an6 6iamon6 b8a"ma
i" %re%are6) 0t i" "ai6 to im%ro9e t8e colour of
t8e bo67 an6 cure man7 6i"ea"e") 0t ;ill be
intere"tingS to note 8ere t8at t8e Hin6oo" 6i"-
tingui"8 four kin6" of 6iamon6"C 6iffering from
eac8 ot8er in a%%earance an6 %ro%ert7C calle6
?ra8maC *"8atri7aC Aai"87a an6 ,8u6raC name"
6eri9e6 from t8e ca"te" into ;8ic8 t8e Hin6oo"
are arrange6) /8e ?ra8ma 6iamon6 i" clear
;8iteC t8e *"8atri7a of re66i"8 colourC t8e
Aai"87a i" 7ello;i"8 an6 t8e ,8u6ra 6iamon6
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :K3
i" of a "mok7 colour) ( 6iamon6 ;8ic8 i" %er-
fectl7 "7mmetricalC "8ar%-e6ge6C lu"trou"C bigC
an6 ;it8out a "tain i" calle6 a Duru"8a or a male
6iamon6) 0t i" con"i6ere6 t8e be"t a" far a" it"
me6icinal u"e goe" S it re"tore" 9igour an6 can
be %re"cribe6 to all ;it8 a69antage) /8at ;8ic8
eP8ibit" "tain" an6 crack"C an6 ;8ic8 i" 8ePan-
gularC i" 6i"tingui"8e6 a" a female 6iamon6C an6
it" b8a"ma i" beneficial to female" onl7)
4iamon6" t8at are long an6 triangular are
neuter an6 are con"i6ere6 %o;erle"")
?ut of all t8e mineral" Mercur7 i" recogni"e6
a" t8e mo"t im%ortant b7 t8e 0n6ian %87"ician")
Mar9ellou" %o;er" are attribute6 to it) 0t ;a"
no 6oubt kno;n to t8e .oman" an6 (rab"
;8o em%lo7e6 it ePternall7C but t8e Hin6oo"
"eem to be t8e onl7 %eo%le ;8o %re"cribe6 it in-
ternall7) 0t i" foun6 in man7 %art" of 0n6iaC an6
;a" kno;n to it" %eo%le from a 9er7 earl7 6ate)
?eing a 9olatile "ub"tance it i" unmanageable for
%urification an6 Q killing Q ;it8out a goo6 6eal
of care an6 %atience) ?ut if once broug8t un6er
"ubjectionC it %ro9e"C "a7 t8e Hin6oo"C an in-
9aluable me6icine for curing "ome of t8e mo"t
ob"tinate 6i"ea"e") /8e Aai67a" u"e 9ariou" con-
tri9ance" calle6 1antra" for t8e %re%aration of
:KK 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
mercurial com%oun6") /8e"e 1antra" are kno;n
b7 t8e name" of 4amaruC r689analikaC AalukaC
?8u68araC 4olaC DatalaC 2ab8i an6 man7 ot8er")
>or 6iagram" of "ome of t8emC "ee Dlate" 0) -A0)
+ike ot8er mineral" mercur7 "8oul6 be %urifie6
for me6icinal %ur%o"e") /8i" can be 6one in
9ariou" ;a7") ,8arng68ara gi9e" t8e follo;ing
6irection" < N .ub mu"tar6 "ee6" an6 garlic to-
get8er until re6uce6 to t8e con"i"tenc7 of mu6)
Make t;o "mall cu%" of t8e ma"") Dut mercur7
in one of t8emC lute t8e ot8er o9er itC an6 6r7 it
in t8e "un) /ie t8e 9e""el in a %iece of clot8C
"u"%en6 it for t8ree 6a7" in an eart8en %ot fille6
;it8 *anjika an6 %lace it on t8e fire) /ake
out t8e mercur7 from t8e 9e""el an6 rub it for
one 6a7 in @8ritakumari juiceC anot8er 6a7 in a
6ecoction of C8itraka UDlumbago 5e7lanica)C for-
t8 e t8ir6 6a7 in t8at of *akamac8i UCocculu"
in6ica)C an6 t8e fourt8 6a7 in t8at of t8e t8ree
M7robalan") Ea"8 t8e ma"" in *anjikaC to
"e%arate t8e mercur7 from it) (gain %ut t8e
Juick"il9er in a mortar containing 8alf it" Juan-
tit7 of ba7 "altC an6 triturate it for a ;8ole 6a7)
(66 an eJual Juantit7 of mu"tar6 "ee6C an6 rub
t8e ma"" in a rice-8u"k 6ecoction) .e%eat t8e
;8ole %roce"" ;it8 garlic an6 t8en ;it8 "al-am-
Dlate 0)
CtjS>C9BC> Q^N <
2 ) (68a8%atan 7antra)
I),am%uta 7antra) K)?lm68ara 7antra)
5),omanala 7antra)
O) C8akra 7antra)
>)Huft)+iiH36in :
Dlate 00)
4r%ika 7antra)
:3)0"Mika 7antra)
::) 48eki 7antra)
:2)48)u%a 7antra)
Dlate :3
:K-)Han"a%aka 7antra)
:5) Barana 7antra)
:I)*acti8)a%a 7antra)
:O) *an6u 7antra)
Dlate 0A)
:H)*o"liti7antra 2[ 00
D) HufliC +iftZ 36in/
Dlate A)
2I)/a%tak8al9a) 7antra)2 ##
2O)/a%tak8al9a 7antra)2 000)
>)Huft)C+it* 36m[
Dlate A0)
2H) Aalab8i 7antra)
30 )Aartulak8al9a 7 antra)
3: )Ai67a68ara 7antra)
>)Huft)+itE36in :
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :K5
moniac) Moul6 t8e lum% in t8e form of a lo5enge
an6 let it 6r7) (%%l7 to it a"afoeti6a all roun6C
an6 %lace it in an a%%aratu" calle6 4amaru U"ee
Dlate 00))) HereC un6er t8e influence of fireC
mercur7 ;ill V fl7 u% V an6 "tick to t8e conca9e
%art of t8e co9ering 9e""el) /8at mercur7 i"
"u%%o"e6 to be %erfectl7 %ure) /8e nePt "te% in
t8e %re%aration of it" ?8a"ma i" to take eJual
%art" of 6r7 gingerC black %e%%erC long %e%%erC
carbonate of %ota"8C barillaC V t8e fi9e "alt" V Uba7
"altC table "altC ,amber "altC black "altC an6 ?i6a
"alt)C garlicC "al-ammoniacC bark of t8e 8or"e-ra6i"8
tree U,8igru)C an6 mercur7 S %o;6er toget8er t8e
6r7 ingre6ient" fir"t an6 t8en a66 t8e mercur7C
an6 t8oroug8l7 miP t8em toget8erC triturating
it for a ;8ole 6a7 an6 nig8t in *anjikaC or
in lemon juice in /a%tak8al9a U"ee Dlate A)))
/8i" %roce"" i" calle6 V Muk8akaranaCV ;8ic8
mean" literall7 t8e formation of a mout8 S for
mercur7 i" t8en able to ab"orb an7 %urifie6
mineral "oug8t to be blen6e6 ;it8 it) ?ut it i"
not "u%%o"e6 to 8a9e acJuire6 full "trengt8 until
it i" able to V imbibe V an eJualC or 6oubleC
trebleC or e9en Jua6ru%le it" Juantit7 of %re%are6
"ul%8ur) >inall7C triturate t8e %urifie6 mercur7 in
betel-leaf juiceC "coo% out t8e interior of *arkoti
:KI 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
root U4regia 9olubili") "o a" to form a ca9it7C fill
it ;it8 t8e triturate6 ma""C clo"e t8e mout8C an6
6ro% t8e %re%aration in an eart8en 9e""el lute6
;it8 mu6 an6 clot8 an6 %lace it o9er a fire)
Mercur7 ;ill t8en be fit to be re6uce6 to ?8a"ma)
/8ere are ot8er %roce""e" more or le"" intricate
in ;8ic8 9ariou" 1antra" or a%%arata are
Man7 treati"e" 8a9e been ;ritten on t8e
;on6erful %o;er of 3a"a or Mercur7) /8e
follo;er" of a religiou" 6octrine in 0n6ia calle6
3u"e"8i"m con"i6er Mercur7 a" one of t8e mani-
fe"tation" of @o6) 0t i" generall7 belie9e6 t8at
t8e combination of mercur7 ;it8 ot8er metal"
a66" con"i6erabl7 to t8e intrin"ic %o;er" of t8e"e
metal" a" u"eful reme6ie") Daracel"u" of Ho8en-
8eimC ;8o i" kno;n in 3uro%e a" V t8e 3eformer
of Me6icineCV in referring to t8e 1ogi" of 0n6iaC
"a7" t8at V t8e"e are ePtremel7 long-li9e6C e9er7
man of t8em li9ing to :50 or 200 7ear") /8e7
eat 9er7 littleC rice an6 milk c8iefl7) (n6 t8e"e
%eo%le make u"e of a 9er7 "trange be9erageC a
%otion of "ul%8ur an6 Juick"il9er miPe6 toget8erC
an6 t8i"C t8e7 "a7C t8e7 6rink t;ice e9er7 mont8)
/8i"C t8e7 "a7C gi9e" t8em long life)V /8e 1ogi"
of 0n6iaC a" ;e 8a9e "ai6C are "u%%o"e6 to 8a9e
C8a%) A00)T 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() :KO
t8eir o;n met8o6 of %rolonging life to a ;on6er-
ful ePtent b7 regulating t8eir breat8ing) ?7
a careful attention to t8e rule" of con6uctC 6ietC
an6 ;a7" of t8oug8tC a" ;ell a" b7 t8e a6o%tion
of certain %o"ture" for re"training t8eir in"%ira-
tion" an6 eP%iration"C t8e 1ogi" are "ai6 to enjo7
%erfect 8ealt8 an6 8a%%ine"") /8e7 no 6oubt
make u"e of certain me6icinal 6rug" to "ta9e off
bu4ger an6 t8ir"t ;it8out 6etriment to t8eir
8ealt8C an6 kno;ing it" mar9ellou" %o;er" t8e7
no; an6 t8en 8a9e occa"ion to u"e Dara6a
UMercur7) 6uring t8eir au"tere %ractice) ,ul%8ur
being an in6i"%en"able ingre6ient in t8e %re%ara-
tion of t8e 6rugC Daracel"u" i" rig8t in allu6ing
to V a %otion of "ul%8ur an6 Juick"il9er)V /8i"
V +ut8er (lterCV a" 8e i" calle6C nouri"8e6 in t8e
"iPteent8 centur7C an6 8a6 8im"elf great fait8
in mercur7C an6 8i" %rinci%al miPture ; / a" "t7le6
V Mercuriu" Ait"e)V /o mercur7C ;8en free6 of
all trace" of lea6C tin an6 ot8er im%uritie"C i"
a"cribe6 t8e 9irtue of curing eig8teen kin6" of
le%ro"7C e7e 6i"ea"e"C fe9er" an6 im%otenc7C an6
it i" furt8er cre6ite6 ;it8 t8e %o;er of %rolong-
ing life) (" a t8era%eutic agent it i" belie9e6 to
be matc8le"")
Me6icine" %re%are6 from t8e 9egetableC animalC
:KG 0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C() RC8a%) A00)
an6 mineral %ro6uct" are eP8ibite6 in 9ariou"
form") ,ome are u"e6 ePternall7 an6 "ome
internall7) /8e"e inclu6e < N
(njana Ue7e-"al9e)C ("a9a Utincture)C (9ale8a
Uelectuar7)C ?a"ti Uenema)C ?8a"ma UV alkaline
a"8e"V)C ?in6u U6ro%")C C8ukra U9inegar)C C8urna
U%o;6er)C 48uma%ana Uin8alation)C 48umra
Ufumigation)C 4ra9a Uaci6)C 4ra9a"9e6a Ume6i-
cate6 bat8)C >anta Uinfu"ion)C @an6u"8a Ugargle)C
@8rita Uointment)C @utika U%ill)C Hima U;ater7
ePtract)C *alka U%a"te)C *anjika Ugruel)C *a9alika
U"u%%o"itor7)C *9at8a U6ecoction)C +e%a U%la"ter)C
Manjana U6entifrice)C Mo6aka Ubolu")C 2a"7a
U"nuff)C Daka Uconfection)C Danaka U"7ru%)C De7a
Uemul"ion)C Din6i U%oultice)C Dlota Ulotion)C ,at9a
UePtract)C ,ec8ana U"%ra7)C ,8rutambu Ucol6 ;ater
in ;8ic8 a 9er7 8ot %iece of brick or iron i"
Juenc8e6)C ,8ukta Uferment)C ,9ara"a UeP%re""e6
juice)C ,9e6a U9a%our)C /aila Uoil)C 69artana
Uliniment)C %ana8a Ufomentation)C Aatika
Ulo5enge) an6 Aartika Ubougie))
/8e ;eig8t" an6 mea"ure" em%lo7e6 in t8e
%re%aration an6 a6mini"tration of me6icine"
8a9e been referre6 to b7 t8e ancient Hin6oo
;riter"C an6 t8e7 are "till u"e6 b7 t8e mo6ern
%87"ician"C t8oug8 t8e "tan6ar6 of ;eig8t"
C8a%) A/+T
0L40(L M(/3.0( M340C()
%re9ailing in 0n6ia 9arie" in 6ifferent \ rt"
gji9e" t8e foil ing table i i ]l<)" < N
I /ra"rennfi
I MarS ) li" )
3 .ajika" )
- , ra %a" )
K 1a9a"
I @unja" )
K Ma"kaka"
2 ,8ana" )
2 *ola"
Q2 *ar"ka" )
2 (i68a9a
2 Dalaa ) )
2 Dra"rati"
2 (njali" )
2 Manika" )
K Dra"tlia" )
K (68aka" )
2 4rona" )
2 ,or%a"
K 4roni"
:00 Dala" ) )
2 < ) Dala" ) )
^ : Maric8i
^ : .ajika)
^ : ,ar"a%a)
^ : 1a9a)
^ : @unja)
^ : 0fa"8aka)
^ : ,8ana)
^ : *olaC
^ : *ar"8a Uone to)
^ : (r68a9a%a6a)
^ : DalaC
^ : Dka$rati
^ : (njali
^ : Manika)
^ : Dra"fc8a)
^ : (68aka)
^ : 4ronaC
^ : ,nr%a)
^ : 4roni)
^ : *8an)
^ : /ula UK00 /olaCC
^ : ?8ara)
/8e ;eig8t" u"e6 in *alingaC N countr7 along
Z :G0 @rain")
0240(2 M(/3.0( M340C()
RC8a%) A00)
t8e Coroman6el coa"tC nort8 of Ma6ra"C N are t8e
follo;ing < N
:2 ,ar"a%a" )
2 1a9a"
3 @unja" )
G @unja"
K Ma"8a" )
I Ma"8a" )
:0 Ma"8a" )
K *ar"8a" )
K Dala"
) ^ : 1a9a Ubarle7-corn))
) ^ : @unja)
_ ^ : Aala)
) ^ : Ma"8a)
) ^ : ,8ana)
) ^ : @a6iana)
) ^ : *ar"8a)
) ^ : Dala)
) ^ : *u6a9a)
/8e ;eig8t" no; in 9ogue in @ujarat an6
*at8ia;ar are < N
I C8ok8a" )
3 3ati" )
: I Aala" )
2 @a6iana"
2 /ola" ) )
2 (68ola" )
2 2a9atanka"
2 Da"eer" )
2 (68"eer"
K0 ,eer" ) )
^ : 3ati)
^ : Aala)
^ : @a6iana)
^ : /ola U:G0 @rain"))
^ : (68ola)
^ : 2a9atanka)
^ : Da"eer)
^ : (68"eer)
^ : ,eer)
^ : Maun6)
>lui6" ;ere mea"ure6 b7 a 9e""el of bambooC
;oo6C or ironC four finger" in 6iameter an6 a"
man7 6ee%C calle6 *u6a9a)
C8a%) A000)T 3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,C /.3(/M32/) :5:
CH(D/3. A000)
H024-- E.0/3., -2 3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,
(24 /.3(/M32/)
( >/3. con"i6ering t8e 0n"titute" of Me6icine
un6er t8e 8ea6 of ,utra"t8anaC t8e earl7
;riter" on 0n6ian Me6icine 6e9ote6 t8eir t8oug8t
an6 attention to t8e in9e"tigation of t8e cau"e"
au6 "7m%tom" of 6i"ea"e"C ;8ic8 t8e7 call 2i6ana)
(mong t8e Hin6oo ;riter"C Ma68a9a 8a" in9e"ti-
gate6 at lengt8 t8e cau"e" an6 "7m%tom" of t8e
large"t number of 6i"ea"e" in all t8eir 9arietie")
/o t8i" 8ea6 ,u"8ruta 8a" 6e9ote6 "iPteen c8a%-
ter" treating of t8e cla""ificationC cau"ationC an6
"7m%tom" of 6i"ea"e"C "uc8 a" 6i"ea"e" cau"e6
b7 ;in6C 8aemorr8oi6"C urinar7 calculiC fi"tul"eC
6i"ea"e" of "kinC uret8ral 6i"c8arge"C ab6ominal
tumour"C abortion an6 unnatural labour"C ab"ce""e"C
er7"i%ela"C carbuncle"C tumour"C "crotal tumour"C
fracture"C an6 6i"location"C 6i"ea"e" of t8e male
:52 H024-- E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) A000)
organ" of generationC 6i"ea"e" of t8e mout8C an6
minor 6i"ea"e") ,8arng68ara enumerate" eig8t7
%rinci%al 6i"ea"e" cau"e6 b7 ;in6C fort7 b7 6e-
rangement" of bileC t;ent7 b7 abnormalitie" of
%8legmC an6 ten b7 fault7 con6ition" of bloo6)
,u"8ruta trace" all 6i"ea"e" to one or ot8er of t8e
follo;ing "e9en cau"e" < N Ua) corru%t "emen 9irile
or o9um of t8e fat8er an6 mot8er re"%ecti9el7C
cau"ing le%ro"7C etc) S Ub) in6ulgence in forbi66en
foo6 b7 t8e mot8er 6uring %regnanc7C or t8e non-
fulfilment of an7 of 8er 6e"ire" 6uring t8at con-
6itionC cau"ing blin6ne""C etc)C to t8e c8il6 S Uc) t8e
6erangement of 8umour" in t8e bo67C cau"ing
fe9erC etc) S U6) acci6ent"C a" fallC "nake-biteC etc) S
Ue) 9ariation" in t8e climateC cau"ing col6C etc) S
U=) "u%er8uman agencie" S Ug) natureC a" 8ungerC
Harita re6uce" t8e number to t8reeC an6
"a7" t8at 6i"ea"e" are cau"e6 b7 *armaC or b7
t8e 6erangement of t8e 8umour"C or b7 bot8)
*arma i" t8e una9oi6able con"eJuence of goo6
or e9il act" 6one in t8i" or in a %a"t ePi"tence)
V Mi"er7 an6 8a%%ine"" in t8i" life are t8e ine9it-
able re"ult" of our con6uct in a %a"t lifeC an6
our action" 8ere ;ill 6etermine our 8a%%ine""
or mi"er7 in t8e life to come) E8en an7 creature
C8a%) A000)T (3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,C /.3(/M32/) :53
6ie"C lie i" born again in "ome 8ig8er or lo;er
"tate of ePi"tenceC accor6ing to 8i" merit or 6e-
merit)V ,o t8ere are certain 6i"ea"e" ;8ic8 are
"u%%o"e6 to be t8e fruit" of e9il 6ee6" 6oue in a
former "tate of ePi"tence) Harita 6eclare" t8at a
mur6erer of a ?ra8man ;ill "uffer from anaemiaC
a co;-killer from le%ro"7C a regici6e from con-
"um%tionC an6 a mur6erer in general from
6iarr8oea) -ne committing a6ulter7 ;it8 8i"
ma"terQ" ;ife ;ill "uffer from gonorr8oeaC an6 t8e
9iolator of 8i" %rece%torQ" couc8 from retention
of urine) ( backbiter ;ill "uffer from a"t8maC a
mi"lea6er from gi66ine""C a c8eat from e%ile%"7C
one ;8o occa"ion" or %rocure" abortion from li9er
com%laintC a 6runkar6 from "kin 6i"ea"e"C an
incen6iar7 from er7"i%ela"C an6 one %r7ing into
anot8erQ" "ecret" ;ill lo"e t8e "ig8t of one e7e)
4i"ea"e" cau"e6 b7 *arma ma7 be cure6 b7
%ro%itiator7 rite"C eP%iating ceremonie"C an6 tran-
Juilli"ing effort") 0f t8e rite" 6o not cure t8e
6i"ea"e"C t8e %atient" 8a9e t8e a""urance t8at
t8e7 ;ill at lea"t c8eck t8e furt8er %rogre"" of
t8e mala6ie" in t8e life to come #
/8e treatment of 6i"ea"e" cau"e6 b7 8umour"
form" %art of C8ikit"aC or t8e t8era%eutic branc8
of Hin6oo me6ical "cience) /8e (r7an" 8a9e
:5K H024-- E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) A000)
treate6 an6 %re"cribe6 reme6ie" for 6ifferent
6i"ea"e"C "uc8 a" < N 4i"ea"e" of t8e ab6ominal
glan6" S ab6ominal tumour" Uof eig8t 9arietie") S
abortion" Uof "iP kin6") S ab"ce""e" Uof "iP kin6") S
anaemia S anorePia S a%o%lectic 6i"ea"e" S a"t8ma S
bloo6 an6 bile affection" S carbuncle" Uof nine
9arietie") S car6iac 6i"ea"e" S c8olera S colic Ueig8t
form") S con9ul"ion" S coug8 S cranial 6i"ea"e" S
c7"tic affection" S 6iabete" Ueig8t t7%e") S 6iarr8oea
Uof "e9en 9arietie") S 6ro%"7 S 67"enter7 Uof fi9e
kin6") S 67"%e%"ia S ear 6i"ea"e" S ectro%ium S
enteric catarr8 S ento5oa S e%ile%"7 Ufour 9arie-
tie") S er7"i%ela" Uof nine kin6") S 6i"ea"e" of t8e
e7eC corneaC e7e-ball"C e7e-la"8e"C e7e-li6" S 6i"ea"e"
from ePce""i9e 6rinking S 6i"ea"e" cau"e6 b7
ePce""i9e t8ir"t S fe9er" Ut;ent7-fi9e t7%e") S
fi"tul"e Uof eig8t "ort")rjQiracture" Ueig8t form") S
geueral 6ebilit7 S gonorr8oea Ut;ent7 9arietie") S
8iccoug8 S in"anit7 Uof four kin6") S in"en"ibilit7
Uof four kin6") S jaun6ice S 6i"ea"e" of t8e len" S
6i"ea"e" of t8e male organ" of generation cau"e6 b7
,8uka or ;ater-leec8e" Uof t;ent7-four 9arietie") S
mental 6ebilit7 S minor 6i"ea"e" U"iPt7 "ort") S
6i"ea"e" of t8e mout8 Uof "e9ent7-four kin6") S
no"e affection" S %aral7"i" U9ariou" form") S %8legm
affection" S %ile" U"iP form") S %u"tule" an6 "ore"
C8a%) A000)T ^3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,C /.3(/M32/) :55
cau"e6 b7 uret8ral 6i"c8arge" Uten 9arietie") S
r8eumati"m S "crotal tumour" Uof "e9en kin6") S
"kin 6i"ea"e" Ueig8teen form") S ";elling" Uof nine
"ort") S "7m%at8etic 6i"ea"e" S traumatic affection"
of t8e e7e-ballS tumour" S ulcer" Ufifteen 9arietie")S
unnatural labour" S 6i"ea"e" of t8e urinar7 organ"S
urinar7 calculi Uof four kin6") S 9irile 6ebilit7 S
9omiting S ;art" S 6i"ea"e" of ;in6 S ;orm 6i"ea"e"
Uof t;ent7-one 9arietie") S ;oun6" Uof eig8t kin6") S
an6 mi"cellaneou" 6i"ea"e") 4i"ea"e" of ;omen
form t8e "ubject of a "e%arate c8a%terS infantile
ailment" an6 nur"ing are treate6 un6er t8e 8ea6
of *aumarb8rit7a S an6 "7m%tom" an6 treatment
of 6i"ea"e" "u%%o"e6 to be cau"e6 b7 "u%er8uman
%o;er" are 6e"cribe6 un6er ?8oota9i67a)
/8e treatment of %oi"on" an6 t8eir anti6ote"
come un6er t8e 8ea6 of *al%a) Doi"on" are of
t;o kin6"C namel7 < ,t8a9araC 9egetable an6
mineral %oi"on" S ari6 BangamaC animal %oi"on")
4aturaC ar"enicC an6 ot8er" are ,t8a9ara %oi"on"C
an6 are cure6 b7 emetic"C %urgati9e"C err8ine"C
coll7riaC an6 anti%8logi"tic treatment) Bangama
%oi"on" inclu6e 9enom" of "uc8 animal" a"
in"ect"C "cor%ion"C "%i6er"C li5ar6"C "er%ent"C
ma6 6og"C foPe"C jackal"C ;ol9e"C bear"C tiger"C
etc) Aariou" anti6ote" are %re"cribe6 for
:5I H024-- E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) A000)
6ifferent bite") ?ot8 kin6" of %oi"on" are u"e6
t8era%euticall7 b7 t8e Hin6oo") ,ometime" one
%oi"on i" u"e6 a" an anti6ote again"t anot8er N
Ai"8a"7a 9i"8am au"8a68am N a" t8e 6ictum i"
N b7 a6mini"tering a ,t8a9ara %oi"on to one
"uffering from t8e effect" of a Bangama %oi"onC
an6 9ice 9er"a) ( curiou" anti6ote i" "ugge"te6
b7 one ;riterC ;8o "a7" t8at t8e beating of a
kettle-6rumC be"meare6 ;it8 a %re%aration calle6
V *"8araga6CV before a %er"on un6er t8e influence
of %oi"onC 8a" t8e %o;er of effecting a cure #
0n 6iagno"ing a 6i"ea"eC t8e Hin6oo %87"ician"
8a9e been gui6e6 from an earl7 6ate b7 %87"ical
"ign" affor6e6 b7 in"%ectionC %al%ationC Y %ercu"-
"ionC au"cultationC olfaction an6 6egu"tation)
Certain ancient ;riter" take ePce%tion to t8e
la"tC but ot8er" 6o notC an6 eP%ect t8e %87"ician
to em%lo7 e9er7 one of 8i" fi9e "en"e"C if nece"-
"ar7C in arri9ing at a correct conclu"ion regar6ing
t8e "eat an6 nature of a mala67) /8e %87"ician
i" reJuire6 to note t8e %atientQ" a%%earanceC e7eC
tongueC "kinC %ul"eC 9oiceC urineC an6 fa"ce") /8e
Z Dal%ationC %ercu""ion an6 au"cultation are not altoget8er
mo6ern) /8e7 are referre6 to in t8e ;ork" of C8araka) (tre7aC
in 8i" intere"ting 6ialogue ;it8 8i" fa9ourite %u%il HaritaC "%eak"
;it8 e9en more %reci"ion on t8e "ubject) Hi" 6irection" are all of
a %iece ;it8 t8o"e in an7 of our mo6ern ;ork")
C8a%) A000)T ^3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,C /.3(/M32/) :5O
ePamination of t8e %ul"e i"C 8o;e9erC con"i6ere6
t8e mo"t im%ortant of allC a" furni"8ing t8e be"t
criterion of t8e %8enomena an6 %rogre"" of
6i"ea"eC an6 it i" t8e one u"uall7 6e%en6e6 u%on
b7 t8e nati9e 6octor") 0n or6er to kno; t8e
%reci"e c8aracter of t8e %ul"eC t8e ra6ial arter7
at t8e ;ri"t i" u"uall7 c8o"en) 0n ca"e of a male
%atientC 8i" rig8t %ul"e i" generall7 feltC an6 in
ca"e of a female t8e left) 0n feeling t8e %ul"e
t8e %87"ician i" to note it" com%re""ibilit7C
freJuenc7C regularit7C "i5eC an6 t8e 6ifferent
im%re""ion" it %ro6uce" on t8e finger") 0f it
feel" like t8e cree%ing of a "er%ent or a leec8C
;in6 i" "u%%o"e6 to be %re6ominant) 0f it be
jum%ing like a frogC or "imilar to t8e flig8t of a
cro; or a "%arro;C it in6icate" t8e %re6ominance
of bile) E8en it "trike" t8e finger "lo;l7 an6
re"emble" t8e "trutting of a %eacockC it "8o;" t8at
t8e %8legm i" in ePce"") /8e %ul"e t8at "ugge"t"
t8e running of a %artri6ge i" calle6 6elirium
%ul"e) (n irregular %ul"e in6icate" 6elirium
tremen"C an6 a %ul"e ;8ic8 i" almo"t im%er-
ce%tibleC 6e%re""e6C irregularC an6 ePtremel7
langui6C i" a %recur"or of 6eat8) Dul"ation" in
one "uffering from fe9er or amorou" %a""ion" are
JuickC an6 in a 8ealt87 man t8e7 are of a me6ium
:5G H024-- E.0/3., -2 RC8a%) A000)
"trengt8 an6 %erfectl7 regular) /8e ca%riciou"-
ne"" of t8e %ul"e %ro6uce" ot8er mo6ification"
9er7 curiou"l7 6e"cribe6) 0t i" intere"ting to
note t8e "imilarit7 bet;een t8i" 6e"cri%tion of
t8e %ul"e a" foun6 in t8e ancient ,an"krit
treati"e"C an6 t8e 6octrine of t8e %ul"e taug8t
b7 t8e famou" %87"ician @alenC V ;8o i" t8e
greate"t an6 t8e be"t aut8orit7 in 3uro%e on t8e
"ubject) >or all "ub"eJuent ;riter" 8a9e "im%l7
tran"ferre6 8i" teac8ing on t8i" "ubject bo6il7 to
t8eir o;n ;ork"V U4r ?er6oe)) @alen "%eak"
of %ul"u" m7uru" U"8ar%-taile6 %ul"eC "o calle6
a" it "ink" %rogre""i9el7 an6 become" "maller an6
"mallerC like a mou"eQ" tail) S %ul"u" formican"
Uant-like %ul"eC -8eing "carcel7 %erce%tibleC like
t8e motion of an ant) S %ul"u" 6orca6i"an" Ugoat-
lea% %ul"eC a" it "eem" to lea% like a goat) S %ul"u"
fluctuo"u" Uun6ulating)C etc) /8i" ;oul6 "ugge"t
t8at @alen 6eri9e6 8i" kno;le6ge on t8e "ubject
from t8e ;ork" of 0n6ian ;riter")
0t 8a" alrea67 been "tate6 t8at certain kin6"
of 6i"ea"e" are belie9e6 to be cau"e6 b7
V 4amne6 "%irit" allC
/8at in cro""-;a7" an6 floo6" 8a9e burial)V
/8e 6emon t8eor7 of 6i"ea"eC a %re9alent feature
in almo"t e9er7 %o%ular cree6C 8a" "ome influence
C8a%) A0:+T )3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,C /.3(/M32/) :5H
on t8e Hin6oo ;riter" of me6icineC accor6ing
to ;8om t8e malignant "%iritC if ;ittingl7 or
un;ittingl7 %ro9oke6C enter" t8e bo67 of t8e
offen6erC anno7" 8im in 9ariou" ;a7"C an6
afflict" 8im ;it8 certain kin6" of 6i"ea"e") Harita
6e"cribe" ten kin6" of 6emon") /8eir name" are <
(in6raC ;8o"e fa9ourite re"ort" are mona"terie"C
con9ent" an6 "8rine"C manife"t" 8i" ma"ter7 o9er a
%er"on b7 making 8im 9er7 emotionalC or ;il6 an6
furiou" S (gne7aC ;8o freJuent" cro""-roa6" an6
burial-groun6"C an6 un6er ;8o"e influence t8e
%atient look" inten"el7 terrible an6 angr7 S
2airutiC ;8o i" foun6 near ant-8ill"C an6 make"
8i" 9ictim eit8er "tan6 "till or become 9iolent S
1ama con"tantl7 "eek" battle-fiel6" an6 make" 8i"
9ictim ePcite6 S Aaruna 8aunt" lake" an6 ri9er"C
8i" 9ictim look" like a 6umb creature ;it8 ;ater7
e7e" S Maruta re"i6e" in ;8irl;in6"C an6 t8e
%er"on %o""e""e6 of 8im crie" an6 "8ake" an6
feel" ot8er;i"e ePcite6 S *ubera make" 8i"
9ictim ra"8 an6 conceite6C eP8ibiting a %a""ionate
6e"ire for ornament" S (i"8ana 8a" 8i" abo6e in
ol6 tem%le"C an6 un6er 8i" influence t8e %atient
a%%lie" a"8e" to 8i" bo67 an6 mo9e" about nake6 S
@ra8aka 6;ell" in em%t7 8ou"e" an6 6r7 ;ell"C
an6 one %o""e""e6 of 8im care" not to eat or
:I0 3/0-+-@1C 40(@2-,0,C /.3(/M32/) RC8a%) A000)
6rink or li"ten to an7 one S Di"8ac8a i" fon6 of
6irt7 an6 un8ol7 %lace"C an6 8i" 9ictim crie"C
"ing"C ra9e"C an6 ;an6er" nake6 like a ma6man)
Aariou" kin6" of me6icinal an6 magical treat-
ment are %re"cribe6 for 6emoniacal %o""e""ion")
,ometime" amulet" are tie6 roun6 t8e neck of
t8e %atient) Here are "%ecimen" of four amulet"
generall7 u"e6 among t8e Hin6oo" for curing
6emoniacal an6 ot8er 6i"ea"e" < N
23 H3
32 3K
23 HK
/8e fir"t figure in ;8ic8 "ome m7"tic letter"
are ;ritten i" u"e6 for ePorci"ing a 6e9ilC t8e
"econ6 i" u"e6 for %ile"C t8e t8ir6 for Juieting a
;ee%ing c8il6C an6 t8e fourt8 for fe9er")
C8a%) 0L)T M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2) :I:
CH(D/3* 0L)
M(+0/03, -D ( DH1,0C0(2 (24 H0, D.-@2-,0,)
/> it i" intere"ting to kno; t8e i6ea" of t8e earl7
0n6ian ;riter" on t8e t8eor7 an6 %ractice
of me6icineC an6 on ot8er matter" a%%ertaining
t8eretoC it ;ill not be le"" intere"ting to 6e"cribe
t8eir notion" of ;8at a goo6 %87"ician "8oul6 be
like) /8e7 8a9e enumerate6 t8e Jualitie" reJui"ite
in one 6e"irou" of %racti"ing a" a 6octorC an6 eP-
%laine6 8o; 8e "8oul6 be8a9e bot8 in %ri9ate
an6 %ublic life in follo;ing 8i" noble %ro-
( %87"ician i" reJuire6 to be al;a7" clean
an6 ti67) >or it i" "ai6 t8at a %87"ician ;8o i"
6irtil7 an6 "8abbil7 cla6C conceite6C foul-tongue6C
9ulgarC an6 goe" to a %atient una"ke6C i" not
re"%ecte6 e9en t8oug8 8e be a" cle9er a" 48an-
9antari) He "8oul6 8a9e 8i" nail" %are6 an6 8i"
8air 6re""e6C "8oul6 8a9e clean clot8e"C an6 carr7
:I2 M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2 RC8a%) 0L)
a "tick or an umbrella in 8i" 8an6C ;ear "8oe"C Y
an6 8a9e a gentlemanl7 bearing) He mu"t be
%ure-min6e6C guilele""C %iou"C frien6l7 to allC an6
6e9ote6 to trut8 an6 6ut7) Hi" c8ief 6ut7 i" to
treat 8i" %atient 8one"tl7C an6 ;it8out 6e"ire of
an7 gain) /o treat a %atient con"cientiou"l7 i"
"u%%o"e6 to bring V merit V UDun7a) to t8e
%87"icianC ;8o "8oul6 not t8erefore "ell 8i"
V Airtue V b7 treating a %oor %atient for t8e lo9e
of lucre) >or t8e "ake of 8i" li9eli8oo6 8e ;ill
be ju"tifie6 in eP%ecting an a6eJuate fee from
;ell-to-6o %eo%le) He ;8o i" in a %o"ition to
%a7 8i" 6oo36r^fee but 6oe" notC t8oug8 un6er
8i" me6ical treatmentC i" "t7le6 V ;icke6CV an6 i"
"ai6 to tran"fer all 8i" VmeritV to t8e %87"ician)
( religiou" "entiment a%%ear" to 8a9e been
attac8e6 to t8e Jue"tion of %a7ment) >or t8e
Hin6oo" are enjoine6 not to a%%roac8 or inter9ie;
a kingC a %rece%torC an6 a %87"ician V em%t7-
8an6e6CV t8at i"C ;it8out a gift or offering)
0t i" t8erefore a%tl7 "ai6 t8at a countr7 i" not
;it8out menC an6 men are not ;it8out 6i"ea"e" S
"o a %87"icianQ" li9eli8oo6 i" al;a7" en"ure6)
Z /8i" recommen6ation ;ill %er8a%" 8e t8oug8t "u%erfluou" b7
t8e 3uro%ean rea6erC to ;8om "8oe" are a nece""ar7 item of 6re"")
0n 0n6iaC 8o;e9erC o;ing to climatic an6 ot8er rea"on"C t8e co9ering
for feet i" not an in6i"%en"able article)
C8a%) 0L)T (24 H0, D.-@2-,0,) :I3
( %ractitioner kno;ing one 8un6re6 reme6ie"
for an7 one 6i"ea"e i" calle6 a Aai67aC one ;it8
a kno;le6ge of t;o 8un6re6 reme6ie" for an7
one 6i"ea"e i" calle6 a ?8i"8akC an6 to one
;8o i" acJuainte6 ;it8 no le"" t8an t8ree
8un6re6 reme6ie" for eac8 an6 e9er7 affection i"
a%%lie6 t8e term 48an9antari) /8e kno;le6ge
of 6i"ea"e" an6 t8e kno;le6ge of t8e 6rug" are
of eJual im%ortance to a %87"ician) -ne ;it8out
t8e ot8er i" like a 9e""el ;it8out a 8elm"man)
0n t8e o%inion of ,u"8rutaC 8e ;8o 8a" merel7
learnt t8e %rinci%le" of me6icineC an6 recei9e6 no
%ractical in"tructionC lo"e" 8i" %re"ence of min6 ;8en
8e "ee" a %atientC ju"t a" a co;ar6 get" confu"e6 in
a battle) -n t8e ot8er 8an6C 8e ;8o t8roug8 mere
em%irici"m 8a" obtaine6 facilit7 in %ractical ;orkC
but kno;" not t8e %rinci%le" of me6icine a" taug8t
in t8e book"C 6e"er9e"C not commen6ation from
t8e learne6C but %uni"8ment from t8e king)
?ot8 t8e"e are unaccom%li"8e6 an6 unfit to
become %ractitioner"C ju"t a" a bir6 ;it8 a "ingle
;ing i" unable to fl7)
Hin6oo %87"ician" go out to %rocure me6icinal
6rug" on ,un6a7"C Ee6ne"6a7"C /8ur"6a7"C an6
>ri6a7" of t8e lig8t fortnig8tC an6 com-
mence t8e %re%aration of mineral me6icine" on
:IK M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2V RC8a%) 0L)
Ee6ne"6a7"C /8ur"6a7"C an6 >ri6a7") 0t i"
cu"tomar7 ;it8 "ome Aai67a" not to %re"cribe
on Mon6a7"C Ee6ne"6a7"C an6 ,atur6a7" N t8e
fir"t being %articularl7 objectionable) Datient"C
on t8e ot8er 8an6C a9oi6 commencing treatment
on Mon6a7"C /ue"6a7"C an6 ,atur6a7"C if t8e7 con-
9enientl7 can) >or %urgati9e" or emetic" /ue"6a7"C
/8ur"6a7"C an6 ,un6a7"C an6 for bloo6letting
/ue"6a7" an6 ,un6a7"C are generall7 %referre6)
(fter making t8e 6iagno"i"C t8e %87"ician form"
an o%inion a" to t8e %rogno"i") 4i"ea"e" are
6i9i6e6 into t8ree cla""e"C namel7C ,a687a Ucurable)C
("a687a Uincurable)C an6 1a%7a Ucontrollable b7
reme6ie" onl7)) ( %atient "uffering from a
6i"ea"e belonging to t8e la"t cla"" remain" ;ell
a" long a" 8e continue" t8e u"e of me6icineC
but rela%"e" a" "oon a" t8e treatment i" "to%%e6C
ju"t a" a tottering 8ou"e colla%"e" on t8e remo9al
of t8e %ro%") /8e %87"ician i" a69i"e6 to refrain
from treating a 6i"ea"e ;8ic8 i" Juite incurable) Y
/8e ot8er t;o cla""e" of 6i"ea"e" "8oul6 be treate6
;it8 all %o""ible care an6 "kill) 0n or6er to
acJuire "ucce"" in 8i" %rofe""ionC t8e %87"ician i"
eP%ecte6 to kno; bot8 t8e t8eoretical an6 t8e
%ractical "i6e" of t8e "cience of me6icine)
Z >ortunatel7 for t8e %atient all are not of t8at o%inion)
C8a%) 0L)T (24 H0, D*-@2-,0,) :I5
-men" are carefull7 ;atc8e6 b7 t8e Hin6oo
%87"ician" before atten6ing t8eir %atient")
>a9ourable omen" are "uc8 a" t8e follo;ing <
kettle-6rumC tabourC conc8C umbrellaC co; ;it8
calfC 9irginC ;oman ;it8 bab7C t;o ?ra8man"C
fi"8C 8or"eC "k7larkC %eacockC 6eerC mongoo"eC
ele%8antC fruitC milkC flo;er"C 6ancing-girlC
"mokele"" fireC fle"8C "%irituou" liJuorC ";or6C
"8iel6C 6aggerC ;a"8erman ;it8 6r7- ;a"8e6
clot8e"C cur6"C cereal"C bannerC full ;ater-%otC
etc) /8e unluck7 omen" are fuelC 8i6eC gra""C
"mok7 fireC "nakeC c8affC ra; cottonC barren
;omanC oilC mola""e"C enem7C Juarrelling %eo%leC
one be"meare6 ;it8 ointmentC "ca9engerC
eunuc8C butter-milkC mu6C ;et clot8e"C
men6icantC a"ceticC beggarC lunaticC one-e7e6
%er"onC cor%"eC cro;C jackalC em%t7 ;ater-%otC
etc) /8e"e omen" are ob"er9e6 ;it8 a 9ie; to
enable t8e %87"ician to %rogno"ticate t8e
fa9ourable or unfa9ourable re"ult of 8i" atten6-
ance) /8e7 mu"t be met ;it8 acci6entall7 b7
t8e %87"ician ;8ile on 8i" ;a7 to t8e %atient)
?ut if t8e me""enger ;8o i" "ent to call t8e 6octor
"ee" on 8i" ;a7 an7 of t8e omen" enumerate6
abo9e a" goo6C it i" ba6 for t8e %atient S if 8e "ee"
an7 of t8e ba6 one" it bo6e" goo6 for t8e %atient)
:II M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2 RC8a%) 0L)
/8e me""enger "8oul6 %referabl7 be of t8e "ame
"eP an6 ca"te a" t8e %atientC "8oul6 be of goo6
bree6ingC ;it8out an7 bo6il7 6eformit7C cle9erC
cleanC ;ell 6re""e6C 6ri9ing a 8or"e or a bullock
carriageC an6 8ol6ing fruit" an6 ;8ite flo;er" in
8i" 8an6) ( ;i6o; or a men6icant i" not con-
"i6ere6 a "uitable me""enger) E8en a %87"ician
i" 8im"elf a Jualifie6 %ractitionerC ;ell kno;ing
t8e 9irtue" an6 %ro%ertie" of 6rug"C 8i" ;ork
become" muc8 ea"ier if t8e me""enger ;8o come"
for 8im i" ePact in 8i" 6e"cri%tion of t8e 6i"ea"eC
if t8e %er"on atten6ing t8e %atient i" careful in
gi9ing me6icine at "tate6 time"C an6 if t8e %atient
i" rea"onable enoug8 to follo; t8e 6irection" of
t8e %87"icianC an6 ne9er to Jue"tion t8e efficac7
of t8e me6icine" %re"cribe6)
2ePt to omen"C t8e Hin6oo %87"ician "eek" to
6eri9e "ome a""i"tance from 8i" kno;le6ge of
6ream %8enomena an6 a"trolog7C to a"certain t8e
%robable re"ult of 8i" treatment) 39er7bo67 ma7
be "ai6 to 8a9e eP%erience6 a 6reamC but fe; can
"a7 8o; t8e bo67 in t8at "tate affect" t8e min6C
an6 8o; t8i" affection %ro6uce" t8e %8enomena
of 6ream") Cla""ical ;riter" like (rtemi6oru"C
Macrobu"C an6 /8oma" (Juina" 8a9e in t8eir
;ork" trie6 to "ol9e t8e %roblemC an6 to e"tab-
C8a%) 0L)T (24 H0, D.-@2-,0,) :@O
li"8 t8e relation "u%%o"e6 to ePi"t bet;een t8e
6ream" an6 t8e e9ent" ;8ic8 t8e7 %re6ict) /8e
0n6ian ;riter"C tooC 8a9e en6ea9oure6 to t8ro;
"ome lig8t on t8e Jue"tion) /8i"C 8o;e9erC i"
not t8e %lace to 6i"cu"" t8eir t8eor7) ,uffice it
to "a7 t8at t8e 0n6ian" 8a9e recogni"e6 6ream" a"
t8e re"ult of a "tate of life 6i"tinct bot8 from t8e
;aking an6 t8e "lee%ing "tate"C 8a9ing at t8e
"ame time a "ubtle connection ;it8 bot8)
(""uming t8i" to be t8e ca"eC t8e Hin6oo %racti-
tioner" belie9e t8e7 can 6eri9e u"eful in6ication"
from t8e 6ream" of t8eir %atient") 4ream" areC
accor6ing to t8emC "ometime" cau"e6 b7 fearC
6ebilit7C an6 abnormal "ecretion of urineC ;in6C or
bile) /8e"e are 6i"tingui"8e6 from t8o"e ;8ic8
are "u%%o"e6 to be %ro%8etic an6 "7mbolic in
t8eir c8aracter) /o ri6e a camel or a buffaloC to
embrace a cor%"e or a men6icantC to "ee oneQ" 6ea6
relati9e"C or fin6 one"elf be"meare6 ;it8 oilC to
eat cooke6 foo6C or 6rink milk or oilC to "ee ra;
cottonC a"8e"C or bone"C to 6i"cern a bare-8ea6e6
black %er"on ri6ing a 6onke7 an6 going in a
"out8ern 6irectionC to fin6 one"elf 6ecke6 ;it8
re6 flo;er"C N all "uc8 6ream" are con"i6ere6 ba6)
( 8ealt87 man 6reaming of t8e"e t8ing" ;ill
get illC ;8ile a "ick %er"on ;ill get ;or"e) -n
:IG M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2 RC8a%) 0L)
t8e ot8er 8an6C if one 6ream" of "eeing a li9ing
kingC frien6C or a ?ra8manC "acre6 %lace"C mu667
;aterC mountain"C ri9er"C ele%8ant"C 8or"e"C bee"C
leec8e"C or co;"C or fin6" 8im"elf co9ere6 o9er
;it8 filt8C bloo6C or fle"8C or "ee" 8i" o;n en6
a%%roac8ingC 8e ma7 8o%e to be %ro"%erou" if
8ealt87C an6 to reco9er from "ickne"" if ill) 0t i"
an unfa9ourable 6ream if a man "uffering from
fe9er a""ociate" ;it8 a 6og S if a con"um%ti9e man
"ee" an a%eC a lunaticC or a 6emon S one "uffering
eit8er from gonorr8oeaC 6iarr8oea or 6ro%"7 "ee"
;aterS or one "ubject to e%ile%tic fit" "ee" a 6ea6
bo67) 0f a le%er 6rink" oil in a 6reamC or one ;it8
ab6ominal tumour 6ream" of eating 9egetable"C
or one "uffering from col6 of eating bun"C if one
"ubject to a"t8ma tra9el" in 6reamC or an anaemic
%er"on 6ream" of eating 7ello; foo6C t8e re"ult"
are eJuall7 unfa9ourable) /8e 0n6ian" belie9e
in a 6eit7 calle6 V ,9a%ne"89ariCV or @o66e"" of
4ream"C ;8o i" "u%%o"e6 to re9eal certain e9ent"
to 8er 9otarie" in 6ream") .eme6ie" are %re-
"cribe6 for a9ertingC a" far a" %o""ibleC t8e e9il
effect" of 6ream")
("trolog7 i" con"i6ere6 to be a 8el%meet to
t8e me6ical "cience) /8e (r7an" 8a9e from
%re8i"toric time" %inne6 t8eir fait8 on t8e in-
C8a%) 0L)T (24 H0, D.-@2-,0,) :IH
fiuence ePerci"e6 on mankin6 b7 t8e nine
%lanet"C namel7C t8e ,unC Y MoonC Mar"C Mer-
cur7C Bu%iterC Aenu"C ,aturnC .a8u Ut8e MoonQ"
a"cen6ing no6e)C an6 *etu Ut8e MoonQ" 6e"cen6-
ing no6e)) /8e7 belie9eC in common ;it8 man7
ot8er race"C t8at t8e"e 8ea9enl7 bo6ie" rule
t8e 6e"tinie" of men an6 nation" S an6 alleging
t8at t8e7 %o""e"" a kno;le6ge of t8eir relati9e
influence on t8e action" of eac8 in6i9i6ualC t8e7
%rofe"" to be able to %enetrate into 8i" %re"entC
%a"tC an6 future) Mr DroctorC in 8i" ;ell-kno;n
;orkC V -ur Dlace among t8e 0nfinitie"CV "a7"
V t8at of all t8e error" into ;8ic8 men 8a9e
fallen in t8eir 6e"ire to %enetrate into futurit7C
("trolog7 i" t8e mo"t re"%ectableC ;e ma7 e9en
"a7 t8e mo"t rea"onable)V 0t i" al"o a6mitte6
t8at mo6ern ("tronom7 o;e" a goo6 6eal of it"
earl7 %rogre"" to ("trolog7) *e%lerC in 8i" %re-
face to t8e .u6o%8ine /able"C call" ("trolog7
V a fooli"8 6aug8ter of a ;i"e mot8erC to ;8o"e
"u%%ort an6 life t8e fooli"8 6aug8ter ;a" in-
6i"%en"able)V /8e a6mirer" of t8e V6aug8terV
Z (ccor6ing to t8e Hin6oo belief t8e "un re9ol9e" roun6 t8e
eart8C an6 not t8e eart8 roun6 t8e "un) Hence it i" t8at t8e "un
i" enumerate6 among t8e %lanet" or t8e C8-a8a" a" t8e7 are calle6)
/8e moonQ" a"cen6ing an6 6e"cen6ing no6e" are con"i6ere6 ob"cure
%lanet" cau"ing t8e ecli%"e" of t8e "un an6 t8e moon)
:O0 M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2 RC8a%) 0L)
8a9e t8eir o;n rea"on" to urge in 8er fa9our)
0t i" be"i6e our %ur%o"e to un6ertake to 6eci6e
;8et8er a"trolog7 i" ba"e6 on a "cientific trut8
or i" a relic of ol6 "u%er"tition) -ur %re"ent
object i" "im%l7 to recor6 t8e fact t8at t8e
0n6ian %87"ician" are in t8e 8abit of con"ulting
t8eir %atient"Q 8oro"co%e" ;8en or6inar7 reme-
6ie" fail to effect a cure) /8e malignant %lanet"
are a%%ea"e6 b7 9ariou" mean") Mar"C for
in"tanceC ;8en 8e enter" t8e 8ou"e of t8e MoonC
"ubject" t8e %atient to bloo6-6i"ea"e") Hi" e9il
influence i" a9erte6 b7 reciting a certain "acre6
9er"eC b7 t8e gift of a re6 bullock to a learne6
?ra8manC Y an6 b7 an oblation of clarifie6 butter
in fire) Certain bat8" an6 ;earing coral orna-
ment" are al"o recommen6e6 un6er t8e circum-
"tance) 4ifferent %o"ition" of t8e %lanet" in t8e
%atientQ" 8oro"co%e are belie9e6 to 8a9e 6ifferent
effect"C an6 t8e reme6ie" 9ar7 accor6ingl7) Dre-
6iction" a" regar6" t8e 6uration of a 6i"ea"eC
or t8e %o""ibilit7 of it" being cure6 or notC are
no; an6 t8en 8a5ar6e6 b7 certain Aai67a"
from a con"i6eration of t8e 6a7 of t8e fortnig8t
or of t8e ;eek on ;8ic8 t8e 6i"ea"e manife"te6
it"elf) /8ere are t;o o%inion" on t8e %ointC a"
Z @ift" are al;a7" ma6e to ?ra8man" #
C8a%) 0L)T
(24 H0, D.-@2-,0,)
in6icate6 in t8e follo;ing table") /8e 3oman
numeral" "8o; t8e :"tC 2n6C 3r6C etc)C 6a7" of t8e
Hin6oo fortnig8tC an6 t8e (rabic numeral"C one
belo; t8e ot8erC "8o; t8e number of 6a7" t8e
6i"ea"e ;ill la"t Uaccor6ing to t8e t;o 6ifferent
aut8oritie") if contracte6 on t8e 6a7 note6) /8e
in6icate" a fatal re"ult)
/8u" a 6i"ea"e beginning on t8e fir"t 6a7
of t8e fortnig8t ;ill la"t for fifteen 6a7" accor6-
ing to one ;riterC an6 ten 6a7" accor6ing to
t8e ot8er) 0f contracte6 on a ,un6a7 it ma7
la"t for t8irt7 6a7" or en6 fatall7)
:O2 M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2 RC8a%) 0L)
(ccor6ing to ,u"8rutaC 8uman life i" eit8er
longC me6iumC or "8ort) ( long life ma7 la"t for
a 8un6re6 an6 t;ent7 7ear"C a me6ium life for
"e9ent7C an6 a "8ort one for t;ent7-fi9e 7ear")
-ne ;8o"e 8an6"C feetC "i6e"C backC ni%%le"C teet8C
"8oul6er"C mout8C an6 fore8ea6 are large S ;8o"e
arm"C finger"C breat8C an6 e7e"ig8t are longC
bro;" an6 c8e"t are broa6 S leg"C genital organC
an6 neck "8ortC 9oice an6 na9el are 6ee% S ;8o"e
9igour i" greatC ;8o"e 8ea6 %rotru6e" back;ar6C
;8o"e joint"C 9ein"C an6 arterie" are burie6 in
fle"8C ;8o"e limb" are "trongl7 built S ;8o i" cool
an6 collecte6C free from 6i"ea"eC an6 8a" 8air
gro;ing on t8e ear" S ;8o"e bo67C intellectC an6
eP%erience gro; gra6uall7C N "uc8 a man i" eP-
%ecte6 to enjo7 long life)
-ne eP%ecte6 to reac8 t8e me6ium age i"
"ai6 to 8a9e t;o or t8ree ;rinkle" belo; 8i"
e7e" S 8i" leg" an6 ear" are fle"87 an6 8i" no"e
i" turne6 u%)
,8ort finger"C a long "ePual organC a narro;
backC con"%icuou" gum"C an6 be;il6ere6 lookC
betoken a "8ort life)
,u"8ruta al"o 6e9ote" a c8a%ter to t8e
6e"cri%tion of ;8at "8oul6 go to make a "7m-
metrical bo67)
C8a%) 0L)T (24 H0, D.-@2-,0,) :O3
Bu"t a" t8e out;ar6 form an6 bearing are
"u%%o"e6 to enable t8e 0n6ian %87"ician" to "a7
8o; long a %er"on ma7 be eP%ecte6 to li9eC
t8ere are certain "ign" an6 in6ication" ;8ic8 it
i" belie9e6 enable t8em to conjecture ;8en
ine9itable 6eat8 ;ill o9ertake 8im) /8u"C if
t8e breat8 flo; t8roug8 a manQ" rig8t no"tril
continuou"l7 for one ;8ole 6a7C 8e ;ill be no
more after t8ree 7ear" S if for t;o 6a7"C 8e ;ill
6ie in a 7ear S an6 if it continuou"l7 flo;" from
t8e "ame no"tril for t8ree 6a7"C 8e ;ill not li9e
be7on6 t8ree mont8") 0f 8e breat8e" t8roug8
t8e left no"tril ra%i6l7 6uring t8e 6a7 an6 not
at all 6uring t8e nig8tC 8e ;ill 6ie ;it8in four
6a7") (gainC 8e ;8o breat8e" t8roug8 t8e t;o
no"tril" "imultaneou"l7 for ten 6a7" toget8er
;ill continue in life for t8ree 6a7" onl7) 0f t8e
rig8t %ul"e i" intermittent an6 t8e left no"tril
cea"e" to ;orkC t8e %atient i" at t8e %oint of
6eat8) 0f 8i" no"e become" bentC an6 if 8e i"
oblige6 to breat8e t8roug8 t8e mout8 in"tea6 of
t8roug8 t8e no"eC 8e ;ill 6ra; breat8 for t8irt7
8our" onl7) 0f one naturall7 6ark "u66enl7
become" 7ello; 8e ;ill 6ie ;it8in t;o mont8")
He ;8o"e teet8C li%"C an6 tongue become 6r7C
an6 e7e" an6 nail" blackC an6 to ;8om 7ello;C
:OK M(+0/03, -> ( DH1,0C0(2 RC8a%) 0L)
greenC an6 re6 a%%ear blackC ;ill li9e for ot8er "iP
mont8" onl7) He ;8o "nee5e" at t8e time of
t8e "ePual orga"m an6 %a""e" urine ;it8 t8e
emi""ion of "emenC 8a" onl7 one 7ear more of
life) 0f faece" are 9oi6e6 "imultaneou"l7 ;it8
urineC t8e %atient ;ill li9e for one 7ear) 0f
oneQ" 8an6"C feetC an6 c8e"t 6r7 imme6iatel7
after coming out of t8e bat8C 6eat8 ;ill take
%lace in t8ree mont8") ( lean man "u66enl7
becoming fatC or a fat man "u66enl7 becoming
leanC ;ill 6ie in "iP mont8") -ne unable to "ee
t8e ti% of 8i" tongue ;ill 6e%art t8i" life ;it8in
t;ent7-four 8our") 0f a mi"er become" "u66enl7
ePtra9agant or c8aritableC it "8o;" t8at 8e 8a"
onl7 "iP mont8" of life left) 0f 8alf t8e bo67
of a %er"on remain" ;arm an6 t8e ot8er 8alf
col6C an6 if 8e 8a" lo"t t8e %o;er of 8earingC
6eat8 ;ill o9ertake 8im in a ;eek)
/8e 6uration of life i" al"o a"certaine6 b7 look-
ing at t8e "unQ" reflection in a %late fille6 ;it8
;ater) 0f t8e %atient fin6" t8e reflection entire
an6 unbrokenC 8e ma7 be eP%ecte6 to reco9er
"oon S in ca"e 8e fin6" it broken to;ar6" t8e
"out8 8e ;ill 6ie in "iP mont8"C if to;ar6"
t8e ;e"t 8e ;ill 6ie after t;o mont8") 0f 8e
fin6" it broken on t8e nort8ern "i6e 8i" en6
C8a%) 0L)T (24 H0, D.-@2-,0,) :O5
;ill come in t8ree mont8"C if on t8e ea"tern
"i6e 8e ;ill breat8e 8i" la"t in a mont8) 0f
8e "ee" a 8ole in t8e centre of t8e reflection 8e
;ill eP%ire before ten 6a7" are o9erC an6 t8e 6a7
8e "ee" it "urroun6e6 b7 "moke ;ill be 8i" la"t)
:OI 0240(2 ,.@3.1 N RC8a%) L)
CH(D/3. L)
0240(2 ,.@3.1 N 0/, .0,3 (24 >(++)
Ci H(+1( or ,urger7 i"C a" note6 in t8e earlier
%art of t8e ;orkC one of t8e eig8t 6e%art-
ment" of (7ur9e6a) 0n t8e ;ork of ,u"8ruta it
occu%ie" t8e fir"t %lace) Me6icine an6 ,urger7C
t8oug8 %art" of t8e "ame "cienceC are treate6 a"
6i"tinct branc8e") C8arakaC (tre7aC HartiaC (gni-
9e"8aC an6 ot8er"C are acce%te6 a" gui6e" more in
me6icine t8an in "urger7 S ;8ile 48an9antariC
,u"8rutaC (u%a68ena9aC (urab8raC Dau"8kala9ataC
an6 ot8er"C ;ere rat8er "urgeon" t8an %87"ician"C
8a9ing ;ritten elaborate ;ork" on t8e art of
8ealing b7 mec8anical an6 in"trumental mean")
0n a ca"e reJuiring "urgical o%eration"C t8e
%87"ician "a7" to 8i" %atientC V (tra 48an-
9antarinam a68ikara" kri7a9i68auV meaningC
V0t i" for t8e "urgeon to take in 8an6 t8i"
ca"e)V 0t i" true t8e ancient "urger7 6i6 not
C8a%) L)T 0/, .0,3 (24 >(++) :OO
reac8 t8at %erfection to ;8ic8 t8e mo6ern "cience
8a" attaine6) /8e "ucce""e" of mo6ern "urger7
are a6mitte6 on all 8an6" to be %ro6igiou"C but
t8at "8oul6 not 6etract from t8e cre6it 6ue to t8e
ancient") /8e "tock of "urgical in"trument" an6
a%%liance" u"e6 b7 t8e ancient" ;a" no 6oubt
9er7 "mall an6 meagre a" com%are6 ;it8 t8e
armamentarium of a "urgeon of t8e nineteent8
centur7) /8e rea"on a""igne6 for t8i" fact i"
t8at t8e in"trument" t8e7 u"e6 ;ere enoug8 for
t8eir reJuirement"C an6 t8at t8eir acJuaintance
;it8 t8e %ro%ertie" an6 9irtue" of 6rug" ;a" "o
9er7 great t8at mo"t of t8e 6i"ea"e" an6 injurie"
no; 6ealt ;it8 b7 t8e "urgeon ;ere t8en cure6
me6icinall7) (n ab"ce""C for in"tanceC ;a" eit8er
ma6e to "ub"i6e b7 certain kin6" of %la"terC or
t8e ";elling ;a" a""i"te6 to mature b7 mean" of
%oultice"C an6 ;8en ri%e ;a" o%ene6C not al;a7"
;it8 t8e knifeC but b7 t8e a%%lication of a miPture
of 4antiC C8itrakC 3ran6aC an6 "ome ot8er 6rug")
Ca"e" of urinar7 calculi ;ere treate6 ;it8 anti-
lit8ic"C an6 6iuretic" ;ere a6mini"tere6 "o a" to
act a" "ol9ent" for t8e "toneC an6 t8u" t8e nece""it7
of cutting ;a"C if t8e %atient "o 6e"ire6C ob9iate6)
0t ;a" onl7 in rare ca"e"C an6 for effecting a "%ee67
reco9er7 or affor6ing imme6iate reliefC t8at t8e7
:OG 0240(2 ,.@3.1 N RC8a%) L)
8a6 recour"e to "urgical o%eration") (n6 7et
t8eir earlie"t ;ork" mention no le"" t8an one
8un6re6 an6 t;ent7-fi9e "urgical in"trument"
for o%8t8almicC ob"tetricC an6 ot8er o%eration")
/8e7 ;ere eP%ert" in forming ne; ear" an6
no"e") /8i" o%eration 8a" been %racti"e6 for
age" in 0n6iaC ;8ere cutting off t8e no"e an6
ear" ;a" a common %uni"8mentC an6 V our
mo6ern "urgeon" 8a9e been able to borro; from
t8em UHin6oo") t8e o%eration of r8ino%la"t7 V
UEeber)) -n t8i" "ubject 4r Hir"c8berg of
?erlin "a7" < N V /8e ;8ole %la"tic "urger7 in
3uro%e 8a6 taken it" ne; flig8t ;8en t8e"e
cunning 6e9ice" of 0n6ian ;orkmen became
kno;n to u") /8e tran"%lanting of "en"ible
"kin fla%" i" al"o an entirel7 0n6ian met8o6)V
/8e "ame ;riter al"o gi9e" cre6it to t8e
0n6ian" for 6i"co9ering t8e art of cataract-
couc8ingC V ;8ic8 ;a" entirel7 unkno;n to t8e
@reek"C t8e 3g7%tian"C or an7 ot8er nation)V
/8e cataract o%eration" areC it i" "ai6C %erforme6
b7 0n6ian %ractitioner" ;it8 great "ucce"" e9en
to t8i" 6a7) /8e Hin6oo" ;ere al"o eP%ert" in
%erforming am%utation" an6 ab6ominal "ection)
/8e7 coul6 "et fracture" an6 6i"location" in men
an6 bea"t"C re6uce 8erniaC cure %ile" an6 fi"tula-
C8a%) L)T 0/, 30,3 (24 >(++) :OH
in-anoC an6 ePtract foreign bo6ie") 0noculation
for "mall-%oP "eem" to 8a9e been kno;n to t8em
from a 9er7 earl7 age) +ong before 36;ar6
Benner ;a" bornC certain cla""e" in 0n6iaC e"-
%eciall7 co;-8er6"C "8e%8er6"C C8arana"C an6 t8e
likeC 8a6 been in t8e 8abit of collecting an6 %re-
"er9ing t8e 6r7 "cab" of t8e %u"tule") ( little
of t8i" t8e7 u"e6 to %lace on t8e forearmC an6
%uncture t8e "kin ;it8 a nee6le) 0n con"eJuence
of t8i" inoculationC t8e cla""e" are "u%%o"e6 to 8a9e
enjo7e6 a certain amount of immunit7 from "mall-
%oP) 4r HuilletC late of Don6ic8err7C a""ure" u"
t8at V Aaccination ;a" kno;n to a %87"icianC
48an9antariC ;8o flouri"8e6 before Hi%%ocrate")V
/8e ancient Hin6oo" u"e6 to %racti"e t8e 6i""ection
of t8e 8uman bo67C an6 taug8t it to t8eir 6i"ci%le")
/8e7 kne; 8uman anatom7 an6 "omet8ing of
%87"iolog7) V /8e Hin6oo %8ilo"o%8er"CV "a7" 4r
Ei"eC V un6oubte6l7 6e"er9e t8e cre6it of 8a9ingC
t8oug8 o%%o"e6 b7 "trong %reju6iceC entertaine6
"oun6 an6 %8ilo"o%8ical 9ie;" re"%ecting u"e" of
t8e 6ea6 to t8e li9ing S an6 ;ere t8e fir"t "cientific
an6 "ucce""ful culti9ator" of t8e mo"t im%ortant
an6 e""ential of all t8e 6e%artment" of me6ical
kno;le6ge N %ractical anatom7)V 0t ma7 a" ;ell
be a66e6 t8at t8e7 ;ere %erfectl7 acJuainte6 ;it8
:G0 0240(2 ,.@3.1 N RC8a%) L)
t8e anatom7 of t8e goatC "8ee%C 8or"eC an6 ot8er
animal" u"e6 in t8eir "acrifice") 3arl7 ;arfare
;a" con6ucte6 ;it8 "uc8 ;ea%on" a" bo; an6
arro;C ";or6C maceC etc) /8u" in e9er7 ;ar t8e
"er9ice" of bol6 an6 "kilful "urgeon" ;ere al;a7"
in reJui"ition for ePtracting arro;"C am%utating
limb"C arre"ting 8aemorr8ageC an6 6re""ing ;oun6")
,u"8ruta gi9e" 9er7 minute 6irection" to be ob-
"er9e6 in t8e %erformance of "urgical o%eration"C
an6 6e"cribe" t8e met8o6 of o%ening ab"ce""e"C
treating inflammation"C boil"C tumour"C ulcer" an6
fi"tula"C an6 of a%%l7ing bli"ter"C cauter7C etc)
/8e con"tant ;ar" an6 internecine "trife" affor6e6
am%le o%%ortunitie" to t8e "urgeon" to 6i"tingui"8
t8em"el9e" in t8eir %rofe""ion an6 acJuire con-
"i6erable 6ePterit7 in t8eir ;ork) ( glance at
t8e Ae6ic or t8e 3%ic %erio6 ;ill bear te"timon7
to t8i" fact) /8e c8irurgeon" of 7ore are recor6e6
to 8a9e %erforme6 incre6ible feat" in "urgical
o%eration"C ju"t a" mo6ern "urger7 i" able to 6o
man7 t8ing" ;8ic8 or6inar7 folk" ;ill 8ar6l7
belie9e to be %o""ible) 0n it" on;ar6 %rogre""C
mo6ern "urger7 ma7 7et be able to "uccee6
in 6oing ;8at t8e ancient" claim to 8a9e %er-
forme6) ,u"8ruta cla""ifie" "urgical o%eration"
into (8ar7aC ePtracting "oli6 bo6ie" S ?8e67aC
C8a%) L)T 0/, .0,3 (24 >(++) :G:
ePci"ing S C88e67aC inci"ing S 3"87aC %robing S
+ek87aC "carif7ing S ,i77aC "uturing S Ae687aC
%uncturing S an6 Ai"ra9ani7aC e9acuating flui6")
/8e "urgeonC before commencing an o%erationC
i" enjoine6 to eJui% 8im"elf ;it8 all t8e reJui"ite"C
"uc8 a" t8e in"trument"C "alt"C ban6age"C 8one7C
oilC ;aterC etc) He "8oul6 8a9e %ractical eP-
%erience of 8i" artC an6 "8oul6 8a9e "een man7
"urgical o%eration" %erforme6 b7 ot8er") He
"8oul6 be intelligentC "tea67C "kilfulC an6 "8oul6
ePecute 8i" ;ork ;it8 a lig8t 8an6) He "8oul6
8a9e b7 8i" "i6e "tea67 an6 "trong atten6ant"
to a""i"t 8im) /8e %atient "8oul6 be allo;e6
to take lig8t foo6 before an7 o%eration i" %er-
forme6 u%on 8im) (b6ominal o%eration"C 8o;-
e9erC an6 o%eration" in t8e mout8C or about t8e
anu"C "8oul6 be %erforme6 ;8en t8e %atient i"
fa"ting) /8e o%eration "8oul6 be %erforme6 ;it8
t8e utmo"t care S an6 after it i" o9erC a "e"amum
%oultice "8oul6 be a%%lie6 io t8e ;oun6C an6 a
clot8 ban6age be tie6 roun6 it) ( certain
incen"e "8oul6 be ke%t burning 0n t8e o%eration
room) U/8i" fore"8a6o;" t8e germ t8eor7 of t8e
%re"ent 6a7)) /8e "urgeon "8oul6 not lea9e 8i"
%atient ;it8out offering a %ra7er to t8e (lmig8t7
for 8i" "%ee67 reco9er7) Darticular attention
:G2 0240(2 ,.@3.1 N RC8a%) L)
i" to be %ai6 to t8e regimen of t8e %atient)
/8e ;oun6 mu"t be 6re""e6 at regular inter9al"
until it i" all 8eale6 u%) ,8oul6 t8e ;oun6
cau"e inten"e %ainC a clot8 "oake6 in te%i6 g8ee
Uclarifie6 butter) miPe6 ;it8 liJuorice ma7 be
a%%lie6 to it)
(" "tate6 in t8e beginning of t8i" c8a%terC
t8e 0n6ian "urger7 recogni"e6 :25 im%lement")
/8e"e are grou%e6 un6er t;o 8ea6" N 1antra"
Ua%%liance") an6 ,8a"tra" Uin"trument")) /8e
1antra" are :05C an6 are 6i9i6e6 into "iP cla""e"C
9i5) < N ,9a"tika"C %incer" or force%"C t;ent7-
four form" S ,an6a"8a"C tong"C of t;o "ort" S
/ala"C "imilarC of t;o kin6" S 2a6i"C tubular
in"trument" like cat8eter"C etc)C of t;ent7
9arietie" S ,8alaka"C bougie"C of t8irt7 "ort" S
%a 7antra"C 6re""ing"C a" clot8C t;ineC etc)C
t;ent7-"iP in number) /8e"e make a total of
:0K) /8e la"tC but not t8e lea"t in im%ortanceC
i" t8e 8an6C ;8ic8 i" rig8tl7 con"i6ere6 to be
t8e be"t an6 mo"t in6i"%en"able im%lement in
"urgical o%eration") >or "%ecimen" of "ome of
t8e im%lement" u"e6 in 0n6ian "urger7C refer to
Dlate" A00)-A000)
/8e ,8a"tra" Uin"trument") are t;ent7 in
numberC an6 are "8o;n on Dlate" 0L)-L)
Dlate A00)
:) (nguli 7antra)
2)(r"8o 7antra)
3 ) ("8mar7a8arna 7antra)
K) ?a"ti 7antra)
5)?8ringanmk8a 7antra)
I ) 4ar97akriti"8alaka)
- - -`` -- ``
O) @arb8a"8anku 7antra)
G) Balo6ar 7antra)
H *akanmk8a 7antra)
:0 ) *ankamuk8a 7antra)
ll)Muc8uti 7antra)
:2) 2a6i 7antra)
:3 ) .ik"8anmk8a 7antra)
:K) ,a6an"8a 7antra)
r$atli)+it*36m :
it) : Q
Dlate A000)
:5 ) ,8ami%atra 7antra)
:O) ,8ara%unka muk8a)
:H) ,89anamuk8a 7antra)
:I) ,8alaka 7antra)
:G) ,in8amuk8a 7antra)
20) ,8anku 7antra)
2:) ,nurii 7antra)
23 )/arak"8umuk8a)
2O)1ugma"nanku 7antra)
a--N ) - - -- a `)
`- ` VZV>
22) /ala 7antra)
2K)Arika/imk8a 7antra)
25 )Arma%rak"8akna 7antra) 2I A7ag8ramuk8a 7antra)
2G 1on7a9ek"8ana 7antra)
Dlate 0L)
:) (r68a68ara "8a"tra)
2)(timuk8a "8a"tra)
3) (ra "8a"tra)
K) ?a6i"8a "8a"tra)
5)4anta"8anku "8a"tra)
O) *ara%atra "8a"tra)
I) 3"8ani "8a"tra)
G ) (ntarirmk8a kartanka)
%)Hntk+ift r 36iii r
Dlate L)
H) *rit8arika "8a"tra)
l-)*u"8a%atra "8a"tra)
ll)Man6alagra "8a"tra) :2) Mu6rika "8a"tra)
:3)2ak8a "8a"tra)
:K_ ,8ararimuk8a "8a"tra)
:5) ,uc8i "8a"tra)
:I) /rikurc8aka "8a"tra)
:O) t%ala%atra "8a"tra)
:G) 1eta"%atra "8a"tra)
)Va)Q` `))-``a`- `<
`Q` Q - C
:H) Ari8irrmk8a "8a"tra)
20)Ari68i%atra "8a"tra)
C8a%) L)T 0/, .0,3 (24 >(++) :G3
/8e7 are < N U:) (r68a68araC U2) (timuk8aC U3)
(raC UK) ?a6i"8aC U5) 4anta"8ankuC UI) 3"8aniC
UO) *ara%atraC UG) *artarikaC UH) *rit8arikaC
U:0) *lB,H(D(/.(C Ull) Ma24(+(@.(C U:2)
Mu6rikaC U:3) 2ak8a"8a"traC U:K) ,8arari-
muk8aC U:5) ,ucmC U:I) /rikurc8akaC U:O)
t%ala%atrakaC U:G) Ari668i%atraC U:H) Ari8i-
muk8aC an6 U20) Aeta"%atra)
/8e 6imen"ion" of t8e"e in"trument" are gi9en
in 6etail b7 ol6 ;riter"C ;8o at t8e "ame time
recommen6 t8at ne; im%lement" an6 in"trument"
"8oul6 be intro6uce6 in accor6ance ;it8 t8e
ePigencie" of t8e time an6 ;it8 t8e a69ice of
eP%erience6 an6 com%etent "urgeon") 0t i" al"o
enjoine6 t8at t8e in"trument" "8oul6 be ma6e
of t8e be"t "teelC for t8e manufacture of ;8ic8
0n6ia 8a" been celebrate6 from t8e remote"t
time" S t8e7 "8oul6 be ;ell "8a%e6C ;it8 "8ar%C
fla;le"" e6ge"C an6 "8oul6 be ke%t in 8an6"omeC
%ortable ;oo6en boPe"C ;it8 a "e%arate com%art-
ment for eac8 in"trument) /8e "urgical o%era-
tion" are %erforme6 on ;8at are con"i6ere6
au"%iciou" 6a7") /8e %atient i" ma6e to "it or
"tan6 ;it8 8i" face to t8e ea"tC t8e "urgeon before
8im ;it8 8i" face to t8e ;e"t) /8e "urgeon
"8oul6 be cautiou" t8at no 9ital %artC arter7C 9einC
:GK 0240(2 ,.@3.1 N RC8a%) L)
jointC or bone i" carele""l7 injure6 in t8e cour"e
of t8e o%erationC an6 t8at t8e in"trument 6oe"
not go 6ee%er t8an t8e reJuirement" of t8e ca"e
actuall7 6eman6) 0n "eriou" "urgical o%eration"C
an6 in 6i"ea"e" of a %ainful natureC t8e %atient
;a" ma6e in"en"ible b7 t8e a6mini"tration of
anae"t8etic") 0n ca"e" of c8il6renC or of %atient"
8a9ing a 6rea6 of t8e knifeC or ;8ere t8e %ro%er
in"trument" cannot be %rocure6C bambooC cr7"talC
gla""C *ur9in6a Ua kin6 of "tone)C leec8e"C fireC
cau"tic"C nailC *areera RCa%%ari" a%87lla)C ,8efali
UAiteP 2egun6o)C 8air an6 finger ma7 be ma6e
u"e of) /8e7 are calle6 (nu"8a"tra" or "ub"ti-
tute") ,8ar% %iece" of bamboo bark or %ointe6
cr7"talC gla""C or *ur9in6a ma7 be em%lo7e6 a"
inci"i9e in"trument") /8e nail ma7 be u"e6 in
ePtracting a "oli6 bo67C leec8e" in ePtracting
bloo6C an6 8airC finger or 9egetable "%rout for
%robing) Cau"tic" are u"e6 in o%ening ab"ce""e"C
an6 fire Uli9e c8arcoal) i" a%%lie6 to "nake-bite"
an6 to ;oun6" t8at are inten"el7 %ainful) /8u"
t8ere are t8ree mo6e" a6o%te6 b7 t8e Hin6oo"
for treating "urgical ca"e" N b7 cutting in"tru-
ment"C b7 cau"tic"C an6 b7 actual cauter7) 0n
t8e o%inion of ,u"8rutaC cau"tic i" better t8an
t8e knifeC an6 cauter7 better t8an eit8er)
C8a%) L)T 0/, .0,3 (24 >(++) :G5
::: or6er to acJuire 6ePterit7 in "urger7C t8e
%rece%tor" ma6e t8eir %u%il" %racti"e 6ifferent
o%eration" on 9ariou" "ub"tance") 0nci"ionC for
in"tanceC ;a" %racti"e6 on Du"8%a%8ala U Cucurbita
maPima) j (labu U+angenaria 9ulgari")C *alin6a
UCitrullu" 9ulgari")C /ra%u UCucumi" %ube"cen")C
an6 ot8er fruit" S e9acuating on a full 4rita Ua
leat8er-bag for 8ol6ing ;ater)C an6 on t8e urinar7
organ" of 6ea6 animal" S "carification on t8e fre"8
8i6e" of animal" on ;8ic8 t8e 8air ;a" allo;e6
to remain S 9ene"ection ;a" %racti"e6 on t8e
9e""el" of 6ea6 animal"C an6 on t8e "talk" of t8e
;ater-lil7 S t8e art of %robing an6 "tuffing on
bambooC ree6C ca9itie" of ;oo6 an6 on 6r7 (labu S
ePtraction of "oli6 bo6ie" on Dana"a U(rtocar%u"
integrifolia)C ?il9a UB3gle Marmelo")C ?imbi
UCe%8alan6ra in6ica)C an6 on t8e teet8 of
6ea6 animal") V 3emo9al of ba6 8umour" V
R"cra%ing[) ;a" %racti"e6 on ;aP "%rea6 on a
boar6 of ,8almali ;oo6 U?ombaP malabaricum) C
an6 "uturing on %iece" of clot8C "kinC or 8i6e)
+igaturing an6 ban6aging ;ere %racti"e6 on
6ummie" S a%%lication of cau"tic" an6 t8e actual
cauter7 on %iece" of fle"8C an6 cat8eteri"ation on
an unbake6 eart8en 9e""el fille6 ;it8 ;ater)
/8e art of ,urger7 gra6uall7 6ecline6 in 0n6ia
:GI 0240(2 ,.@3.1) RC8a%) L)
o;ing to a 9ariet7 of cau"e"C t8e c8ief among
t8em being t8e a9er"ion of t8e ?ra8man"C ;8o
8a6 t8e mono%ol7 of teac8ing t8e 9ariou" "cience"C
to animal foo6 an6 to t8e "acrificial offering"
; / 8ic8 ;ere too common in t8e %re-?u68i"tic
%erio6) /8i" a9er"ion ma6e t8em "8rink from
touc8ing t8e carca""e" nece""ar7 for anatomical
6emon"tration") /8e7 al"o "8rank from coming
in contact ;it8 bloo6C %u"C an6 ot8er matterC
;8ic8 cannot be a9oi6e6 in %erforming "urgical
o%eration") ,urger7 being neglecte6 b7 t8e
%rie"tl7 ca"teC %a""e6 into t8e 8an6" of t8e lo;er
cla""e"C ;8o"e %ractice ;a" %urel7 em%irical) 39en
t8e"e %eo%leC for ;ant of encouragementC allo;e6
it to 6eclineC untilC a" Mr 3l%8in"tone rig8tl7
remark"C blee6ing ;a" left to t8e barberC bone-
"etting to t8e 8er6"manC an6 t8e a%%lication of
bli"ter" to e9er7 man)
C8a%) L+T 0240(2 M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :GO
CH(D/3. L+
A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1)
//024-- M340C023 ;a" at t8e acme of it"
glor7 in t8e time of t8e .ama7ana an6 t8e
Ma8ab8arata) /o t8e court of e9er7 c8iefC great
or "mallC ;a" attac8e6 a %87"icianC ;8o ;a" treate6
;it8 great re"%ect) /8ere ;ere (rm7 ,urgeon"
an6 Court D87"ician") /8e ;ork of t8e former
;a" "imilar to t8at %erforme6 b7 t8e arm7
"urgeon of t8e %re"ent 6a7) /8e Court %87"ician
u"e6 to ;ait u%on t8e king e9er7 morningC an6
;a" t8e cu"to6ian of 8i" 8ealt8) ,u"8ena ;a"
t8e name of t8e %rinci%al arm7 "urgeon of .ama
in 8i" ;ar ;it8 .a9anaC king of +ankaC an6
Aalmiki make" mention of a %articular Aai67aC
;8o ;a" .amaQ" %er"onal %87"ician) ( "imilar
%ractice i" notice6 in t8e time of t8e great ;ar
bet;een t8e Dan6a9a" an6 t8e *aura9a") /8e
arm7 "urgeon" ;ere full7 eJui%%e6 ;it8 t8e
:GG A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L+
nece""ar7 me6ical an6 "urgical a%%liance" U?8i"8-
ma%ar9aC C8) :20)) 4ur7o68anaC t8e C8ief of
t8e *uru"C ;8en %ierce6 ;it8 arro;"C ;a" ma6e
b7 8i" "urgeon" to "it in a tub fille6 ;it8 me6i-
cate6 ;aterC un6er ;8ic8 8e ;a" free6 from t8e
mi""ile" lo6ge6 in 8i" fle"8 UMa8ab8aratC C8) GK))
?ot8 t8e conflicting armie" 8a6 6i"tingui"8e6
"urgeon" on t8eir "taff) Aeterinar7 "cience "eem"
to 8a9e been 8ig8l7 culti9ate6 long before t8at
%erio6) 2alaC a remote ance"tor of t8e Dan6a9a"C
i" 6e"cribe6 a" a mo"t accom%li"8e6 8or"e-trainerC
an6 a" %o""e""ing a t8oroug8 kno;le6ge of all
matter" relating to t8e 8or"e) 2akulaC one of t8e
fi9e Dan6a9a"C ;a" an eP%ert in t8e 9eterinar7
"cience on ;8ic8 8e 8a" ;ritten "e9eral ;ork"C
8i" V ("89a-c8ikit"a V being "till ePtant) /8e
"cience of treating ele%8ant"C bullock" an6 ot8er
6ome"tic animal"C ;a" an6 i" "till kno;n in
0n6ia) ,ome are of o%inion t8at Aagb8ataC t8e
celebrate6 aut8or of V ("8tanga8ri6a7aCV flouri"8e6
in t8e time of t8e Ma8ab8arataC an6 t8at 8e ;a"
t8e famil7 %87"ician of t8e Dan6a9a")
0n t8e time of ?u668a Ub)c) 5K3)C 0n6ian
me6icine recei9e6 t8e greate"t "u%%ort an6
"timulu"C an6 "urger7 ;a" allo;e6 to langui"8)
>or ?u668a an6 8i" follo;er" ;oul6 not %ermit
C8a%) L+T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :GH
t8e 6i""ection of animal") /8e7 %ut a "to% to
animal "acrificeC in ;8ic8 a kno;le6ge of ana-
tom7 ;a" in6i"%en"ableC an6 "ub"titute6 mo6el"
of 6oug8) ?u668aC 8o;e9erC e"tabli"8e6 8o"%ital"
for men an6 bea"t" all o9er t8e countr7 S an6 t8e
in"titution of Dinjra%ole" U(nimal Ho"%ital")C "o
%eculiar to 0n6iaC o;e" it" origin to 8im)
/8e "cience continue6 to nouri"8 6o;n to t8e
a69ent of t8e @reek" in 0n6ia Ubo) 32O))
(rrianC t8e @reek 8i"torianC in 6e"cribing t8e
con6ition of 0n6ia at t8e time of t8e in9a"ion of
(lePan6er t8e @reatC refer" to a curiou" factC
;8ic8 reflect" no "mall cre6it on t8e Hin6oo
%87"ician" of t8e 6a7) (lePan6er 8a6 in 8i"
train "e9eral %roficient @reek %87"ician"C but
t8e"e 8a6 to confe"" t8eir inabilit7 to 6eal ;it8
ca"e" of "nake-biteC 9er7 common in t8e Dunjaub)
(lePan6er ;a" t8erefore oblige6 to con"ult t8e
0n6ian Aai67a"C ;8o "ucce""full7 treate6 t8e"e
ca"e") /8e Mace6onian king ;a" "o "truck ;it8
t8eir "kill t8atC accor6ing to 2earc8u"C 8e
em%lo7e6 "ome goo6 Aai67a" in 8i" cam%C an6
6e"ire6 8i" follo;er" to con"ult t8e"e 0n6ian
%87"ician" in ca"e" of "nake-bite an6 ot8er
6angerou" ailment") 0n face of t8e fact t8at t8e
3uro%ean toPicologi"t" are "till in "earc8 of a
:H0 A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L+
"%ecific for "nake-%oi"onC t8e 0n6ian %87"ician"
;8o li9e6 "ome 2200 7ear" ago mig8t ;ell be
%rou6 of t8eir "kill) 0t i" 9er7 likel7 t8at on 8i"
8ome;ar6 marc8 (lePan6erC or ,ikan6er a" 8e
i" calle6 in 0n6iaC took ;it8 8im a fe; %rofe""or"
of Hin6oo me6icine) /8i" "u%%o"ition recei9e"
"ome "u%%ort from t8e earl7 8i"tor7 of @reek
me6icine) /8ere i" a great "imilarit7 bet;een
t8e origin" of t8e @reek an6 0n6ian me6icine)
?ot8 t8e "7"tem" claim to be 6i9inel7 in"%ire6)
/8e 6i9ine %87"ician" ("89in"C t8e t;in "on" of
t8e ,unC bear a clo"e analog7 to t8e 6i9ine t;in"
(%ollo an6 (rtemi"C ;8o cure6 an6 alle9iate6 t8e
"uffering" of mortal"C an6 ;8o 6eri9e6 t8eir birt8
from 'eu"C or t8e V @o6 of +ig8t)V Hi%%ocrate"C
t8e mo"t celebrate6 %87"ician of ancient 3uro%e
Ub)c) KI0)C belie9e6 t8e art of me6icine to be t8e
%ro6uction of t8e 4i9ine ?eing S an6 it i" curiou"
to note t8at t8e @reek"C t8e 0n6ian"C an6 all t8e
ancient nation" of t8e ;orl6C 8a9e a"cribe6 all
kin6" of kno;le6geC inclu6ing t8at %ertaining to
t8e m7"terie" of lifeC 6i"ea"eC an6 6eat8C to a
"u%er8uman agenc7) 0n t8e o%inion of "ome
;riter"C Hi%%ocrate" acJuire6 8i" kno;le6ge of
me6icine in 0n6ia) /8e teac8ing of D7t8agora"
Ub)c) K30)C t8e foun6er of t8e Healing (rt
C8a%) L+T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :H:
among t8e @reek"C i" e""entiall7 0n6ian) He i"
"ai6 to 8a9e acJuire6 8i" me6ical kno;le6ge from
t8e 3g7%tian"C ;8oC a" ;ill be "8o;n furt8er onC
8a6 borro;e6 t8eir art from t8e 0n6ian") 3nfiel6C
in 8i" Hi"tor7 of D8ilo"oj787C "a7" t8at D7t8a-
gora" learnt 8i" 6octrine from -riental %8ilo"o-
%8er"C meaning t8e Hin6oo") Hi" %8ilo"o%87
bear" "uc8 a "triking re"emblance to t8at of
?u668aC t8at Mr DocockC in 8i" 0n6ia in @reeceC
i6entifie" 8im ;it8 V ?u668aguru" V or ?u668a)
0f 8e borro;e6 8i" %8ilo"o%87 from 0n6iaC 8e ma7
ea"il7 8a9e borro;e6 t8e "cience of me6icine
from t8e "ame "ource) Dlato an6 Hi%%ocrate"
bot8 belie9e6 in 8umoral %at8olog7C an6 taug8t
t8eir %u%il" t8at t8e 6i"ea"e" in t8e bo67 ;ere
cau"e6 b7 four 8umour"C N bloo6C bileC %8legmC
an6 ;ater) /8e factC 8o;e9erC t8at t8e t8ree
8umour" of t8e bo67 are referre6 to in t8e .ig
Ae6a Ui) 3KC I)C e"tabli"8e" t8e %riorit7 of t8e
0n6ian "7"tem be7on6 all 6oubt) (" for t8e
@recian %87"ician @alenC ;8o ma6e 8im"elf
famou" at 3ome in t8e "econ6 centur7 of t8e
C8ri"tian eraC it 8a" been "ai6 before t8at 8e
a6o%te6 "ome of t8e fun6amental %rinci%le" of
t8e Hin6oo me6ical "cience in 8i" ;ork")
>rom t8e"e "imilaritie" one ;oul6 be ju"tifie6
:H2 A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L+
in conclu6ing t8at eit8er t8e (r7an" 8a9e co%ie6
t8eir "7"tem of me6icine from t8e @reek"C or t8e
@reek" 8a9e 6eri9e6 t8eir" from t8e 0n6ian")
/8ere i" no internal or ePternal e9i6ence to
"u%%ort t8e fir"t inference) >or t8e 0n6ian" are
a more ancient nationC an6 t8eir me6ical book"
are ol6er t8an an7 7et 6i"co9ere6 on t8e "ur-
face of t8e eart8) /8e7 are ackno;le6ge6 on
all 8an6" to be t8oroug8l7 con"er9ati9eC an6
a" "uc8 8a9e a natural re%ugnance to borro;)
,ir Eilliam Hunter ju"tl7 ob"er9e" t8at .eligion
an6 D8ilo"o%87 8a9e been t8e great contribution"
of 0n6ia to t8e ;orl6) (" regar6" %8ilo"o%87
in generalC Mr ColebrookeC in t8e /ran"action" of
t8e .o7al ("iatic ,ociet7C Aol) 0)C 8a" rea"on
to a""ert t8at Vt8e Hin6oo" ;ere teac8er" an6
not learner")V (ll t8e im%ortant "cience" 8a9e
taken t8eir birt8 in 0n6ia) 0t 6oe" not "tan6 to
rea"onC t8ereforeC to "u%%o"e t8at t8e "cience of
me6icine coul6 8a9e been borro;e6 from t8e
@reek"C ;8o t8em"el9e" 8a9e lo"t all 9e"tige" of
t8at "cienceC ;8ic8 i" being %racti"e6 at t8e
%re"ent 6a7 all o9er 0n6ia more or le"" in it"
original form) Drofe""or EeberC ;8o i" ne9er
kno;n to be %artial to t8e 0n6ian"C a""ert" in 8i"
Hi"tor7 of 0n6ian +iterature t8at V t8ere i"
C8a%) L+T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :H3
no groun6 ;8ate9er to "u%%o"e t8at ,u"8ruta
borro;e6 8i" "7"tem of me6icine from t8e
@reek" S on t8e contrar7C t8ere i" muc8 to tell
again"t "uc8 an i6ea)V /8e 0n6ian book" on
me6icine 6o not contain an7 tec8nical term"
;8ic8 %oint to a foreign origin) 4r Hir"c8berg
of ?erlinC in a learne6 %a%erC a66"C ;it8 regar6 to
certain "urgical o%eration"C t8at V t8e 0n6ian"
kne; an6 %racti"e6 ingeniou" o%eration"C ;8ic8
al;a7" remaine6 unkno;n to t8e @reek"C an6
;8ic8 e9en ;e 3uro%ean" onl7 learnt from t8em
;it8 "ur%ri"e in t8e beginning of t8i" centur7)V
Drofe""or 4ia5 of t8e *onig"berg ni9er"it7C
clearl7 6etect" t8e %rinci%le" of 0n6ian me6icine
in t8e @reek "7"tem) 39en t8o"e ;8o talk
eloJuentl7 of t8e antiJuit7 of @reece ;it88ol6
from 8er t8e cre6it of originalit7 in regar6 to
8er me6ical "cienceC an6 o%ine t8at t8e @reek"
;ere in6ebte6 to 3g7%t for t8eir kno;le6ge of
/8e (r7an" belie9e 3g7%t UMi"ra) to 8a9e
been coloni"e6 b7 t8e 0n6ian") Droof" are gi9en
in "u%%ort of t8e beliefC ;8ic8 it i" be"i6e our
%ur%o"e to 6ilate u%on 8ere) ,uffice it to "a7 t8at
t8e /antrik 6eit7 2ila-"8ik8an6i Ublack-cre"te6)C
an incarnation of .u6raC i" recor6e6 to 8a9e fir"t
:HK A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L0)
taug8t t8e 2ilatantra U a m7"tical religiou"
6octrine kno;n to t8e 0n6ian") in 3g7%tC t8e
ri9er 2ile %robabl7 6eri9ing it" name from 8im)
0t i" al"o "tate6 t8at V in t8e reign of Ai"89a-
mitraC a certain king name6 Manu-9inaC being
ePcommunicate6 b7 ?ra8man"C emigrate6 ;it8
all 8i" com%anion"C %a""ing t8roug8 (r7a U0ran
or Der"ia)C ?aria U(rabia)C an6 Mi"ra U3g7%t))V
(ccor6ing to t8e Ma8ab8arataC t8e four "on" of
1a7atiC ;8o ;ere cur"e6 b7 t8eir fat8erC migrate6
to t8e Ee"tC an6 became ance"tor" of "ome of t8e
Mlec88a tribe"C an6 t8e name VMi"raV UmiPe6)
%robabl7 o;e" it" origin to t8i" circum"tance)
,ir Eilliam Bone"C in t8e .e%ort" of t8e .o7al
("iatic ,ociet7C i" le6 to belie9e t8at 3g7%t
mu"t 8a9e been in remote age" coloni"e6 b7 t8e
0n6ian (r7an" S an6 ;riter" like Major Eilfor6
con"i6er t8e V Mi"8ra-"t8an V of t8e Duran" to be no
ot8er t8an V Mi"raCV t8e ancient name of 3g7%t)
/8ere i"C on t8e ot8er 8an6C no recor6 of t8e
3g7%tian" 8a9ing e9er migrate6 into 0n6ia) ,uc8
circum"tantial e9i6ence 8a" le6 "ome 3uro%ean
;riter" N +oui" Bacolliot among ot8er"N to affirm
t8at if 3g7%t ga9e ci9ili"ation to @reece an6
t8e latter beJueat8e6 it to .omeC 3g7%t 8er"elf
recei9e6 8er la;"C art"C an6 "cience" from 0n6ia)
C8a%) L+T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :H5
/8ere i" not8ing in t8e 3g7%tian me6icine ;8ic8
i" not in t8e 0n6ian "7"temC an6 t8ere i" muc8
in t8e elaborate 0n6ian "7"tem t8at i" ;anting
in t8e me6ical "cience of 3g7%t)
0t 8a" been "8o;n alrea67 t8at t8e (rab mer-
c8ant" took man7 me6icinal 6rug" from 0n6ia in
t8e earl7 %art of t8e C8ri"tian era) 0t reJuire"
no great effort to %ro9e t8at 0n6ia 8a" contribute6
greatl7 to t8e (rabic "7"tem of me6icine) /8e
(rabian %87"ician ,era%ion U0bn ,erabi)C in 8i"
;ell-kno;n treati"e u%on Me6icineC often Juote"
C8arakaC ;8o i" name6 V ,8araka 0n6ianu" V in
t8e +atin tran"lation) (9icennaC better kno;n
b7 t8e name of (flatoon in 0n6ia N t8e name 8a"
become "7non7mou" ;it8 a V learne6 man V among
t8e Hin6oo" N flouri"8e6 in t8e nint8 centur7C an6
;a" t8e mo"t celebrate6 %87"ician of ?ok8ara)
E8ile 6e"cribing t8e 0n6ian %re%aration of /rifala
Ut8e t8ree M7robalan") in 8i" ;orkC 8e Juote" t8e
o%inion of C8araka an6 ot8er ;riter" ;it8 great
re"%ect) (not8er (rabian %87"icianC .ka5e" U(l
.a"i)C ;8o i" "ai6 to 8a9e li9e6 long before t8e
t;o %rece6ing %87"ician"C in treating of t8e %ro-
%ertie" of 6r7 ginger an6 ot8er 6rug"C tran"cribe"
%a""age" from t8e ;ork of an 0n6ian ;riter ;8om
8e call" V ,in68i- C8araCV /8i" ,in68i - C8ara
:HI A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L+
a%%ear" to be no ot8er t8an t8e celebrate6 Aag-
b8ata of ,in68C ;8o ;a" in 8i" time kno;n a" a
"econ6 C8araka or C8ara N t8e "7llable V *a V
making no 6ifferenceC a" in ;or6" like V bala V an6
V balakaCV bot8 meaning a c8il6) /8e great ;ork"
of C8araka an6 ,u"8ruta ;ere tran"late6 into
(rabicC un6er t8e %atronage of *8alif (lman"urC
in t8e "e9ent8 centur7) /8e (rabic 9er"ion of
,u"8ruta i" kno;n b7 t8e name of V *elale-,8a;-
"8oor-al-Hin6i)V /8e"e tran"lation"C in t8eir turnC
;ere ren6ere6 into +atin) /8e +atin 9er"ion"
forme6 t8e ba"i" of 3uro%ean me6icineC ;8ic8
remaine6 in6ebte6 to t8e ea"tern me6icine 6o;n
to t8e "e9enteent8 centur7)
0n t8e reign of *ing Aikrama Ub)c) 5O) 0n6ian
me6icine ;a" in t8e 8e76a7 of it" glor7) /8e
ruler ;a" a great %atron of learningC an6 8i" court
;a" ma6e brilliant b7 t8e nine learne6 menC kno;n
a" t8e V 2ine @em"CV a %87"ician name6 48an9an-
tari being one of t8em) 0t ma7 be ;ell to men-
tion 8ere t8at t8ere 8a9e been "e9eral %er"on"
bearing t8e name of 48an9antariC ;8ic8 i" gener-
all7 a%%lie6 to an accom%li"8e6 %87"ician) /8e
VgemV referre6 to a" a6orning AikramaQ" court
;a" t8e aut8or of an elaborate ;ork on Materia
Me6icaC calle6 2ig8antu)
C8a%) L+T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :HO
?ut %er8a%" t8ere ;a" no %erio6 in t8e 8i"tor7
of 0n6ian literature an6 "cience in ;8ic8 "o liberal
a %atronage ;a" gi9en to learning in generalC an6
to %oetr7 an6 me6icine in %articularC a" in t8e
reign of *ing ?8oja of 48ar Ua)c) HOO)) 0t ;a" a
gol6en age of Hin6oo literature) /8e king ;a" a
learne6 man 8im"elfC an6 i" t8e re%ute6 aut8or
of a treati"e on me6icine an6 ot8er ;ork") Dan-
6it ?allalaC in 8i" ?8oja-%raban68aC or a col-
lection of literar7 anec6ote" relating to *ing
?8ojaC 6e"cribe" an intere"ting "urgical o%eration
%erforme6 on t8e kingC ;8o ;a" "uffering from
"e9ere %ain in t8e 8ea6) He trie6 all me6icinal
mean"C but to no %ur%o"eC an6 8i" con6ition
became mo"t criticalC ;8en t;o brot8er %87"ician"
8a%%ene6 to arri9e in 48arC ;8oC after carefull7
con"i6ering t8e ca"eC came to t8e conclu"ion t8at
t8e %atient ;oul6 obtain no relief until "urgicall7
treate6) /8e7 accor6ingl7 a6mini"tere6 a 6rug
calle6 ,ammo8ini to ren6er 8im in"en"ible)
E8en t8e %atient ;a" com%letel7 un6er t8e in-
fluence of t8e 6rugC t8e7 tre%8ine6 8i" "kullC re-
mo9e6 from t8e brain t8e real cau"e of com%laintC
clo"e6 t8e o%eningC "titc8e6 t8e ;oun6C an6 a%%lie6
a 8ealing balm) /8e7 are t8en relate6 to 8a9e
a6mini"tere6 a re"torati9e me6icine calle6 ,anji-
:HG A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L+
9ini to t8e %atientC ;8o t8ereb7 regaine6 con-
"ciou"ne""C an6 eP%erience6 com%lete relief) /8i"
inci6ent clearl7 "8o;" t8at brain-"urger7C ;8ic8
i" con"i6ere6 one of t8e greate"t ac8ie9ement" of
mo6ern "cienceC ;a" not unkno;n to t8e 0n6ian")
/8i" i" not a "olitar7 in"tance) Bi9akaC t8e %er-
"onal %87"ician of ?u668aC i" recor6e6 to 8a9e
%racti"e6 cranial "urger7 ;it8 t8e greate"t "ucce"")
/8ere are on recor6 "ucce""ful ca"e" of ab6ominal
"ection al"o) /8u" it ;ill be "een t8at t8e
ancient Hin6oo" %erforme6 o%eration" regar6e6
a" V trium%8" of mo6ern "urger7)V ,ammo8ini
"er9e6 t8e %ur%o"e of c8loroformC but t8ere i"
8ar6l7 a 6rug in t8e mo6ern D8armaco%oeia corre-
"%on6ing ;it8 ,anji9iniC ;8ic8 no 6oubt minimi"e6
t8e c8ance" of V 6eat8" un6er anae"t8etic" V t8at
at %re"ent "ometime" occur)
4uring t8e Ma8ome6an rule Ua)c) :00:-:O0O)C
t8e 0n6ian me6icine began to "8o; "ign" of
6eca7) /8e rea"on i" ob9iou") 2o art or "cience
can flouri"8 ;it8out t8e moral an6 material
"u%%ort of t8e go9ernment of t8e 6a7) /8e
Ma8ome6an conJueror" broug8t ;it8 t8em t8eir
o;n Hakeem" or 6octor") /8e ;8ole countr7
;a" in an un"ettle6 con6itionC not "uitable
for carr7ing on "cientific in9e"tigation") /8e
C8a%) L+T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) :HH
Hakeem" ;ere an intelligent "et of %eo%le) /8e7
unre"er9e6l7 ma6e u"e of "ome of t8e be"t an6
mo"t effecti9e 0n6ian 6rug"C an6 incor%orate6
t8em in t8eir ;ork") (mong t8e im%ortant
;ork" ;ritten b7 t8e Hakeem" ma7 be mentione6
(l >a5l (69ic8C b7 2ooru6een Ma8ome6
(b6ulla ,8ira5eeC %er"onal %87"ician to t8e
3m%eror ,8a8 Ba8an Ua)c) :I30)) /8i" ;ork
gi9e" t8e name" an6 %ro%ertie" of 6rug" "ol6 in
t8e 0n6ian ?a5aar" S Ma6an-u"-"8ifa-i ,ikan6arC
b7 ?e9a bin *8a" *8an Ua)c) :5:2)C an6
/u8fat-ul-MumininC b7 Ma8ome6 MominC are
com%ilation" of t8e 9ariou" (rabic an6 ,an"krit
aut8oritie" on t8e "cience of me6icine) Ma8ome6
(kbar (r5aniC court %87"ician to (urung5ebe
Ua)c) :I5G) in 8i" *araba6ine *a6eriC tran"cribe"
bo6il7 man7 u"eful %re"cri%tion" from ,an"krit
me6ical treati"e") /8i" "8o;" t8at e9en in it"
6ecline t8e Hin6oo me6icine ;a" able to com-
man6 re"%ect from it" Ma8ome6an ri9al)
0n6ian me6ical "cience "8o;e6 "ign" of re9i9al
6uring t8e time t8e De"8;a" ;ere in %o;er
Ua)c) :O:5-:G:G)) /8e De"8;a" came of 8ig8
?ra8man lineageC an6 t8e7 6i6 all in t8eir %o;er
to encourage in6igenou" learning an6 "c8olar"8i%)
(ll t8e learne6 men of t8e countr7 ;ere attracte6
200 A0C0,,0/43, -> 0240(2 RC8a%) L+
to t8eir court an6 liberall7 treate6) ,ome of t8e
recent ;ork" on Me6icineC mo"tl7 com%en6ium"
of larger treati"e" on t8e "ubjectC ;ere ;ritten
6uring t8i" %erio6)
/8e %o;er of t8e De"8;a" ;a" o9ert8ro;n b7
t8e 3ngli"8C an6 from t8e fall of t8e Marat8a"
6ate" t8e 6ecline of t8e nati9e me6ical artC ;8ic8
lo"t all it" material "u%%ort) /8e 3ngli"8 came
;it8 a %re-concei9e6 notion t8at t8e 0n6ian me6i-
cine ;a" Juacker7C an6 t8e Hin6oo ;ork" on t8e
"ubject a re%o"itor7 of "8eer non"en"e) /8e7
e"tabli"8e6 me6ical "c8ool" an6 college" N an
ine"timable boonC no 6oubt N but looke6 u%on t8e
8ealing art of t8e lan6 ;it8 "u%reme contem%t)
/8e 0n6ian"C on t8e ot8er 8an6C ;it8 a natural
6i"like for e9er7t8ing foreignC "u%%o"e6 am%uta-
tion an6 6re""ing of ;oun6" to be t8e (l%8a an6
-mega of t8e Ee"tern me6ical "cience)
C8a%) L00)T M340C023 (24 ,.@3.1) 20:
CH(D/3. L00)
C-2C+402@ .3M(.*,)
:A=rCH of t8e mi"conce%tion on bot8 "i6e"
;ill 6i"a%%ear if t8e Hin6oo" care to
remember t8at t8e 3ngli"8 are one of t8e
mo"t %rogre""i9e nation" in t8e ;orl6 S an6 t8e
3ngli"8men bear in min6 t8e ;or6" of ,ir
Monier Monier- Eilliam"C ;8o "a7" < N V Ee areC
in our 3a"tern 3m%ireC not broug8t into contact
;it8 "a9age tribe" ;8o melt a;a7 before t8e "u%e-
rior force an6 intelligence of 3uro%ean") .at8er
are ;e %lace6 in t8e mi6"t of great an6 ancient
%eo%le" ;8o attaine6 a 8ig8 6egree of ci9ili"a-
tion ;8en our forefat8er" ;ere barbarian"C an6
8a6 a %oli"8e6 languageC a culti9ate6 literatureC
an6 ab"tru"e "7"tem of %8ilo"o%87C centurie"
before 3ngli"8 ePi"te6 e9en in name)V 0f t8e
Jue"tion be a%%roac8e6 ;it8 an o%en min6C
;it8out bia" or %reju6iceC it ;ill no 6oubt be
202 C-2C+402@ .3M(.*,) RC8a%) L00)
foun6 t8at t8e Ee"tC far more a69ance6 t8oug8
it beC ma7 7et 8a9e "omet8ing ne; to learn
from t8e 3a"t) /8o"e ;8o 8a9e t8e a69antage
of being acJuainte6 ;it8 bot8 t8e "7"tem" are
of o%inion t8atC 6i9e"te6 of all t8e ePaggera-
tion" in ;8ic8 t8e 0n6ian" are %rone to in6ulgeC
an6 of t8eir ten6enc7 to con"ecrate all t8eir
"cience"C an6 a%ot8eo"i"e t8eir great menC t8e
Hin6oo "7"tem of me6icine canC on t8e ;8oleC
bear com%ari"on ;it8 t8e Ee"tern) /8ere are
man7 t8ing" in ;8ic8 bot8 agreeC an6 if in certain
%oint" t8e7 "eem to 6ifferC t8e7 often 6iffer onl7
to agree in t8e en6) >or in"tanceC t8e ;in6-
6i"ea"e" of t8e Hin6oo" are mo"tl7 treate6 b7
t8e Ee"tern ;riter" a" 6i"ea"e" of t8e re"%irator7
"7"tem S t8e bile-6i"ea"e" generall7 corre"%on6
;it8 t8e 6i"ea"e" of t8e circulator7 "7"temC an6
t8e 6i"or6er" of t8e %8legm are analogou" to t8e
6i"ea"e" of t8e alimentar7 "7"tem) /8e 6emonia-
cal 6i"ea"e" of t8e Hin6oo" are but ot8er ;or6"
for 87"teriaC e%ile%"7C 6ancing maniaC an6 ot8er
6i"or6er" of t8e ner9ou" "7"tem) 0t i" al"o
a""erte6 b7 t8o"e ;8o 8a9e 8a6 o%%ortunitie" of
learning an6 %racti"ing me6icineC bot8 on t8e
3a"tern an6 t8e Ee"tern %rinci%le"C t8at 0n6ian
me6ical "cience 8a" reac8e6 it" 8ig8e"t "tan6ar6
C8a%) L00)T C-2C+402@ .3M(.*,) 203
of ePcellence in Materia Me6icaC /8era%eutic" an6
H7gieneC ;8ile t8e Ee"tern "cience i" far more
accurate an6 far "u%erior in C8emi"tr7C (natom7C
D87"iolog7C an6 ,urger7) /8e 0n6ian "cience
ma7 ;ell be %rou6 of it" "7m%tomatolog7C 6iag-
no"i"C an6 %rogno"i" S an6 t8e Ee"tern "cience
of it" Dat8olog7 an6 ^3tiolog7) /8e %o%ular be-
lief i"C t8at in acute 6i"ea"e" 3uro%ean me6icine"
are more effecti9e t8an t8e 0n6ian one"C but t8at
in c8ronic ca"e" t8e latter are more efficaciou")
0n +egal Me6icine t8e %roce"" of 6etecting %oi"on
b7 c8emical anal7"i"C re"orte6 to b7 3uro%ean
toPicologi"t" ;it8 great accurac7C i" unkno;n to
t8e 0n6ian") 0n t8e %re%aration an6 a6mini"tration
of mineral 6rug"C t8e Hin6oo" claim to 8a9e a
long eP%erience) /8ere i" a "triking re"emblance
bet;een t8e t;o "7"tem" a" regar6" t8e treat-
ment of "e9eral 6i"ea"e"C "uc8 a" 6iarr8oeaC %ile"C
a"t8maC con"um%tionC %aral7"i"C etc) 0t i" but a
trui"m to "a7 t8at in "ome re"%ect" t8e 0n6ian
mo6e of treating certain 6i"ea"e"C %eculiar to
tro%ical climate"C i" more "uitable an6 rational
t8an an7 ot8er) ( clo"e "tu67 of t8e "cience
;ill con9ince an im%artial rea6er t8at it contaiu"
germ" of "ome of t8e mo6ern 6i"co9erie" in t8e
8ealing art) ( fe; of t8emC "uc8 a" circulation
20K C-2C+402@ .3M(.*,) RC8a%) L00)
of t8e bloo6C %o"tural treatmentC ma""ageC an6
anae"t8etic"C 8a9e been referre6C to) ( reference
ma7 al"o be ma6e to t8e u"e of t8e magnet in
t8era%eutic") Cure" b7 animal magneti"m ;ere
common in 0n6ia long before t8e7 ;ere re-
cogni"e6 b7 Me"mer in @erman7C an6 "ub"e-
Juentl7 b7 Bo8n 3lliot"on in 3nglan6) 0n t8e
me6ical ;ork" of t8e Hin6oo"C 6octor" curing
6i"ea"e" b7 87%noti"m are "t7le6 V ,i668a V Uen-
6o;e6 ;it8 "u%ernatural %o;er) S t8o"e curing b7
mean" of mineral 6rug" V 4ai9i V U6i9ine) S t8o"e
curing b7 9egetable %re%aration" V Manu"8i V
U8uman) S an6 t8o"e b7 "urgical o%eration" V 3ak-
"8a"i V U6emoniacal)) /8e name" in6icate t8e 6e-
gree of e"timation in ;8ic8 eac8 cla"" ;a" 8el6 <
an6 ;8en Manu in 8i" -r6inance" 6irect" 8i"
follo;er" to V a9oi6 t8e foo6 of t8e 6octor V Ut8at
i"C to a9oi6 eating ;it8C or an7 foo6 touc8e6 b7 a
6octor)C 8e e9i6entl7 refer" to t8e "urgeon"C an6
not to t8e ot8er cla""e" of %87"ician") /8e
6egenerate "tate to ;8ic8 0n6ian ,urger7 i"
no; re6uce6 i" c8iefl7 6ue to t8i" %o%ular
/8e 0n6ian ;riter" 8a9e 6e"cribe6 t8e me6i-
cinal %ro%ertie" of ;ater" of t8e %rinci%al ri9er"C
lake"C ;ell"C an6 mineral "%ring" of t8e countr7C
C8a%) L0+T C-2C+402@ .3M(.*,) 205
an6 t8eir %o;er to cure 9ariou" 6i"ea"e") /8i"
clearl7 "8o;" t8at 876rot8era%7 ;a" kno;n in
0n6ia long before it ;a" 6reamt of in 3uro%e)
0t ;ill t8u" a%%ear t8at t8e 0n6ian me6icine 6oe"
not 6e"er9e to be con6emne6 off-8an6) 0t 8a" it"
fault"C an6 it" im%erfection" ma7 be man7C but it
8a" al"o it" goo6 %art"C fe; t8oug8 t8e7 be) /8e
aim an6 object of t8e t;o "7"tem" are t8e "ame)
0n t8e ;or6" of C8arakaC V/8at i" t8e true
me6icineC an6 t8at t8e true %87"icianC t8at can
cure an6 era6icate 6i"ea"e)V +et t8e Ee"tern an6
t8e 3a"tern ,c8ool" of Me6icine t8en join 8an6"
an6 reconcile t8em"el9e" to eac8 ot8er ;8ere9er
%o""ible) +et t8em meet a" frien6"C an6 not a"
foe" or ri9al") n6er %re"ent circum"tance"C t8e
3a"t 8a" muc8 to learn from t8e Ee"tC but t8e
Ee"tC tooC ma7 8a9e "omet8ing to acJuire from
t8e 3a"tC if it "o c8oo"e") 0f t8e Me6ical ,cience
of 0n6iaC in it" %alm7 6a7"C 8a" 6irectl7 or in-
6irectl7 a""i"te6 t8e earl7 gro;t8 of t8e Me6ical
,cience of 3uro%eC it i" but fair t8at t8e latter
"8oul6 "8o; it" gratitu6e b7 ren6ering all %o""ible
8el% to t8e formerC ol6 a" it i"C an6 almo"t 67ing
for ;ant of nouri"8ment) /8e 0n6ian Me6icine
6e"er9e" %re"er9ation an6 in9e"tigation) 0t i"
t8e bu"ine"" of all "eeker" after trut8N be t8e7
20I C-2C+402@ .3M(.*,) RC8a%) L00)
3uro%ean" or Hin6oo" N to take u% t8e Jue"tion
in t8e "%irit of fairne"" an6 "7m%at87) /8e
re9i9al of "uc8 a "%irit ;illC it i" 8o%e6C lea6
at no 6i"tant 6ate to a ju"ter a%%reciation of
(r7an Me6ical ,cience)
U 20O )
(b8i68anaratnamala 6e"cribe" "e9eral rare 9egetable an6
mineral %re%aration")
(b8rakakal%aC b7 ,8i9aC on t8e %ro%ertie" an6 me6icinal
u"e" of mica)
(gni%uranaC a ;ork com%ile6 b7 A7a"aC a "ection of ;8ic8
enumerate" 9ariou" 6rug" a%%licable to man an6 bea"t)
(jeernamritamanjari b7 *a"8irajC on in6ige"tion)
(mrita"agaraC ;it8 commentar7 an6 glo""ar7 b7 Dra-
ta%"in8a on 6i"ea"e" in general)
(njanani6ana b7 (gni9e"8aC ;it8 a commentar7 of 4at-
taramaC a treati"e on o%8t8almolog7)
(nu%anatarangini b7 Dan6it .ag8unat8%ra"a6a on
6ietetic" an6 regimen)
(rog7ac8intamani b7 Dan6it 4amo6araC on 87giene)
("8tanga8ri6a7aC b7 Aagb8ataC in :20 c8a%ter" treat"
of anatom7C %ractice of me6icineC "urger7C o%8t8almolog7C
ob"tetric"C an6 87giene)
("8tanga"angra8aC a ;ork on me6icine b7 t8e "ame
aut8or) /8ere are "e9eral commentarie" on t8i" ;ork)
("89a9ai67aC b7 Bata6atta ,uriC on 9eterinar7 "cience)
20G ?0?+0-@.(DH1)
(tanka6ar%ana i" a commentar7 on Ma68a9ani6ana b7
Aac8a"%atiC "on of Dramo6aC court %87"ician of *ing
(tankatimirab8a"karaC b7 ?alaram of ?enare") 0t treat"
of 87gieneC no"olog7C a"trolog7C 6i"ea"e" re"ulting from foll7
an6 9iceC materia me6icaC an6 t8era%eutic")
(u"8a68anama9aliC b7 Aai67a Aija7a"8ankarC i" a li"t of
6rug" al%8abeticall7 arrange6)
(7ur9e6ama8o6a68iC b7 ,u"8enaC i" an ol6 treati"e ba"e6
on "election" from t8e (7ur9e6aC an6 i" 8ig8l7 9alue6 b7
Hin6oo %87"ician")
(7ur9e6a%raka"8aC b7 ,8ri Ma68a9a of ?enare" in
a)c) :O3KC on t8e u"e" an6 %re%aration" of 9egetable an6
mineral 6rug")
(7ur9e6a9i6n7anaC Hin6oo "7"tem of me6icine in t;o
%art"C com%ile6 from ,an"krit treati"e" on me6icineC "urger7C
c8emi"tr7C etc) b7 *a9iraj 1ino6 +al ,en of Calcutta)
?8ai"8aj7aratna9aliC b7 @o9in6a6a"C on t8e t8eor7 an6
%ractice of %87"ic)
?8a9a%raka"8aC b7 ?8a9ami"8raC in a)c) :550) 0t i" a
"ummar7 of t8e %ractice of all t8e be"t Hin6oo ;riter" on
me6icineC an6 i" t8e mo"t %o%ular ;ork ;it8 Hin6oo %87"ician"
all o9er 0n6ia)
?8i"8ak"ar9a"9aC a manual of me6icine b7 an unkno;n
aut8orC treat" of 6rug" a%%licable to a number of 6i"ea"e")
?8ojankutu8alaC b7 .ag8unat8a ,uriC on 6ietetic" an6
?o%a6e9a"8atakaC b7 ?o%a6e9aC "on of *e"8a9aC :00
9er"e" on %ractice of me6icine)
?ri8atnig8antaratnakaraC b7 4attaramaC on %8armacolog7
?0?+0-@.(DH1) 20H
C8akra6atta b7 C8akra%ani on 6rug" a%%licable to a
number of 6i"ea"e")
C8amatkaracbintamaniC b7 @o9in6arajC on mar9ellou"
reme6ie" for 9ariou" 6i"ea"e")
C8araka"am8itaC b7 C8arakaC a ;ork of great antiJuit7
on term" an6 6efinition"C t8e nature of 6i"ea"e"C reme6ie"C on
%eculiar con"titution" an6 tem%erament"C an6 6i"ea"e" ari"ing
from t8emC materia me6icaC etc) /8e ;ork i" muc8 "oug8t
after b7 t8e Hin6oo %ractitioner"C ;8o refer to it a" t8eir be"t
C8ar7ac8an6ro6a7aC b7 4attaramaC on t8e la;" of natureC
t8eir effect" on 8uman con"titutionC an6 on t8e mean" of
%re"er9ing 8ealt8)
C8ar7a%a6makaraC b7 .ag8unat8%ra"a6aC on t8e "ame
C8ikit"a68atu"araC b7 *a"8inat8C on 6i"ea"e" in generalC
an6 al"o on mineral" an6 metal")
C8ikit"akramakal%a9alliC b7 @o%al6a"C on %ractice of
C8ikit"a"araC b7 @o%al6a"aC a "8ort treati"e on me6icineC
containing "ome u"eful formulae)
C8ikit"a"ara"angra8aC b7 Aanga"enaC on %ractice of %87"ic)
48atrimanjariC b7 an unkno;n aut8orC treat" of %ae6iatric")
48atukal%a form" a c8a%ter of .u6ra7amalaC b7 ,8i9aC on
t8e t8era%eutic u"e" of metallic "ub"tance")
48aturatnamalaC com%ile6 from ("89inikumara"am8itaC on
t8e %re%aration" of metallic an6 mineral %o;6er")
@an68akara"a7anaC a u"eful treati"eC 6e9ote6 ePclu"i9el7
to t8e %8armaceutical %re%aration" of "ul%8ur)
2:0 ?0?+0-@.(DH1)
Han"arajani6anaC b7 Han"arajaC on aetiolog7)
Harita"am8itaC b7 HaritaC i" an ancient ;ork on t8e nature
an6 treatment of 6i"ea"e"C %8armac7C %ro%ertie" of 9ariou"
kin6" of foo6C ;aterC climateC an6 6i"ea"e" of ;omen an6
c8il6ren) /8e Hin6oo %ractitioner" 8ol6 t8e ;ork in 8ig8
Haritalakal%a form" a c8a%ter of .u6ra7amalaC b7 ,8i9aC
an6 6e"cribe" t8e %re%aration" an6 me6icinal u"e" of 7ello;
Ha"tamalkaC b7 Aai67a ?a9ab8aiC a)c) :G5HC on t8e art
of %re%aring metallic com%oun6")
Hito%a6e"8aC b7 ,8rikant8a"8amb8uC a 6iffu"e treati"e on
6iet an6 treatment of or6inar7 ailment")
B9ara%araja7aC b7 Batara9iC in a)c) :OHK) 0t i" a
treati"e ePclu"i9el7 on fe9er")
*akac8an6e"89araC on miraculou" %ro%ertie" of mercur7)
*umaratantraC b7 . ;an aC king of Ce7lonC on %ae6iatric")
Ma6an%alanig8antaC b7 Ma6an%alC on materia me6ica)
Ma68a9ani6anaC b7 Ma68a9ac8ar7aC in a)c) :33:C i" an
e"teeme6 treati"e on 6iagno"i")
Ma8a%a6aC b7 Dalaka%7aC an ancient %87"ician) Hi"
;ork treat" of ele%8ant"C t8eir bree6ing an6 6i"ea"e")
Mantratantrau"8a68aC com%ile6 from *amatantraC b7
,8i9aC on t8e u"e" of me6icine" %re%are6 ;it8 t8e 8el% of
c8arm" an6 incantation")
Mukta9aliC b7 C8akra%aniC on t8e nature an6 %ro%ertie" of
me6icinal 6rug")
2a6i6ar%anaC a "mall ;ork on %ul"e b7 4attarama)
?0?+0-@.(DH1) 2::
2a6i6n7anataranginiC a mo6ern ;ork on %ul"e b7
*ag8unat8%ra"a6 Dan6it)
2a6i9i6n7anaC b7 49arkanat8a ?8attac8ar7aC an ol6
treati"e on %ul"e)
2ara7ana9alokanaC b7 2ara7anC on 6i"ea"e" cau"e6 b7
foll7 an6 9iceC an6 treat" of cure" b7 mean" of c8arm"C %ra7er"C
an6 incantation")
2a7ana"uk8aC b7 a Bain %rie"tC on 6i"ea"e" in general)
2i6ananjanaC b7 (gni9e"8aC an ol6 ;ork on 6iagno"i")
2ig8anta%raka"8aC b7 Bo"8i Aai67a ?a%tj @anga68arC a
u"eful 6i"%en"ator7 al%8abeticall7 arrange6)
Mg8antaratnakaraC b7 Ai"8nu Aa"u6e9a @o6boleC in
a)c) :GIOC an e"teeme6 treati"e on me6icine an6 %8arma-
Daka9aliC b7 Ma68a9aC treat" of t8e %re%aration" of 6ifferent
kin6" of confection" an6 alimentar7 "ub"tance")
Dara6akal%a form" a c8a%ter of .u6ra7amalaC b7 ,8i9aC
6e"cribing t8e %re%aration" an6 me6icinal u"e" of
Darib8a"8a9ritti%ra6i%aC b7 @o9in6a"enC on t8e "cience of
Dat87a%at87aC b7 *a9i Ai"89anat8C on 6ietetic" an6
Dat87a%at87anig8antaC b7 *a9i ,rimullaC on 6ietetic")
Dra7ogac8intamaniC b7 Ma68a9aC on %8armac7)
Dra7oga"ara treat" of 6i"ea"e" an6 t8eir treatment)
.ama9ino6aC b7 Da6marangaC treat" of t8e 9irtue" of
metallic "ub"tance" an6 contain" man7 reci%e")
2:2 ?0?+0-@.(DH1)
.a"a8ri6a7aC b7 @o9in6 ?8ik"8uC court %87"ician of
king Ma6ankirataC 6e"cribe" t8e %roce"" of %re%aring metallic
an6 mineral com%oun6"C ;it8 t8eir u"e" a" me6icine")
.a"amanjariC b7 ,8alinat8C on treatment of 6i"ea"e" b7
mercurial %re%aration")
.a"amritaC b7 Dan6it Aai67aken6raC in a)c) :KH5C on
%8armaceutical %re%aration" of mineral" an6 metal")
.a"a%arijataC b7 Aai67a ,8ieomaniC on %8armaceutical
%re%aration" in ;8ic8 mercur7C ar"enicC an6 certain metal" are
.a"a%ra6i%aC b7 Ai"8al6e9aC in a)c) :KG3C contain" 500
"tan5a"C an6 6e"cribe" t8e %8armaceutical %re%aration" an6
u"e" of mercur7)
.a"a%raka"8a"u68aC b7 Dan6it 1a"8o68arC "on of Da6-
manab8a of Bunaga68 in a)c) :550C on t8e %8armaceutical
%re%aration" an6 u"e" of metal" an6 mineral")
.a"araja"8ankaraC b7 .amkri"8na Mu6galC on t8e %re%ara-
tion" of mineral 6rug")
.a"aratnakaraC b7 .amac8an6raC on %8armaceutical %re-
%aration" of metal" an6 mercur7)
.a"araja"un6araC b7 4attaramaC on %8armaceutical %re-
%aration" in ;8ic8 metal" enter)
.a"aratna"amuc8c8a7aC b7 ?8attac8ar7aC "on of 2ri%a-
"in8 @u%taC treat" of %8armaceutical %re%aration" of metal"
an6 mineral")
.a"a"anketakalikaC b7 C8amun6aC a ;ork of great an-
tiJuit7C 6e"cribing ea"7 met8o6" of %re%aring mineral 6rug")
.a"a"araC b7 @o9in6ac8ar7aC a "8ort treati"e on mineral
?0?+0-@.(DH1) 2:3
.a"atarangamalikaC b7 Banar6anab8attaC on t8e treat-
ment of 6i"ea"e" b7 mineral")
.a"a7ana%rakaranaC b7 ,8ri Me6anunga ,ureeC a Bain
%rie"t) He com%o"e6 8i" ;ork in ,8rinagar in a)c) :3GOC
a" a%%ear" from t8e manu"cri%t) /8e ;ork treat" of t8e
%8armaceutical %re%aration" an6 u"e" of mineral an6 metallic
.a"en6rac8intamaniC b7 .amc8an6ra b8attaC on treatment
of 6i"ea"e" b7 mineral 6rug")
.a"en6ramangalaC b7 2agarjunaC on t8e %re%aration" an6
u"e" of mineral 6rug")
.a"en6ra"ara"angra8aC ;it8 commentar7 of Hri6a7anat8C
b7 @ o% ala ?8attaC on metal"C gem"C an6 %8armac7)
.a"a9ataraC b7 Bainac8ar7a ,i68a6igambara ,8ri Mani-
k7a6e9aC on t8e %ro%ertie"C %urificationC an6 oPi6ation of
Q %rimar7 Q an6 Q "econ6ar7 Q metal")
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(ntic8olericC )
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(nti"ialagogueC ))))
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C 5GC :K0
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0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
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(u6alakaC a kin6 of 8one7C ) ) ) ):32
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(urab8raC a ;riter on "urger7C ) ) ) a :OI
(urung5ebeC court %87"ician ofC ) ) ) :HH
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Calmati9eC )
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Cam%8ora officinarumC
Cannabi" "ati9aC
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Ce%8alan6ra in6icaC
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C8arakaC a ;riter on me6icineC 2HC 32C 33C 35C
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C8araka"am8itaC ;ork 87 C8arakaC
C8aranaC 8ar6-ca"teC )
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C88e6anaC laPati9eC )
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C8ikit"aC t8era%eutic"C
C8ikit"anjanaC a me6ical ;orkC
C8ikit"a"angra8aC a me6ical ;orkC
C8il6C rearing ofC
C8itra-8eejaC .icinu" communi"C
C8itrakaC Dlumbago 5e7lanicaC
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C8r7"ant8emum .oPburg8iiC
C8u6a-karmaC a religiou" riteC
C8ukraC 9inegarC
C8um8akaC loa6"toneC
C8urnaC %o;6erC
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Citrullu" 9ulgari"C
Citru" aci6aC
Clarifie6 butterC
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Clitoria /ernateaC
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Cocculu" cor6ifoliu"C )
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Conjuncti9aC a%%lication toC
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Corian6rum "ati9umC
CorneaC 6i"ea"e" ofC
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CorteP >icu" religio"aC
Co"tu" "%ecio"u"C
Countrie"C cla""e" ofC
Cranial "urger7C
Cre""a creticaC
Crocu" "ati9u"C
Croton %ol7an6rumC
Cr7"talC me6icinal u"e ofC
Cucumi" Coloc7nt8i"C
Cucurbita maPimaC
Cuminum C7minumC
Curcuma 'e6oariaC
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) 50C :0K
:0KC :2G
) 50C :0K
) 25C :55
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
*elale-"8a;"8oor-al-Hin6iC (rabic tran"lation of ,u"8rutaC
*erbaC Daniti" "ucciniferC
*e"araC Crocu" "ati9u"C
*e"8aC bairC )
*e"8a9aC fatber of ?o%e6e9aC
*etakiC Dan6anu" o6orati""imu"C
*etuC an imaginar7 %lanetC )
*bak8a"C %o%%7 "ee6"C
*balifC a rulerC
*bariC a mea"ureC
*barjuraC D8oeniP 6act7liferaC
*batikaC carbonate of calciumC
*8ora"ani 9ac8aC (coru" Calamu"C
*i6ne7 beanC
*irataC -%8elia C8iretta an6 -%8elia augu"t i foliaC
*i"8kin68aC a to;nC )
*le6anaC a kin6 of *afaC
*okaC a ;riter on %o"tural treatment
*olaC a ;eig8tC
*oorc8a"C glan6"C
*oormaC a 9ital airC )
*rikalaC a 9ital airC ) ) ) ) ) GG
*rimig8naC ant8elminticC ) ) ) :0IC ::2
*rimikritC 9ermi%arou"C ) ) ) ):0I
*ri%aC a "ageC ) ) ) ) )5G
*ri"8na7ajur-9e6aC one of t8e Ae6a"C ) ) 2:
*rita7ugaC t8e fir"t age of t8e ;orl6C ) ) :HC 35
*rit8arikaC a "urgical in"trument) ,ee Dlate L)C ) :G3
*"8araga6C a %8armaceutical %re%arationC ) ) :5I
*"8atri7aC t8e fig8ting cla""C ) ) ) :IC 5K
a kin6 of 6iamon6C ) ) ) ):K2
*"8au6raC a kin6 of 8one7C ) ) ) ):3:
*"8eerakakoliC He767"arum gangeticumC ) ) :0G
::2C :2H
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
*"8eera"agaraC "ea of milkC )
*"8ira%aniC a ;riter on me6icineC
*uberaC a malignant "%iritC )
*u6a9aC a mea"ureC ))))
*ulat8aC a kin6 of 9etc8C
:3GC :K:
*umb8ikaC kin6 of im%otent %er"onC
*un6uruC ?o"icellia t8uriferaC
*ur9in6aC a "tone u"e6 in "urger7C
*u"8a%atraC a "urgical in"trument) ,ee Dlate L)C
*u"bikaC a "ageC ))))
*u"8tag8naC anti"corbuticC
*u"lit8aC ,au""urea la%%aC
*9at8aC 6ecoctionC ))))
+abourC )))))
) KGC :5:
+acC "ealing ;aPC ))))
+ac8r7mationC )
+actiferou" 6uct"C )
+ajjaluC Mimo"a "en"iti9aC
+ak"8aC lacC )))))
+alag8naC anti"ialagogueC
+alot%a6akaC "ialagogueC ) ) )
+angak"8iC a "ageC )
+angaliC @lorio"a "u%eroaC )
+angenaria 9ulgari"C )
+ankaC Ce7lonC )
+a%i" la5uliC ))))))
I5C :35
+argu"C ,criboniu"C )
+ataka Mi"8raC fat8er of ?8a9a Mi"8raC
+a9anaC "altC ))))))
+aPati9eC )))) :02C :05C ::IC
:30C :3:
+a7er" of t8e "kinC ) ) ) )
+ea6C ) ) :5C OGC :3KC :35C :3HC :K:C
:K2C :KO
+ea9e"C betelC )
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
+ea9e"C %late" ofC
;aterC )
+ek8anaC liJuefacientC
+ek87aC "carif7ingC )
+e%aC %la"terC
33C ::OC
:3KC :KOC :52C
+eucorr8ceaC )
6uration ofC
%rolongation ofC )
+igament"C )
+igaturingC )
+inum u"itati""imumC
+iJuefacientC )
) IIC G2
+it8onl7ticC )
+i5ar6C 8ite ofC
+oa6-"toneC )
+oc8ana-8itaC Ca""ia
(b"u"C )
+o8aC ironC
) )
:35C :3IC
+o8ini an6 +o8itaC a
la7er of t8e "ki
+olim8rajaC a ;riter
on me6icine
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5OC 5G
) 5GC I0
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
+uffa amaraC )
Macrobu"C a ;riter on 6ream"C
Ma6aC "ecretion from an ele%8antQ" tem%le"C )
Ma6akaC inebrientC ))))
Ma6an-u"-"8ifa-i-"ikan6arC a me6ical treati"eC
Ma6anaC .an6ia 6umetorumC
Ma6ana Aino6aC a me6ical ;orkC
Ma6an%alaC 3ajaC ))))
Ma68a9a or Ma6ba9ac8ar7aC a me6ical ;riterC
Ma68a9ani6anaC a ;ork on me6icineC
Ma6ba9a9e6art8a %raka"baC a ;ork b7 Ma68a9aC
Ma68a9a9rittiC a ;ork on grammarC
Ma68uC 8one7C
Ma68ujamaC ;aPC
Ma68ukaC @l7c7rr8i5a glabraC
Ma68uraC ";eetC %ro%ert7 ofC
Ma68u"ra9aC ?a""ia latifoliaC
Ma67aC Aina me6icataC
Magneti"mC )
Ma8anam7aC a religiou" riteC
Ma8ome6 (kbar (r5aniC a %87"icianC
Ma8ome6 MominC a %87"icianC
Ma8ome6an 6rug" intro6uce6 into 0n6iaC
ruleC 6ecline of Hin6oo me6icineC
Maitre7aC a "ageC
MajjaC marro;C
Mak"8ikaC a kin6 of 8one7C
Mallotu" D8illi%ien"i"C
MamanjakaC Hi%ian oriental#
:I5C :IG
35C 3IC OH
33C 3I
3GC 52C :3:C :32C :G:
:32C :G5
:2IC :2O
:2IC :2OC :HG
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
O0C G:
Mammar7 glan6"C
Mana"C min6C
Mana""liilaC bi"ul%8i6e of ar"enicC
Man6alagraC a "urgical in"trument) ,ee Dlate
Man6uraC 876rate6 oPi6e of ironC
ManekC ?8attaC ;riter on me6icineC
MangalaC t8e %lanet Mar"C
ManiaC 6ancingC
ManikaC a mea"ureC )
ManjanaC 6entifriceC )
Manji"8t8aC .ubia cor6ifoliaC
Man"aC fle"8C )
Man"a68araC a la7er of t8e "kinC
ManuC t8e Hin6oo la;-gi9erC :2C :IC 20C I2
Manu"8iC 8erb-6octorC
Manu-9inaC name of a kingC
Maric8iC a ;eig8tC
Di%er nigrumC
Markan6e7aC a "ageC )
Marma"t8ana" U9ital")C
MarutaC a malignant "%iritC
Ma"8aC a ;eig8tC
D8a"eolu" ra6iatu"C
Ma"8akaC a ;eig8tC )
Materia me6icaC :0:C :0KC ::3C ::O
Mat8aC D8a"eolu" aconitifoliu"C
MatkunaC be6-bugC
MauktikaC %earlC
Maun6C a ;eig8tC
Ma7ofalaC Muercu" infe6oriaC
) 5:C HI
25C K:C IOC O0C :I3
:35C :K:
L)C ) :G3
H2C H5C :32C :I5
:05C :23
30C 5G
) G:C G2
O0C O:C G:C G2C 203
:22C :2GC :35C :HIC 203
:33C :3I
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Meatu" urinariu"C ))))) HG
Me6a"C fatC ))) O0C H2C H5C :02C :0HC :32
Me6icaC 8ennaC ))))) :23
Me6ical "cienceC 0n6ianC ::C O5C G5C ::OC :2KC :IGC :GHC :H:C
:HHC 200C 20KC 205
Ee"ternC )))) 200C 203
Me6icineC ) ) )22C 5HC :KIC :5:C :OIC :H0C :H3
col6-%o;ere6C ) ) ) ) ):0G
form" ofC
Hin6oo "7"tem ofC
0n6ianC ) :GGC :GHC :H0C :HOC
;riter" onC
Melia (5a6irac8taC )
Mercuriu" AitoeC
Mercur7C ) 3GC :35C :3IC :3HC
?8a"ma ofC
Me""engerC to call a 6octorC )
Metal"C u"e6 a" me6icine"C :3KC :35C
Met8icaC fenugreekC )
Mic8elia C8am%acaC )
MicturitionC )
MilkC KHC 50C 5:C I3C IOC OGC OHC G2C HIC :02C :30C :KI
Miman"aC ritual %8ilo"o%87C ) ) ) ):O
) :HIC 203C 205
:GOC :H3C :HHC 20:
:HGC 200C 202C 20KC 205
) OOC :5:
) GHC :3H
:I5C :II
:3IC :3OC :3GC :KOC :KG
) K:C G5
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Mimo"a ,iri""aC
25C K:C IOC O0C :I3
) :3KC :55C 203
6rug"C )
:I3C 202
MintC ) )))
Mi"8raC tem%erate countr7C )
) 5IC 5O
Mi"raC 3g7%tC
32C :H3C :HKC :H5
Mlec88aC barbarianC )
Mo6akaC bolu"C
) H:C :I5
Monier- Eilliam"C ,ir MonierC
) :KC :IHC :O0
Moon-lig8tC a69antage" ofC
O3C G2C G3
Moon-"toneC )
MootraC urineC
Mootra"angra8anaC anureticC )
Mootra9irec8anee7aC 6iureticC
:0IC :OO
More"89arC ?8attaC a ;riter on
me6icineC ) ) 3HC :22
Moringa %ter7go"%ermaC
Mot8erQ" milkC Jualitie" ofC )
Mrita-9at"aC a kin6 of barren ;omanC ) ) KO
Muc8akan6aC a "ageC )
Mucuna %rurien"C ) ) )
Mucu"C 87%er"ecretion ofC
Mu6rikaC a "urgical in"trument)
,ee Dlate L)C ) :G3
Muk8a-karanaC a %re%aration of
mercur7C ) ) :K5
MuktaC mi""i9e ;ea%on"C
:33C :3I
MuktamuktaC bot8 mi""i9e an6
li""i9e ;ea%on"C :I
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
MullerC MaPC
MuniC "ageC ))))
Mur97aC ,an"e9iera 5e7lanicaC
Mu"cle"C ))))
Mu"kC ))))
G:C :3:
Mu"tar6 "ee6C
M7rica "aj%i6aC
M7ri"tica mo"c8ataC )
M7robalan"C t8e t8reeC
:OGC :H5
:05C ::2
) 52C ::K
emblicC ))))
2ab8i-7antraC an a%%aratu") ,ee Dlate 0A)C )
2a6i"C cat8eter"C
2agaC a 9ital airC
:33C :GK
2airutiC a "%iritC
2ak8a) 2ailC
:33C :GK
2ak8a-"8a"traC a "urgical in"trument)
,ee Dlate L)C
2akulaC one of t8e Dan6a9a"C
2alaC king of 2i"8a68C
2ama-karanaC a ceremon7C
2an6anaC a %87"icianC
2ara6aC a "ageC
2ara8ariC a %87"icianC
:20C :2:
2ar6o"tac87" jataman"iC
:0GC :23
2art8eP ("afceti6aC )
) :0O
C :K2C :K5
2a"7aC "nuffC
2auclea Ca6ambaC )
2a9anitaC butterC
52C 5GC G2
C :30C :O0
2a9a"a6araC c8lori6e of ammoniumC
2a9atankaC a mea"ureC
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
2a9elC )))
2earc8u"C )))))
2eckC bone" ofC
2elumbium "%ecio"umC
2er9ine tonicC ))))
2er9ou" "7"temC )))))
2ictationC )))))
2i6anC 6iagno"i"C ))))
2i6ananjanaC a treati"e on 6iagno"i"C
2i6ra8araC anti-87%noticC
2i6rakaraC 87%noticC
2ig8antaratnakaraC a treati"e on materia me6icaC
2ig8antuC 6ictionar7C
) :5
2ilaC "a%%8ireC ) )a )
2ila-"8ik8an6iC a /antric 6eit7C
2ila-tantraC a religiou" 6octrineC
2im8aC Melia (5a6iracl9taC )
2irgun6iC AiteP 2egun6oC
2iromakaraC 6e%ilator7C
2i"8kramanaC a religiou" ceremon7C )
2itrate"C )))))
2itric (ci6C )))))
2ooru6een Ma8ome6 (b6ulla ,8ira5eeC an aut8oi
2o"eC )))))
cartilage" of C )
6rinking ;ater t8roug8C
formation of ne;C
2o"trilC )))
2ut"C 0n6ianC
27a7aC logicC
0243L (24
IOC :3HC :K:
-ilC ) ) )I0C G:C
:3GC :K0C :K:C
:KGC :I5C :G:
rubbing ofC
) I:C G:
:2HC :32C :KG
-leaginou" %re%aration"C
-no"ma bracteatumC )
-n7PC me6icinal u"e ofC
:35C :3I
-%erationC KGC :OIC :OGC :G0C
:H3C :HOC 203
about t8e mout8 an6 anu"C
anae"t8etic" inC )
6ePterit7 of t8e 0n6ian" inC
-%8elia angu"tifoliaC )
::2C :2H
-%8t8almiaC )
:20C :2IC :2O
-r6inance" of ManuC
-rgan" of ePcretionC )
of generationC
) K2C OK
of locomotionC
%el9icC )
of %re8en"ionC
of "en"eC
K:C K2C O3
-Pi6ation of metal"C )
:KC :5C :3I
of ironC )
of lea6C )
:5C OGC :35
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Dac8akaC a kin6 of DittaC
Da6C footC
Da6atiC infantr7C
Da6maragaC rub7C
DakaC confectionC
Dak9a"8a7aC "mall inte"tine"C
DalaC a ;eig8tC
Dalan6uC (liPim Ce%aC
Dala"8aC ?utea fron6o"aC
Dam"8ujak"8ara) ,ee Dota""iumC
DanC betel-leafC
DanakaC "7ru%C
Dana"aC (rtocar%u" integrifollaC
Danc8a-6a"8iC a ;ork on %8ilo"o%87C
Dan6anu" o6orati""imu"C
Dan6a9a"C %rince" of Ha"tina%uraC
Dan6itC "c8olarC
Dan6u-rogaC anaemiaC ) I2C HKC
DaniC 8an6C )
Danicum miliaceumC )
DaniniC t8e fir"t grammarianC
Danite" "ucciniferC
Dara6a) Mercur7C 3GC :35C :3IC :3HC
Dara"8araC a la;-gi9erC
;riter of me6icineC
Dara"ika 9ac8aC (coru" Calamu" of Der"iaC
Darik"8aka an6 Dar"8uramaC a "ageC
DarturitionC )
Da"eerC a ;eig8tC
IGC OHC :03C :2I
:KHC :50
:3IC :K5
:0HC :G5
O3C :22C :HO
:33C :K2C :53C :5KC :IG
) :5C 20
) :32C :5KC 203
2HC 30
30C 5G
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Da"8anab8e6aC carbonate of iron an6 limeC
Da"8anab8e6iC Coleu" aromaticu"C
Datala-7antraC an a%%aratu") ,ee Dlate 0A)C
DatanjalaC a "ageC
Dat8aC Ci""am%elo" glabraC
Dat8olog7C )
DatolC /ric8o"ant8e" 6ioicaC
Dau"8kala9ataC a ;riter on "urger7C
DautikaC a kin6 of 8one7C
Da7uC organ of ePcretionC
DearlC me6icinal u"e ofC
DeelooC ,al9a6ora in6icaC
Derce%tionC )
Dercu""ionC )
Der"ian 6rug"C
Der"%irationC )
DerukaC gua9aC
De"8iC mu"cleC
De"8;a" t8eC Marat8a ruler" of DoonaC
De7aC emul"ionC
D8armaco67namic"C nati9eC
D8armac7C 0n6ianC
Dlta"eolu" ra6iatu"C
D8legmC ) O0C G:C G5C GIC HIC HOC :
remo9al ofC
D8legmaticC )
D8oeniP 6act7liferaC
D87"ali" "omniferaC
HHC 202
:33C :3I
5IC :05
52C 5GC :K5
::C :22C :2I
:HHC 200
:2GC :HG
G:C G2
:3C ::5C :5OC :H:
5IC 5OC H:
) IHC :05
D87"ician) ,ee Aai67aC :03C :22C :3KC :I:C :O0C :OHC :GGC 20K
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
D87"ician N continue6)
courtC )))) :GOC :HH
6utie" ofC
5OC :I:C :I2C :IKC :GO
fee" ofC )
Jualitie" ofC
D87"iolog7C )
H3C :OHC 203
Dic88aC feat8erC me6icinal u"e
- ofC
Dicorr8i5a kurrooC
) 50C :0K
OHC :3
3C :5KC :OGC 203
amulet for curingC
DillC ))))
:3OC :KG
Dim%inella (ni"umC )
:0HC :2H
) 5HC HO
Din6iC %oulticeC
) :KGC :OOC :G:
Dine-a%%leC )
Dinjra%oleC animal 8o"%italC
Dinu" 6eo6araC
Di%er longumC
nigrumC )
:05C :23
Di%%alaC >icu" religio"aC
) 5HC :0I
Di%%alac88alaC CorteP >icu" i
Di%%alimoolaC Di%er longumC
Di"8ac8aC a 6emonC )
Di"tac8io nutC
Di"tamC Di"tac8ioC
Ditta) ,ee ?ileC
) G5C GIC GGC :33
Ditta8araC antic8olericC
DittakaraC c8olagogueC
Dlantago 0"%ag8ulaC )
nomenclature of 0n6ianC
::5C :H:
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Dlee8a-g8neeC /8e9etia neriifoliaC
DlotaC lotionC
Dlumbago 5e7lanica) ,ee C8itrakaC
) ::IC :KKC :OO
Doa c7no"uroi6e"C
DocockC MrC )
I5C :55C :5I
Dongamia glabraC
) 5GC :2H
Doo"8aC 0n6raC
2IC 2OC 2GC 2HC 3:
Dortugue"e 6i"ea"eC )
Do"tureC treatment b7C
Dota""iumC carbonate ofC
:3IC :K5
nitrate ofC
) :KGC :OOC :G:
) 5GC :K0C :KG
Drab8a9aC nature of a 6rugC )
) :0:C ::IC ::O
Draja"t8a%anaC anecbolicC
DrakritiC matterC
) K0C K:C K2C K3
Dramat8iC anti%87"icalC
DranaC one of t8e 9ital air"C )
Dra"a9akaC %arturifacientC
Dra"ruti an6 Dra"t8aC a mea"ureC
Drati9a"aC antibromicC
Dra9alaC coralC
) ) :33C :3IC :O0
Dreciou" "toneC
IKC :3KC :35C :K2
Dregnanc7C )
Dremna "erratifoliaC )
Drinci%le" an6 %ractice of me6icineC )
Drit89iC eart8C
Dri7anguC Danicum miliaceumC
) :G:C :GKC :G5
DroctorC MrC )
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Drogno"i"C )
:IKC 203
Dro%ert7C )
G0C ::0C :K2
) G2C ::O
Drunu" bocarien"i"C )
Dtolem7C )
Dt7c8oti" ajo;anC
:0GC :2H
Du6inaC mintC
DukingC )
Dula"t7aC a ;riter on me6icineC
Dulmonar7 catarr8C )
Dul"eC )
:5IC :5OC :5GC :O3
Dunarna9aC ?oer8aa9ia 6iffu"aC
:0HC :K0
DuncturingC )
DungentC ) IIC IGC G:C G2C G3C
2C :03C ::KC ::5
Dunica granatumC
Dun"a9anaC a religiou" riteC )
Dun7aC meritC
Duran"C "acre6 ;ork" of t8e Hin6oo"
Durgati9e"C ) ) )G3C
:0OC ::IC :55C :IK
Durification of metal"C
:3GC :3HC :K0C :K:
of 6iamon6 an6 ot8er %reciou" "
of mercur7C
Duri"8aC 6ungC me6icinal u"e ofC
:3KC :K0C :K2
Duri"8a"angra8anaC a"tringentC
Duru687ak"8aC magi"trateC )
Duru"8aC a kin6 of 6iamon6C )
K0C K2C K3
Du"C ))))
Du"8aC a Ae6ic 6eit7C
Du"8%a-%8alaC Cucurbita maPimaC
Du"8%a-ragaC to%a5C )
:5KC :OH
D7t8agora"C )
:KC ::5C :H:
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Mualitie"C of t8e fi9e element"C
Muartan fe9erC cau"e ofC
Muenc8ing of t8ir"tC )
Muercu" infe6oriaC
Muick"il9erC %otion ofC
Muieting a ;ee%ing c8il6C an amulet forC
3a8uC an ob"cure %lanetC
.ajanig8antaC a ;ork on Materia Me6icaC
.aja"C germC )
.ajataruC Ca""ia fi"tulaC
.aja9artaC la%i" la5uliC
.ajikaC a mea"ureC
.ajju"C c8or6"C
.ak"8a"iC 6emoniacalC
.akta) ,ee bloo6C )
.alaC ,8orea robu"taC )
.amaC *ing of (7o687aC
.ama7anaC )
.an6ia 6umetorumC )
.anjakaC a kin6 of DittaC
.a"aC a mineral "ub"tanceC
nouri"8ing juiceC
.a"akaC carbonate of 5incC
.a"akar%uraC corro"i9e "ublimateC
.a"anaC a kin6 of *afaC
.a"a%ra6i%aC a me6ical ;orkC
.a"a"in6uraC "ul%8i6e of mercur7C
.a"a7anaC reju9ene"centC
treatment of me6icine" re"toring 7out8C
) I5C
) 33C
:3KC :35
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
3a"e"8i"mC a religiou" 6octrineC
3at8aru68aC car-fig8terC
3atiC a ;eig8tC
3atna"C gem"C
33C :35C :3IC :HI
3au%7aC "il9erC u"e6 a" me6icineC
) IKC :3KC :3H
3a9anaC king of +ankaC
3ec8anaC 876ragogueC
3eetiC calcine6 5incC )
3efrigerantC )
:0GC :30
) KHC :G2
3e"%irator7 "7"temC )
) GOC202
3e"torati9eC )
) :0:C :0OC :0G
3eta"C fecun6ating flui6C
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:2OC :30C :32C :K0C :55
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3ite"C religiou"C
) 50C 53
3ock "altC
3o8anaC e%uloticC
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) O0C :K3C :O:
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3uc8iC a kingC
3u6antiC Cre""a creticaC
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
.u6raC a 6i9init7C
) 2G
.u6rak"8aC 3l"eocar%u" ganitru"C
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,al ammoniacC
,aline "ub"tance"C
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,al9inia cucullataC
,amanaC one of t8e 9ital air"C
,ama9artanaC a ceremon7C
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,ammo8anaC anae"t8eticC
) :0OC
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) I3C
,an6a"8aC tong"C
,an68iC jointC
,anjee9a"t8a%anaC re"torati9eC
,anji9iniC a re"torati9e me6icineC
,ank87aC 6i"criminati9e %8ilo"o%87C
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,ankoc8anaC con"tringentC
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,an"kara"C rite"C
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
,au"mrea la%%aC
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C 2G
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C :55
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C :23
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0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
,8akune7aC a "ageC ) ))) )30
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B,8ararimuk8aC a "urgical in"trument) ,ee Dlate L)C :G3
,8ariraC %87"ical 6i"ea"eC )))) 55
,8arng68araC a ;riter on me6icineC ) 3HC :2IC :KKC :52
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0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
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:0IC :2H
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:0GC :30
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,8ringaC 8ornC
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,8ronita"t8a%anaC "t7%ticC
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) IKC :3K
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
,imanta"C "u%%orter"C
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0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
,ourC ) ) IG
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0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
,ukan7aC a 6am"elC )
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0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
,9a%ne"89ariC go66e"" of 6ream"C
,9ara"aC eP%re""e6 juiceC
,9ar7aC goo6 for 9oiceC
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,9e6o%agaC 6ia%8oreticC
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/aila) ,ee -ilC
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/amakuC tobaccoC
/amraC co%%erC me6icinal u"e ofC
a la7er of t8e "kinC
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/a%ta-k8al9a-7antraC 2o")C 0)C 00)C 000)C Dlate A)C
/aramak"8ikaC ;8ite %7rite"C
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:35C :K0
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K:C H0C :0:C :02C ::K
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
/erminaMa liellericaC
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) 52C :0KC ::K
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) G:C :0OC :23
/inC me6icinal u"e ofC
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) H0C :5I
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:GHC 203
/ra%uC Cucumi" %ube"cen"C
/ra"renuC a ;eig8tC )
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) O5C 20K
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/ribulu" terre"tri"C
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/ric8ola%i" glaberrimaC
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
/ric8o"ant8)e" 6iokaC )
/riconamitiC trigonometr7C
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/rikC "terno-cla9icular joint"C
/rikantakaC /ribulu" terre"fri"C
/rikurc8akaC a "urgical in"trument
/ri"8nanigra8anaC frigorificC )
/ri9ritaC 0%omoea /er%et8umC
/riumfetta angulataC
/u8f at-ul-MuminimC a me6ical treati"e
/ulaC a mea"ureC
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6anaC a 9ital airC
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n6urkarnikaC ,almr6a cucullataC
ni9er"eC e9olution ofC
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%a-ra"aC "econ6ar7 3a"aC
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C :55
) K
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
%a-9eclaC "u%%lementar7 Ae6aC ) ) ) 23
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t%ala%atrakaC a "urgical in"trument) ,ee Dlate L)C :G3
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:O0C :GO
Aai67a-jee9anaC a me6ical ;orkC
Aai67amritaC a ;ork on me6icineC
Aai67a9allab8aC a me6ical treati"eC
Aaije%a7aC a "ageC
Aaik8ana"aC a "ageC )
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3HC :22
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1C
AajeekaraC a%8ro6i"iacC
) IHC :0HC :3H
AajikaranaC mean" of increa"ing t8e 9irile %o;erC ) 2I
AakC organ of "%eec8C
AalaC a ;eig8tC
Aaleriana Har6;icMiC
AallakaC 4olic8o" "inen"i"C
AalmikiC aut8or of .ama7anaC ) :GO
Aaluka7antraC an a%%aratu")
,ee Dlate A)C ) ) :KK
Aama6e9aC a "ageC
AamanaC emeticC
G:C :0OC :0HC :55
AaratakaC co;r7C
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Aar"8aC t8e rain7 "ea"onC
) G0C G2
AartikaC bougieC
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Aa"antaC "%ringC
) G0C G:
Aa"i"8t8aC a "ageC
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Aat"anab8aC (conitum feroPC
() 2a%ellu"C $cC :0HC ::0C :2G
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:0:C ::3
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C G0C :55
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Aegetable N continue6)
:KOC 203
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Aernonia cinereaC
:50C :G5
Aeta"-%atraC a "urgical in"trument) Z
,ee Dlat
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:0IC ::2
Ai6ariC ?atata" %aniculataC )
Ai6aringan68aC Co"tu" "%ecio"u"C
Ai67a%atiC a ;riter on me6icineC
Ai67aran7aC Ma6ba9aC
AigourC re"toration ofC
AikramaC king of -ojeinC
Aina me6icataC
AinegarC ) )))
Aiola o6orataC
Ai%akaC con"eJuence of action of a 6i
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3:C ::KC
::5C ::I
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Ai"8agbnaC antitoPicC
Ai"8nooC a 6eit7C
Ai"8nu Aa"u6e9 @o6boleC a Dan6itC
Ai"8nukrantaC 39ol9ulu" 8ir"utu"C
Ai"8u68aC fat8er of C8araka
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Ai"89amitraC a "age an6 kingC
Ai"ra9ani7aC e9acuating flui6"C
Aital air"C
AiteP 2egun6oC
Aiti" 9iniferaC
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Ai9i%arou"C )
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Ari68a-tra7iC t8e t8ree ol6 ;riter" on Hin6oo me6icineC
30C 33C :HK
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::0C :GK
I0C IHC :0HC :32C :3H
I2C :3:C :55
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A7ag8riC ,olanum in6icumC )
A7anaC a 9ital airC
A7a"aC a "ageC
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A7a9a8ara Ma68a9aC a ;ork on Hin6oo la;C
A7a7a7iC "e6ati9eC ))))
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me6icinal %ro%ertie" ofC
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Eater-leec8e"C 6i"ea"e" cau"e6 b7C
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K2C ::5
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:OGC :H2
0243L (24 @+-,,(.1)
Eeig8t" an6 mea"ure"C
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6ream" cau"e6 b7
an elementC
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Ei"eC 4rC
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germination ofC
6re""ing an6 8ealing ofC
kin6" ofC
Erig8tia anti67"entericaC
) ,C :KHC :50
) 50C 5:
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5IC 5HC I5C G2C H0C :0:C :03
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I5C :02C :32C :33
:55C :GK
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Lant8oP7lum r8et"aC )
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1ajna9alk7aC a la;-gi9erC
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