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2.

7 Picture nouns
Nouns like fotografie photo, imagine image, portret portrait, tablou painting may participate in
a possessive structure, denoting the possessed object (81), or in an agentive structure, in which case
the picture noun takes arguments such as Agent (82a) or Theme (82b):
(81) tabloul lui Ion
painting.DEF LUI(GEN) Ion
Ions painting < Ion has a painting
(82) a. tabloul lui Ion
the painting by Ion
b. tabloul lui Ion
the painting of Ion
The genitive DP / possessive adjective argument of a picture noun has an ambiguous interpretation
in a narrow context (Theme, Agent or Possessor), contrasting with the de-construction, where the de-
phrase is strictly interpreted as an Agent (83); see also V.3.4.2.
(83) tabloul de Ion
painting by Ion
the painting by Ion
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3.4.2 The arguments of picture nouns
The argument of picture nouns, such as fotografie photo, imagine image, tablou painting, share
certain features with the arguments of deverbal and deadjectival nouns.
Some actualizations of the arguments of picture nouns are common with those of deverbal and
deadjectival nouns (see V.3.4.1):
(i) a genitive DP corresponding to a direct object (327a) or to a subject (327b):
(327) a. fotografia lui Ion (L-am fotografiat pe Ion)
photo.DEF LUI.GEN Ion CL.ACC.M.3SG==(I)have photographed PE Ion
the photo of Ion
b. fotografia lui Ion (Ion a fcut fotografia)
photo.DEF LUI.GEN Ion Ion has taken photo.DEF
the photo by Ion
(ii) a possessive adjective:
(328) fotografia sa
photo.DEF(F.SG) his/her.F.SG
photo of/by him/her
(iii) a headless relative clause:
(329) fotografia cui mi-e drag
photo.DEF who.GEN CL.DAT.1SG=is dear
the photo of / by one who is dear to me
(iv) a PP headed by de by:
(330) o fotografie de Ion
a photo by Ion
a photo by Ion
Picture nouns do not always actualize the argument structure. They may have a common noun reading,
expressing possessed objects and taking a non-selected Possessor (V.3.3.1.2):
(331) fotografia lui Ion
photo.DEF LUI.GEN Ion
the photo that Ion has
CIn Romanian, as in the case of the English and Dutch prenominal genitive (see Alexiadou,
Haegeman, Stavrou 2007: 586), the genitive complement to picture nouns may be interpreted as an
Agent, a Theme or a Possessor when it is the sole complement to the noun; however, two genitive
complements are unambiguously interpreted as a Theme (the first complement) and as a Possessor or an
Agent (the second complement):
(332) [portretul [Mariei]
THEME
] al lui Ion]
POSSESSOR//AGENT
portrait Maria.GEN AL LUI.GEN Ion
Ions portrait of Maria / the portrait of Maria by Ion
In Romanian, there exists a structure which is also found in French, with all three thematic roles
hierarchically ordered (Theme > Agent > Possessor):
(333) a. Rom. Portretul lui Aristotel de Rembrandt al lui Petre
portrait.DEF LUI.GEN Aristotle by Rembrandt AL LUI.GEN Petre
the portrait of Aristotle by Rembrandt owned by Petre
b. Fr. le portrait dAristote de Rembrandt de Pierre (in Alexiadou, Haegeman, Stavrou 2007: 583)