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Introdu
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of GRD
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FIGURE
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
TABLES
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Address for
Corresponde
Dr. T.V. Ram
Energy & We
Research Gr
Centre for Ec
Sciences
Indian Institu
Science,
Bangalore
INDIA

ct
ction
dology
ew and descriptio
DSS
ase connectivity
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cy Estimation
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Geographic
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extra
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Geospatial Today
* Centre for Eco
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e process of deve
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A
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al data. With the i
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Abstract
structured and ma
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Export of different
Analysis, Vector A
watershed Analysi
d from the IRS (Ind
format. The integr
System an Op
n Support Sy
ober, 2004, Vol. 3
amachandra (*,+
Indian Institute of
gies, Indian Institu
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Figure 1
so involved under
e. The layout of th
e structural diagra
tured open source
of the natural reso
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of the society. Su
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pmental programm
s increased in ord
In this regard Geo
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ensed images. Op
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conomic viability,
s Analysis Suppor
platform (freewar
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ese aspects in min
such as raster, to
analysis, graphics
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t data formats, Dis
Analysis, Point Ana
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ht
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3(3), pp. 52-59, Hy
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: GRDSS
rtaking the task of
he interface had to
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e spatial and temp
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omentum becaus
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ographic Informati
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us hierarchical leve
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yderabad, India
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poral analysis tec
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planning, etc.
the growing incide
ct of human activit
se changes in the
ding planning and
des spatial, statisti
graphs, interpreta
cies (census data,
cation of data, seg
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emote sensing da
derstand many en
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fication. GRASS,
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ch of the US Army
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database manage
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mation System) is
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d management of
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ation of remotely s
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ata offers enhance
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a GIS based ope
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Corp of Engineer
S is a raster/vector
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monitor and paper
nd create, manage
digitizers, and data
itive windows inte
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mmand line argum
r individuals, who
ming skills. In orde
chnically superior
a user friendly gra
as depicted in figu
Figure
hodology
lopment in GRDS
decision support
sed programming
rious GIS package
clarku.edu), Geom
a listed in table 1.
pen Source GIS
ment system.
a system of hard
lyses of spatial-te
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e an important co
esources. This inc
ndustries, employ
and road networks
and environment
stems. This is pos
temporal and spat
resources and als
data derived from
sensed images an
tc.). Digital image
a and also in visu
challenges faced
ed capability for in
esses. This integr
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rs worldwide. Num
ments. The comma
were not expose
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tal impacts, GIS h
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tial data. This help
so biophysical mo
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nd procedures to f
application is wide
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nal planning with
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options to display
ps to solve compl
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or GRASS was cu
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GRASS GIS alon
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s in the developme
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facilitate
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ones ability
a pivotal
ving growth
e (water,
ality, etc.),
analyse the
and
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input
aerial
ment
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and modeling
sensed
guide image
General
oratories, a
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The limitations of t
o offer optimal pe
i. System requ
is a full system
"LINUX". The L
a hard disk spa
45-50 MB an
GRDSS sou
ii. User friendly
in India and tho
simplified comp
in a user-friend
iii. Functional ca
import/export in
buffer generatio
spectral and tem
terrain modeling
database (both
iv. Help facilities
their functions a
list and mailing
worldwide. The
enough informa
v. Error explana
automatically re
sets are availab
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the commercial G
rformance. The fo
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with X Window gr
Linux- system with
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parable to propriet
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mporal data analy
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spatial data and a
s GRDSS exten
and options are pr
list archive where
help facilities and
ation to start with t
ation and manual
enders error mess
ble on the GRASS
S ht
IS softwares were
ollowing feature ch
GRDSS GUI sourc
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side DOS/Window
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compiled using a
enu organisation -
much exposed to p
tary softwares in t
at satisfies both s
SS is equipped w
s (including the IR
on spatial statistica
ysis), raster, vecto
ng, report genera
attribute informati
nds all the help fac
resent in help to g
e users can post t
dthe documents a
the software.
support - GRDSS
sages through the
S official website,
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
e also considered
haracterises GRD
ces can be compil
rface. Minimum P
mouse, 32 MB RAM
ws partition). GRD
sk space is requir
GNU "C" compile
The user interfac
programming. The
the market. The m
specific and comm
with the functional c
S data format), m
al calculation, digi
or and point analy
tion and can also
ion), etc.
cilities present in
get started with th
their doubts and c
available on the G
S is equipped with
e mail facility in Lin
including online tu
10
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while implementi
DSS development
ed on all PC's run
PC can be 486 (or
M (64 MB recomm
DSS binaries requ
red (to store the s
er.
ce is designed to s
e interface is custo
menu is organised
mon users.
capabilities such a
map analysis, data
ital image process
ysis and query, ma
handle spatial an
GRASS. All the c
e GRDSS. There
can discuss throug
GRASS official web
h error explanation
nux. Beside many
utorials and manu
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nning LINUX. It
better), with
mended) and
ire only
ources). The
suit to the users
omized and
sequentially
as data
modeling,
sing (spatial,
ap calculator,
nd non-spatial
ommands with
is a mailing
gh e-mails
bsite provide
n, which
y sample data
uals.
spatial_to
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c Resources De ecision Support S
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Overview and des
GRDSS supports a
i. It supports a
including IRS (LI
/ Digital Terrain E
ii. It has capabilit
commercial plott
iii. GRDSS has t
classification, da
iv. GRDSS has t
topology creation
distance, area an
v. It can perform
two locations to a
vi. Thematic data
vii. Database (Po
viii. Online tutoria
menu arrangeme
pen Source GIS
scription of GRDS
all basic features
wide range of dat
ISS3 and PAN) da
Elevation Data) ex
ties for displaying
ters and printers a
he image process
ata analysis, etc.).
the capability of m
n, map overlay, ar
nd statistical repo
wetland analysis
analyze terrain da
a preparation, hist
ostgreSQL) mana
als with help man
ent.
S ht
SS
required by any G
ta Import/Export t
ata extraction and
xtraction.
the raster/vector
and is capable of c
sing capabilities (r

manipulating raste
rithmetic operatio
ort, etc.
, terrain modeling
ata, runoff-modelin
togram generation
agement system.
uals and sample d
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
GIS package.
that are also supp
d DTEM/DTED (D
images. GRDSS
color managemen
rectification, enha
r, vector and poin
ns, DEM generati
g with slope, aspe
ng, etc.
n, and charts of d
datasets. Figure 4
10
iisc.ernet.in/ene
ported by other sta
igital Terrain Elev
can further intera
nt.
ancement, transfor
nt data. This includ
ion, decision supp
ct, relief, profile, c
ifferent formats.
4 depicts the GRD
08
ergy/paper/Geos
andard GIS
vation Model
act with
rmation,
des digitization,
port,
cost between
DSS hierarchical
spatial_to
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5 of 10
c Resources De ecision Support S
Figure
System an Op
e 4: GRDSS hierar
pen Source GIS
rchical menu arra
S ht
ngement.Table 2
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
: Functions of GR
10
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RDSS modules
09
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c Resources De ecision Support S System an Op pen Source GISS ht
Table 2: Function
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
ns of GRDSS mod
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Geographic
GRDS
proce
L
v
a
7 of 10
c Resources De
Data
GRDSS uses Po
manipulation of b
server used prim
sophisticated obj
extension of the m
developer, Postg
PostgreSQL has
Concurrency Con
logging changes
Applica
SS provide a supp
ssing, GPS (globa
Land cover analys
vegetation indices
analysis is listed in
ecision Support S
abase connectivity
stgreSQL (a freew
both spatial and at
arily for data stora
ect-relational data
more traditional re
reSQL even supp
comprehensive S
ntrol to avoid unne
before they are w
ations
port for spatial dat
al positioning syst
is: This has been
as the district had
n table 3.
System an Op
y
ware) as a databa
ttribute informatio
age and retrieval,
abase manageme
elational database
ports extensibility o
SQL support, refer
ecessary locking t
written to the datab
ta as well as attrib
tem) and other tec
done by computi
d varying extent o
pen Source GIS
ase for data storag
n. It is the most ad
and complex data
ent system (ORDB
e management sy
of its data types a
rential integrity, M
that increases the
base.
bute data by integr
chniques.
ng both slope bas
of vegetation cove
S ht
ge, data retrieval,
dvanced open so
a analysis. Postgr
BMS). An ORDBM
ystems (RDBMS).
and procedural lan
MVCC or Multi- Ve
e reliability of the d
rating GIS, image
sed and distance
ers. The result of la
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
query and
urce database
reSQL is a
MS is an
For the advanced
nguages.
rsion
database by
e
based
and cover
11
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d
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c Resources De
Land
option
super
distric
94.67
(agric
Accu
coeffi
unsup
ecision Support S
use analysis: GR
ns for map overly,
rvised and unsupe
ct using Gaussian
% compared to u
culture, forest, plan
A
racy estimation in
icient were calcula
pervised classifica
Table 5: Error M
System an Op
DSS through its c
map algebra and
ervised classificati
maximum likeliho
nsupervised class
ntation, built-up an
Accuracy Estimati
n terms of produce
ated after generat
ation (table 6).
Matrix Resulting fro
pen Source GIS
capability of analyz
d other operators a
ion approaches w
ood classifier (GM
sifier (78.07%). Th
nd wasteland) are
T
ion
er's accuracy, use
ting confusion ma
om Classifying Tr
S ht
Table 3: V zing the statistica
aid in analyzing th
were tried to identif
MLC). The level of
he composition of
e listed in the table
Table 4: Land use
er's accuracy, ove
atrix for supervised
raining Set Pixels.
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
Vegetation Indices al, raster and vecto
he landuse pattern
fy landuse catego
accuracy in GML
f land use categor
e 4.
details of Kolar d
rall accuracy and
d classification (ta
.
11
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s or data with
n. Both
ories in the
LC was
ries
istrict
Kappa
able 5) and
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9 of 10
c Resources De
A
p
G
a
d
a
d
l
W
(
i
G
m
fo
fri
su
ecision Support S
The producers a
results obtained a
A value was comp
percent better tha
GRDSS was also
analyses. The dig
data on the DEM e
analysis of Kolar d
developmental ac
and to waste land
Watershed misma
(agriculture, buildi
ncreasing ecolog
The land cove
terms of perce
planning consi
S
RDSS a open sou
ap algebra and ot
or various applicat
endly GUIs, GRD
ustainable develop
System an Op
Table 6: E
accuracy, users ac
are summarized in
T
puted (0.931577) w
n one resulting fro
used to study the
ital elevation mod
enabled to assess
district provided a
tivities without pro
d (43.75%).
anagement and co
ngs, etc.) were th
ical problems suc
r and land use an
entage area. The a
idering the actual
Summary
urce GIS with cap
ther functionalities
ions including nat
DSS is hoped to p
pment of India.
pen Source GIS
Error Matrix for Un
ccuracy correspon
n table 7.
Table 7: Producer
which is as an ind
om a chance.
e watershed status
del generated for t
s the status of the
picture of land us
oper planning hav
onversion of wate
he prime reasons f
ch as salinization,
nalyses showed N
assessment of the
ground condition
pabilities such as r
s is comparable to
tural resource ma
penetrate in all sec
S ht
nsupervised Class
nding to the vario
rs accuracy, user
dication that an ob
s in Kolar district a
the district is depic
e catchment of ma
se changes. The a
ve lead to the conv
rbodies for variou
for the depletion o
runoff, etc.
NRVI, CTVI, PVI1
e watershed and h
could help in ens
raster analysis, ve
o any commercial
nagement. An eco
ctions of decision
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
sification.
us categories and
rs accuracy and o
bserved classifica
along with land us
cted in figure 6. D
ajor water bodies.
analysis indicates
version of large sc
us anthropogenic a
of the water table
results are compa
holistic approache
suring the sustaina
ector analysis, ima
l software availab
onomical (free wa
making and contr
11
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d overall accuracy
overall accuracy.
tion is 93
se and land cover
Draping a land use
The temporal
s the unplanned
cale productive
activities
along with
arable to GMLC in
es in landuse
able development
age processing,
le in the market
are) with user
ribute to the
13
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Geographicc Resources De
E

ecision Support
R
E-mail | Sa
System an Op
References :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
GRASS offic
GRASS mirror
GRASS mailing
GRASS softwa
Requirements
/REQUIREMEN
6. Mapinfo :http
7. Idrisi :http://w
8. Geomedia :h
hyadri| EN
pen Source GIS
ial website :http://
site in India :http:
g list and mailing
are download pag
to compile GRAS
NTS.html
p://www.mapinfo.c
www.idrisi.clarku.e
http://www.intergr
NVIS | Ener
S ht
/grass.itc.it
://wgbis.ces.iisc.e
list archive :http://
e :http://wgbis.ces
SS GIS :http://wgb
com/location/integ
edu
aph.com/dynamic
rgy | GRAS
ttp://wgbis.ces.i
rnet.in/grass/welc
/wgbis.ces.iisc.ern
s.iisc.ernet.in/gras
is.ces.iisc.ernet.in
gration
cdefault.asp
SS | CES |
11
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come.html
net.in/grass/suppo
ss/download.html
n/grass/grass5/so
IISc | E-ma
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ergy/paper/Geos
ort.html
urce
ail
spatial_toda