Fighting both toxic exhaust and climate gas emissions from

bio-blended diesel– Assessment of strategies.
Seminar Sogndal 25 Feb 2011
Strategies:
Biodiesel fuel pre-treatment
Through high gauss magnetic beam, i.e. aligning the fuel molecules to
increase the electron spin (magnetohydrodynamics)
Adding water to form emulsified fuel
Additives and liquid catalysts
Various types of additives and liquid catalysts
New exhaust filter technologies
What properties should they have
!ow to develop them
The potential of "olecular #ynamics $imulations in designing e%haust
filters
&arbon nanotubes (&'Ts) as functional material in filters
The problematics of
bioblending
Western Norway Research
Institute
Sogndal
"unac(, A., )rahl, *., +,nger, *., -uschel, .., $chr/der, 0. (1223)4 5%haust 6as 5missions and "utagenic 5ffects of "odern #iesel 7uels, 6T8, +iodiesel, and
+iodiesel +lends. &96- : 9nternational &onference of Agricultural 5ngineering ;;;V99 &ongresso +rasileiro de 5ngenharia Agr<cola. +ra=il, August >? to
$eptember @, 1223.
Means and standard deviations of triplicate mutagenicity tests
of particle extracts of DF RM! "lt #$% "lt &'( and #$% &'(
using tester strain )*+, with -.S+/ and without -'S+/
meta0olic activation 0y rat liver en1ymes2 3M +%42 !S5
"unac(, A., )rahl, *., +,nger, *., -uschel, .., $chr/der, 0. (1223)4 5%haust 6as 5missions and "utagenic 5ffects of "odern #iesel 7uels, 6T8, +iodiesel, and
+iodiesel +lends. &96- : 9nternational &onference of Agricultural 5ngineering ;;;V99 &ongresso +rasileiro de 5ngenharia Agr<cola. +ra=il, August >? to
$eptember @, 1223.
Means and standard deviations of triplicate mutagenicity tests
of particle extracts of DF RM! #$% 6)78 and 6)7$ using
tester strain )*+, with -.S+/ and without -'S+/ meta0olic
activation 0y rat liver en1ymes2 3M +%42 !S5
"unac(, A., )rahl, *., +,nger, *., -uschel, .., $chr/der, 0. (1223)4 5%haust 6as 5missions and "utagenic 5ffects of "odern #iesel 7uels, 6T8, +iodiesel, and
+iodiesel +lends. &96- : 9nternational &onference of Agricultural 5ngineering ;;;V99 &ongresso +rasileiro de 5ngenharia Agr<cola. +ra=il, August >? to
$eptember @, 1223.
Means and standard deviations of triplicate mutagenicity tests
of particle extracts of DF RM! #$% 6)78 and 6)7$ using
tester strain )*+, with -.S+/ and without -'S+/ meta0olic
activation 0y rat liver en1ymes2 3M +%42 !S5
"unac(, A., )rahl, *., +,nger, *., -uschel, .., $chr/der, 0. (1223)4 5%haust 6as 5missions and "utagenic 5ffects of "odern #iesel 7uels, 6T8, +iodiesel, and
+iodiesel +lends. &96- : 9nternational &onference of Agricultural 5ngineering ;;;V99 &ongresso +rasileiro de 5ngenharia Agr<cola. +ra=il, August >? to
$eptember @, 1223.
Means and standard deviations of 9uadruple mutagenicity
tests of particle extracts of DF #: #8% #$% #:% and RM!
using tester strain )*+, with -.S+/ and without -'S+/
meta0olic activation 0y rat liver en1ymes2 *&7 :%$;%8+2 rated
power
Means and standard deviations of 9uadruple mutagenicity
tests of particle ex'tracts using tester strain )*+, with -.S+/
and without -'S+/ meta0olic activation 0y rat liver en1ymes2
engine: M*N D%,2 )est: !)5
Munack, A., Krahl, J., Schröder, O., Bnger, J. !2010"# $o%en%ial& o' Bio'uel&. ()**%h +orld ,ongre&& o' %he *n%erna%ional ,ommi&&ion o' Agricul%ural
and Bio&-&%em& .ngineering !,*/0". 1o&%ed b- %he ,anadian Socie%- 'or Bioengineering !,SB.2S,/AB" 3u4bec ,i%-, ,anada June 15617, 2010.
Deposition measured 0y
Munac< et al -$%8%/
Munack, A., Krahl, J., Schröder, O., Bnger, J. !2010"# $o%en%ial& o' Bio'uel&. ()**%h +orld ,ongre&& o' %he *n%erna%ional ,ommi&&ion o' Agricul%ural
and Bio&-&%em& .ngineering !,*/0". 1o&%ed b- %he ,anadian Socie%- 'or Bioengineering !,SB.2S,/AB" 3u4bec ,i%-, ,anada June 15617, 2010.
=ypothesis for the #$%'
effect
"utagenicity correlates with the tendency of blends to form
sediments, particularly if aged (partly o%idi=ed) biodiesel
is used.
The mutagenicity is therefore hypothesi=ed to be caused
when carotenoids in the aged biofuel lose their anti:
o%idative effect in the biodiesel fraction, forming
oligomers and thereby sediments.
Munack, A., Krahl, J., Schröder, O., Bnger, J. !2010"# $o%en%ial& o' Bio'uel&. ()**%h +orld ,ongre&& o' %he *n%erna%ional ,ommi&&ion o' Agricul%ural
and Bio&-&%em& .ngineering !,*/0". 1o&%ed b- %he ,anadian Socie%- 'or Bioengineering !,SB.2S,/AB" 3u4bec ,i%-, ,anada June 15617, 2010.
Si1e distri0ution > 0us 8?%% rpm
full load
Ma-er, A., ,8er9i:&ki, J., +-&er, M., 1ei%8er, A. !2010"# $ar%icle .mi&&ion& o' ;ie&el Bu&&e& 9i%h
0M.2;ie&el Blend&. .uro Oil < Fuel 2010. Prace naukowe INiG 172. $= *SS> 020?6072@.
Scanning Mo0ility (article Si1e -SM(S/
measurements
!ei((ilA, *. Virtanen, A., -/n((/, T., )es(inen, *., Aa((o:$a(sa, B., "urtonen, T. (122C)4 'anoparticle 5missions
from a !eavy:#uty 5ngine -unning on Alternative #iesel 7uels. Environ. Sci. Technol. @>, CD2?:CD2E.
#ac<ground -8/
A
!xhaust toxicology effects of 0lending 0iodiesel
into fossil diesel;
F
F*M!'(*= nanoagglomerates from
0iodiesel@fossil diesel 0lends using molecular
simulation: studies of nanoagglomerate
formation and toxic mem0rane' crossing
effects;
In collaboration with:
University of Uppsala, Bio-Medical Center, Supercomputing roup!
"aboratory of #$haust #missions Control, %ochschule f&r 'echni(
und Informati(, Biel!
)il and as Institute *ra(ow
Background (3)
A +iodiesel is mainly composed of methyl esters deriving from the trans:esterification
of plant oils such as soya bean oil (generating soya:bean methyl esters : $"5) and
rapeseed oil for the production of rapeseed methyl esters (-"5), which are both
classified as fatty acid methyl esters (7A"5).
A 7ossil diesel on the other hand, is quite rich in combustion products of stronger
to%ic degrees. The maGority of chemical compounds from the soluble organic
fraction ($07) of fossil diesel arranges in agglomerates which contain unburned
hydrocarbons, semi:o%idi=ed hydrocarbons and BA!s.
A The level of BA!s in fossil diesel has been documented to be quite high, reaching
as much as H times higher concentrations than in biodiesel and their carcinogenic
potential is well (nown.
A The combination of biodiesel and fossil diesel introduces therefore new
to%icological aspects given the mi%tures of two different chemistries, giving rise to
potentially Ito%ic partnershipsJ between biodiesel components and fossil diesel
components, and given the suggestions in previous studies, the biodiesel e%haust
component of interest for a to%icological assessment is uncombusted 7A"5.
$reliminar- re&ul%& 6
.lec%ro&%a%ic $o%en%ial !.S$"
maBBing
$reliminar- re&ul%& 6
OM. cooling &imula%ion
)ideo
OM. cooling &imula%ion C
clu&%er &i8e D& %ime
Nanoagglomerate
simulations
A liBid la-er in con%ac% 9i%h a nanoBar%icle. Ehe nanoBar%icle& abili%-
%o cro&& %he la-er i& a&&e&&ed u&ing molecular &imula%ion& in order
%o label a Bo%en%ial %oFicological degree.
Mem0rane simulation
Membrane M;S
Me%hod&

olecular dynamics simulations on supercomputer

!actors to "e assessed for interaction with
#A$-!A%&

em"ranes

#roteins at "lood "arriers and the
pleural cavity (e'g' (NA)% proteins)

*olgi apparatus transporter proteins
(e'g' +A)*, proteins)

-NA (e'g' unspecific -NA fragments
crystalli.ed with genetic regulators)

/ysosomes and phagocytic components
Me%hod&

#hysiochemical analysis of exhaust

(eparation and detection using field-flow
fractionation and fluorescence as well as 01
spectrophotometry to determine particle si.e
distri"utions'

2he fractions will "e analysed "y !23) and
N) to confirm the presence of !A%
Me%hod&

2oxicology studies of exhaust

+ell exposure to different ratios of "io"lended diesel
will provide answers to the crucial queation& -oes
"lending increase the toxicity4 And if so5 how large is
the effect4

+ellular toxic effects of exhaust will "e studied with
cells from human epithelial tissue "eing exposed to
exhaust in exposure cham"ers' After exposure of
modeled human respiratory tract to the exhaust the
cells will "e examined for&

+ytotoxicity (percentage of dead cells)

3nflammatory reactions

,xidative stress
Me%hod&

(tudies of interaction "etween #A$6!A% and cells

#A$-!A% complex will "e studied "y
exposing cells5 to o"ain dose response curves5
for&

2he ma7or type of !A%s in "iodiesel
from rape5 sunflower5 soya and palm oil
(methyl esters of +89&:5 +8;&85 +8;&<)5

"lended with #A$5 nitro-#A$5 and oxy-
#A$5 in various ratios5 and exposed to
cells'

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