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Dedicated to the 89th anniversary of the National leader, Heydar Aliyev and the

20th anniversary of the establishment of "a" Educational Company







CONFERENCE
MATERIALS





Qafqaz University Press
Baku, 2012

Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature
2
nd
International Student Conference
Qafqaz University, Baku, 27 April 2012

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr. Ahmet Sani
Prof. Dr. Niftali Qodjayev
Prof. Dr. Cihan Bulut
Prof. Dr. Shahin Khalilli
Asst. Prof. Dr. Erdal Karaman
Dr. Tayyar Mustafayev
Dr. Heydar Eminli
Dr. M. Mustafa Gl
Ali Bereket
Ali Tatli
Venera Suleymanova
Mehmet ahiner
Sandra Derrick
GENERAL COORDINATOR
Ali Bereket
CONFERENCE SECRETARY
Ali Tatli
ACADEMIC COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr. Ahmet Sani Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Prof. Dr. Niftali Qodjayev Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Prof. Dr. Cihan Bulut Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Prof. Dr. Dunyamin Yunisov Azerbajan University of Languages Azerbaijan
Prof. Dr. Shahin Khalilli Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Asst. Prof. Dr. Erdal Karaman Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Asst. Prof. Dr. Narmina Aliyeva Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Asst. Prof. Dr. Etrabe Gl Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Asst. Prof. Dr. Natalya Lapaeva Perm State Pedagogical University Russia
Asst. Prof. Dr. Greg Jacob Portland State University USA
Dr. F. Alexander Magill ifa University Turkey
Dr. Heydar Eminli Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Dr. M. Mustafa Gl Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Dr. Sleyman Sarba Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Ali Bereket Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Ali Tatli Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Sandra Derrick Fulbright Scholar USA
Shirley Stanley Qafqaz University USA
Kaitlin Ward Montclair State University USA
Venera Suleymanova Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Mehmet ahiner Qafqaz University Azerbaijan
Aziz ankaya Qafqaz University Azerbaijan

DESIGN
Sahib Kazimov, Ilham Aliyev
The responsibility of the published papers in the
conference materials belongs to the authors.
ISBN 978-9952-468-06-9
CopyrightQafqaz University, Baku 2012
Address: Qafqaz University, AZ0101 Khirdalan, Baku, Azerbaijan
Tel: (+99412) 448 28 62/66; Fax: (+99412) 448 28 61/67
e-mail: languageandliterature@qu.edu.az; www.qu.edu.az; http://ell.qu.az;
i
CONTENTS
LINGUISTICS 1

ELLIPTIC FORMS OF COMPLEX SYNTACTIC UNITS
IN ENGLISH AND AZERBAIJANI
Professor Dunyamin Yunusov 2
THE INFLUENCE OF WORDS
Sandra Derrick 8
REVISITING AND RERUNNING WILLIAM LABOVS STUDY: THE SOCIAL
STRATIFICATION OF (R) IN NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT STORES
Kaitlin Ward (first author), F. Robson Albuquerque (co-author) 10
MINIMIZING ABBREVIATIONS IN ENGLISH
Aygul Khalilova 12
COINING NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Aynur Abbaszade 15
INFORMALITY IN AMERICAN ENGLISH
Aynur Huseyneliyeva 17
DIFFERENCES IN EDUCATIONAL TERMINOLOGY IN
BRITISH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH
Aytan Valiyeva 22
COMPARISON RELATING TO LANGUAGE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
THE TURKISH AND JAPANESE LANGUAGE
Emine Kose 24
USE OF THE SUBJECT AS A RHEME IN AZERBAIJANI AND ENGLISH
Gunay Mammadli, Gunay Alizade 27
THE COLOR FACTOR IN THE USE OF ENGLISH
Gunay Poladova 32
THE LEXICAL NORMS OF AZERBAIJAN LITERARY LANGUAGE
Nofel Quliyev 35
SYNTACTIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL-SYNTACTIC
CONVERSIONS IN AZERBAIJANI POETRY
Gunel Mirzeyeva 41
VOCABULARY TEACHING THROUGH BODY
LANGUAGE AND FACIAL EXPRESSION
Nigar Orucova 45
COLOUR TERMS
Chinara Quliyeva 47
HISTORICAL FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS
Narmin Huseynova 49

ii
MEANS OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Sarvin Alizadeh 52
LEXICAL PARALLELS IN TURKIC DIVAN OF FUZULI
Sevinj Aliyeva 55
ENGLISH WORDS OF TURKIC ORIGIN
Turane Abdullayeva 57
THE USE OF MODAL VERBS IN AZERBAIJANI,
ENGLISH AND GERMAN LANGUAGES
Vefa Bayramova 59
TYPES OF EPONYMS
Khatira Ahmedova 61
THE PERIODS OF LANGUAGE CHANGES IN ENGLISH
Yegana Safarova 63
HOW AZERBAIJANI STUDENTS LEARN DEGREES
OF ADJECTIVE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Haqiqat Aliyeva 65
COMMUNICATION AS A PROCESS AND GLITCHES ASSOCIATED
WITH TEACHING THE ART OF COMMUNICATION
mer Dngel 67
ENGLISH NOMINAL CLAUSES: ANALYZING THE TRANSLATION OF
SUBORDINATE WH INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES AND INFINITIVE
WH - CLAUSES IN AZERI
Parisa Farrokh, Abolfazl Rajabli, Kambiz Mahmoodzadeh 71
THE ROLE OF AFFIXES IN UNDERSTANDING THE
ETYMOLOGY OF ENGLISH WORDS
Pervine Valiyeva 82
THE IMPORTANCE OF COHESION AND COHERENCE IN DISCOURSE
Turana Aghayeva 85
ENGLISH'S GLOBAL TRIUMPH
Vineet Kaul 87
CONTEXTUAL NEGATIVE ELEMENTS AND IMPLICIT NEGATION
Venera Suleymanova 91
NB DVNININ LEKSKASINA MODERN AIDAN YAKLAIM
Salih Sava 95
LITERATURE 105
AMERICAN NOVEL AND THE ORIENT:
ARGUMENTS AND COMMENTARIES
Shahin Khalilli 106

iii
MODERN APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEMS OF A MAN
AND SOCIETY IN THE CREATIVITY OF IRIS MURDOCH
Nurlana Alaskarova 108
SHEAKESPEARES APPROACHES TO POLITICS
AND POLITICAL THEORY
Ali Tatli 111
THE ONLY WAY TO SAVE FROM LONELINESS
Ayten Zeynalli 114
APPROACHES TO JUSTICE AND MERCY IN RENAISSANCE DRAMA
Aziz Chankaya 115
MODERN APPROACHES TO AGATHA
CHRISTIES HERO HERCULE POIROT
Fidan Hacyeva 117
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE'S CREATIVITY
Khonul Anvarzade 119
THE ANGRY YOUNG MAN : JOHN OSBORNE
Gnay Allahverdiyeva 121
MODERN APPROACHES TO SHAKESPEARES LANGUAGE
Gunay Guliyeva 124
MODERN APPROACHES TO CHARACTER OF HAMLET
Tue zdemir 127
THE NEW APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF ORIENTAL
THEME IN ENGLISH LITERATURE
Lala Isayeva 128
OTTOMAN POETRY AND BRITISH CRITICISM
Ali Bereket 131
COINCIDENCES CHANGED TESS`S LIFE IN THOMAS
HARDY`S TESS OF THE D`URBERVILLES
Aynur Hacyeva 132
NEW AZERBAIJANI PROSE AND ITS STYLE VARIETY
Ayten Zargarova 134
JAMES JOYCE AND MODERNISM
Gunel Mammadkarimova 138
THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE MASTERPIECE
OF FRANCIS SCOTT FITZGERALD
Naila Bandiyeva 140
A TALE OF LOST ILLUSIONS OF VICTORIAN PERIOD BASED
ON GREAT EXPECTATIONS BY CHARLES DICKENS
Rena Qurbanova 142

iv
REVENGE AND THE RESULT IN WUTHERING HEIGHTS
BY EMILY BRONTE
Saida Mehdiyeva 146
GREAT OPPORTUNITIES OF LITTLE GENRE
Shafa Jabiyeva 148
THE PIE WHICH LEADS GREAT EXPECTATIONS
Khanim Ahmadova 150
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO LITERATURE
(BASED ON THE THEORY OF FREUD)
Khayala Maharramova 153
PSYCHOANALYTIC READING OF MATERNAL
ISSUES IN MADAME BOVARY
Meryem elik 156
MODERN APPROACHES TO THE HUNNIC EMPIRE
IN THE WESTERN LITERATURE
Natiq Adilov 158
REVOLUTION THEME IN A TALE OF TWO CITIES
Aytekin Aliyeva 161
STUDY OF LITERARY TECHNIQUES OF STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS
ON JAMES JOYCE AND VIRGINIA WOOLF S WORKS
Sevda Salayeva 163
SYMBOLISM IN JAMES JOYCE'S "ARABY"
Narmin Veledova 167
THE ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH CASTLES NAMES
Salmanli Aysel 170
APPROACHES TO SHEAKESPEARE S OTHELLO
Sevda Huseynova 173
EDUCATION 175
MODERN APPROACHES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Shirley A. Stanley 176
INTRODUCING AUTHENTIC LITERATURE TO AN EFL CLASSROOMS
Aynur Bashirova 181
QUALIFIED EDUCATION AND ITS GLORIOUS FUTURE
Aygun Guliyeva 183
THE ROLE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
Sadigli Aysel 185
MODERN APPROACHES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Echon Mendoza Alina 187

v
USING POEMS TO DEVELOP PRODUCTIVE SKILLS
Hamidov Elchin 191
INCREASE INTERPERSONAL REGARD AND UNDERSTANDING
Elnara Sevdimova 193
THE NEED FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING IN EDUCATION
Esra Arslan 195
INVESTIGATING THE USE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
STRATEGIES AMONG IRANIAN EFL STUDENTS
Hamidreza Bolhari 197
APPLICATION OF GAMES INTO THE TEACHING PROCESS
OF ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Leyla Alili 199
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER AND STUDENT INCREASES
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE LEARNING PROCESS
Matanat Rustamova 202
USING SITUATION COMEDIES AS A TOOL FOR ELT
Merve Turan 205
ORGANIZING LESSONS TO IMPROVE LANGUAGE SKILLS
Parvana Hajiyeva 206
TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN THROUGH STORIES
Sevda Kelbiyeva 208
COMMON PROBLEMS HINDERING AZERI LEARNERS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Khazar Novruzov 211
TEACHING ENGLISH TO ARABIC- SPEAKING STUDENTS:
CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC CONSIDERATIONS
Yegane Memmedova 214


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1





CONFERENCE MATERIALS





L I NGUI S T I C S
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
2

ELLIPTIC FORMS OF COMPLEX SYNTACTIC UNITS
IN ENGLISH AND AZERBAIJANI
Professor Dunyamin Yunusov
Azerbaijan University of Languages
dunyamin.yunusov@adu.edu.az
SUMMARY
The article explores elliptic forms of complex syntactic units in English and Azerbaijani. Depending
upon different situations there appear elliptic forms of complex syntactic units. The author tries to
prove that there are different kinds of elliptic sentences and they appear on the components of the
text and the previous and the following sentences.
Key words: incomplete, elliptic, construction, syntactical unit.
MXTLF SSTEML DLLRD ELLPTK FORMALI MRKKB
SINTAKTK VAHDLR
XLAS
Mqald ingilis v Azrbaycan dillrindki elliptik formal mrkkb sintaktik vahidlrdn bhs
olunur. Mxtlif situativ raitdn asl olaraq, mrkkb sintaktik vahidlrin mxtlif elliptik for-
malar yaranr. Mllif sbut etmy alr ki, mxtlif nv elliptik cmllr mvcuddur v onlar da
mtnin komponentlrindn v vvlki v sonrak cmllrdn asl olaraq meydana glir.
Aar szlr: natamam, elliptik, trkib, sintaktik vahid.
FARKLI SSTEML DLLERDE ELLEPTK BMDE
KARMAIK SNTAKTK BRMLER
ZET
Makalede ingiliz ve Azerbaycan dillerindeki elliptik biimdeki karmak sintaktik birimler an-
latlyor. Farkl situativ konuma bal olaraq, karmak sintaktik birimlrin farkl elleptik biimleri
oluuyor. Yazar, farkl tip elleptik cmlelerin mevcutluunu ve onlarda yaznn ieriklerinden ve
nceki ve sonraki cmlelerle ballnn yaranmasn ispatlamaya alyor.
Anahtar kelimeler: tam olmayan, elliptik, ierik, sintaktik birim.


The elliptic forms of complex syntactic units are those complexes which the
missing of either principal or the subordinate clause in transform construction
doesnt seem to be incomplete either structurally or semantically.
Like the simple sentences, here the component undergone by ellipciss is not
needed to be restorated. It should be mentioned that not in all cases the ellipciss
of any component of complex syntactic units happens. On this account A.M.
Mukhin writes: Incomplete sentences are not only those sentences one of which
components is missed/ usually the previous and the following parts of the text can
be reconstructed/ but also are those which have no in reality the missing of the
component but have the colouring of outer content in them [1, p.178].
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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The elliptic forms of different complex syntactic units happen in different
situation. This difference of form, furthermore, is closely connected with those
constructions and out of which structural forms they have been sourced. The initial
semantico-grammatical characters of structural forms and their ways of expressing
lexically affect on their later development of the transformation process. In some
complex syntactic units the subordinate clause of the first component is parallel
to the predicate of different mood, tense and person paradigms of the second
component. The predicates of these parallel components are expressed by the same
lexical unit. In these constructions the predicate of the principal clause is usually
expressed by the verbs say (tell) in English and in Azerbaijani.
Sometimes they may be expressed by the verbs close in meaning to them. Two
elliptic forms are possible in such kind of complex syntactic units in compared
English and Azerbaijani languages.
I. In the first case consisting of a subordinate clause of object, the first component,
i.e. the principal clause undergoes the ellipciss.
In English
E.g. We are obeyed the order; pull down this building, we pull down, ruin this
street, we ruin, build a new building, we build a new one.
In Azerbaijani
; , , , -
, ,
In the above mentioned examples the predicate of the principal clause can be
expressed by the verbs say (tell), order, command, ask etc. in English and
, , , etc. in Azerbaijani.
But potentially the content of these structural units exist in elliptic constructions
themselves and they are thought to be easily reconstructed.
E.g. 1. We are obeyed the order, they say (order, command, ask) pull down this
building, we pull down, they say ruin this street, we ruin, they say build a new
building, we build a new one.
2. , ( , , ),
, , , , ,
, .
II. In the second case the subordinate clause of the first component which is
parallel to the second component is not used. It should be mentioned that this
case is not found in the English language.
E.g. : , .
: , , , . (.).
Analysing the above mentioned complex syntactic unit, we can see that in the
second component the subordinate object clause isnt used here. This
complex syntactic unit should be sounded like this.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
4
E.g. : , , , , .
It should be mentioned that though there is informatic alikeness between
complete and incomplete forms, we cant find the semantic identity between them.
So the semantic shade of colouring in incomplete forms, especially emotional-ex-
pressive shades of colouring shows definite semantic separation. In such kind of
complex syntactic units there are some mixed types which exist not only two pa-
rallel components but more than two and in this case the previous components
remain wholly but the last component undergoes the ellipciss.
E.g. , , , , - ,
. (.).
There are three parallel constructions in the above mentioned complex syntactic
unit. While comparing them in paradigmatic line, we may observe that the principal
clause of the third parallel construction undergoes ellipciss. In comparison with
two previous parallel construction, that component must be reconstructed, like
this: , , .
The ellipciss of the principal clauses happens to be widely used in direct speech.
So using the proverbs and sayings in our speech we usually use before them the
authors words: there is such a saying / proverb, , father said
, they say so etc. and according to those expres-
sions the sentence constructions are used like this.
E.g. 1. There is such a proverb - A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
2. , , .
3. They say so dont look a gift horse in the mouth.
4. etc.
Unlike the English language, in Azerbaijani even both of these stable construc-
tions , are used simultaneously and they perform the function
of homogenous principal clause.
E.g. , : , .
There is a proverb in our language, they say out of sight, out of mind.
Proverbs and sayings are widely used among the creators of that language and
there is no any additional information of showing the source of the expression
and there is no need of using separate sentence structure (the principal clause).
On this account M.Adilov writes: The effect of proverbs is stronger than the
above mentioned principal clauses. It should be mentioned that the quantity of
words used in sentences and the effective feeling of words are non proportionate
[2, p.49]. In reality the missing of that mentioned standard sentence gives the
lightness to the complex syntactic unit and increases its effective force, emotional
shades of colouring.
E.g. 1. Hey, men, a good beginning makes a good ending.
2. , .
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
5
3. It is your fault, dont halloo till you are out of the wood.
4. , etc.
The predicate of the ellipciss of the principal clause expressed by the verbs say,
is not only connected with the proverbs and sayings, but also the other
constructions are observed in languages of different system.
E.g. 1. Cliff Shes hurt. Are you all right?
Alison Well, does it look it?
Cliff Shes burnt her arm on the iron.
Jimmy Darling, I am sorry
Alison Get out!
Jimmy Im sorry, believe me.
You think, I did it on pur
Alison Clear out of my sight (Modern English plays)
2. .
, (.)
Analysing the semantic interrelationship of the above mentioned complex
syntactic units it is proved that in English sentence the component you say is
abridged: Though they have structural completeness, thats the outer case. Their
wholly informative thought reveals the incompleteness. It is the same about the
Azerbaijani complex syntactic unit. Here in the second sentence the predicate of
the principal clause which is expressed by the verb is abridged.
The fact of ellipciss happens in such complex syntactic units the predicate of
which is expressed by the verb to see in English and in Azerbaijani
principal clauses. Without going into details it should be mentioned that such kind
of principal clauses demands the object subordinate clauses in both compared
languages. The results of investigation prove that in these complex syntactic units
the verbs see and are used in wh questions. And these sentences
express community and abstractness. In such type of complex syntactic units the
content of the question what, should be revealed. Here what, perform
the function of direct object in the sentence: what did we see?, ?.
The following sentence of this question may be either a simple sentence or a
complex syntactic unit. In the second case the object subordinate clause is used.
E.g. 1. Going what did we see?
We saw that she was sitting with her hands on her knees and thinking
2. ? ,
.
In answering to the verb saw which is used in the principal clause
and repeated twice. The usage and repetition of the verb saw, not only
hinders the speed speech but also restricts the effective and emotional force of the
expression.
The frequent usage of the verb to look, is a lot. In such kind of
complex syntactic units the ellipciss of the verbal predicate saw happen
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
6
and in the relationship of the semantic-grammatical relations of the components
behave strangely. Here the usage of the conjunction that, is not proved
itself. Here the semantic relation of the components is not on the surface but on
the deep structure of the complex syntactic units.
E.g. 1. He looked that the younger guests immediately had put one their skates.
2. , - .
3. Mr.Winkle looked that he was very pleased, but looked rather
uncomfortable.
4. , - .
In reality double situation happens in such kind of complex syntactic units.
The first one is that the question to what? ? was borne out of the
principal clause and it has more determining character. If we take this item into
consideration, then these complex syntactic units are considered to be the object
subordinate clauses. But we cant agree with this view point. In the second case the
interrelationship of the semantic and grammatical relations is one sided and it is
in outer frame, by means of it the corresponding relationship potentially seems to
be in the principal clause. On this account, it seems to us that those complex
syntactic units should be approached from the second position and they should
be presented as elliptic constructions. The verbs say, and see, -
are widely used in compared English and Azerbaijani languages and they can
easily pass their semantic weight to the other language units which are linked. By
the result of it the predicates expressed by those verbs in the principal clause, they
sometimes miss these verbs and they dont give any harm to the complex syntactic
units.
E.g. 1. Hearing this, one of Mr.Winkles friends immediately lay on the
ground, Im dying.
2. i , - ,
3. One fine winter day Mr.Wardle entered the house that his friends
were staying and waiting for him.
4. ,
.
Analysing the above mentioned complex syntactic units we can observe that
the first two complexes embraced potentially the meaning of the verb says -
but in the last two complex syntactic units potentially the verbs saw,
existed. From this point of view those complex syntactic units are considered to
be object subordinate clauses. Some scholars dont pay attention to the ellipciss
here and treat these complex syntactic units as adverbial clauses of time. Though
these complex syntactic units are not of the same structure but close in meaning
to them. This view point is widely spread in Azerbaijani.
E.g. , . (When we came the party was organized)
While investigating this complex syntactic unit it is clear that there is no
semantic interrelationship of the components due to the time.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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It happens when the expression at that time is used within that
complex syntactic unit.
E.g. , .
But in the above complex syntactic unit it is impossible to add the expression
. Here the object relation seems and it is realized with the homogeneous
predicate which underwent the ellipciss.
E.g. , .
(We came and saw that the party was organized)
Unfortunately the fact of ellipciss not always reconstructed resultatively but
also there are some elliptic complex syntactic units which are changed the types
of subordinate clauses by reconstructing them.
E.g. 1. Pilkins slowly stood up: who was that coming at this time?
2. - dn durdu, ?
Analysing the above mentioned complex syntactic units it has been proved
that who was that coming at this time? ? are not connected
with the principal clauses directly by the semantic-grammatical points wholly. The
reason is that in those complex constructions the subordinate clause, in reality, is
closely connected with the abridged expression in the principal clause. This may
be reconstructed by different ways. In the first case we may use the verb thought,
in the principal clause and we may be aware of the completing subor-
dinate clauses. In this case the type of subordinate clauses will be the object subor-
dinate clauses.
E.g. 1. Pilkins slowly stood up and thought who was that coming at this time.
2. - dn durdu , .
But in the second case not only the homogeneous predicate, but also the whole
principal clause which is interrelated with the subordinate clause is reconstructed.
E.g. 1. Pilkins slowly stood up and was in such a mind who was that coming
at this time.
2. dn durdu , .
By the result of this reconstruction the other relation between the components
may appear. Here the thought logical relation is the same but the grammatical
relation is quite different. So, in the second reconstruction the attributive subor-
dinate clauses are formalized.
There are some kinds of elliptic forms which depend upon the components of
the text within and without the previous and following constructions itll be
difficult to make the thought wholly. Such complex syntactic units are widely used
in Azerbaijani.
E.g. - , , ?
Soba, hey Soba, tell me where the geese flew?
- , .
Eat my rye cookey, Ill tell.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
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-
The girl rejected
- .
At my fathers I dont eat wheat floured cookey.
In the above mentioned dialogue the last complex syntactic unit seems to be
complete but it is in external form. But in reality this complex syntactic unit has
got the elliptic form. If that sentence is used out of the text itll express quite other
meaning.
, ,
?
-I dont eat wheat floured cookey at my fathers, you say, Ill eat your rye cookey
This is the construction of concession having the relation in composite
compound sentence but the second component of which is wholly the object subor-
dinate clause. The ellipciss of that component causes the formation of an incomplete
form. So not going into the deep structure of this complex syntactic unit it is difficult
to show its semantic weight and reconstruct the whole structure by approaching
only the outer point.
REFERENCES
1. . . . : , 1968
2. Adilov M. Qzet dili. Bak: ADU nri, 1973
3. Abdullayev K. Azrbaycan dili sintaksisinin nzri problemlri. Bak: Maarif, 1999, 281 s.
4. Abdullayev . Masir Azrbaycan dilind tabeli mrkkb cmllr. Bak: Maarif, 1974
5. Collier R. Intonation from a structural linguistic view point A criticizm. Linguistics, 1974, vol
120, p. p. 5 28
6. Yunusov D. Constancy and variety of complex syntactic units in languages of different system.
Istanbul, 2007, 114 p.
7. Yunusov D. A Guide to English Grammar. Baku: Mutarjim, 2006, 282 p.


THE INFLUENCE OF WORDS
Sandra Derrick
Fulbright Scholar, USA
How can I grab my students attention when discussing academic writing at the
university level? Even I am bored by the sound of the topic, and this is my field. In
fact, students around the world admit to dreading the act of writing. They fear writing
assignments more than a menial job or a strict parent. Sometimes this fear is based on
receiving a critique from a teacher, sometimes this, a response to not being taught the
fundamentals of writing. But how, in this generation who knows technology better than
me and most of my colleagues here and abroad, can I entice you to delight in the writing
process? You text. You twitter. You write announcements in incomplete sentences and
abbreviate phrases such as Oh my God to OMG, abbreviations that drive a writing
professor batty.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
9
Perhaps to love writing takes a particular kind of person, but I dont think so. I
believe good writing comes in many forms and from sundry persons. Did you know
that there are academic articles about text messaging? One is titled The Syntactic
Aspects of Text Messaging(Ongonda,), which was written a woman who analyzes
medias influence on language. My students know what critical thinking is. Apply
analysis to text messaging and you have a cool project for an article. Consider Shakespeare
who has been written about for hundreds of years. The man still exists on the printed
page, not only in the classroom where his famous works are read, but also in relation
to academic analysis of literature. Topics of class division, love, jealousy, dysfunction,
and death never tire. To whom do we owe credit? To Shakespeare, of course, but also
to our scholars and their imaginations. Why? Because they thought critically and dared
to imagine a new way of seeing. If I were to give any advice, perhaps my colleagues
would want me to tell you to practice writing, to write an essay four times over, to
make it perfect, to study grammar more, to craft beautiful sentences. They are right.
These are elements of writing that are universal and, without such skills, you will not
be taken seriously as an academic or a specialist in your field. Do I love Chekov because
he wrote about a lady and her dog? Somewhat, yes, but I also love him for the rhythm
of his prose and the confidence in his writers voice, a distinct style that shaped his
adherents writing. My advice, if I were to give any, might be different. I might simply
want to say: dare to imagine, dare to create, and then dont stop working until your
vision is accomplished.
Allow me to use the bridge metaphor, tired yet true: Writing is a bridge to just
about any other field. Articles are published in the sciences, in translation, literature,
and law. Writing connects us to friends and family. We send emails, text messages,
and nowadays, more than ever are reading the words of a person, not the gestures of a
person. Writing has power. What we read in the newspaper affects us. We whisper
news into friends ears; we call each other on the phone. When we read a good piece
of writing, words influence us more than we can understand. We carry words in our
heads. We carry memories of how we felt reading a particularly moving story or even
a well-written article. We remember when someones thoughts challenge our own,
especially when an opinion or idea makes us uncomfortable, and we remember when
someone has written so well, and we take that as a challenge to do better.
Learning to write in the international style that I have introduced to my class is not
only a bridge to other fields, but the international style is a bridge to other cultures
worldwide. Good research distinguishes a strong professor from a weak professor.
Good research sets a student apart from his or her peers not just in the classroom, but
internationally. And, good research connects students and professionals to others with
similar interests. A good researcher challenges what has been accepted and attempts
to shine a new perspective on a subject.
Good research excels you in your chosen field. Qafqaz is the leading university in
research. Perhaps, as young adults, you dont yet realize how impressive this role is
for your university and your future. You are actually part of its growth and expansion,
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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and I ask you today to take an active role. You are, after all, molding your country by
what you write and by how you write. You have more power than you understand. Use
it, and use it well. Be a representative of Azerbaijan and, specifically, Qafqaz University.

REVISITING AND RERUNNING WILLIAM LABOVS STUDY:
THE SOCIAL STRATIFICATION OF (R) IN NEW YORK
CITY DEPARTMENT STORES
Kaitlin Ward (first author), F. Robson Albuquerque (co-author)
M.A. Applied Linguistics Candidates
Montclair State University
SUMMARY
In our study we were able to reinforce the notion that NYC is becoming a more unified speech
community however the NYC department stores are still differentiated in a fixed order based on social
stratification and that those jobs in those places are evaluated by employees in the same order.

In 1962 William Labov studied one of New York Citys (NYC) most salient features
of its stereotyped accent; the r-lessness of its speakers. He believed that the (r) variable
(realized as either [r] or [] ) could mirror the citys social stratification, if any two
sub-groups of NYC speakers are ranked on a scale of social stratification, then they
will be ranked in the same order by their differential use of (r) (Labov 2006: 41).
Because the [r] variant is considered to be the better sounding than its [] counterpart,
it is said to carry overt prestige; Meyerhoff (2006: 37) defines an overtly prestigious
variant as the one, associated with the highest social classes or more powerful speakers
in a community. Labov set out to see if the prestigiousness of the (r) variable would
be related to the social stratification of three department stores and their workers. In
2009, we attempted to duplicate Labovs study to verify whether the same predictable
stratification patterns he observed still remain intact in the social fibers of the speech
community. More specifically, we attempted to investigate whether the workers would
be socially (and linguistically) stratified along similar and predictable lines and if there
would still be a clear correlation between the (r) variable and the status ranking of the
department stores, i.e., the higher the stratification of the store, the more realizations
of (r). Using Labovs Rapid and Anonymous (R+A) survey, we elicited two casually
uttered tokens of fourth floor (pre-consonantal and word-final [r] are unrealized in the
stereotyped pronunciation), and two carefully uttered tokens from the department stores
workers. Like Labov our goal was to engage the sales people in a very simple and quick
speech event. It was also paramount that the exchange be as natural as possible, which
brings up the issue of the Observers Paradox; since [r] is considered to carry overt
prestige, people would theoretically be more likely to pronounce [r] if they were aware
that we were paying attention to their speech. Therefore, the tokens could be misrep-
resentative of natural NYC speech and result in the data possibly being skewed in terms
of overall realizations of [r]. One of the major advantages of Labovs R+A methodology
is that it attempts to limit the effects of the Observers Paradox. As the interviewers
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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we individually approached a random employee and asked them where a particular item
could be found, which elicited the casual response fourth floor. The second exchange
occurred where the interviewer said excuse me? and the employee then more carefully
and emphatically repeated fourth floor. After the conclusion of the speech event,
we recorded the data of the (r) occurrences (the dependent variables) in both the casual
and emphatic speech and also included the same independent variables as Labov: the
store, occupation, floor within the store, sex, race, age [estimated in five year increments],
and any noticeable foreign or regional accent. Our data, consisting of 252 (r) variants
from 63 speakers, reveals that the (r) stratification is still a salient linguistic variable in
NYCs speech community and that the phenomenon still occurs in a pattern that preserves
the social stratification between the three department stores. Most importantly, our data
also suggests that, although the r-less variant is still prevalent, [r] is becoming more
common in NYC. Comparing the data to Labovs, a pattern emerges of an over-all,
though not evenly, increase of r-pronunciation. Our reproduction of Labov's study
reinforces the notion that NYC is a unified speech community and also suggests that
due to the increasing realization of [r], the city's speakers are becoming even more
unified.

Comparison of two studies for the Overall rate of (all-r)

Percentage of all realization of (r) by Store for Four Positions
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Labov, W. (2006). The Social Stratification of English in New York City (2 ed.). New York:
Cambridge University Press.
2. Meyerhoff, M. (2006).Introducing Sociolinguistics. New York: Routledge.

MINIMIZING ABBREVIATIONS IN ENGLISH
Aygul Khalilova
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
aygulx@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
The essence of good writing is precision and clarity and the use of abbreviations seems an ideal way
to ensure these essentials. An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. Usually, but not always
it consists of letters or group of letters taken from the word or phrase. The purpose is to provide readily-
understandable substitutes for groups of words and so aid the reading effort. However there are very few
abbreviations that their forms have been standardised internationally. The phenomenon of abbreviation
reflects perfectly the spirit of our dynamic epoch. We use them frequently to transmit much information
during the shortest period of time.
Abbreviation is a comparatively new linguistic phenomenon. The practice of abbreviating terms became
convenient, because literacy rose, and advances in science and technology brought with them more com-
plicated terms and concepts. Certain abbreviations can mean different things to different people. In some
fields, including chemistry, medicine, computer science, and geographic information systems abbreviations
are used so frequently that the reader can feel lost in an alphabet soup. However, the main purpose for using
these devices is to improve the reading process, fostering fluent readability and efficient comprehension.
Writers overuse abbreviations, not realizing the problems they cause readers. But they should only
use them for the convenience of the reader. We should better to remember what Shakespeare once observed:
Who understands thee not, loves thee not. The main aim of this paper is trying to provide solutions for
eliminating abbreviations.
Key words: abbreviation, acronym, stunt acronym.
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word
or phrase. Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from
the word or phrase.
Abbreviation is a popular way of forming words. It is a comparatively new linguistic
phenomenon. The last decade of the 20
th
century and the 21
st
century have brought
with them new abbreviations. Not everyone knows how to use them, because many
abbreviations are used in one sphere and we can not use them in other spheres. At first,
abbreviations were sometimes represented with different signs, not only full stops. For
example, er were replaced with , as in mast for master.[3]
Abbreviations are used to save time and space, and to make long names of organi-
zations and long technical terms easier to remember and less boring to refer to repeatedly
in an extended piece of writing such as a newspaper article or textbook.
There are two main types of abbreviations: graphical and lexical.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening of words and word-groups only
in written speech while, orally the corresponding full forms are used. They are used for
the economy of space and effort in writing. For instance, sec. - second, D.M.- Doctor
of Medicine. These are English origin. But when we use graphical abbreviations of
Latin origin in the spelling we shorten Latin words, while orally we pronounce English
equivalents in the full form: p.a.-a year (per annum), lb - pound (libra), i. e.-that is (id
est) etc. Initial abbreviations are the bordering case between graphical and lexical
abbreviations.
There are three types of initialisms in English:
a) initialisms with alphabetical reading, such as UK, MPA, CND etc.
b) initialisms which are read as if they are words, e.g. : UNESCO, UNO, NATO etc.
c) initialisms which coincide with English words in their sound form, such initialisms
are called acronyms, e.g. CLASS (Computer-based Laboratory for Automated School
System).
We may unite group b and c into one group, which we call acronyms. Some scien-
tists accept it, but others not. All acronyms are abbreviations, but not all abbreviations
are acronyms.
Lexical abbreviations are classified according to the part of the word which is
clipped. E.g.: intro (introduction), copter (helicopter), fanzine (fan magazine), tec
(detective). [4]
The abbreviations are the most intensively developing units of English. There is
the distinctive interest to them in modern linguistics. Abbreviations, the subject of our
analysis, make our life easier. However, when using them, we shouldnt overdo it.
The more we use abbreviations the more our text will be vague to read. We should
introduce an abbreviation only if: 1. the term appear at least three times in each part
of our work; and 2. the term consists of at least three words. There are also some abb-
reviations that are better known than the words they stand for and do not have to be
explained in the text or added to the list of abbreviations. E.g.: AIDS (acquired immu-
nodeficiency syndrome), CD-ROM( compact disk read only memory),PIN(personal
identification number), UNICEF (United Nations Childrens Fund).If an abbreviation
is better known than the spelled-out form, we may give the abbreviation even if the term
is used only once.[2,1]
Some acronyms are truly hidden names. They are spelled out and treated as
ordinary words and follow the capitalization rules. After a while we may even forget
that they were once special creations:
Scuba= Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
Radar=Radio Detecting And Ranging
Laser=Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Not all acronyms are created. Some are discovered by attentive readers. Such false
abbreviations provoke unintended smiles. In the 1970s, Richard Nixons opponents had
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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great fun pointing to the acronym formed by the initials of the Committee to Re-Elect
the President: CREEP.[1,5]
Stunt acronyms, which are created for a specific, often political purpose can help
groups get attention. For instance, MADD -Mothers Against Drunk Driving. CAVE-
Citizens Against Virtually Everything. These stunt acronyms are not the problem. They
can be useful and even entertaining. Acronyms can be handy. The real problem lies
with initial abbreviations, the greatest destroyer of meaning in modern publications.
Most initial abbreviations are difficult to understand.
Every business, school, laboratory and agency has its own language, which consists
of unique abbreviations. For instance, to the Shipping Department the abbreviation
QA may mean Quick Action, while for the Manufacturing Department, QA
means Quality Assurance. CD may refer to certificate of deposit in Accounting,
coefficient drag in Engineering and Compact disk everywhere else. Whenever
possible we should avoid using abbreviations.
Of course, if you are using a common abbreviation such as PC to mean personal
computer and the context makes this clear, there's no real problem. But if you are using
it for another term, such as: Postal Clerk or Production Control, then such a common
abbreviation can still be a problem. The abbreviation PC means different things to
different groups. In Law: probable cause, physical containment, personally corrupt,
police constable. In Medicine: peripheral clarity, perforated cranium, prostate cancer.
In Military: power converter, production control, pass certified, Peace Corps. Not only
common people, but also inexperienced members of any organization may misunderstand
an abbreviation or acronym. For example the Federal Highway Administration has
a program known as ISTEA (pronounced ice tea). Naturally enough, the acronym
gets spelled as ICE TEA(1,6)
Such confusion shows that these writers dont really understand the term. Because
they clearly dont know what the letters stand for, they only want to sound learned, well-
informed. But in reality, the words forming this acronym is - Intermodal Surface
Transportation Efficiency Act.
To eliminate the problems mentioned above we want to introduce the following
solutions:
1. We should better avoid abbreviations as many as possible.
2. We may use them only if they are convenient for our readers.
All readers must know exactly what we mean. Spelling abbreviations out may
irritate our readers.
3. Converting abbreviations into words as many as possible is also the effective way.
We should prefer to use the full words - Vice President, not VP.
It would be suitable to use an alternative - computer's memory, not RAM (Random
Access Memory).
4. If it is convenient for the reader to use an abbreviation in a long document, we must
try to spell out its meaning in brackets the first time we use it. For example: CBT
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
15
(computer-based training).But if the abbreviation is familiar to the reader, there is
no need to spell it out. For example, if we write to a government official, we would
not need to spell out any of the abbreviations in the following sentence: The CIA
has examined FAAs security procedures at US airports.
5. We should better not use periods or stops between letters. The modern trend is to
leave out the periods or stops in abbreviations and acronyms.
For example: U.S.A. or USA. Both of them are true, but lets try to prefer the second
one.
I want to finish the paper with the words of Confucius:
If language is not correct then what is said is not what is meant;
If what is said is not what is meant, then what ought to be done remains undone...
REFERENCES
1. Dr. Helen Moody, A Modest Proposal to Eliminate Acronyms, Professional Training Company,
Corrales, New Mexico, 1996-2005
2. Handbook of Style and Usage, 2011 edition.
3. referat.allserver.ru

COINING NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Aynur Abbaszade
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
aynur_abbaszade@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
Conforming circumstances every language has transition because of time requirements. So English
language had some changes due to various reasons from the time it was created until today and its lexicon
also changed. It can be considered as an advantage but sometimes entering of new words or coining neo-
logisms in language can be out of control. Then the miserable picture we will get is inevitable. Basically,
the formation history of English language, entering and coining process of new words, pros and cons of
this matter were represented in this article.
Key words: Middle English, Early Modern English, Late Modern English, The Latest and Unsuccessful
Neologisms, Virtual Words.
ngilis dili adlandrdmz dil ilk df ngiltrnin imal dnizi sahillrin eramzn
V-VI srlrind Danimarka, indiki Almaniya v Niderlandn imal-qrbindn olan d-
nizilr trfindn gtirilmidir. Bu immiqrantlar Hind-Avropa dili ailsinin German
qoluna mnsub olan laqli dialektlrd danrdlar. Onlarn dili German dillrindn
ayrldqdan sonra z frqlndirici xsusiyytlrini inkiaf etdirmy balad v eramzn
600-c illrindn indi bizim adlandrdmz kimi Qdim ngilis Dili v ya Anqlo-
Sakson olaraq inkiaf edrk masir ngiltrnin ox byk razisini hat etdi.
1066-c ildki norman istilas Britaniya adalarna yeni sosial v linqvistik tsir g-
tirn baqa bir amil sayla bilr. Hmin dvrd ingilis dilin latn v fransz dillrindn
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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minlrl sz daxil oldu v onun qrammatikas da hminin kskin dyiikliklr mruz
qald, lakin sonralar aristokratiyann ingilis dilini z dillri olaraq qbul etmsi fransz
dilinin istifadsini tdricn sona atdrd. stiladan dilin dirlmsin qdr olan dvrd
istifad olunan ingilisc Orta Dvr ngilis Dili adlanr.
ngilis dilinin szlr axnna mruz qald v Erkn Masir ngilis Dilinin mv-
cud olduu dvr txminn 1500-1800-c illri hat edir. Bu dvrd ingilis dili ss
dyimlri, sintaktik formalamalar v leksik znginlm keirmidir. Bundan lav
XVI-XVII srlrd yaam dramaturq V.ekspirin d ingilis dilinin znginlmsind
byk rolu olmudur. ekspir he vaxt doru olaraq qbul edilmi ltdn istifad
etmmmi, dilin daha artna qadir olduuna inanaraq ona yeni szlr lav etmy
almdr. O ingilis dilin 1700-dn ox yeni sz gtirmidir. O szlrin oxu bu gn
d istifad olunur v hmin szlrin zrind asanlqla isimdn fel, siftdn fel v s.
evrilmlr aparmaq mmkndr. Msln: mimic, negotiate, torture, champion, rant,
bedroom, obscene, assaissination, accused, generous v s.
1500-1800-c illri hat edn Erkn Masir ngilis dili v 1800-c ildn bu gn
kimi istifad olunan Son Masir ngilis dili arasnda bzi frqlr var. XV-XVIII srlrd
dilin daha ox formasnda dyiikliklr oldu. Britaniyallarn traf lklrl olan sx
ticart v iqtisadi laqlri dil yeni sz v frazalar gtirdi. Son Masir ngilis dilinin
hat etdiyi dvrd is dild neologizmlrin yaranma mnblri v say frqlidir. Sz
gedn dvrd ingilis dili iki sas sbbdn neologizmlr qazanb. Birincisi snayedki
inqilab, texnologiyann inkiaf il laqdar olaraq, ikinci is Britaniya imperiyasnn
bu zaman ksiyind dnyann demk olar ki, drdd bir hisssi zrindki hakimiyyti
onun xarici lklrdn daha ox sz gtrmsin sbb olmudur.
Dnya dyiir v qalmaz olaraq lt trkibi d dyiikliy urayr. yirmi il
bundan vvl insanlar noob, twitter, facebook szlri haqda he n bilmirdi. Hal-
hazrda is ingilis dili sz yaratma partlay yaamaqdadr. Bzi yeni szlr yazlca
bzn he sz d bnzmir. Msln: noob sz virtual almd istifad olunur v
yeni istifadi anlamna glir, amma bzn internet istifadilri bu sz noob olaraq
deyil, ohrfini 0 rqmi il vz edrk n00b klind yazmaa stnlk verir.
Masir dvrd dilin sz mnblri tamam frqlidir. Msln: yeni yaranan idman
terminlri, siyasi dyiikliklr v ya virtual dnyada ilnn szlr. Btn bunlar n-
zr alsaq dild olan szlrin sayn myynldirmnin mmknszly realln
anlayarq.
Mslnin baqa trfi is srtl yaranan v lt trkibin daxil ediln szlrin
neologizm kimi qbul edilib edilmmsidir. Alimlr bildirir ki, yeni yaranan bir sz
n azndan dnyann 60% -ni tkil edn lklrd mna ksb etmli, alternativ malik
olmaldr. Bu daha ox yeni ixtiralar sbbi il yaranan szlr aiddir. nki bzi dillr,
o cmldn ingilis dili szlri olduu kimi qbul etm xsusiyytin sahib olsalar da
el dillr var ki, yeni yaranan szlrin trcm edilmsin v ya mahiyytin gr dilin
daxili imkanlar hesabna baqa alternativlrl vz olunmasna stnlk verir. Odur
ki, bu chtdn qbul edilmyn v bzi lklrd anlalmayan szlr neologizm kimi
qbul edilmir v bir mddt sonra baqa szlrl vz olunur.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
17
Oxford lti mxtlif sahlrd ba vern dyiikliklri ks etdirmk mqsdi il
daim yenilnir, lakin lav olunan bzi szlr insanlar glckd dilin nec olacana
dair qorxuya salr. Lt daxil edilmi uursuz neologizmlrdn bzilri:
Blamestorming- He kimin msuliyytini zrin gtrmdiyi bir gnah kollek-
tivin bir nfrin zrin atmas metodu anlamna glir. Bu szn uursuz olma sbbi
ona dild gryin olmamasdr, nki bu sz vz edn blame sz artq mvcuddur
v bu fikri tam ifad edir. Baqa sbb is blamestorming sz brainstorming s-
znn bir nv tqlidi olaraq yaradlmasdr ki, bu da gl dourur.
Threequel- Hanssa bir kitabn, filmin v s. nc hisssi anlamna glir. Bu sz
btn hallarda iln bilmdiyi n doru saylmr, nki -quel hissciyini digr
rqmlr lav etdikd tlffzd tinliklr yaranr.
Bu misallardan aydn kild grmk olar ki, he d dil daxil edilmi szlrin
hams mkmml kild dnlmmidir. Lingvistik nqteyi-nzrdn dil kommu-
nikasiya n n sad vasitdir. Yeni ideyalar v konsepsiyalar dil nfuz edrkn o
kommunikasiyan asanladrmaq n bu amillr uyunlamaldr. Dil ya yeni szlr
qbul edrk v ya yaradaraq znginl, inkiaf ed bilr, ya da ksin hmin szlrin
saysind bsitlib, nizamszlaa bilr. Mhm olan dil ox szn daxil olmas deyil,
dil uyunlaan v dilin uyunlaaca szlrin daxil edilmsi v istehza dourmayacaq
kild dilin z imkanlar hesabna yeni szlrin yaradlmasdr. Bu qaydalara ml edi-
lrk dyidiriln v yenilnn dilin daha zngin olacana he bir bh ola bilmz.
REFERENCES
1. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words04/history/index.html
2. http://piksels.com/words-invented-by-shakespeare
3. http://www.answers.com/topic/english-language
4. http://www.wordlab.com/
5. http://www.wordinfo.info/words/index/info/view_unit/4214/?letter=E&spage=5
6. http://www.cracked.com/article_17408_15-words-you-won19-t-believe-they-added-to dictionary_ p2. html

INFORMALITY IN AMERICAN ENGLISH
Aynur Huseyneliyeva
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
aynur.huseyneliyeva@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Language is not an abstract construction of the learned, or of dictionary-makers, but is something
arising out of the work, needs, ties, joys, affections, tastes, of long generations of humanity, and has its
bases broad and low, close to the ground. Its final decisions are made by the masses, people nearest the
concrete, having most to do with actual land and sea. (Slang in America, Walt Whitman, 1885)
Everyday English consists of non-standard or informal features of the language, especially slangs,
phrases and idioms which are popularly adopted in the U.S., U.K. and other English speaking countries.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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This research paper contains of some information about idioms, slang, jargons, colloquialism and dialects
that are ingredients of informal language and the usage of them in informal American speech.
Key words: informal, slang, idiom, jargon, colloquialism, dialect.
No living language is simply one set of words which can be used the same way in
all situations. There are an infinite variety of different ways to arrange the elements of
language. It means that we can express the same thing in different ways, depending
where we are, who we are talking to and how we feel. We cant talk to friends mother
in the same manner we would talk to our friend. We cant talk to a bartender the same
way we would talk to a judge. The degree of formality of the situation in which we are
attending, one of the main factor that determine which words and expressions are
appropriate in given case.
As Antrushina stated that informal vocabulary is used in ones immediate circle;
family, relatives or friends and this style is relaxed, free and easy, familiar and unpre-
tentious. ( ; .. , ., ,
.. . 2004; p.31) Informal language is allowed in our everyday life, such
as, while playing sports, while studying with friends, at the party, with close family
members, while shopping etc. Informal English gives us a chance to deliver our thoughts
easily with simple words, idioms, phrases and so on which are away of difficult cons-
tructions.
Tomasz P.Srynaski gave some peculiar characteristics of informal English (http://
www.antimoon.com/how/formal-informal-english.htm):
1. Typically used in improvised speech when the speaker is speaking without pre-
paration, as in a conversation (in real life or over the phone). It also occurs in writing
usually when the writer is writing quickly and without editing. eg; in an internet
chat room or in personal e-mails.
2. Sentences are shorter and simpler, eg; Looks like the discounts have actually worked.
3. Informal English contains useful everyday phrases like Here you are. Come again?
4. Phrasal verbs are used frequently. People prefer to say found out instead of disco-
vered, got away instead of escaped.
5. Words and phrases are sometimes pronounced in a shortened and simplified way,
eg; Lemme go! Whassup? Whatch a gonna do?
An informal style approximates the cadence and structure of spoken English while
conforming to the grammatical conventions of written English. "(G.J.Alred, C.T.Brusaw,
and W. E. Oliu, Handbook of Technical Writing, 9th ed. St. Martin's Press, 2008)
Prof. Argenis A.Zapata (2008) stated that vocabulary use of informal English is
somehow liberal and includes lots of cliches, colloquialisms, idioms, phrasal verbs,
proverbs and slang.
Most idioms have a nonliteral meaning. The meanings of words are arbitrarily sti-
pulated in memory. The meanings of phrases and sentences, however, are derived
compositionally from the meanings of their individual words and their syntactic structure.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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Since the meanings of idioms cannot be derived compositionally by the morpho-syn-
tactic rules of a language (e.g. the meaning of kick the bucket cannot be derived from
the meanings of the words kick, the andbucket), the standard belief is that they too
must be arbitrarily stipulated in memory .(Chomsky, 1980; Cruse, 1986; Fraser, 1970;
Katz 1973).
Most idioms are fixed and its impossible to change the order of its elements. Its
allowed to make substitutions of synonymous words into idioms without loss of their
idiomaticity. For example, in the idiom John gave up the ghost (= John died), we cannot
replace ghost by apparition.
For most idioms, we can establish some relation between their meaning and their
form. In fact, the meanings of an idiom's elements often play a role in the way we use
and understand idiom strings in conversation (Cacciari, 1993; Cacciari & Glucksberg,
1991; Gibbs, 1990; Gibbs & Nayak, 1989; Gibbs et al, 1989 a, b ; Keysar & Bly, 1995,
1999)
Most idioms are single items of vocabulary and they are language and culture speci-
fic. So they make sense or meaning mainly to the speakers of a given language or the
members of a given culture and they cant be translated word for word into other lan-
guages.
The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2007) defines slang as very informal
words and expressions that are more common in spoken language, especially used by
a particular group of people; for example, children, criminals, soldiers etc.
According to Keith Allan and Kate Burridge: "The most significant characteristic
of slang overlaps with a defining characteristic of jargon: slang is a marker of in-group
solidarity, and so it is a correlate of human groups with shared experiences, such as
being children at a certain school or of a certain age, or being a member of a certain
socially definable group, such as hookers, junkies, jazz musicians, or professional crimi-
nals." (Keith Allan and Kate Burridge, Forbidden Words. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)
Carl Sandburg gives more metaphorical definition: "Slang is a language that rolls
up its sleeves, spits on its hands, and goes to work." (Carl Sandburg)
"Slang serves the outs as a weapon against the ins. To use slang is to deny allegiance
to the existing order, either jokingly or in earnest, by refusing even the words which
represent conventions and signal status (James Sledd, "On Not Teaching English Usage."
The English Journal, Nov. 1965)
As we know most people are individuals who desire uniqueness, it stands to reason
that slang has been in existence. Even so the question of why slang develops within a
language has been debated. The Historical Dictionary of American Slang points out
that many groups use slang largely because they lack political power. Its simply a
safe and effective way that people rebel against the establishment.
Besides this, slang can be used for number of reasons like to be picturesque, arresting,
and different from others, to avoid common words, to demonstrate ones spiritual
independence, to sound modern and up to date and so on.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
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Jargon is similar to slang - it is a specific set of words and phrases which are unique
to a small group of people. Jargon is work-related slang.
"Jargon is the verbal sleight of hand that makes the old hat seem newly fashionable;
it gives an air of novelty and specious profundity to ideas that, if stated directly, would
seem superficial, stale, frivolous, or false." (David Lehman)
Jonathan Guthrie called jargon poetry of modern business: "Jargon is the epic poetry
of modern business. It can turn a bunch of windbags in a meeting room into a 'quick
wins taskforce.' I once asked a handyman toiling in an office doorway whether he was
installing a wheelchair ramp. 'No,' he said solemnly, 'it's a diversity access feature.'"
(Jonathan Guthrie, "Three Cheers for the Epic Poetry of Jargon." Financial Times,
Dec. 13, 2007)
"Generally, when people use jargon not to communicate but to impress their audien-
ces with their importance . . . or use it to announce membership in a group, communi-
cation suffers and the jargon can quickly degenerate into something close to the twitte-
ring of birds."(W. Lutz, "Jargon." Oxford Companion to the English Language, 1992)
Most of the time, jargon evolves because the people in a certain job need to use
certain words and terms which don't mean much to people not working in those areas
or with those machines. However, sometimes you get "corporate jargon" in which large
companies or offices deliberately create slogans which become jargon-these are usually
elaborate ways of saying things which could be said much more simply, and are used
so show that you are a "team player."
K. Allen and K. Burridge states that many people think that jargon should be cen-
sored. However, close examination of jargon shows that, although some of it is vacuous
pretentiousness and its proper use is both necessary and unobjectionable.
Colloquialism would be the language, words and phrases used in casual situations
by the people, as opposed to formal language.
Over the last generation writing has become more informal than it ever was before.
The area of highly formal writing has shrunk considerable, like state papers, articles
in learned publications, legal documents, court decisions and so on. Other writing has
become quite hospitable to so -called colloquialism, it has become more informal,
more relaxed, more familiar, more casual. (Theodore Bernstein, The Careful Writer.
Simon & Schuster, 1995)
A really good example would be to look at the way different people refer to
carbonated drinks - in the United States, we can tell where you are from by how you
ask for your beverage! People in the northeastern and middle states call it "pop," while
people in the western states say "soda." People in the south ask for a "coke" or for "dope!"
According to November publication of Time magazine (1954) The United States
colloquialisms evolve slowly. 'Jag,' 'tops,' 'dude' stayed around for decades before they
began to lose their freshness ("Far-Out Words for Cats" Time magazine, Nov. 8, 1954)
Colloquial language is the low variety language which is popularly used by people
most of the time, so it is an everyday language used at home; with families and friends;
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
21
at shops etc. but not used at offices, educational institutions, formal conversations, or
media.
Dialect is a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation,
grammar, or vocabulary, especially a way of speaking that differs from the standard
variety of the language. The scientific study of dialects is known as dialectology.
"Some people think of dialects as sub-standard varieties of a language, spoken only
by low-status groups--illustrated by such comments as 'He speaks correct English,
without a trace of dialect.' Comments of this kind fail to recognize that standard English
is as much a dialect as any other variety--though a dialect of a rather special kind, because
it is one to which society has given extra prestige. Everyone speaks a dialect-whether
urban or rural, standard or non-standard, upper class or lower class." (D. Crystal, How
Language Works. Overlook, 2006)
Conclusion
This study allowed me to find out information about informal English of America. I
was able to know how people use informal elements like slang, idioms, jargons and
so on in their everyday speech. As we know people prefer changes and being special.
They maintain it in their speech as well and avoid using trite phrases, expressions and
word-combinations. English language is very rich and one can express his or her thoughts
in numerous ways. So people use some idioms, slang, and jargons in their speech in
order to avoid monotonous utterance and such elements of informal language make
speech more vivid. All languages are developing continuously and it creates favorable
condition for invention of new words to make speech more colorful.
REFERENCES
1. Slang in America, Walt Whitman, 1885.
2. ; .. , ., , .. . 2004; p.31
3. G.J.Alred, C.T.Brusaw, and W.E.Oliu, Handbook of Technical Writing, 9th ed. St. Martin's Press, 2008
4. Chomsky, 1980; Cruse, 1986; Fraser, 1970; Katz 1973
5. Cacciari & Glucksberg, 1991; Nunberg et al, 1994
6. Keith Allan and Kate Burridge, Forbidden Words. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006
7. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2007)
8. Historical Dictionary of American Slang
9. James Sledd, "On Not Teaching English Usage." The English Journal, Nov. 1965
10. Jonathan Guthrie, "Three Cheers for the Epic Poetry of Jargon." Financial Times, Dec. 13, 2007
11. W. Lutz, "Jargon." Oxford Companion to the English Language, 1992
12. Theodore Bernstein, The Careful Writer. Simon & Schuster, 1995
13. Far-Out Words for Cats Time magazine, Nov. 8, 1954
14. Neil Rafferty, "Queen Opens a Pricey Piece of Scots History." The Sunday Times, Oct. 10, 2004
15. D. Crystal, How Language Works. Overlook, 2006
16. http://grammar.about.com/od/classicessays/a/whitmanslang.htm (12.02.2012)
17. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_colloquial_language (12.02.2012)
18. http://www.antimoon.com/how/formal-informal-english.htm
19. http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/humanidades/azapata/materias/english_4/formal_vs_informal_ english.
pdf (15.02.2012)
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
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20. http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/words_list/idioms.htm (17.02.2012)
21. http://www.quotecosmos.com/quotes/21539/view

DIFFERENCES IN EDUCATIONAL TERMINOLOGY IN
BRITISH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH
Aytan Valiyeva
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
veliyevaayten@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The English language is the most widely spoken of the Germanic languages. More than one billion
people use this language as a native or a secondary language. As a matter of fact, such a large number of
people all around the world speak English means that therere many dialects and varieties. No human
language is fixed, uniform, or unvarying; all languages show internal variation. Actual usage varies from
group to group, and speaker to speaker, in terms of the pronunciation of a language, the choice of words
and the meaning of those words. The two major varieties used by people that have English as a native
language are British English and American English. Between British English and American English there
are different variations of vocabulary, spelling and phonology. Probably, the major differences between
these two varieties lies in the choice of vocabulary. This article compares the forms of British and American
English vocabulary in the area of education are mainly reflected on the fields of school, university and some
general terms.
Key words: British English, American English, school, public school, college, student, pupil, professor,
graduate, take an exam.

There is a difference between American and British usage in the word school. In
British usage school by itself refers only to primary and secondary schools and to sixth
forms attached to secondary schools - if one "goes to school", this type of institution
is implied. By contrast an American student at a university may talk of "going to school"
or "being in school". US law students and medical students almost universally speak
in terms of going to "law school" and "med school", respectively.
While comparing school years in British (except Scotland) and American English
we can notice that the secondary school in the United States also includes middle school
or junior high school which is two or three year transitional school between elementary
and high school. Lets pay attention the difference in the definition of public school in
these two countries. It is government-owned and supported by taxpayers in the US,
while in the UK it refers to ill-defined private independent schools funded by students
fees. However, those schools supported by government are called state school in the
UK.
1

The word college is different in its usage too. In the US it refers to a post-high
school institution that grants either associate's or bachelor's degrees, but in the UK it
refers to any post-secondary institution that is not a university. In both the US and UK
college can refer to some division within a university such as the "college of business
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
23
and economics" though in the UK "faculty" is more often used. Institutions in the US
that offer two to four years of post-high school education often have the word college
as part of their name, while those offering more advanced degrees are called a university.
Among high-school and college students in the United States, the words freshman,
sophomore, junior and senior refer to the first, second, third, and fourth years respectively.
Many institutes in both countries also use the term first-year as a gender-neutral rep-
lacement for freshman, although in the US this is recent usage, formerly referring only
to those in the first year as a graduate student. One exception is the University of
Virginia; since its founding in 1819 the terms "first-year", "second-year", "third-year",
and "fourth-year" have been used to describe undergraduate university students. In the
UK first-year university students are sometimes called freshers early in the academic
year; however, there arent specific names neither for those in other years, nor for
school pupils. Graduate and professional students in the United States are known by
their year of study, such as a "second-year medical student" or a "fifth-year doctoral
candidate."
In the UK a university student is said to study, to read or informally to do a
subject. In the recent past the expression to read a subject was more common at the
older universities such as Oxford and Cambridge. In the US a student studies or majors
in a subject .To major in something refers to the student's principal course of study; to
study may refer to any class being taken.
2

At university level in BrE, each module is taught by a lecturer or tutor; professor
is the job-title of a senior academic. In AmE each class is generally taught by a professor
(although some US tertiary educational institutions follow the BrE usage). A British
professor is not exactly equivalent to a US professor, because the latter category divides
into three levels: full professor, associate professor, and assistant professor. In the UK,
the ranks below professor are reader, then senior lecturer (though some universities
treat these grades as equivalent in salary, but different in function), then lecturer.
3

In the UK, a student is said to sit or take an exam, while in the U.S., a student takes
an exam. The expression he sits for an exam also arises in BrE, but only rarely in AmE.
American lawyers-to-be sit for their bar exams and American master's and doctoral
students may sit for their comprehensive exams, but in nearly all other instances,
Americans take their exams. When preparing for an exam students revise (BrE)/review
(AmE) what they have studied.
In the US anyone who finishes studying at any educational institution by passing
relevant examinations is said to graduate and to be a graduate, but in the UK only
degree and above level students can graduate. These days student itself has a wider
meaning in AmE. It is used more and more for people studying above the primary
school level, but pupil is still used in secondary school contexts as well. Pupil is
understood in AmE, but generally not used - all learners in institutions of education are
students in AmE. Whereas in BrE it tends to be used for people studying at a post-
secondary educational institution and the term pupil is widely used for a young person
at primary or secondary school.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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Of two major varieties of English, American English has begun to influence the
English spoken in Europe. Nevertheless, British English is still dominant in the schools
and universities. Furthermore, most teachers speak British English and most educational
material is based on the British English variety.
END NOTE
1. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1971. S. v., public education.
2. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_and_British_Englishdifferences#Education
3. O.. , ...
. p103.
REFERENCES
1. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1971. S. v., public education.
2. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_and_British_Englishdifferences#Educatio
3. O.. , ...
. p103.


COMPARISON RELATING TO LANGUAGE SIMILARITIES
BETWEEN THE TURKISH AND JAPANESE LANGUAGES
Emine KOSE
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
Em_kose@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
The goal of this study is to explain similarities between the Turkish and Japanese languages. According
to my research these two languages have similar property and also comes from paralel roots.This research is
support The Japanese and Turkish languages include similar words. All similarty is sign that, these two
different languages have language relationship.Language relationship and old roots are support to
connection between The Japanese and Turkish Languages.
Key Words:The Japanese Language and Turkish Languages, Similar Property, Similar Roots, Similar
words, Language Relationship.

Bugn dnyada 220 milyona yakn insan Trk Dilini konumakta ve yaatmaktadr.
Trke dnyada en fazla konuulan dil olarak 15.srada yer almaktadr. Trk dili ya-
plan sralandrmalarda Altay dilleri kmesine sokulur. Altay dilleri de Ural-Altay dil
ailesi iinde saylr.Mehmet Fuat Bozkurtun ele ald makaleye gre, bu alanda ilk
aratrma yapan sveli Philipp Von Strahlenberg'dir. lk gereleri Avrupa ve Asya'nn
Kuzeyi ile Dou Blmleri adl kitabnda verilmitir.
Winkler, Ural-Altay dil ailesini daha da genileterek l dillerden Smer ve Akad
dilleri bu aileden saymtr. Japoncann Altay dillerinden saylmas Boller, Grunzel,
Prhle gibi bilim adamlar tarafndan ayrca savunulmutur.Trk dili, Altay dil ailesinin
Ouz kolunda bulunur. Altay dilleri dnyann birok corafyasna yaylm ve yaygn
olarak kullanlmtr.Avrupadan, Orta Douya ve Orta Asyadan Uzak Douya kadar
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
25
varabilen byk bir alanda konuulan bir dil ailesidir.Ayrca Altay Kolunda Trk dilleri,
Mool,Manu Tunguz ve Japon ve Kore dilleri bulunur.Trk Dilleri iinde Mool,
Manu, ve Tunguz dillerinin bu soydan geldii kesin olarak kabul edilmekle beraber,
Japon ve Kore dillerinin Altay Dil Ailesine ait olup olmad halen tartmal bir konudur.
Altay Diller Ailesi kendi iinde de gruplara ayrlr:
Ouz,Kpak,uva,Uygur,ve Yakut baca kollardr.Ouz Kolu iinde: Trke,
Azerice ve Trkmence yer alr.
Japon dili ve Kore Dili ise izole dil olarak adlandrlr. Ancak enteresan olan nokta
Trk dili ve Japon dilinin ayn gramatik zellikleri tamasdr.
Trk Dilinin zellikleri unlardr:
1. Sondan eklemeli bir dildir
2. n ek almazlar
3. nl uyumu gzetilir
4. Cinsiyet ayrm yaplmaz
5. Soru eki kullanlr
6. zne Nesne, Yklem uyumu vardr
Yukarda ki bu zellikler aynen Japon dilinde de geerlidir.Bu benzerlikler, Japon
dilinin de Altay Diller Ailesi iinde olduuna dair gl benzerliklerdir.Dil akrabaln
glendiren dnce, biim benzerliidir.Bu akrabalk gnmzde tam olarak kabul
gren bir dnce deildir. Baz aratrmaclar Japon dilini Kore dilinin bir lehesi
olarak kabul ederler, ancak bu fikir de kesin olarak kabul grmemitir.Japon dili ve
Trk dilinin biim ve gramatik benzerlikler dnda dikkat ekici bir nokta da ses ben-
zerliklerinin ve hatta kelime benzerliklerini olmasdr.Buna rnek olarak aagdaki
kelimeleri gsterebiliriz:
Trke Japonca Trke Japonca
Kyotonun Kyotonu Ara Ada
Ankaraya gitti Ankara itta Yukar Agaru
mi imas Giy Gi
Kara Kuray Taksi de Takui de
Alaca Akasa Nedir ki? Nan des ka?
i Ui yi i
Krar Kireru Akasya Akashia
Sonra da Sore de Yama Yama
Yaban Yaban Koyu Koi
Yukarda yazl rnekleri incelediimizde kelimelerdeki mana, ses ve yazm ben-
zerlii artc derece yakndr.Bu yaknlk, dil zerine almalar yapan dilcilere ak-
rabal dndren ve aratrmaya iten somut sebeplerden saylabilir.Yalnzca Trk
dilciler deil, Japon dili zerine aratrma yapan dilciler de bu konuyla ilgilenmilerdir.
Japoncann dnya dilleri arasndaki yerini ilk kez inceleyen Katsuki Fujioka, Japon-
cann ilk olarak Ural-Altay dilleri ile akrabal meselesinin ciddi olarak aratrlmas
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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International Young Researchers Conference
26
gerektiini savunmutur.Fujiokaya gre Japonca ile bu diller arasnda pek ok ortak
zellik bulunuyor.Ural-Altay dillerinin en belirgin zellikleri Japon dilinin iinde de
mevcuttur.Altay dillerinin birka zellii unlardr:
1. nl Uyumunun bulunmas
2. Eylem eklerinin okluu
3. Dilsel cinsiyet ayrmnn bulunmamas
4. Adlarda belirli belirsizlik edatlarnn olmamas
5. ntak yerine sontak bulunmas
6. Soru edatlarnn azl
7. balalarn azl
8. Sz banda (r)nsznn bulunmamas
9. Adllarn Hint-Avrupa dillerinden farkl biimde ekimlenmesi
Bu gibi rnekler, Japon dilinin Ural-Altay dil ailesi iinde olduu savn glen-
dirmektedir. Trkler dnya zerinde geni corafyalara yaylmlar ve bunun sonucu
olarak da kendisi ile soy bakmndan yaknl olan veya olmayan pek ok milletle ve
dille temasa gemilerdir. Bu yaknlk sonucunda Trke ile bu diller arasnda karlkl
etkilenmeler olmutur, Trke temasta olduklar bu dillere kelimeler vermi ve baka
dillerden de kelimeler almtr.
zellikle Arapa ve Farsa en ok ortak kelimenin kullanld dillerdir.Bunun yan
sra,Japonca gibi ok uzak gibi grnen bu dilin ayn mana ve ses benzerliinde keli-
melere sahip olmas benim aratrmalarma gre bu bir tesadf olamaz.yle ki, in,
Sanskrit ve Slav dillerinden de Trkeye birok kelime girmitir. Ancak tm bu sayd-
mz dillerle Trkenin yapca ilikisi yoktur. Bunun yannda Fin-Ugor, Mool, Tunguz,
Kore ve Japon dilleri iin ayn eyi syleyemiyoruz. Bu dillerin bazlaryla Trk dilleri
arasnda nemli benzerlikler vardr. zellikle Trke ve Moolca arasndaki benzerlikler
dikkat ekicidir.
Ayn dil ailesi iinde olduuna dair bu kadar gl kantlar bulunan bu dillerin,
ayn kelimeleri kullanyor olmas da bir tesadf deil,gemiten gnmze uzanan
toplumlar aras etkileimin bir gstergesidir. Btn diller incelenirken sadece gnn
koullarna ve corafi konumuna gre deerlendirme yapmak, o dili ksr bir dng
iine sokmaktr.Trkler, yzyllar boyu farkl milletlerle bir arada yaam ve farkl
corafyalarda kltrlerini, dillerini yaymlardr.Bir dil iinde ayn gramatik yap, ses
ve mana benzerlii tayan kelimeler bulunmas ,dil akrabal meselesini dndren
en nemli iaretlerdir.Btn bu tarihsel bilgiler nda 20.yyn bandan itibaren
Trkiyeli Trkologlar Trk dilinin gemiten gnmze kadar uzanan geliimini en
ince ayrntsna kadar incelemeye balamlar ve bu dnem aratrmalarn gelitii bir
dnem olmutur.Sadece Trkiyeli Trkologlar deil,20.yy da dnyann birok lkesinde
Trkoloji ile ilgili aratrmalar giderek artmaya balamtr.Japonya ve ABDde Trk-
oloji almalar yapan kurum ve kiilerin saysnda byk bir art yaanmtr. Dille
ilgili balca inceleme alanlar fonetik, fonoloji, gramer (morfoloji, sentaks), etimoloji,
semantik, filoloji ve diyalektolojidir.Stilistikte son zamanlarda nemi artan alanlardan
biridir.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
27
Prof.Dr.Ahmet Bican Ersilasunun Trk Dili zerine Yeni Yaklamlar adl ma-
kalesinde Trk dilinin baka dillerle olan akrabal meselesi farkl bir adan incelen-
mitir. Ersilasun makalesinde Avrasyatik Dil Ailesine dikkat ekmektedir.Bu makale-
deki bilgiye gre; Amerika Birleik Devletlerinde 1980den sonra gelien baz yeni
akmlarda dnya dilleri daha geni ailelere ayrlmakta ve hatta btn dillerin ayn kkten
kt ileri srlmektedir. Joseph Greenbergin ortaya koyduu geni ailelerden biri
de Avrasyatik Byk Ailesi (Eurasiatic Macrofamily) adn tamaktadr. Bu teoriye
gre Avrasyatik byk ailesi iinde yedi dil ailesi vardr: Hint-Avrupa, Ural, Altay,
Gilyak, Kore-Japon-Aynu, uka, Eskimo-Aleut (Greenberg 2000). Grld gibi
Trkenin iinde bulunduu Altay ailesi de Avrasyatik byk ailesinin bir koludur ve
dier ailelerin iindeki diller de Trkenin uzak akrabalar kabul edilmektedir.Bu bil-
giye de dayanarak diyebiliriz ki, ana ereve iinde zaten bu iki dil, dil akrabalna
sahiptir.Kuramsal Altay dilinden ilk olarak Japoncann, ardndan Korecenin ayrld
dnlmektedir.Trkologlar dilin tarihsel geliimini tamamlama meselesini tam olarak
zmlemi deildir.Ana hatlaryla belirlenen tasnifler kabul edilmekle beraber, tarihsel
dnemler arasndaki gei ve kksel balar tarihlendirme meselesi, bugn halen ara-
trlmakta ve tartlmaktadr.
Dil,gelien deien ve byyen canl bir olgudur.Sosyal yaam,kltr,corafya
deien yaam koullar, bu olguya beslenmesi iin gda salayan kaynaklardr Bu
kaynaklar,dilin z benlii korunup saklanmak artyla, hangi tarih ve koulda olursa
olsun dil zerinde muhakkak gl bir etki yaratmakta ve dili zenginletirmektedir.
Trk dili ve Japon dili, bu uzak, aralarnda herhangi bir yaknlk olduu ilk bakta
akla gelmeyecek olan diller,aslnda ayn dil ailesinin birbirine uzak akrabalardr.
REFERENCES
1. Trk Dnyas El Kitab (Osman Nedim Saba)2Cilt, Dil Kltr Sanat,Ankara, 2002
2. Altay Dilleri Teorisi, Trk Dnyas Aratrmalar Yayn:6, Istanbul, 1983.
3. Trk Dilleri Aratrmalar (Talat Tekin)1992, Simurg Yaynclk.
4. http://turkoloji.cu.edu.tr/ESKI TURK DL
5. http://www.mainboard24.com
6. http://www.abercilasun.com


USE OF THE SUBJECT AS A RHEME IN
AZERBAIJANI AND ENGLISH
Gunay Mammadli, Gunay Alizade
Undergraduate students
Qafqaz University
gunay.memmedli@yahoo.com, alizada_gunay@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
In this research paper our purpose is to indicate differences and similarities using of subject as a rheme
in Azerbaijani and English. From the point of view of communicative effective , the important positions
in the clause are the initial and final position. We have examined separately the two structures involved,
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
28
which are mapped on to each other. The Theme-Rheme thematic structure and Given-New information
structure.
Theme and Rheme is also called Active and Passive Alternative. It means that, the topic/ theme of
the sentence is called Active Alternative , and rheme is called Passive Alternative. In contrast to rheme,
theme gives information about previous talking or life experience to speaker.
We encounter using of subject as a rheme in literature. Logical stress and Intonation helps us to find
out rheme in a sentence . That is why we can understand the rheme in speaking more than writing.
Generally speaking, there some elements which can help us to distinguish Theme from Rheme: word
order, intonation, auxiliary verbs , lexical repetition.
Key word: theme, rheme, intonation, word order, auxiliary verbs.

Dililik dbiyyatnda cmlnin bir ne baxmdan, o cmldn nnvi, aktual v
sintaqmatik zvlnmsi gstrilir. Cmlnin nnvi zvlnmsi onun formal qrammatik
thlilin gr aparlr.Cmlnin nnvi zvlnmsind cmlnin ba zvlri (mbtda,
xbr), ikinci drcli zvlr (tyin,tamamliq,zrflik) frqlndirilir.Cmlnin qram-
matik strukturu bu yolla rh edilir.
K.Abdullayev gr, cmlnin trkibind ancaq sintaktik baxmdan bitkin zvlrin
ayrlmas,seilmsi o qdr d dzgn sayla bilmz.Bel ki, cmlnin quruluunda
tkc onun sintaktik zvlri deyil,digr sviyylri d (morfoloji, leksik) vahid ve ele-
mentlrini d nzr almaq vacibdir.Bu alimin fikrinc, cml quruluunda onun trkib
hisslri sintaktik sviyyd cml zvlridir, leksik sviyyd cml vahidlri, mor-
foloji sviyyd cml elementlridir.
hmdin qarda dnn Baki hrin gldi cmlsi sintaktik, leksik ve morfolji
sviyylrd aaidaki kimi zvlne bilr:
1. Cml zvlrin hmdin qardai, dnn, Bak hrin, gldi.
2. Soz formalarina hmdin, qardai, dnn, Bak, hrin, gldi.
3. Cml elementlrin hmd-in, qarda-i, dnn, Bak, hr-i-n, gl-di.
Cmlnin ikinci zvlnmsi aktual zvlnmdir.Dililikd cmlnin aktual zv-
lnmsi termini il yana, kommunikativ zvlnm, kontekstual zvlnm, tema
v rema zr zvlnm cmlnin funksional perspektiv, cmlnin aktual pers-
pektivi kimi terminlr d eyni anlayii bildirmk n ildilir.
Kommunikativ sintaksis sasinda cmlnin sintaktik quruluu v onun funksional
yknn z cxarlmas aktual zvlnm hesab olunur.Aktual zvlnmnin kompo-
nentlri mlum olan (khn), mlum olmayan (yeni) terminlri il ifad olunur.
Aktual zvlnm bel bir chti nzr alr ki,eyni bir formal qrammatik cml sz
sras vuru v intonasiyadan asl olaraq mxtlif anlamlarn ifadsi n iln bilr.
Hr iki kommunikativ mqsd xidmt dn cml iki hissdn- tema ve remadan
ibart olur.
Tema danana,dinlyn mlum olan informasiyadir.Tema sohbtin, veriln mlu-
matin predmetidir. Baqa szl, cmld n haqqnda shbt gdirs,o temadir. Cm-
ld veriln yeni mlumat is remadir.Eyni bir cmld rema mxtlif yerd ola bilr.
Msln:
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
29
He shaved himself (himself rema), He shaved himself (he -rema)
He shaved himself (shaved rema)
Sylmlrd reman nianlayan vasitlr sz sirasi, kontrastiv vuru v intonasiya
daxildir.Sz srasn dyimkl eyni bir sz bir halda tema, digr halda is rema ola
bilr. Msln:
Helen should be the first to receive her diploma.
The first to receive her diploma should be Helen.
Birinci cmld Helen- tema, ikinci cmld is remadir.
Where are we going today?-To watch the footbal match.
Bu sual cmlsin veriln cavabda rema football match birlmsidir. Burada
rema intonasiya vasitsil nzr arpdrlr.
Where are we going today?- We are going to watch the football match.
Rema dedikd mueyyen aksent-melodik xsusiyytlr malik soylmin el hisssi
v ya soylm nzrd tutulur ki,burada dinlyiciy sadc olaraq hr hans konkret
mlumat, fakt v s. deyil, modal v emosional xarakterli informasiya verilir.Rema ye-
nini hat ets d, bununla kifaytlnmir.Soylmin rema hisssi danann verdiyi m-
lumatda nyi daha vacib saydn,yni dinlyicinin onu n vacib hadis, mlumat at-
drlmasna kmk edir.Bununla yana, rema danann gerckliy, z nitqinin mz-
mununa, nsiyyt raitin, msahibinin fiziki v emosional vziyytin mnasibt
bildirir.
Remadan frqli olaraq yuxarda qeyd edildiyi kimi, tema sylmin aksent-melodik
chtdn el hisssidir ki, burada dinlyiciy vvlki shbtdn v ya hyat tcrbsin-
dn mlum olan hr sey haqqnda danlr.
E.Sevyakovaya gre cmlnin aktual zvlnmsi prosodik-intonasiya vasitlri
nzr alnmadan mmkn deyildir.Bu mnada kontrastiv vurgu cmlnin aktual zv-
lnmsind, yni remann nzr arpdrlmasnda mhm rol oynayr.Intonasiya sz-
lrd, sz birlmlrind mna birliyi yaradr, predikativliyi ifad edir, cmlnin mna
mrkzini yni reman gstrir.
gr rema cmlnin vvlind olarsa, msln Jane has left for London, bu
halda Jane sz rematik vurunun ,left ve London szlri is tematik vurgunun
daycs kimi x dck.
E.M.Cavadov Masir Azrbaycan dbi dilinin sintaktik vahidlrinin srasadl
tdqiqatinda cml zvlri srasnn pozulmasndan bhs edrkn bel yazir: Dilin da-
xili qanunlar sasnda yaranan srayla, dananlarn arzusundan asl olaraq bzn edil
bilck dyiiklik bir-biriyl qarrlmdr.
Bizim fikrimizc, bu dyiiklik veriln yeni melumati reman qvvtlndirmk
mqsdindn irli glir.Bununla hm ingilis, hm d Azrbaycan dilind mbtda ya-
xud onun qrupu nqli cmld rema ifaedici kimi x etdikd inversiyaya urayb,
yni mvqeyini dyirk xbrdn sonra glir.
Inversiya yolu il mbtda aadak hallarda temadan remaya keir.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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Mvcudiyyt (eksiztensional) mnasn bildirn cmllrd ilnn to be, to lie,
sit, stand, hang, live, come, run, follow, swim, fly, and so on tsviri fellrl ifad olunan
xbrdn sonra glrs Adv-v-s ardcllg nzr arpr.Msln:
High above the city; on a tall column; stood the statue of the Happy Prince;-Se-
herden xeyli yuksekde;hundur sutun uzerinde Xosbext Sahzade heykeli dayanmisdi.
Misallardan grndy kimi,ingilis dilindn frqli olaraq Azrbaycan dilind ya-
amaq, dayanmaq, durmaq, glmk, qamaq, uzmk, umaq kimi hrkt v vziyyt
bildirn fellrl ifad olunan xbrl inversiyaya urayan mbtdaya nsr srlri v
danq dilind tsaduf olunmur.
Inversiyaya urami hr mbtda rema ifaedici kimi x etmir.Msln ismi
xbri ikiqat inversiyas olan cmlni nzrdn keirk:
Flame coloured are his wings, and coloured like flame in his body.
Onun qanad v bdni alov rngddir.
Bel qurulua malik olan cmllr mvcudiyyt mnasn bildirmdiyin gr v
onunla laqdar yer zrfliyi olmadna gr mbtda rema ola bilmz.
Gozl olur ld mnlr, aylar.
Tema ve reman ayrd etmk n formal gstricilri d nzr almaq lazmdr.
Aadaklardr:
1. Sz sras;
2. Intonasiya vasitlri (tempt,ritm,pauza)
3. Kmki vasitlr (dat, iar vzliyi v s.)
4. Leksik tkrarlar;
5. Monoloji nitqd sual cmllri;
6. Cml zv vzifsi dayan qoulan konstruksiyalar, szlrin,sz birlsmlrinin
vvlin glib onlar xsusi olaraq nzr arpdran xsusn, o cmldn, z d
illah v htta kimi szlri v s. (Hornby , Guide to Patterns and Usage in English,
Oxford , 1975)
datlar
Mbtdann rema kimi ixi etmsindn hm Azrbaycan, hm d ingilis dilind
myyn mna alarlii vern datlar mhm rol oynayr.Bunlardan qvvtlndirici
datlar da, d, bele, artiq, htta, lap, axr, hec; ingilis dilind just, even ; mhdudla-
dirici datlar ancaq, yalnz, birc, tk, tkc, fqt; ingilis dilind only,merely; qar-
lasdran dat il dqiqlsdirici el, mhz-mainly,such as mbtdann vvlind ilnrk
rematizator vzifsini gsterir.
There were only a few small bloody pieces of him left.- Ikinci anda is onda
yalniz qanl hisslr qalmdr.
Even Cindy was watching him covertly. Htta Sindi bel ona gozalti baxrd.
Qayd vzliklri
Azrbaycan v ingilis dillrind remalasdirici nsrlrdn biri d qayd vzlik-
lridir.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
31
Ingilis dilind remaladrc qayd vzliklri irisind daha ox ilnn xs
bildirn qayd vzliklridir.
The men themselves snow covered in their exposed position.- Snacaqsz olan
adamlar zlri d qara blnmidilr.
There is / are
Bu ifad Azrbaycan dilinde vardir mnasini verir.Buna gr d there sz yer
zrfliyi mnasn bildirmyrk,ifadnin dzldilmsi n formal vasitdir.Yesperin
there is /are ifadli cmllri mvcudiyyet menali cumllr adlandrr.Buna gr d
there is/are ifadli sintaktik birlmsi il ilnn mbtda hmin mnann hesabna
rema vzifsini dayr.
Trkibinde 3 zv olur:
There is phone in my car.
1. There formal szndn sonra is/are tema;
2. Mbtda rema;
3. Yer zrfliyind - tema
There was a little pause before answer. Cavabdan qabaq yngl bir skt kd.
Qoa balaycl birlmlr
Ingilis dilind korrelyativ qoa balayclardan either...or, both...and, neither...nor;
Azrbaycan dilind sayca nisbtn ox mna chtdn qarlql olan gah-gah da, ya-
ya da, ister-isterse de,hem-hemde,ne-ne de birlikd ilnn mbtdalar rema ifad edir.
Ingilis dilind neither...nor balaycsnn ilndiyi cmlnin xbri tsdiq forma-
sinda olduu kimi , Azrbaycan dilind d deyil,yaxud szlri ilnmir.
Both horn and lights were signals of dangerously for pressure.
Hm ss,hm iiq siqnallari hyat n thlklidir.
nkar vzliklri
None, noone, nobody, nothing, any, anybody, neither, Azrbaycan dilind hec kim,
hec ks, hen, he bir ey mrkkb qurululu inkar vzliklri cmlnin mbtdas
kimi xsusi vuruyla deyilrk inkarl qvvtlndirir v rema vzifsini dayr.
Nobody goes on that kind of journey without baggage.It doesnt make any sense.
Hec kim bel uzaq sfr yksz xmr.Hec aila batan i oxamr.
Mlumdur ki,ingilis dilind inkar vzliklri il ifad olunan mbtda yalnz tsdiq
formasnda olan xbrl uzlar.Ingilis dilindn frqli olaraq,Azrbaycan dilind inkar
vzlikli mbtda inkarda ifad olunan xbrl uzlar.( Ilyish B.A. The structure of
Modern English .1965)
Hr dild oxar chtlr:
1. Rema ifad edn mbtda isim,xs,qeyri-muyyn v qayd vzliklri substan-
tivlmi sift v sayla ifad oluna bilr.
2. Mbtda- rema sz srasnn pozulmas,yni inversiya.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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3. Mbtda mvcudiyyt mnasn bildirn cmllrd rema vzifsini dayr.
4. Qoa baglaycl birlmlr trkibind mbtdalar rema kimi x edir.
5. Qvvtlndirici, mhdudladrc v dqiqldirici datlar mbtda-rema il yana
ilnrk remaladrc rolunu oynayr. (Abdullayev K. Azrbaycan dilinin sintak-
sisinin nzr msllri B.1999)
REFERENCES
1. Abdullayev K. Azrbaycan dilinin sintaksisinin nzr msllri B.1999
2. evekova V. E. Sovremenniy anqliyskiy ezik . M. 1980
3. Harpers English Grammar .N. Y. 1965
4. Hornby , Guide to Patterns and Usage in English, Oxford , 1975
5. Ilyish B.A. The structure of Modern English .1965

THE COLOR FACTOR IN THE USE OF ENGLISH
Gunay Poladova
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
poladovag@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to show the colorful sides of English language. Every time we learn the
grammar, tense forms, sentence structure and etc. Sometimes it can be boring during the learning process.
The exactness and expressiveness of the speech is dependent on using naturally words and expressions.
We build our speech on the basis definite grammatical rules. Like words, stable compounds, idioms also
play a role in the enrichment of language. The theme which I will talk in my research article is about Idioms
of English language, especially about the Color idioms. These idioms make the language more meaningful
and useful. In our daily life while conversation we can not use the formal language. Mostly we use informal
language and the different types of idioms make our speech impressive. By this way we can express our
feelings much more clearly. Also we must know the exact meaning of idioms. When we use the idiom
to drink till all's blue about a person who never tasted the alcohol of course you will be in a comic
situation. From the name of Colour Idioms we can find some amusing sides but when we enter to the deeps
of a topic we see that it is not possible as we imagine. It also have a great relation with grammar. Foreign
students or a person who is English is not their native language can learn this relation from books linguists
wrote about it.
Key words: English language, Colour idioms, formal and informal language.

Idiom is a Greek word-means special feature, special phrasing. It is an expression,
word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning that is comprehended in regard to a
common use of that expression that is separate from the literal meaning or definition
of the words of which it is made .There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic
expressions in the English language. In linguistics, idioms are usually presumed to be
figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality; yet the matter
remains debated. In phraseology, they are defined in a similar way as a sub-type of
phrase whose meaning is not the regular sum of the meanings of its components. English
idioms differ from others for their difference and richness. The translation of these
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
33
idioms to other languages is important and difficult issue in linguistics. The main
reason of wrong translation of idioms is the choosing it wrongly from the context,
other reason is the wrong understanding of translator. John Saied defines an "idiom"
as words collocated that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a
fossilised term .This collocationwords commonly used in a groupredefines each
component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. Moreover,
an idiom is an expression, word, or phrase whose sense means something different
from what the words literally imply. The idiom "beating around the bush" means to
hint or discuss obliquely; nobody is literally beating any person or thing, and the bush
is a metaphor. When a speaker uses an idiom, the listener might mistake its actual
meaning, if he or she has not heard this figure of speech before. Idioms usually do not
translate well; in some cases, when an idiom is translated into another language, either
its meaning is changed or it is meaningless. As defined by The New International
Websters College Dictionary, an idiom is an expression not readily analyzable from
its grammatical construction or from the meaning of its component parts. It is the part
of the distinctive form or construction of a particular language that has a specific form
or style present only in that language. Random House Websters College Dictionary
seems to agree with this definition, even expanding it further, stating that an idiom is
an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual grammatical rules of a
language or from the usual meanings of its constituent elements. There are idioms
which mention different colours and people will recognize them as translations of their
own language, but often enough other words are used in the different languages. Some
of the common ones use the colours blue, green and red and are groups of words that
combine a preposition with the colour such as "out of the blue" or a verb and a prepo-
sition such as "He saw red." Since the idiom is supposed to give you a meaning which
is far from the meaning of the key word or object that creates it, new learners have
difficulties being able to image that colours have anything to do with something that
is not a refection of a light wave frequency. When the student sees that he "sees red"
in his language that is often a good beginning point for the person to see that there
may be other similar idioms. In the meantime he will likely absorb other idioms and
their expressions.at the end of my speech I want to say that there are other idioms he
may know from popular English songs which uses "feel blue," for example. if the learner
has a musical ear he might take advantage of his ability to perceive other idioms in
the future. he can also learn that colours have been associated to certain emotions, as
blue is associated with sadness and red with anger. green with envy and white with
fear as in "white as a ghost." Others like yellow may be just stated in a simple sentence
with the present of be, as in "you're yellow," mean you are a coward. Here I want to
show some colour idioms and their translations.
Idioms with Black- things look black the works goes wrong / bad
Black looks looking angry-When I started to tell the story,
Carol gave me a really dirty look
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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Black as hell (night, pitch, my hat)-very dark ( gec qara cc qara)-The streets
was black as hell.
Black as sin (thunder, thundercloud) black as sin (thunder, thundercloud) ba-
nn stn qara bulud almaq- Like black as sin , she was sitting infront of the window.
To know black from white a qaradan semk- I am already at the age of to
know black from white idioms with White
As white as a ghost- qorxudan rngi aarmaq- My sister became as white as a
ghost when she saw the man at the window as white as a sheet- solun- I felt
terrible this morning and in the mirror I looked as white as a sheet.
As white as the driven snow- aappaq-The fur on the dog was as white as the
driven snow.
Idioms with blue- cry oneself blue in the face ryi partdyana kimi qqrmaq-
She cried till blue in the face
Look blue msmrql olmaq- Today she looks blue, because of bad marks
Blue in the face sbdn gyrmk- He argued with her until he was blue in
the face.
Make the air blue deyinmk- When I entered to the house he began make the
air blue
to drink till all's blue ikinin kpn girmk- Her father everytime drinks till
all`s blue
Once in a blue moon ayda ild bir df- I saw him once in a blue moon
To look through blue glasses-pessimist person- My mother is the kind of person
who everytime looks through blue glasses
Blue chip company company with high quality- This company is really blue
chip company
Idioms with Green- green with envy hirsindn bozarmaq- Mr.Smith began
to be greeen with envy
Green wound new wound that is not recovered- Her wounds is still green
To look through green glasses to be jealous- My grandmother everytime looks
through green glasses
To get the green light to be free everywhere
Green-belt area -the protecting area surrounding the city
Grey matter -ban yax ilmsi
The grass is always greener on the other side-believe that life is beautiful in
other place
Idioms with Red- to have a red face utancndan qpqrmz olmaq
Be in the red borc iind batmaq
see red become very angry
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Red-letter day memorable day- It was a red-letter day when she finally received
her graduation diploma.
Red tape bruocratics
Catch (someone) red-handed i stnd yaxalamaq
In the red -pik nqty atmaq
Like a red rag to a bull / Like a red flag to a bull -kimis cin atna mindirmk
Red carpet treatment - treat someone with great respect
Idioms with Yellow- To be yellow / yellow bellied- aciyr olmaq
A golden opportunity- an exellent chance
Have a yellow streak- be coward
REFERENCES
1. The Oxford Companion to the English Language(1992) pp.49596.
2. Jackendoff, R. (1997). The architecture of the language faculty. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
3. Meluk Igor A. (1995). Pharisees in language and phraseology in linguistics. In Martin Everett,
Erik-Jan Vander Linden, Andr Schenk & Rob Schrader (eds.), Idioms: Structural and Psychological
perspectives, 167232. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
4. Saied, John I. (2003), Semantics. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 60.
5. Saied, John I. (2003), Semantics. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
6. Gibbs, R. W. (1987), "Linguistic Factors in Children Understands of Idioms." Journal of Child Lan-
guage, 14, 569586.
8. http://www.baidak.com/english-idioms-colour
9. http://www.english-at-home.com/idioms/idioms-using-colour/
10. http://www.learn-english-today.com/idioms/idiom-categories/colour-idioms.htm
11. http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/idioms-colour.htm
12. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-HUAI199906020.htm


THE LEXICAL NORMS OF AZERBAIJANI LITERARY LANGUAGE
Nofel Quliyev
Doctoral student
Institute of Linguistics
nofal-83@rambler.ru
ABSTRACT
In this paper the lexical norms as one of the most arguable branches of speech culture are considered.
Correct use of words is the most significant features of the lexical norms. The lexical norms of Azerbaijani
become apparent more evidently in the Mass Media. In this paper the lexical norms cases of breach in the
press
s
, radio and TV programs

, speakers and reporters language and the way of its solution are also
mentioned.
Key words: lexical norms, Mass Media, radio, TV programs.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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dbi dilin leksik normalar
Dilin n evik v n plastik vahidi olan sz (leksem, leksik vahid) xsusi mna ksb
edir. Bu sz dvrn v jmiyytin yeniliklrini operativlikl ks etdirir. Ona gr d
dyiknlik dilin leksik qatnda daha srtl ba verir. Bu is tbii ki, leksik normalarn
rngarngliyin, oxvariantllna gtirib xarr. Ona gr d masir dililik elmi leksik
normalar probleminin hllind vahid bir mvqedn x etmir. Burda maraql cht
odur ki, orfoqrafik v qrammatik normalama msllri il daha ox mtxssilr,
birinci nvbd dililr mul olursa, leksik normalar n mxtlif pe v snt adam-
larnn mbahis meydan ola bilir. Xsusil terminologiya sahsind uyun elmlrin
nmayndlri dil mtxssislrin ox tinlikl gzt gedirlr. Grnr, bu onunla
baldr ki, nitq mdniyytinin n ox mbahis douran sahsi mhz leksik normalardr.
Televiziya nitqindki leksik normalarda anlay v mnimsm qanunlar zn
gstrir. Anlay v mnimsm qanunlarnn znmxsus lamtlri var. Birinci qa-
nun z szlrimiz, mnimsm qanunu is alnma szlr aiddir. Anlay qanununda
sas prinsip dilin masir vziyytind ildiln szlrin ondan istifad ednlr n
mnaca aydn olmasndadr. Danan v dinlyn n is mnas aydn olan szlr
masir dilin normas saylr.Yni, bir szl nitq aydn v anlaql olmaldr.
Teleradio verililrinin dilind mili dilin z daxili imkanlar hesabna yaradlm
szlrdn fal istifadni msbt hal kimi qiymtlndirmk lazmdr. Xsusil, lkmiz
mstqillik yoluna qdm qoyandan sonra bu prosesin genilnmsi dilimizin d ms-
tqillmsi v ifad imkanlarnn genilnmsi kimi baa dlmlidir. Ms.: xsusi
vzin zl, kvorum vzin yetrsay, parlament vzin mclis. Privatizasiya vzin
zllm kimi sz v ifadlrin dbi dilimizin lt fonduna daxil edilmsind v
ktlvildirilmsind TV nin v radionun rolunu danmaq olmaz.
Dilimizin lt trkibi szdn istifad imkalarn genilndirmkl jurnalist sz
semk, mna incliklrini frqlndirmk n lverili v hrtrfli imkanlar ar.
Szdn dzgn istifad leksik normalardan n mhm kimi onun ilnm mqam
dqiqldirilmynd, yaxud mumi mtn ya glii gzllik xatirin, ya da sadc
olaraq, lt ehtiyatnn qtl ucbatndan gtirilnd tbii ki, nitq qsurlu olur. Bu,
xsusil telejurnalistin ifahi nitqind arzuolunmaz kil alr. Aparclarn dilind tez-
tez demli, mhz, bu baxmdan, nec deyrlr, hans ki, ey, trf-mqabil v s. ifad-
lrin ilnmsi, fikrimizc sciyyvi nmunlrdir.
A..Yefimov rus dbi dili normalarnn dyimsindn danarkn yazr: dbi
norma dilin inkiafndan asl olaraq dyiir. Msln, rus dilind Pukin dvrndn
indiy qdr onun lt trkibind v qrammatik quruluunda bzi dyiikliklr ba
vermidir. Balca vzif dil n yeni, hyati, tipik olan dbi chtdn normaladr-
maqdr. Buna gr dbi norma masir olmal v dilin zruri inkiafn ks etdirmli-
dir( 6,10).
A.V.Kalinin d dbi dilin inkiafnn myyn dvrnd qvvd olan qaydalar
- szlrin ilnmsi, qrammatik forma, tlffz v yaz qaydalarn dil normas adlan-
drr(7,12).
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
37
K.Qorbaevi is msly bir balaca baqa yndn toxunur. Alim dilin lt tr-
kibinin znginlmsind mna dyimsini norma kimi xarakeriz edir:z inkiafnda
dil yeni szlrin yaranmas yolu il deyil, daha ox mvcud leksik vahidlrin mna
dyimsi yolu il gedir(5,117).
Maraql v dolaq fikirdir. slind, ekstra v intralinqvistik tsirlrin nticsind
dilin leksik qatnda gedn dyimlr, xsusil leskik trkibind ba vern yenilnmlr
mhz mumillklmy, neologizm v arxaizm anlaylarnn meydana glmsin,
bu v ya digr szn xlqilmsin, aktiv v passiv leksikann yaranmAsna v s.
msllrin ml glmsin zmin yaradr. Dilin leksik vahidlri mhz bu mstvid
inkiaf edir v yeni szlrin yaranmas da btn bu proseslrl zvi surtd baldr.
N.Cfrov yazr:XVII-XVIII srlrd milli ictimai tfkkrd ba vern yenilm
dbi dilin leksik normasna daha ox tsir edir, klassik slubla folklor slubu arasn-
dak dialektik mnasibt lt trkibininin funksional imkannlarn da myynldirir:
folklor slubu bir qayda olaraq xalq dilinin leksikasna dayanr (2,64)
Dorudan da, bu dvrd, ictimai-siyasi rait dilimiz v nitq mdniyytimiz,
tfkkrmz xsusi formada tsir edir. Dilimizin leksik normasna, lt trkibin,
er v thkiy slubuna, yaz xttin, tfkkrn v s. ciddi tsir gstrn yenilm
folklorun adi danq dilin yaxnlamas il mahid olunur.
Azrbaycan dilinin leksik normalar ktlvi informasiya vasitlrind zn daha
aydn kild gstrir. Leksik sviyyd mtbuat dilinin lt trkibi dbi dilin leksik
trkibin tsir edn mhm vasitdir. Mstqil mtbuatn dilinin lt trkibin arlq
gtirn amillr, sasn, bunlardr: bzn lazmi hmiyyt damadan Trkiy trkc-
sindki szlr qzet dilin arlq gtirir.Ms.: uyu (Yeni Msavat, 23 avqust 2000),
trn (yen orada), ilginc (Xalq qzeti, 31 oktyabr), mcadil, sayq (Yeni Msavat,
1 noyabr) v s. bu tipli szlr teleradio aparclarmzn da dilind ilnir v ilk
xarakter dayr.
Dialektlrl bal msllr d leksikada mhm yer tutur. dbi dilin qaydalarna
zidd olsa da, mumxalq dilinin(tbii ki, normann) formalamasnda mhm v ms-
tsna rol oynayan dialektlr leksikaya mhm tsirini gstrir:Masir Azrbaycan
dilinin lt trkibind nzr arpan normalama meyllrinin biri d dialekt leksikas
il dbi dil leksikas arasnda qarlql laqnin qvvtlnmsi nticsind son illr
mtbuat dilind dbi dilin lt trkibinin dialekt szlri hesabna znginlmsi pro-
sesinin aktivliyi il seilir. Bu id mtbuat orqanlar il yana, ktlvi informasiya
vasitlri v bdii dbiyyatn da rolu bykdr.(3,119).
Bdii dbiyyatda leksik normaya ml olunmas da vacib msllrdn saylma-
ldr. Xsusn, airlr, diblr, yazlar, sz xiridarlar szn bdii ykn salmadan,
ucuzladrmadan srlr yaratmaldrlar. Akademik Aamusa Axundov bu msly
bel mnasibt bildirir:Rsul Rza Peterburqu tsvir edrkn d lazm olan rnglri
szlri bacarqla seir, tsvir olunan obyekti oxucularn gz nn gtirir:
Payzn dumanlar Mhur operettalar
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Srnrd havada Dolurdu, boalrd.
Ar-ar axrd Qzl zrli akselbantlar
zmtli Neva da Gm qotaz epoletlr
Dnyadan ksm kimi. Tamaalar,
Aaclarda shrlr ux baletlr
Parlayrd ilk qrov. Kazinolar ,
Zalanm gm kimi Keyf,
Taxtal klrdn Qumar.
Keirdi karetalar Gnlrl srn xumar.
Paris thflriyl
Lazm olan szlri se bilmk qabiliyyti air n byk mziyytdir. nki bu
bacarq hmi tsvir olunan hadis v ya, szn geni mnasnda, predmeti oxucunun
nn gtirir.(1,210). Lakin, tssf ki, bzn diblr, airlr, sz ustalar dilimizin
normalarn pozurlar, dil xtalarna yol verirlr:Mmmd Rahimin Leninqrad gy-
lrind poemasndan aadak stirlr diqqt yetirk:
Sanma igidlrin asimandadr,
Aleksey Hseynl sx ormandadr.
Nhng manlar qaln budaqlar,
Me knarnda gizlind saxlar.
Onlarn yannda atb ba- baa ,
Mnim igidlrim oturub qoa.
Bu paradak qdim Azrbaycan sz orman Azrbaycan dilinin bzi ivlrind
me mnasnda ilnir. air orman sznn slubi mnasna daha ox fikir verdi-
yindn (bel ki, hmin sz burada asiman sz il hmqafiydir), lti mnasna eti-
nasz yanadndan tsvir olunan vziyytin reall pozulmudur. Baqa szl, Hseyn
il Aleksey ikinci misrada sx med olduqlar halda, axrnc miss Ralarda menin
knarndadrlar. (1,206).
Qzet dilind sintaktik normalar da kodifikasiya olunur (myyn dil qanunauy-
unluqlar sasnda sistem salnr). Mxtlif cml konstruksiyalar, sylmlr mtnin
struktur-semantik karkasna gr qzetlrin dilind sralanr. N.Petrov qeyd edir ki,
dbi dilin sintaktik normas ekspressiv kommunikativ ifad formalarna yer verildiyi
detallarla kodifikasiya olunub (8,38).
Sintaktik norma cmld eyni leksik vahidin tkrar olunmas nticsind pozulur.
Ms.: Biz bu gnlr biziml bir crgd dayananlar unutmarq.(rq 20 mart, 2003).
Cmlnin vvlindki biz vzliyi artqdr.
ndi orda yaayan insanlar pis yaamrlar. Bu cmld d yaamaq feli iki df
hmiyytsiz yer tkrar olunmu cmlnin strukturu v ahngi pozulmudur.
Leksik norma problemlrindn biri d dil safl, yad nsrlrdn tmizlnm si-
yastidir. Buna dililikd purizm deyilir. Purizm zn he bir vaxt dorultmAmdr.
Mrhum alim, akademik Xudu Mmmdovun rhbrliyi il, mumtrk lti v dilinin
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
39
hazrlanmas, tmiz v ancaq z szlrimizdn ibart Azrbaycan dili yaratmaq ideyas
biz mlum idi. Bu proses reallamad. nki, texniki, psixi, siyasi, filoloji linqvistik
v sosial chtdn zn dorulda bilmzdi.
Rus dilisi K.Qorbaeviin purizml bal qeydlri diqqti clb edir:Alnmalarda
mnasibtd purizm trfdarlar hr cr sinfi v mhafizkar mqavimtin mqabilind
saya danq dilindn , o jmldn d mxtlif funksional-professional leksikadan dil
vahidlrinin dbi dil gtirilmsinin trfdar kimi x edirlr. Purizm he d hmi
hval-ruhiyy nticsi, hanssa subyektiv amilin nticsi kimi meydana glmir, bel
purizm mnaszdr.(5,28-29).
Dnya praktikas sbut etdi ki, purizm hadissi zn he vaxt dorulda bilmz.
Dorultsa bel, bu prosesin hyata keirilmsi insanlara, xalqlara, n sas dil n ve-
rck? Snilik, dolaqlq, qarqlq, haalanma. Trkiyd htta purizm cryannn
qat trfdarlar verili amaq istyirdilr. Bir-iki aydan sonra bu prosesin mnasz
olduunu drk edib verilii dayandrdlar, sonra is daha ox trk dbi dilinin gzlliyi
msllri il mul olmaa baladlar v geni auditoriya dstyi qazandlar .
Purizm btn dillrin arl problemlrindn biridir. Puristlrin balca mqsdi
dilin pakl urunda mbariz olsa da, ifrat purizm dili bzn z mcrasndan xarr,
htta bir nsil digr nsli baa dmkd tinlik kir. Bunun n bariz nmunsini
trk dilind grrk. Bel ki, zlm siyasti ad altnda bu dili el bir vziyyt
saldlar ki, hal-hazrda hmin lkd yaayan yal nsill gnc nslin dilind olduqca
mhm frqlr mvcuddur. Azrbaycanda da bu cryan bu v ya digr drcd zn
gstrir. Hesab edirik ki, gr puristlr Azrbaycan dilinin daxili resurslar hesabna
el bir leksik vahid tapsalar ki, o btn chtlri il dilimizin qanun-qaydalarna uyun
glsin, dil dayclar onu z lt trkiblrind asanlqla ild bilsin, onda bu sz
alqlayaq. Yox, gr onlarn tapd leksik vahid dilimizin lt trkibin xll gti-
rcks, bu tipli glmlrin trfdar deyilik.(4,120).
Leksik norma problemlrindn biri d izahl ltlrin az ap olunmas, dilimiz
yeni daxil olan szlrin ltlrd izahl kild verilmmsi mslsidir. Bir mqam
xatrlayaq. 1996-c ild Portuqaliyann Lissabon hrind dnya dvltlri balarnn
zirv toplants keirildi. Toplantda bir sra siyasi qrarlar, o cmldn, Azrbaycan
Ermnistan mnaqisi il bal tarixi qtnam qbul olundu. Bellikl, dnyann bir
ox aparc informasiya agentliklri - Ryter, Assoieytid-Press, Frans-Press, tar-
TASS v s. habel mtbuat bel bir zirv toplantsn Lissabon sammiti kimi qeydiy-
yata ald. Hmin vaxtdan etibarn Azrbaycann ktlvi informasiya vasitlrind d
Lissabon sammiti ifadsi aktuallad v o dvrn qzet v jurnal shiflrini vrq-
lsk, televiziya v radio verililrini yadmza salsaq, Lissabon sammiti ifadsinin
n qdr geni yayldnn ahidi olarq. Hmin birlmdki sammit lekseminin
mnasn v trcmsini ox adam, htta vzifli xslrin bzilri d bilmirdi. Htta
o vaxtk vzifli xslrdn birinin geni yncaqlarn birind Portuqaliyann sammit
hri kimi gl douran ifadsi qzetlrin, televiziya v radio verililrinin, yln-
cli verililrin msxr hdfin dnmd. n mhm budur ki, ktlvi informasiya
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vasitlri zlri d bu szn n trcmsini, n d izahn vermirdilr. Nticd yz
minlrl adam hl d anlaya bilmir ki, sammit hrdir, yoxsa yncaq?
Dilimizin leksik normasnn n mhm problemlrindn biri d trcm msl-
sidir. Dflrl bir dildn digr dil trcm zaman problemlrl qarlarq. vvllr
elmin, texnikann olmad dvrd bu proses lng gedirdi. Cmiyyt inkiaf etikc tex-
niki inkiaf da z szn dedi.
Elektron hesablayc manlarn dililiy ttbiqinin bir sra mhm nticlri oldu.
Hr eydn vvl man dilini linqvistik mlumatlarn toplanmas v ilnmsi kimi
ar, yorucu, mexaniki idn azad etdi. Bu is z nvbsind byk hcmli dil material-
lar zrind eksperimentlr aparmaa, yeni-yeni nzriyylri snaqdan keirib irli
srmy, mxtlif hcmli v mxtlif mqsdli ltlrin trtibini srtlndirmy,
geni mtnlr massivinin hrtrfli tdqiqin rait yaradr.
Avtomatik trcm problemi bir ox mliyyatlar znd birldirn alqoritmlrin
qurulmas il hyata keirilir. Sonradan bu alqoritmlr vasitsil mann giriin verilmi
mtn zrind myyn ardcllqla mliyyatlar aparmaqla nticd trcm olunmu
mtn alnr.
Avtomatik trcmnin n sad nv szbsz trcmdir. EHM-in yaddana iki
szlk, msln, Azrbaycan v rus dilinin szly verilir. Hr bir rus sznd onun
Azrbaycan dilind olan ekvivalentinin nvan qeyd olunur. Bu nvann kmyi il
man hr bir rus szn uyun Azrbaycan szn tapr v nticd alnm trcmni
apa verir.
Lakin, ssf ki, masir dvrd, kompter srinin znn yarat problemlr var.
Praktika gstrir ki, bir ne qrup dillr n szbsz trcm vasitsil lazmi kafi
ntic alnr. Lakin bu tip trcm, adi real trcmnin tlblrin he d tamAmil
cavab vermir.Birincisi, dild zn gstrn sinonimlik v omonimlik hr bir sz bir
ne szn uyun glmsi, mxtlif trcm nmunlrinin alnmasna gtirib xarr.
kincisi, szbsz trcmd idiomlar nzr alnmr. Bel ki, rus dilindki -
ifadsi ba tutmayacaq kimi trcm olunur. V ya gz vurmaq .
Bundan baqa, szbsz trcmd trcm olunan cmldki sz sras eyni il sax-
lanr. Bu is, tipoloji chtdn mxtlif sz srasna, sintaktik qurulua malik dillrin
(msln, Azrbaycan v rus dillri) szbsz trcmsini tinldirir. n son trcm
proqramlar-LNGVO, DLMANJ, POLQLOT da bu problemlrdn yaxa qurtara bilmir.
Sonda onu qeyd etmk olar ki, dbi dilin normas myyn qrarla tsbit olunub
qorunduu halda, muasir dilin normas ham trfindn qorunub saxlanmal v gzlnil-
mlidir. Nitqin uzunmddtli tcrbsi sasnda yaranan normalar, balca olaraq, dilin
fonetik sistemini, qrammatik ifad vasitlrini, sz yaradcl qaydalarn, sz birl-
mlri v cml strukturuna aid sra qaydalarn dbi dil slublarna mxsus standart-
lamalar, szlrin z leksik mnalarna mvafiq ildilm sullarn v s. hat edir.
dbi dil normalarnn qorunub saxlanmas n dild ixtiyari szlrin ildilm-
sin yol vermk olmaz. Hminin, sz birlmlri v cmllrd ardcllq prinsipi-
nin qorunub saxlanlmas n vacib msllrdn biridir.
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41
Azrbaycan dili hazrda mstqil, suveren azad lknin, dvltin dilidir. Bu dil z
imkanlarndan mstqil kild istifad etmkl yeni anlaylar bildirn szlrin for-
maladrlmasna tamamil qadirdir. Mstqillik dvrnd dbi dilin ifahi qolu, real
inkiaf imkanlar ld etmidir. Xsusn, son dvrlrd ifahi dbi dilin yazl dbi
dilin normalarna yaxnalmas mahid olunur. dbi dilin bu iki qolu bir-birin n
qdr bal olsa, onun informasiya keyfiyyti o qdr d ox olar, onun anlama sviy-
ysi ykslr.
DBIYYAT
1. A.Axundov. Dilin estetikas. Bak, Yaz, 1985, 224 s.
2. Cfrov N.Azrbayjan trkjsinin millilmsi tarixi, Bak,1995, 207 s
3. Mmmdova S. Ktlvi informasiya v dil. Bak, Elm v Thsil,2009 , 128 s
4. T.Yaqubova.Azrbayjan mtbuat dilind alnmalar.Bak, MBM, 2008, 152
5. .. . , 1971, 270 .
6. . . . 1967. .10
7. . ., 1971. 12.
8. . -
: . .. .. , 1982, 38 .

SYNTACTIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL-SYNTACTIC
CONVERSIONS IN AZERBAIJANI POETRY
Gnel Mirzyeva
AMEA Nsimi adna Dililik nstitutu
Doctoral student
gunel-mirze@rambler.ru
ABSTRACT
The conversion is the process of the definite word
s
transition from some parts of speech to other
ones without any word-building means. This process occurs in 2 stages: 1) at the first stage, a word loses
original grammatical categories. This is a grammatical conversion and this transition comes true in 2 ways:
syntactic and morphological-syntactic; 2) at the second stage, a word absolutely turning into other gram-
matical category accepts it
s
all lexical-semantic meaning, morphological-syntactic markers and as a new
independent unit forms a part of vocabulary. This stage is called as semantic conversion. There are two
types of the conversion in the linguistics: a) Semantic-syntactic and b) semantic.
In this paper the syntactic and morphological-syntactic conversions in Azerbaijani poetry are considered.
It should be noted that the morphological-syntactic conversion in comparison with syntactic conversion
is more extend and the conversion
s
degree is higher.
Key words: conversion, syntactic, syntactic, Azerbaijani poetry.

Azrbaycan eirind sintaktik v morfoloji-sintaktik konversiya
Konversiyalarn byk bir qrupunu qrammatik konversiya tkil edir. Qrammatik
konversiyaya urama zaman szn semantikasnda he bir dyiiklik ba vermir, yal-
nz cml daxilind vzifsi dyiir. Bu evrilm iki yolla mmkn olur: sintaktik v
morfoloji-sintaktik yolla.
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I. Sintaktik konversiya
Sintaktik konversiya btn nitq hisslrin aid olub, hr hans nitq hisssin daxil
olan szn he bir dyiikliy uramadan baqa nitq hisssinin yerind ilnmsini
nzrd tutur. Msln, Anld yaz gn, ridi soyuq (S.Vurun) cmlsind soyuq
sifti yalnz sintaktik chtdn tcrid olunaraq isim yerind ilnmidir. Bu evdn k!
Bu meyvdn dad!-cmlsind k v dad isimlri sintaktik chtdn fellmi-
dir(3,68).
Sintaktik chtdn konversiyann 10-dan yuxar mxtlif modeli vardr. Bu nv
konversiyann ilk mrhlsi saylr.(4,146)
Sintaktik konversiyann aadak nvlrindn bhs etmk istrdik:
1. Substantivlm. Substantivlmnin sbbini Azrbaycan dililri prof.Musa
Adilov v prof..Cavadov bel izah edirlr:vvln, dild hr bir sz baqas il o
qdr qaynayb-qarr, birlm o qdr adi, ilk v mexaniki olur ki, bu szlrdn
biri (v ya bir nesi) asanlqla ixtisar edilir. Digr trfdn, substantivln szlr
daha ox insanlarn daxili v xarici lamt v keyfiyytlrini bildirdiyindn adtn bel
birlmlrin ikinci trflri ox mumi mnal - adam, xs, insan kimi szlrdn iba-
rt olur ki, bunu sylmy o qdr ehtiyac qalmr. ... Substantivlm hr hans bir
slubla laqdar v ondan asl deyildir(2,52)
1. Odur bax! ... ir kimi atlr suya, Snin and idiyin o gnc qhrman. (S.Vurun)
Yuxarda gstriln cmllrd siftin mvafiq sintaktik mhit drk isiml-
midir. Siftlrin substantivlmsi sbblrini izah edrkn B.Mmmdov yazr:
Azrbaycan dilind bzn substantivlmi siftd bu morfoloji lamtlrin he biri-
n tsadf edilmir. Bu, lbtt, siftin z qrammatik mnasn dyimzdn vvl tyin
etdiyi ismin morfoloji lamtsiz ilnmsindn irli glir. Buna gr d bu nv subs-
tantivlmi siftlr tkd, adlq halda ilnir: O gndn ziyaft baland. Naxo gldi,
saald getdi. olaq gldi, ayaqla getdi. Gnc yerindn srayb Ninninin dalnca getdi.
(7, 36-40)
Bellikl, siftin substantivlmsi mxtlif drcd olur: 1) sift kimi, demk olar
ki, ilnmyn isimlmi siftlr (l, diri, ya v s.); 2) hm sift, hm d isim kimi
ilnn substantivlmi siftlr(cavan, qoca, xst v s.); 3)yalnz mtn daxilind
substantivln siftlr (yax, pis, uzun v s.).
Sift kimi say da substantivlir, cmld baqa nitq hisssin evrilir: Beincilr
thsild v idmanda yksk gstricilrin gr frqlnirdilr.
Daha ox rast glinn konversiya hadislrindn biri d feli siftin substantivl-
msidir. Msln: 1)irin bir xatir tk qalacaqdr dnyada, Sevrk yaayanlar, sevi-
lrk lnlr. (S.Vurun);
Qeyd edk ki, -an,- n formantl feli siftlrin substantivlmsin daha tez-tez t-
sadf edilir. B.Mmmdov haql olaraq gstrir ki, substantivlmni douran s-
bblrdn biri szn qrammatik mnasnn dyimsi v nticd yeni szd yeni anla--
yn ifadsi olsa da, sz qnatin, ycamln da bu id az rolu yoxdur(8, 67-72)
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2. Adyektivlm. Sintaktik konversiyann geni yaylm nvlrindn biri d ad-
yektivlm v ya siftlmdir. Azrbaycan dilind, elc d digr trk dillrind bu
tipli konversiyaya tez-tez rast glinir. Msln: Tst xb ss qoparm da hasarl
alalardan... (S.Vurun).
simlrin digr isim qarsnda tyin kimi ilnmsi btn trk dillrind, o cm-
ldn tatar dilind adi hal kimi mvcuddur. Tatar dilisi F.Qniyev bel bir fikir yrdr:
Bzn deyirlr ki, bu adyektivlmi isiml vvlki isim formasnda he bir morfoloji
dyiiklik ba vermir. Bu zahirn bel grns d, slind dyiiklik olur. Bel ki, bu
szlr artq yalq vzifsi deyil, tyin vzifsini yerin yetirir v btn trk dillrin-
dki siftlrd olduu kimi, ya qarsnda he bir kili qbul ed bilmirlr(11, 108-
113). Alimin bu fikri il razlamaq mmkndr. nki bel birlmlrdki szlr
zaman-zaman bir-biri il el qaynayb-qarr ki, komponentlr trkib daxilind dala-
r, nhayt, semantik dyiikliy urayaraq sabit sz birlmlrin evrilir.
3. Adverbiallama. Sintaktik konversiyadan danarkn adverbiallamaya da xsusi
diqqt yetirmk lazmdr. nki adverbiallama hadissi il bal mbahisli mqam-
lar kifayt qdrdir. Msln, N gzl yarar Muana ceyran! (S.Vurun) cml-
sind gzl sz zrf yerind ilnmidir. Yaxud tez-tez nmun gtiriln Yax tlb
yax oxuyar cmlsin nzr salaq. Bir sra mlliflr, o cmldn prof. M.Hseyn-
zad buradak yax szn ya bildirn sz qarsnda ilnrkn sift, fel qarsndak
mvqed is zrf adlandrrlar (10,61). Bzi dililrin fikrinc is yax sz morfoloji
baxmdan, yni nitq hisssi kimi sift, sintaktik vzifsin gr zrflikdir. Tatar dilisi
F.Qniyev gstrir ki, yax sifti fel qarsnda ilnrkn lamtin lamtini bildirir.
Bu is zrf aid xsusiyytdir. Alim bu tipli szlrin sift olub, zrflik funksiyasnda
ilnmsi il bal iddialar qbul etmir bu szlrin tamamil zrfldiyini gstrir. O
bunu bel saslandrr: 1) bu szlr yann lamtini deyil, hrktin v ya lamtin
lamtini bildirir; 2) bu szlr zrf kimi hal, kmiyyt v mnsubiyyt baxmndan d-
yimir; 3) sintaktik funksiyalarna gr d zrf kimi trzi-hrkt zrfliyi vzifsini
dayr, zrfd olduu kimi yalnz fel, yaxud siftin qarsnda ilnir. Bel szlr maldov
v ingilis dillrind konversiyalam szlr adlanr(11, 112).
Dorudan da, gr Yax bacarql v igzar qzdr cmlsindki Yax szn
xsusi isim sayrqsa, O yax oxuyur cmlsindki yax szn d zrf hesab etmy
haqq verir. nki xsusi isim olan Yax slind siftin semantik baxmdan konversi-
yalamas, yni bir nitq hisssindn digrin keid almas nticsind meydana glmidir.
II. Morfoloji-sintaktik konversiya.
Morfoloji-sintaktik konversiya hr hans bir nitq hisssin mnsub szn baqa
bir nitq hisssin kerkn hmin nitq hisssin mxsus qrammatik kateqoriyalarn
kililrini d qbul etmyi nzrd tutur(3,68). Szdzldici kililr vasitsi il
bir nitq hisssindn digrin ken szlrdn istr Azrbaycan dili, istrs d baqa
dillrin qrammatika kitablarnda geni bhs olunmudur (5;6). Bu sasn semantik-
morfoloji konversiyaya aiddir.
Morfoloji-sintaktik chtdn konversiyaya urayan sz substantivlm zaman
hal, kmiyyt mnsubiyyt v xbrlik kililrini, elc d artikl v kmki hisscik-
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lri qbul edir. Siftlr aid olduu szn qarsnda he bir formal lamt damr. Hal-
buki konversiyaya uram, yni isimlmi siftlr hal, kmiyyt, xbrlik kililri
qbul edir, elc d artikllrl ilnir. Msln, 1) Yadn khnsi d dilin zbri, nnn
iynin niy yk oldu?! (B.Vahabzad); 2) O da insan kimi hiss edib duyur, Yaxn-
yaman zdn oxuyur(S.Vurun). Burada substantivlmi yadn v yax-yaman
szlri mvafiq olaraq yiylik v tsirlik halda ilnmilr.
Yeri glmikn qeyd edk ki, siftlr kimi, feli-sift v saylar da konversiyaya
uradqda mxtlif hal kililri qbul ed bilr. Msln, 1)Yaz ilham deyni, rk
deyni; 2) Otuzdan adladqca gnd otuz min kr, Bam yelldirm hdr ken illr
(B.Vahabzad).
Maraqldr ki, Azrbaycan dilind sra say funksiyasnda x edn ilk, son v
axr szlri d substantivlrk hal kilisi qbul edir. Msln, Yz illr ts d,
unutmaz rk, Vtnin ilkini, andn ilkini (S.Vurun).
Yeri glmikn qeyd edk ki, ilk, son v axr szlrinin hans nitq hisssin aid
olmas il bal mbahisli fikirlr mvcuddur. Bel ki, Azrbaycan dilinin izahl l-
tind ilk sz sift kimi tqdim v izah olunur. Ltd yazlmdr: lk. Sif. 1)
birinci, vvlinci, n vvl olan, n qabaq (son qarlql) - ilk uaq, ilk tssrat, il
sr...; 2) balca, sas, n vacib, n mhm. Elimin olsa da aslan ryi, Ehtiyatdr
igidin ilk bzyi (A. aiq)(1).
Bu szlr semantik baxmdan da say, sralanma mnasnda x edir v sintaktik
mvqed tyin olur. Saylarn cmld tyin funksiyas damas is tbiidir.
Konversiya zaman sift, feli sift v saylarn mnsubiyyt kateqoriyasnn mor-
foloji gstricisini qbul etmsi d mahid olunur. Msln, Khnsin atmam
tz arzular glir(B.Vahabzad).
Grndy kimi, substantivlm zaman sift, feli-sift v saylar sasn III x-
sin tkinin mnsubiyyt kilisini qbul edir.
Azrbaycan v digr trk dillrind tkd olan szlr cm kilisi qbul etmkl
isiml bilir. Msln, Saznda eybcr sslr uyduran, Saxta xallar vuran cavanlar
da var (B.Vahabzad); Bir syd altna yd qzlar, airi grmyn o vfaszlar (S.
Vurun); Salon byk, glnlrin saysa min-min, Divar boyu ayaq st duranlar da
var (B.Vahabzad);
Uzaq, yaxn, axam, gndz, shr, gec, sabah kimi zrflri d kmiyyt kilisi
qbul edrk substantivlir. Msln: Mn sahili olmayan dnizlr istyirm, axam-
lar olmayan gndzlr istyirm (B.Vahabzad).
Ntic etibar il demk istrdik ki, morfoloji-sintaktik konversiya sintaktik konver-
siyaya nisbtn daha geni yaylmdr v burada konversiya drcsi daha ykskdir.
DBYYAT
1. Azrbaycan dilinin izahl lti. II c., Elm nriyyat, Bak,1980
2. Adilov M., Cavadov . Azrbaycan dilind substantivlm. Azrbaycan SSR EA Xbrlri (dbiy-
yat, dil v incsnt seriyas), 1966, 2,
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
45
3. Axundov A. Azrbaycan dilind konversiya. Azrbaycan dili v dbiyyat tdrisi, 1977, 1.
4. Axundov A. mumi dililik. Bak, 1988.
5. Cfrov S. Azrbaycan dilind sz yaradcl, Bak, 1960;
6. Hseynzad M. Masir Azrbaycan dili. Morfologiya, Bak, 1973
7. Mmmdov B. Mxtlif sistemli dillrd siftlrin substantivlmsinin sbblri haqqnda. Azr-
baycan mktbi, 1970, 7.
8. Mmmdov B. Mxtlif sistemli dillrd feli-siftlrin substantivlmsi mslsin dair. ADU-
nun elmi srlri (dil v dbiyyat), 1971, 1.
9. Masir Azrbaycan dili. Elm, II hiss, Bak,1980
10. M.Hseynzad. Masir Azrbaycan dili. Morfologiya. Maarif nriyyat, Bak,1973,
11. ...
. , , 1969, 5-6

VOCABULARY TEACHING THROUGH BODY LANGUAGE
AND FACIAL EXPRESSION
Nigar Orucova
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
norucova@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
All languages have words. Vocabulary learning and teaching is urgent matter in the learning new
word or in the second language acquisition. The coining of new words never stops. Even there are some
words that are not active, we never use them in our communication process. A word is more complex
phenomenon and it has different functions- grammatical functions. One word may have a variety of
overlapping meanings. Also the word can have the same or similar meaning but be used in different situation.
Therefore language teachers looks for different techniques such as visual, aural and verbal techniques. In
order to improve vocabulary miming, jesting and role-play are efficient activities.They are related to body
language and facial expressions. Learning vocabulary through body language and facial expression helps
to learners easy remembering this word when they need. Nonverbal activities can develop learners com-
prehension in language because of the fact that the use of language and physical action.
Key words: teaching vocabulary, techniques, body language, facial expression.

Language learning is a difficult task which requires a long period of time and effort
to understand and produce. With the advent of communicative language techniques,
learners communicating in the target language became as the focal point in language
classrooms. However, it should not be neglected that the learner has to have sufficient
vocabulary knowledge as well as structural and cultural knowledge in order to comprehend
the message and in order to express himself. Therefore, vocabulary teaching has a sig-
nificant value in language teaching. Without grammar very little can be conveyed, but
without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Nevertheless, memorizing long lists of
words is not the best way to develop and to enlarge vocabulary knowledge because of
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the fact that it is not a natural way of learning and students are not able to internalize
the subject matter.
Consequently, communicative techniques such as games and drama activities that
give students an opportunity of using the words in meaningful learning conditions can
be helpful. Vocabulary cannot be taught. It can be presented, explained, included in all
kind of activities, but it must be learned by the individual. The vocabulary we understand
and the vocabulary we can use varies in nature and in quantity from one person to
another even in our native language. Consequently, teachers can help their students by
giving them ideas on how to learn vocabulary and some guidance on what to learn. It
should also be stressed that passive vocabulary knowledge of learners as well as active
vocabulary knowledge should be taken into consideration. Not all of the words a learner
hears during an instructional period need become a part of active vocabulary. Some
words in the target language will possibly remain passive; that is, we will be able to
understand them when we hear or read but will not use them in speaking or writing.
Vocabulary, as a subsystem of language, followed grammar during the days when the
structural linguists and video-lingualism were at their most popular days. In video-lingual
method depended on the idea that learners should concentrate on mastering the basic
sentence patterns of the language and when they mastered all these patterns, they could
use new vocabulary.
1

Vocabulary teaching is one of the most important key concepts in English language
teaching classes. Nevertheless, in previous years, language teaching programs were
prepared to teach basically the grammar. It was believed that after the students had
mastered the grammar, they should be taught most words. Therefore, language teachers
gave little attention to techniques for helping students learn vocabulary. And the language
study was done as a word memorization with long lists of words. Lots of strategies are
used to teach vocabulary today. A teacher may use them in an integrated way according
to his students` needs, abilities and levels.
The model which has been used in teaching process is based on the principles of
John Dewey`s Learning by doing
2
. The aim of this study is to increase the vocabulary
success level of the students. The objectives of teaching process and activities can be
summarized as follows:
1. Increasing vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary retention of the students
through the use of body language and facial expressions.
2. Activating students abilities in the classroom through physical activities such as
miming and role-play and increasing their motivation and acquisition level
through learning by doing principle.
3. Encouraging students to take part actively in their own learning process.
4. Encouraging students to use and to practice the words which they have been
taught.
Miming and the play have provided more permanent learning because of the fact
they have been able to do and to see while learning.
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END NOTE
1. Saroban, Arif. The Teaching of Language Skills. Ankara: Hacettepe-Ta 95, 2001
2. Paul, Ekman and Wallace, Freisen, Unmasking the Face: A Guide to Recognizing
Emotions from Facial Clues, Los Altos, Malor Books, 2003
REFERENCES
1. Alvino E. Fantini, New Ways in Teaching culture, 1997
2. Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Longman Publications, 2001
3. Maley Duff, Drama Techniques in Language Learning, 1987
4. Nelie McCaslin, Creative Drama in the Classroom and Beyond, 2006
5. Paul, Ekman and Wallace, Freisen, Unmasking the Face: A Guide to Recognizing Emotions from
Facial Clues, Los Altos, Malor Books, 2003
6. Ray L. Birdwhistell, Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication, 1970
7. Saroban, Arif. The Teaching of Language Skills. Ankara: Hacettepe-Ta 95, 2001
8. Susan Holden, Drama in Language Teaching, 1981
9. Nunan, David. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Newyork: Heinle Heinle Publishers, 1999

COLOUR TERMS
Chinara Quliyeva
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
qcinare@bk.ru
ABSTRACT
We have different terms to define colours; e.g: hue. Hue is somewhat synonymous to what we usually
refer to as "colors". Red, green, blue, yellow, and orange are a few examples of different hues.
So we differentiate them within Berlin and Kays eleven basic color categories white, black, red,
yellow, green, blue, brown, grey, purple, pink, orange. If a language has only two colors and all languages
have at least two colors they are always white and black; if a language has three colours, the one added
is red; if a fourth is added, it will be either green or yellow; when a fifth is added, it will then include both
green and yellow; the sixth added is blue; the seventh added is brown; and if an eighth or more terms are
added, it or they will be purple, pink, orange, or gray (Brown 1991: 13-14). The basic colors are black and
white, plus the primary colours, red, blue, yellow and green. But the value is a measurement of the brightness
of a colour. The brighter a color is, the higher is its value. For example, a vivid yellow is brighter than
dark blue, therefore its value is higher than that of the blue.
These are terms to describe how a color varies from its original hue. If white is added, the lighter
version of the color is called a tint of the color. On the other hand, if black is added the, darker version of
the color is called a shade of the color.
Key terms: basic colour terms, hue, value, tint and shade
Today every natural language that has words for colors is considered to have from
two to twelve basic color terms. All other colors are considered by most speakers of
that language to be variants of these basic color terms. Italian and Russian have twelve,
distinguishing blue and azure(goy). That doesn't mean English speakers cannot describe
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the difference of the two colors, of course; however, in English, azure is not a basic
color term because one can say bright sky blue instead, while pink is basic because
speakers do not say light red.
Color words in a language can also be divided into abstract color words and des-
criptive color words. Abstract color words are words that only refer to a color. In
English white, black, red, yellow, green, blue, brown, and gray are abstract color words.
These words also happen to be 'basic color terms' in English as described above, but
colors like maroon(tund qirmiz) and magenta(moruq rengi0 are also abstract though
they may not be considered 'basic color terms', either because they are considered by
native speakers to be too rare, too specific. Descriptive color words are words that are
secondarily used to describe a color but primarily used to refer to an object or pheno-
menon. "Salmon", "rose", "saffron", and "lilac" are descriptive color words in English.
Colors in some languages may be denoted by descriptive color words even though other
languages may use an abstract color word for the same color. The word "orange" is
difficult to categorize as abstract or descriptive because both its uses, as a color word
and as a word for an object, are very common and it is difficult to distinguish which
of the two is primary.
The study shows that many color terms due to economical and cultural changes
were borrowed from French and Latin. Much of the color vocabulary of a particular
language is to a considerable degree the product of culture (McNeill 1972: 24, Lyons
1999:55). Different cultures have different terms for colors. Cultural color associations
can differ widely. Western brides consider a white dress to be traditional, and in Anglo-
American culture, wearing "something blue" is equally traditional. In some Asia/Pacific
countries, however, it is customary for brides to wear red. We wear black to funerals;
in India it is common to wear white.. Christians think of heaven as white or blue in
the Koran, the term for "greenness" is found as inhabitants of paradise. For the Chinese,
the color red is strongly associated with good luck, an association most Westerners
don't have. Not only does the mother tongue determine how we see, observe, notice,
and classify colors, but also the state of technology, industryColors are used in very
different ways in different color idioms across languages. Let's just take green as an
example. In English alone, "he is green" can mean, depending on the context: 1. He is
inexperienced 2. He is envious 3. He is environmentally aware.
A comprehensive list of such color idioms used in English and many other languages
has been compiled..E,g:
in the black - successful or profitable
once in a blue moon - to occur extremely rarely or only once in a life-time.
The world we live in is a world of color. Our eyes can perceive everything. At last I
can say that colour terms are in everywhere.
REFERENCES
1. Brent Berlin and Paul Kay (1969) Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution
2. Giordano Beretta and Nathan Moroney, 2008. Cognitive Aspects of Color.
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HISTORICAL FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS
Narmin Huseynova
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
nena-77@rambler.ru
ABSTRACT
As in some ancient and modern languages compounds play the very important role in English language
system. In the investigation we have found new definitions that have been given to compounds, their models
arising on the basis of ancient, middle and new time and the most productive compound words have been
grouped for their different peculiarities.
Investigated literature linguistics shows that, the issue of existing compound word in languages and
its composition part was one of the problems of linguistics involving the attention of the linguists even
before century. Here we have also showed the place of stress in compound words belonging to modern
time and their way of using. The unfinished full formation theory that was based on the origin of the
compound words has been involved to the investigation in Modern Times.
Key words: Old English, Middle English, Modern English, compounds.

When we say the origin of compound words it is usually intended the expanding
and enriching of language vocabulary system. Of course, the creation of the new words
is the main function of compound words.
Though the formation of compounds in the language system is connected with
following stage of the mentality, there is no any information about exact history of
compounds in literature linguistics. But it doesnt mean that the linguists didnt pay
attention to the issue of the formation of compound words, on the contrary to it, this
subject has been analyzed by linguists in different times. The subject of the formation
of compounds has been investigated not only by English linguists but also German,
Russian and other linguists.
In English linguistics L.V. Arnold, O. Jespersen, H. Marchland, H. Sweet, B. Ilyish,
V. Vinogradov and others made different investigations on the origin of compounds
and their way of using. Let us look through the thoughts of some linguists.
A prominent English linguist H. Sweet in his book A new English Grammar,
Logical and Historical he mentioned detailed information about compounds. He wrote
that Compounds or complex words consist of joining of the two words and for their
form and logic they are equal to simple words [1.24]
H. Sweet also mentioned that If the complex words dont have special meaning,
it is impossible to distinguish them from word-combination. In complex words structural
parts are more closely connected to each other than in word-combinations. [1.26]
V.Vinogradov mentioned 2 methods of forming compound words: I - turning the
word to the word-combination and II compound words forming on the word-building
models affermed in the language system. Vinogradov calls the first method as sin-
tactical method and the second one as Syntactic morphological method.[2.13]
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In German linguistics different theories on compounds were mentioned by Y. Grimm
and he devided compond word into 2 parts as common and proper compounds. He
writes that, there is no relation between the components of compound words and thats
why compouunds are not same with word-combinations.
In his book A course in modern English Lexicology R.S.Ginsburg the following
classifications of compounds and changing on their formation:
First, from Phonetic side he mentions that, the place of stress in compound words
is changable. Two words have their own stress, but when they combine the place of
stress changes.
Second, from Structural side Ginsburg shows that, there is special row and suc-
cession in complex words. Thus from the combination of two words there form copmlex
words belonging to different parts of speech.
Finally, from Graphic side he shows the correct way of writing of complex words.
Complex words can be written with a hyphen and joint.[3.141-142]
A Russian linguist A.I.Smirnitski analyzed the subject of compounds under the
fullformation theory. But his exploration remained incompleted. The full formation
theory has internal and external elements such as phonetic, morphological and
orphographic elements.
According to our researches, we have found that the history of English is divided
into 3 periods: The first is Old English (it encompasses V-XI centuries). It also calls
Anglo Saxon Period. The second is Middle English (it encompasses XI-XV centuries)
and finally, Mordern English (it suurounds from XV time up to now). Let us analyze
the formation of compounds according to above mentioned periods.
Compounds belonging to Old English include itself compund nouns, compound
adjectives and compound verbs. Compound nouns were formed from the following
combinations:
1. Noun stem+noun stem: raindrop, heartache, rainbow, zod-sunu, winte-tid
2. Adjective +noun stem: holiday, sweetmeat, mid-night OE, neah-br
3. Verb stem+noun stem: bc-hs, writ-bred
Formation of compound adjectives :
1. substantives+adjective: wn-sd OE/ satied with wine ME
2. adjectives+substansives: zld-mod OE/ glad-minde ME
3. adjective+adjective: wid-cp OE/ widely-knownME
Formationof compoud verbs:
1. Noun stem+verb stem: dl-niman OE/ take part ME
2. Adjective stem+verb stem: fiu-fyllan
There is also auxilary compounds in English word stock: OE rdes-man councillor,
MidE man of advice ,man ModE
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I.A.Arnold showed 2 kinds of formation of compounds: Endocentric (looking-glass,
sunbeam) and excocentric (pickpocket, dare-devil) [5.108]
As we mentioned above, the Modern Period of English begins from XVth century.
Compounds in Modern English formed in the folling ways:
Substantive compounds:
1. Final determinative compounds: air-pilot, gas-light, air-force
2. Initial determinative compounds: tiptoe
3. Copulative Compounds: Schlesrving-Holstein
4. Appositional Compounds: maid-servant, servant-girl
5. Bahuvrihi Compounds: red-coat
String compounds: Here the first element is a complex word: moonlight nights,
biy-girl attitude. The compounds used with andare also included here: debtor and
creditor fashion, a cat and a dog life etc.
And the final is Clipped Compounds. In compoarison with String Compounds
here the first element is independent: foot-and-mouth= foot and moth disease, Steinway
=Stain Way Piano etc.
In Modern English some compounds were formed with the help of inner syntax.
Here the stucture of the words reminds the structure of sentences and phrases. Such as:
well-to-do, well-meaning, out-of-way.
The Modern Linguist Rochelle Lieber divided compounds into 2 part for their
productivity: Root compounds (the second element is not a verb (textile mill, towel
rack, prince consort)) and synthetic compounds (the second element is a verb (truck
driver, meat eating, waste diposal etc. [4.15]
According to our survey, some compounds in Modern English are fully idiomatic:
blackmail-getting money or some other profit from other person by threats, bluestocking-
a woman affecting literary tastes and learning etc. Some simple words existing in
Modern English are formed from the compounds belonging to OE and they are called
Hidden Compouds: OE windaga = wind + aga / window ModE
Fianally, as a result of our research, we have come to conclusion that, though it is
possible to define some general criterias of compounds, there is no given full definition
of compounds. According to our research, it is easy to find examples compunds in Old
and Modern English in comparison with Middle English. Besides it, we have come to
a conclusion that, many copmound words formed in Old English were also used in
Modern English.
REFERENCES
1. H.Sweet Enlish Grammar, logical and historical Great Britain. London 1900
2. .. 1977
3. R.S.Ginsburg, S.S.Khidel, G.Y.Knyazeva, A.A.Sankin A course in Modern English Lexicology.
Vyssaja Skola. Moscow. 1979
4. Rochelle Leiber Morphology and Lexical Semantics Cambridge 2004
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5. A Handbook of the English Grammar London 1966
6. http://englishtips.org/1150804550-compound-words-dominoes_taskmaster-ltd.html

MEANS OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Sarvin Alizadeh
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
alizade_servin@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
In my research, there are scores of definitions that researchers and scholars use to define non-verbal
communication. Non-verbal communication consists of all the messages other than words that are used in
communication. In oral communication, these symbolic messages are transferred by means of intonation,
tone of voice, vocally produced noises, body bearing, body gestures, facial expressions or pauses. When
individuals speak, they normally do not imprison themselves to the mere discharge of words. A great deal
of meaning is conveying by non-verbal means which always accompany oral discourse intended or not.
In other words, a spoken message is always sent on two levels at the same time, verbal and non-verbal.
Key words: Verbal, Non-verbal communication, eye movement, neurophysiologic aspects.

In this research paper, I introduce means of non-verbal communication. It is quite
usual to forget about many aspects of non-verbal communication when hearing this
notion. In fact, what come to mind immediately are body gestures or facial expressions.
However, there are many more aspects. People assume that non-verbal actions do not
lie and therefore they tend to believe the non-verbal message when a verbal message
contradicts it. This was proven in tests in which subjects were asked to react to sentences
that appeared friendly and inviting when reading them but were spoken angrily. In short,
people try to make sense of the non-verbal behavior of others by attaching meaning to
what they observe them doing. Consequently, these symbolic messages help the hearer
to interpret the speakers intention and this indicates the importance of non-verbal
communication in the field of interpretation.
When we dont know someone, we use their body language to get first impressions
of them. In most cases, the impressions we make are wrong, as a positive form of body
language may mean something negative about them. For example, someone who moves
around a lot may be seen as energetic and efficient. In some cases, this may be correct,
but it can mean that they are uncomfortable in the situation and also nervous.
Intonation
Intonation is the way that the senders pitch of voice rises and falls when speaking.
For example, it shows the interpreter whether the speaker expresses his or her message
in the form of a question or statement. In the first case, the voice rises at the end of the
phrase or the sentence and in the second case, it falls. At the same time, intonation in-
dicates the end of an entity of information, which-in written communication -is shown
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by means of a comma, semicolon, point, exclamation mark or question mark. Another
function of intonation is to lay emphasis on a particular word or idea, a detail that the
interpreter must not fail to be aware of.
Tone of voice
The tone of voice is a means by which the speaker implies his or her attitude to
the message. It is also a means by which he seeks a reaction from the hearer. In a po-
litical debate, for instance, the tone of voice is likely to be rousing, whereas on television
the daily news is communicated in a more factual tone. Other examples of tone of voice
are: aggressive, critical, nervous, disappointed, monotonous, friendly, enthusiastic,
vivid, persuasive, etc.
Vocally produced noises
Spoken discourse can be accompanied by vocally produced noises that are not
regarded as part of language, though they help in communication for the expression
of attitude or feeling. Such non-lexical expressions differ in important respects from
language: They are much more similar in form and meaning, i.e. Universal, as a whole
in contrast to the great diversity of language.
Vocally produced noises include laughter, shouts, screams of joy, fear, pain, as
well as conventional expressions of disgust, triumph, etc., traditionally spelled ugh!,
ha ha!
Body posture
Body posture is the bearing or the position of the speakers body. It is a more or
less stable state and thus not to be confused with body gestures which are movements.
Body posture can be characteristic and assumed for a special purpose or it can corres-
pond to the normal expectations in the context of a particular situation. Obviously one
can be lying down, seating, or standing. Normally, these are not the elements of posture
that convey messages.
Facial expressions and eye movement
Facial expressions are dynamic features which communicate the speakers attitude,
emotions, intentions, and so on. The face is the primary source of emotions. During oral
communication, facial expressions change continually and are constantly monitored
and interpreted by the receiver. Examples are: a smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn or
sneer.
Pause
A pause can have two different functions:
1. It can be a brief suspension of the voice to indicate the limits and relations of sen-
tences and their parts. A pause then assumes a similar function in oral discourse to
intonation.
2. It can consist of a temporary vocal inaction revealing the speakers uncertainty,
hesitation, tension or uneasiness. In this context, a pause can also be judgmental
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by indicating favor or disfavor, agreement or disagreement. Consequently, the non-
verbal cue of a pause can give rise to problems when interpreting it because its
meaning can vary considerably. It can have a positive or negative influence on the
process of communication.( http://aiic.net/ViewPage.cfm/page1662.htm#3)
According to the Alison Doyles ideas its better to do these points during the
interview:
1. Make eye contact with the interviewer for a few seconds at a time.
2. Smile and nod (at appropriate times) when the interviewer is talking, but, don't
overdo it.
3. Don't laugh unless the interviewer does first.
4. Be polite and keep an even tone to your speech. Don't be too loud or too quiet..
Don't slouch.
5. Do relax and lean forward a little towards the interviewer so you appear interested
and engaged.
6. Don't lean back. You will look too casual and relaxed.
7. Keep your feet on the floor and your back against the lower back of the chair.
8. Pay attention, be attentive and interested.
9. Listen.
10. Don't interrupt.
11. Stay calm. Even if you had a bad experience at a previous position or were fired,
keep your emotions to yourself and do not show anger or frown.
12. Not sure what to do with your hands? Hold a pen and your notepad or rest an arm
on the chair or on your lap, so you look comfortable. Don't let your arms fly around
the room when you're making a point. (http://jobsearch.about.com)
Non-verbal communication does not only play a role in face-to-face situations. It
is also important in mediated communication, for example, as this is the case for tele-
phone interpreting, where the interpreter does not see the speaker.
Non-verbal communication is emotionally expressive as people from all cultures
smile, cry, caress, or then repress their emotions through body or facial action. Many
emotional expressions seem to be displayed universally. However, non-verbal behavior
varies from culture to culture, which means it is specific to each culture and may be
interpreted differently.
Non-verbal communication is not only crucial in a plain daily communication si-
tuation but also for the interpreter. Non-verbal communication can take various forms,
each of which illustrates or replaces a certain part of the verbal communication. It includes
many more elements than one might think at first. Whether non-verbal communication
supports the interpreters in their task or presents a difficulty, it will always play an
important role.
REFERENCES
1. http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00451/nonverbalcom.htm
2. http://www.andrews.edu/~tidwell/lead689/NonVerbal.html
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3. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24114395/Non-Linguistic-Communication
4. http://jobsearch.about.com
5. http://aiic.net/ViewPage.cfm/page1662.htm


LEXICAL PARALLELS IN TURKIC DIVAN OF FUZULI
Sevinj Aliyeva
Doctoral student, the Institute of Linguistics
The National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
agayevasevinc@ymail.com
ABSTRACT
M. Fuzuli one of the nice presented poets - polyglots of the Azerbaijan people which successfully
wrote and created in three languages of the east-on Azerbaijan, persian and on arabian languages.
M. Fuzuli's creativity had deep influence on development medieval a Turkic literary language in
general. M. Fuzuli's creativity has ennobled level of the Azerbaijan literary language on high boundaries.
M. Fuzuli has created literary school which has exemplified and others turkic peoples.
Key words: Days, time, harm, joyful, separation, equal, to rebuke, to upbraid.

Development of Azerbaijan literary language and he has played the strong part in
the history of development of the mother tongued poem. It is necessary to say that he
occurs from necessity of to reimburse definite demand of each word in the dictionary
structure of the language and it is used from him.
Research of a literary language of valuable monuments of verbal art of Azerbaijan
XVI centuries allows a rich material to find out history, specificity of formation of
dictionary fund (3,465), lexical structure of literary Azerbaijan language, to track process
of assimilation of loans.
During glance at the vocabulary of modern literary language we see loanwords
adjoining with own national words. So events in the lexicography informing that people
,
s
gets the economic and cultural relations between other nations.
The turkic Divan of Fuzuli most valuable treasury literary-art language of XVI
century.
The analysis of language of products of M. Fuzuli, in particular their dictionary
structure and character of use of loans in a context of dictionary language gives an
interesting material for reflexions. Specificity of use by the poet of loans, originality
of its approach to this problem is found out. Some of words used in Divan by Fuzuli
are not existing in modern literary and peoples languages. So that, some of these words
are met in written monuments before and after XVI century.
The poet it is masterful used polysemantism, having given to a verse additional
expressiveness and beauty. For the products the poet always preferred words, earn the
citizenship right in native Azerbaijan language (5,12).
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In M. Fuzuli's language of means poetic graphics, being used in the primary value,
or being enriched by additional value, serve deepening of understanding of all verse in
its part. For example: Ruzigarm xo keirdi ka Kim dvran dnb, Oldu hvalm xrab,
ol ruzigarm qalmad (Days I perfectly spent, it is a pity, time has changed, the Harm
became me, alas, days of that of a trace does not remain.)
Words ruzigar are meant by""life", but speaking Ruzigarm xo keirdi the
enamoured means days of meetings, appointments to a beloved. The bitterness of
separation expressed here a combination ol ruzigarm qalmad , that is, a trace of
those days does not remain, deepens the information that former joyful days are not
present more (1,142).
In "Divan" of Fuzuli the word "ten" in modern literary Azerbaijan language is used
already in two values: "beraber" - "equal" and "danlamaq", "mezemmet etmek" - "re-
bukes", to "reproach" (2,400). For example: Let urub qalibi-fersudemi geh hebs qlr,
Geh serasimev ryan buraxr sehraye (I.267). (That I smother tired to me breaking
off, it captivates, poor, naked, in desert it expels). A word "ryan" in "Divan" XVI
centuries it is used by the poet in value "naked", "nude". In a modern literary language
it is used not independently, and in a combination to an auxiliary word "lt" also with
value "naked" in shape "lt-ryan".
Researches show, that M.Fuzuli's literary influence took place also on creativity
of national writers which were engaged in record of folklore genres of time. M.Fuzuli's
huge influence and on ghuzname which has been written down in the end of XVI
- the beginning of XVII centuries is observed in this connection by us is revealed some
parallels about which speech will go.
Parallel nouns: dush (dream), iye//issi (owner), tanuq (witness), n (voice).
Parallel verbs: nmk//nlmk (to recover, become better), saqnmaq (to be protec-
ted, preserve itself), savmaq (to be given), sgritmk (to dance, force to dance).
Lexical parallels in "Divan" and in ghuzname show M. Fuzuli, that these words
were active lexical units in public Azerbaijan language of XVI century. As show re-
searches, great M.Fuzuli as national sings, in the poetic creativity attached huge signi-
ficance to the words full from live national language. Communication of these parallels
that guzname, a folklore genre, also contained numerous national elements. For
this reason the use of lexical parallels in "Divan" of M.Fuzuli and in ghuzname is
a natural case.
REFERENCES
1. Alizade S. Shah beytler. Bak: Elm, 1995, 171 s
2. Axundov A. Azerbaycan dilinin izahl lueti. Bak, 2005, 451 s.
3. Azerbaycan edebi dili tarixi. I cild. XIII-XVI esrler. Bak: erq-Qerb, 2007, 478 s
4. Mir Celal. Fuzuli senetkarl. Bak: Maarif, 1994, 249 s
5. Hacyev T. Fuzuli : dil senetkarl. Bak: Genclik, 1994, s.4-69
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
57
ENGLISH WORDS OF TURKIC ORIGIN
Turane Abdullayeva
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz university
turane_1988@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
None of language is developed under the glass cover. Environment always influences the language
and traces it in every step. (..,
, . 1968., .11) Ch.X.Bakayev showed that process of the development of human society, nations
and their languages always contact each others. It is impossible to describe a nation who quite isolates from
other nations. Loanwords are words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language
(the source language). A loan word, borrowed word or borrowing is a word taken over from another
language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of
the English language. The English language has vast debts. 70% of the entries are borrowed (I. V. Arnold,
lexicology of English). Languages of Turkic peoples left numerous traces in different languages, including
the English language. Turkic borrowings, which belong to the social and political vocabulary, are
generally used in special literature and in the historical and ethnographical works, which relate to the life
of Turkic and Muslim peoples. The ethnographical words are generally used in the scientific literature,
and in the historical and ethnographical texts.
Key words: borrowing, loan words, acquire, trace, penetrate.

The adoption of Indian words, among which there were some Turkic borrowings,
became one of the ways for the words of the Turkic origin to penetrate English. Addi-
tionally, several words of Turkic origin penetrated English through East European
languages like Russian and Polish. German, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, Hungarian
and Serbo-Croatian were also intermediary languages for the Turkic words to penetrate
English, as well as containing numerous Turkic loanwords themselves (e.g. Serbo-
Croatian contains around 5,000 Turkic loanwords, primarily from Turkish).
In the nineteenth century, Turkic loanwords, generally of Turkish origin, began to
penetrate not only through the writings of the travelers, diplomats and merchants, and
through the ethnographical and historical works, but also through the press. In 1847,
there were two English-language newspapers in Istanbul The Levant Herald and The
Levant Times, seven newspapers in French, one in German and 37 in Turkish. Turkish
contributed the largest share of the Turkic loans, which penetrated into the English
directly. This can be explained by the fact that Turkey had the most intensive and wide
connections with England. Nevertheless, there are many Turkic loans in English, which
were borrowed by its contacts with other peoples Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Uzbeks,
Kazakhs and Kirghiz.
Most of the Turkic loans in English carry exotic or ethnographical connotations.
They do not have equivalents in English, do not have synonymic relations with pri-
mordial words, and generally are used to describe the fauna, flora, life customs, political
and social life, and an administrative-territorial structure of Turkic regions. But there
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are many Turkic loans, which are still part of the frequently used vocabulary. Some
Turkic loans have acquired new meanings, unrelated to their etymology.
To conclude, the words of the Turkic origin began penetrating English as early as
the Middle Ages, the Turkic loanwords found their way into English through other
languages, most frequently through French. Since the 16c, beginning from the time of
the establishment of the direct contacts between England and Turkey, and Russia, in
English appeared new direct borrowings from Turkic languages. German, Polish,
Russian, Serbo-Croatian, French, Arabic, Armenian, Afrikaans, Hungarian, Yiddish,
Indian, Spanish, Italian, Latin, Malayan, to a different extent, took part in the process
of the transfer of the Turkic words into English. The main language from which the
borrowings were made, was Turkish. Lets look many examples, which words entered
English from Turkish.
Altilik-from Turkish altlk. A coin, originally of silver and equivalent to 6
piasters, formerly used in Turkey
Araba-from Russian arba, which is from Turkish araba. A carriage used in Tur-
key and neighboring countries.
Arnaut-from Turkish arnavut, "an Albanian". An inhabitant of Albania and neigh-
boring mountainous regions, especially an Albanian serving in the Turkish army.
Bairam-from Turkish bayram, literally "a festival"
Baklava-from Turkish baklava
Bashaw-from Turkish baa, a variant of pasha
Bashi-bazouk-from Turkish babozuk
Bashlyk-from Turkish balk, "a hood", from ba, "a head"
Kasseri-from New Greek kaseri, from Turkish kaer, kaar
Kavass-from Turkish kavas
Dey-from Turkish day, literally "a maternal uncle"
Dolma-from Turkish dolma, which means "filled" or "stuffed"
Cafeneh-from Turkish kahvane, kahvehane "a coffee shop, caf", from kahve
"coffee" + hane "house"
Caique-from Turkish kayk
Shawarma-ultimately from Turkish evirme, which literally means "turning"
Shish-from Turkish i, which literally means "a skewer"
Tavla-from Turkish tavla, a version of the board game backgammon
REFERENCES
1. I.V.Arnold, lexicology of English, Moscow, 1986.
2. Thomas Finkenstaedt and Dieter Wolff, Oxford Dictionary, 1973.
3. .., , .1968, .11
4. .., , .1977, .3
5. Robert. K. Barnhart, Dictionary of Etymology, 1988.
6. Web site: (Prince, John Dyneley (1931). Surviving Turkish Elements in Serbo-Croatia. http://www.
jstor.org/pss/593448. Retrieved 2008-10-21
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
59
THE USE OF MODAL VERBS IN AZERBAIJANI, ENGLISH
AND GERMAN LANGUAGES
Vefa Bayramova
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
bsahbaz@rambler.ru
ABSTRACT
Modal verb differs from auxiliary and modal (defective) verbs. An auxiliary verb has no independent
meaning of its own but helps to build up the analytical forms of the English verb. The verbs can, may, must,
ought, shall, will, need and dare are called modal verbs. Modal verben ist sollen, mssen, knnen, mgen,
durfen, mchten, wollen. In Azerbaijan language modal words differ from in English and German languages:
modal words announce with affirimation, modal words announce with supposition an doubt, modal words
announce with result and generalizing, modal words announce with source of the thought and so on...
Keywords: Modal verbs, used three languages, meaning.

ngilis dilind ilnn modal fellr demk olar ki, tosuz v msdr formasinda
ilnirlr. Bu fellri ilnm yerin v n sas is mnalarna daha ox fikir vermk
lazmdr. Bu fellr bzi hallarda biri digrinin yerind iln bilir. Msln: can modal
feli bacarq, qabiliyyt bildirir v onu be able to il vz etmk olur. Vasitli nitqd
could ilnir. be able to btn zamanlarda iln bilir. Must modal feli mcburiyyt,
vaciblik bildirir v have to formas must-n yerin digr zamanlarda ilnir. Hminin
may modal felinin yerin vasitli nitqd might ilnir. Msln: she said she could speak
Turkish. The teacher said that you might do tasks. Need feli hm modal fel kimi, hmd
sas fel kimi ilnir. Modal fel kimi ilndikd sual v inkar z il dzlir. sas fel
kimi ilndikd is felin sonunda s, ed ilnir, sual v inkar do, did il dzlir. Msln:
I need go there. Need I go there? I dont need to go there. (Galiniskaya M., English
Grammar for Pedogogical Institutes, 1953) 1
Alman dilind cmisi alt modal fel var. Bunlar wollen, mgen, mssen, sollen,
knnen fellridir. Bu dild ilnn modal fellr ingilis dilind ilnn bzi modal fellrl
txminn eyni mna ifad edir. Msln: wollen feli alman dilind istmk mnasndad,
can feli d ingilis dilind eyni mnan ifad edir. Ilnm yerlri is frqlidir. Modal
fellrin sas fellrdn frqi odur ki, modal fellr hrkt bildirmir, sadc hrkt
mnasibti bildirir. Msln: Mn alman dilini yrnirm. Ich lerne deutsche Sprache.
Bu cmld yrnmk (lernen) sas feldir v hrkt bildirir. Yni n etdiyimizi
bildirir. Mn alman dilini yrnmk istyirm. Ich will deutsche Sprache lernen, cm-
lsindki istmk feli, yni wollen feli hrkti deyil, hrkt mnasibti bildirir.
Mgen modal felindn ml gln v istrdim kimi baa dln mchten feli d bu
fellr srasna daxil edilir, daha ox wollen felini yerind ilnir, yni onu vz etmkl
daha ox etika, nzakt v felin arzu formasn bildirir. Fellrin xs gr dyiilmsi
zaman mchten feli d modal fellrin xs gr dyiilmsi qaydasna tabe olur. (de/
grammatik/verben/modalverben) 6
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Alman dilind modal fellr sual szsz v sual szl olmaqla iki yer ayrlr. Tr-
kibind modal fel olan sual szl sual cmllrind 1-ci yerd sual sz, 2-ci yerd
modal fel, sonra qalan cml zvlri v nhayt cmlnin sonunda sas fel msdr
formasnda yazlr. Msln: will ich in Baku Deutsch lernen?-sual szsz sual cm-
lsi. Wer will in Baku Deutsch lernen? - sual szl sual cmlsi. Alman dilind ilnn
bzi modal fellr xslr gr dyidikd kkdn dyiir. Alman dilind ilnn modal
fellr hrkt bildirmir, sadc hrkt mnasibt bildirir. xslr gr dyin modal
fellrin birinci v nc xsin tkind xs sonluu qbul edilimir. Yni birinci v
nc xsin tki eyni formada olur. (www.canoo. net/services/OnlineGrammar) 7
Azrbaycan dilind ngilis dili v Alman dilindn frqli olaraq modal szlr adlanr.
nki modal szlr kmki nitq hisssin aid bir termindir. Msln:Szsz, qlb
gec-tez bizim olacaqdr. Azrbaycan dilindki modal szlr bunlardr: tsdiq bildirn
modal szlr, gman v bh bildirn modal szlr, ntic v mumildirm bildirn
modal szlr, sra v ardcllq bildirn modal szlr, fikrin mnbyini bildirn modal
szlr, tssf bildirn modal szlr, bnztm v mqayis bildirn modal szlr.
Modal szlr quruluuna gr sad v mrkkb olurlar. Azrbaycan dilind ilnn
modal szlrin hams ayr yazlr. (Hseyinzad M., Masir Azrbaycan dili Morfolo-
giya, 2007 ) 2
Azrbaycan dilind ilnn modal szlr sylnn fikr aid myyn mnasibt
ifad edir. Modal szlr cml zvlrindn vergll ayrlr. Cmlnin vvlind, orta-
snda v sonunda iln bilir. Masir vziyytin gr modal szlri iki qism ayrmaq
olar: 1. sas nitq hisssi il omonim olanlar- grnr, deysn, demk, demli, bhsiz,
olsu ki, mxtsr, dem. Msln: yen hr gud bar taz grnr. 2. Yalnz modal
sz kimi ilnnlr- grnr, demk, demli, mxtsr, grsn, dem. Azrbaycan
dilind ilnn modal szlr feli v ismi modal szlr ayrlr. Feli modal szlr gr-
nr, deysn. Olsun ki, dem. Ismi modal szlr tssf ki, dogrusu, dz, lbtt, h-
qiqtn. (Nasoylu M. Zeynall M., Azrbaycan dili, 2008) 4 , (M..Sabir, Masir
Azrbaycan dbiyyat) 3
Hr dild ilnn modallar bir-birindn frqlndiklri kimi qismn oxarlqlar
da var. Ingilis dilind ilnn modal szlr Alman dilind ilnn modal slrl mnaca
oxayirlar ancaq, Azrbaycan dilind ilnn modal szlr bu iki dild ilnn modal
fellrdn mnaca frqlnir. Cmld ilnm yerlri d frqlidir. n sas fel v sz
olaraq, ilnm yerlrin gr, mnalarna gr, sad v mrkkbliyin gr bir-birindn
frqlnirlr.
REFERENCES
1. Galiniskaya M., English Grammar for Pedogogical Institutes, 1953
2. Hseyinzad M., Masir Azrbaycan dili Morfologiya, III hiss, 2007
3. M..Sabir, Masir Azrbaycan dbiyyat
4. Nasoylu M. Zeynall M., Azrbaycan dili, VIII nr, 2008
5. Palmer, F.R., Mood and Modality, Cambridge University Press, 2001
6. deutsch.lingo4u.de/grammatik/verben/modalverben, January 14
7. www.canoo.net\ Modalverb.html, January 14, 15
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
61
TYPES OF EPONYMS
Khatira Ahmedova
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
khatiraahmadova@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
There are so many ways of expanding the general vocabulary. Affixation, compounding and conversion
are the major sources of the great expansion of the vocabulary in the late modern period, but there are also a
number of minor ways in which words have been acquired. [ 2 ]
One of the minor sources of word-formation in the late modern period is to create common nouns
from the names of people or places. This way of word formation is termed as eponym. An eponym is the
name of a person or thing, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery,
or other item is named or thought to be named. Most eponyms originate from a person's surname: ampere,
for instance, from the French physicist Andr Mari Amper. Many eponymous words come from literary,
biblical or mythological sources: scrooge (a miser) - from Dickens's "A Christmas Carol"; cereal- from
Roman goddess of grain and agriculture, Ceres; as old as Methuselah, from the age of the Old Testament
petriarch.[ 2 ]
Created about a century ago, the term eponym is a coinage from two Greek words, epi, "on" or "upon",
and onama, "a name". One who is referred to as eponymous is someone who gives his or her name to
something. Some eponymous words are still capitalized like a proper noun, so those not capitalized are
most clearly eponyms. The important, defining property is that the word does not refer exclusively to the
person or place named by the proper noun, as does Marxism or Christian, but is used to refer to a general
category, as do quisling, boycott and fuchsias. [ 1 ]
Key words: eponym, eponymous, name, proper noun, place.

There are thousands of eponyms in everyday use in English today. Studying of them
develops an interesting insight into the rich heritage of the worlds most popular language
and its development. The greater part of these eponyms comes from world history and
literature.
Eponyms are roughly divided into 5 groups :
1. Product eponyms: These eponyms include brand names which has fallen into
general use. The commonplace products and services of today become the household
word of tomorrow. Kleenex, for example, is a brand of facial tissues, yet the word is
used today to refer to facial tissues of any brand. Xerox is a brand of photocopy machine;
that word, too, has been since adopted to refer to any brand of photocopy machine and,
moreover, also employed as a verb to describe the act of photocopying. More surprising
examples include escalator, heroin, and zipper. In the United Kingdom (but not in the
United States), biro and hoover are eponymous terms for pens and vacuum cleaners,
respectively. In Azerbaijani language, for instance, pampers has become an eponym
for diaper.[ http://www.rinkworks.com/words/eponyms.shtml ]
2. Historical and Geographical Eponyms: Common nouns deriving from geog-
raphical names describing names where certain things were found, produced, sold, are
sometimes called geographical eponyms. For instance, angora - 1. fabric or wool from
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the hair of the angora goat or rabbit; 2. long-haired variety of cat, goat, or rabbit. (An-
gora (= Ankara) in Turkey) [ 4 ]
Historical figures lend their names to ideas associated with them: The words boycott,
chauvinism, quisling, and sandwich all derive from personal names. For instance,
chauvinism -super patriotism of the fanatically mindless sort, lately expanded to include
blind loyalty to or a blinkered view of any group or issue. Named for Nicolas Chauvin, a
French soldier wounded seventeen times while serving under Napoleon. Retired with
honors, Chauvin did not stop singing Napoleon's praises and the glories of France, and
he was ridiculed for his unbridled boasting. [ 1 ]
Famous people have also been associated with items or components of clothing,
or material, for example, bloomer, cardigan, raglan, etc. Cardigan - James Thomas
Brudenell (1797-1863), who became the seventh Earl of Cardigan upon his father's
death, and for whom the cardigan sweater was named because he was frequently seen
wearing that collarless sweater with buttons down the front, was the sole heir to a for-
tune and a famous English name. [ 1 ]
Various groups of people are associated with proper names for locations. These
include bohemian, lesbian, and philistine. Lesbianism is the practice of homosexuality
by females. On the island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea during the earlier half of the
sixth century lived the Greek poet Sappho. She became the leader of a group of women
whose behavior was characterized by strong homosexual feelings. Hence from the name
given this manifestation we have sapphism, an eponymous derivative from her name,
and lesbianism, an eponymous derivative from her birthplace. [ 1 ]
3. Literary Eponyms: Fictional characters often evoke such strong qualities that
their names are assigned to those qualities. People who exhibit qualities of literary
characters are associated to them by being called for instance, a Casanova, a Romeo,
or a Svengali,etc. Azerbaijani language is also rich in such kind of literary eponyms.
For example, Majnun from " Leyli and Majnun " is an eponym for someone who has
deep affection.Other examples include Koroglu, Haji Gara and so on.
Storytellers with a noticeable quality have given their names to literary criticism
for the purposes of analogy, as in Dickensian (suggesting melodramatic poverty,
eccentric characters, or joyfulness), Homeric (epic), and Proustian (effecting personal
memories).
4. Scientific Eponyms: In science and technology, discoveries and innovations
are often named after the discoverer or popularizers as in the cases of Rudolf Diesel,
Alessandro Volta, Alzheimers disease and James Watt. For example, Celsius is a
scale and unit of measurement for temperature. It is named after the Swedish astronomer
Anders Celsius (17011744), who developed a similar temperature scale two years
before his death. Eponyms role is great in fixing the names of discoverers and inventors
in history. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celsius]
5. Mythological Eponyms: One of the sources inspiring eponyms is mythological
characters. For instance, fauna - all animals taken together. This word has been taken
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
63
from the name of Faunus, the Roman god of pastures and forests. [http://www. alpha-
dictionary.com/articles/eponyms/eponym_list_f.html]
It is always interesting to study the origin of words. By defining the origin of words
it is possible to get much information not only about the language but also about its
history.
REFERENCES:
1. " A New Dictionary of Eponyms "; Morton S. Freeman. 1997,p1
2. " The English Language. A Historical Introduction" ; C.Barber, Joan C, Beal, Philip A. Shaw; Second
edition, p.251
3. " " , 2011 . I; 11 (34)
4. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2007)
5. http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/eponyms.htm
6. http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/eponyms.htm literary
7. http://www.dailywritingtips.com/5-types-of-eponyms/
8. http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/eponyms/eponym_list_f.html
9. http://www.rinkworks.com/words/eponyms.shtml

THE PERIODS OF LANGUAGE CHANGES IN ENGLISH
Yegana Safarova
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
solee_y@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
In the world everything changes with time. Human society changes, too. Language as a social phe-
nomenon - the most important means by which people communicate with each other - changes, too. But
language changes rather slowly. From year to year, even from generation to generation, we may hardly
notice any change in any language at all. All living languages change with time. It is fortunate that they do so
rather slowly compared to the human life span. Many language changes are revealed in written records.
All languages are continually changing their sounds, their syntax and their meaning. This gradual
alteration is mostly unnoticed by the speakers of a language. English has undergone great, fundamental
changes in its development. A speaker of Modern English would find Old English unintelligible, because
it is quite different from what he speaks. The works of Chaucer or Shakespeare shows how much English
has changed in short time. Old English did not look like Standard English of today.
Key words: Old English, Middle English, Modern English, period, change.

The division of English into Old English (119-1066), Middle English (1065-1500)
and Modern English (1500-present) is marked by the dates or events in the English
history which profoundly influenced the English language. This division is really some
what arbitrary. So, according to Victoria Fromkin, the history of English and the changes
that have taken place in the language reflect non-linguistic history to some extent, as
suggested by the following dates:
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449 1066 Old English 449 Saxons invade Britain
6
th
century Religious literature
8
th
century Beowulf
1066 Norman Conquest
1066 1500 Middle English 1387 Canterbury Tales
1476 Caxtons printing press
1500 Great Vowel Shift
1500 Modern English 1564 Birth of Shakespeare
Old English was the language spoken by Saxons, Angles, and Jutes after they settled
on the British Islands. They came to the islands and brought with them their dialects
of the Germanic language. Since then they considered themselves as Englishmen. These
tribes set up seven kingdoms called the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy that included: Mercia,
Northumbria, Kent, Wessex, Sussex, Essex, and East Anglia. Four dialects were spoken
in these kingdoms: West Saxon, Kentish, Mercian and Northumbrian. So, the Old English
period began with several different dialects.
Old English is a West Germanic language and is closely related to Old Frisian.
According to Adrian Akmajian, Old English grammar was similar in some ways to
Classical Latin and much closer to modern German. It was fully inflected with two
grammatical numbers (singular and plural), five grammatical cases (nominative, dative,
genitive, accusative and instrumental) and three grammatical genders (masculine, fe-
minine and neuter). The most famous surviving work of the Old English period is the
epic poem Beowulf epic composed by an unknown poet.
The period of Middle English started with the Norman Conquest of England by
Northmen under the leadership of William the Conqueror. William invaded England,
and killed King Harold I at the battle of Hastings in 1066. The French occupation of
England continued for over four centuries, and was followed by the Modern English
Period. Middle English was influenced by both Anglo-Norman and, later, Anglo-French.
During this period the changes may be noted in every aspect of the language; its sounds,
words and the nature of its word stock. Many Old English words were replaced by
French ones. The most famous writer of the Middle English period was Geoffrey
Chaucer, and his best-known work is The Canterbury Tales.
The Modern English period probably started in 1500. This period is related to that of
Middle English by the Renaissance, which began in Italy in the fourteenth century but
reached England in the late fifteenth century. During this period there were the greater
and more important phonological, lexical, semantic and syntactic changes in the language.
According to Victoria Fromkin, The Great Vowel Shift had great influence on the
phonological system of English. The Great Vowel Shift took place mainly during the
15th century and was completed in the early period of Modern English. By the time
of William Shakespeare, the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern
English. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors:
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
65
firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly,
the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the Earth's surface, and the English
language adopted foreign words from many countries. Since the seventeenth century
with the policy of expansionism and colonialism carried out by the British colonialists.
English was widely spread to many parts of the world, such as America, Canada,
Australia, New Zealand and some other countries. English in the post-Renaissance
period has become a world language.
REFERENCES
1. Jean Aitchison. Linguistics. 2005
2. Victoria Fromkin. Robert Rodman. Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language. 2003
3. Adrian Akmajian. Richard A. Demers. Ann K. Farmer. Robert M. Harnish. 1995


HOW AZERBAIJANI STUDENTS LEARN DEGREES OF
ADJECTIVE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Haqiqat Aliyeva
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
aliyevahagigat@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
It is clear that, there are a lot of significant differences between all languages. They can be differing
typologically or genesically.For example: from morphological structure the Azerbaijan language included to
agglutinative groups but English included to analytical groups.
So when Azerbaijan students know degrees of comparison they can easily acquire English language.
The main purpose in my researching paper is to present you that how degrees of adjective is made,
what is the distinctive and similaritive qualities between them, also to show you that how Azerbaijani
students acquire or learn degrees of adjective in English language.
Key words: degrees of adjective, similaritive and distinctive qualities.

Dil cmiyytd formalad n ictimai hadis saylr v insanlar arasnda nsiy-
yt yaratmaq,fikri ifad etmk n vzsiz rol oynayr.Demli, bir milltin toplum
kimi yaamas n lazm olan balca rtlrdn n sas ana dilinin mvcudluudur.
Ana dili adic bir sz deyil,rklr hrart gtirn,insan z kemisin balayan,
glcy sslyn mnvi xzindir.Tsadfi deyil ki, mhur rus pedoqoqu Uinski
dilin varln bel qiymrlndirmidir. Bir milltin var-dvltini, torpan alsan mhv
olmaz, ancaq dilini alsan fvt olar, mhv olub gedr.
Dilin mvcudluunun maddi bazas saylan insan cmiyyti d inkiaf tarixi bo-
yunca milli srhdlr rivsind qalmayaraq,bu rivdn knara xr.Mhz bu
sbbdn milltlr arasnda nsiyyt ehtiyac duyulur.Mxtlif dil dayclar olan
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toplumlar,xalqlar milltlr bir-biril nsiyyt girmk n mtlq bir-birlrinin dill-
rini yrnmk mcburiyytind qalrlar.
Bu chtdn Azrbaycan Respublikasnda beynlxalq dil olan ngilis dilinin yr-
nilmsin byk ehtiyac var.nki,bazar iqtisadiyyatnn geni vst ald bir dvrd
hr birimizin mstqil fikir yrtmkd,biznesmenlrin dnya ticart arenasna daxil
olmasnda ingilis dilini bilmyin tkzibedilmz rolu vardr.Buna grd biz ingilis di-
lini yalniz nsiyyt girmk n deyil,hm d qrammatik quruluunu qanun qaydala-
rn bilmliyik.Bax bu chtdn mn siz ngilis dili il Azbaycan dili arasnda hm
eynilik,hm d myyn xsusiyytlri il frqlnn siftin drc lamtlrini aradrar-
kn gldiyim son nticni aqlamaq istyirm.
Hm leksik,hm d qrammatik mnas olan sas nitq hissrindn biri d siftdir.
Sift xs v yann lamt v keyfiyytini bildirir.
Bir ox dillrdn frqli olaraq Azrbaycan v ngilis dilind siftin n cins,n
hal,n d kmiyyt kateqoriyas var.O,hr zaman tyin etdiyi isimdn nc glir.Elc
d sift digr nitq hisslrindn daha ox bir xsusiyytin gr frqlnir.Bu da onun
drc lamti bildirmsidir.Siftin drclri ayr-ayr dililr trfindn,(hminin
myyn drslik kitablarnda)mxtlif cur qrupladrlb.
Msln: 1948 ci ildki drsliklrd siftin be drcsi verilmidir.Bunlar 1 azaltma,
2 kiiltm ,3 mqayis ,4 stnlk, 5 iddtlndirici.
1947 ci ild is .Dmirizad siftin drcrini yer blmdr:
1 adi, 2 azaltma, 3 oxaltma
Masir dvrmzd d ingilis dilind olduu kimi siftin drcsi var. Lakin,
Azrbaycan dilind siftin normadan azl, yaxud oxluu sas gtrlrs, ngilis
dilind yaya xas olan lamt digr yayla mqayis olunur.
Hr iki dild siftin drclri hm morfoloji, hm d sintaktik sulla dzlir.
Morfoloji sulla dzldiyi zaman ingilis dilind tk hecallarda er v -est -
kilisindn, Azrbaycan dilind is azaltma drcsind mtl,-mtraq,-n,-
sov,-msov,oxaltma drcsind is-ca v szn ilk samiti yerin m,p,r,s sslri
lav olunur.
Msln:Low-lower-lowest, Big-bigger-biggest
Yaxud: Sarmtl, amsov, qrmzmtraq, sarn.
Sintaktik sulla dzldiyi zamansa siftin vvlin kmki szlr lav olunur.
ngilis dilind gr ss ox hecaldrsa mqayis drcsind much, more, stnluk
drcsind most il ilnir.Azrbaycan dilind azaltma drcsind ala, thr,
km v aq szlrindn,oxaltma drcsind is siftlrin vvlin qvvtlndi-
rici datlardan n,lap,daha,ox,olduqca szlri lav edilir. Msln ala-iy,
qrmzthr,kmirin,aq-sar,n dadl,lap irin v.s
ngilis dilind el siftlr var ki,onlar supilativ yolla,yni mxtlif kkdn olan sift
klind ilnir.Bunlar:
Adi-Mqayis-stnlk
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good-better-best
bad-worse-worst
little-less-least
many(much)-more-most dur.
Bzi siftlrd vardr ki,onlarn mqayis v stnlk drcsi iki kild olur.
Far-farther,further-farthest,furthest
Near-nearer-nearest,next
Late-later,latter-latest,last
Old-older,elder-oldest,eldest
Bellikl,aradrmalarim nticsind dqiqldirdim ki, dillr morfoloji qurulula-
rna gr n qdr oxar olsalarda, hr birinin znmxsus frdi qurulular vardr.
Biz Azrbaycanl tlblr d mhz z ana dilimizin fonetik, leksik, semantik v mor-
foloji qurulularn o qdr mnimsmliyik ki, digr dillri d onun sasnda urlu
surtd drk edib gndlik hyatmzda istifade edk. Ax, yrndiyimiz nzri mate-
riallar praktiki surtd ttbiq etmsk onda yrndiklrimizin n mnas var?
gr biz yrnmsk v yrtmsk vtnimiz nec xidmt etmi olariq?
Ona gr d yrndiyimiz dili sevmliyik ki, sevdir bilk.Xalqmzn, dilimizin
nec qdim,zngin v mdni olduunu btn dnya lklrin atdra bilmk n
bu sas rtdir.Mhz bu sbbdn v bu nqteyi-nzrdn biz Azrbaycanl tlbr
daha ox almaq lazmdr.
REFERENCES
1. M.Hseynzad Masir Azrbaycan dili 1973
2. L.G.Alexander Longman English grammar 1997
3. Oruc Musayev.ngilis dilinin qrammatikas 1979
4. Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics K.Allan 2009
5. Azrbayan SSR Elmlr Akademiyas 2 cild 1973
6. www.encyclopedia.com 27.03.2012.


COMMUNICATION AS A PROCESS AND GLITCHES ASSOCIATED
WITH TEACHING THE ART OF COMMUNICATION
mer Dngel
Postgraduate student
Baku Slavic University
omerdungel@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The modern world is overwhelmed with information. Nowadays we are not concerned with the process
of getting the information as much as we are concerned with filtering the available information. The modern
world is indeed intertwined and interconnected. It is difficult to overestimate the role of communication
in our contemporary life. We express ourselves as individuals through communication. Being limited in
the ability to communicate can be compared to imprisonment. During the process of teaching, the aim of
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the educator should not be teaching a system of a language, but rather a speech activity in its productive
form, not by itself, but as a means of interpersonal and intercultural communication.The process of teaching
languages should be built on the process of forming communicative competence in people.
Key words: communication, speech, teaching, language.

It is difficult to overestimate the role of communication in our contemporary life.
We express ourselves as individuals through communication. Being limited in ability
to communicate can be compared to imprisonment.
Modern science defines communication as a process of intellectual and emotional
exchange, in which the information is collected, redistributed, and interpersonal contact
is established.
1
It should be noted that, unfortunately, in the process of language teaching,
communication is not specifically taught. This negligence even applies to the process
of learning the mother tongue. As a result, many people remain dissatisfied with the
results of conversationafter the act of communication. Some walk away feeling that
they said a wrong thing, others are not happy with the tone of voice they used, some
feel that they did not say enough, and some regret that they did not have enough time
to fully unveil their thoughts through speech; the list can go on and on. In order to teach
a person to speaking a given language, the instructor must train the person the skills
of communication.
Communication has various forms:
- Performance of one person to a large audience - presentation at a meeting,
reading, lectures, etc., similar to a monologue;
- Exchange of information between two people, this communication takes place in
the form of a dialogue;
- Multilateral exchange of views in a group, it is called polylogue;
It is common to divide communication into the following sub-groups based on the
nature of speech:
1. companionship - the participants are in equal positions. Such communication can
flow evenly, efficiently, and rationally;
2. pre-conditioned communication - each party complies with certain roles in accord
to their social statute;
3. authoritarian communication- one party dictates the terms, occupying a dominant
position;
4. conflicting communication - parties cannot come together in a single opinion. This
form of communication is often filled with manipulations; each side defends its own
position and interests. With such communication failures occur frequently, jumping
from one problem to another, sometimes without any reason, simply for the sake
of protecting the taken side on the issue.
While exploring the main problems with communication, it is appropriate to dwell
on the nature of a modern man. A modern man, by virtue of continuous growth and
availability of information is no longer able to simply listen and accept what he/she is
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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told by a companion. In general, there are few people who have the ability to actually
listen. According to various sources, only 4-10% of us have the talent of a good listener.
With faster pace of life our attention span has shortened. To dedicate 7-9 minutes to a
short video, presentation, or article on the internet is now considered an enormous
amount of time, so generously dedicated.
During the process of teaching communication, teachers should be considered is
the inability of people to listen well and absorb information. Lectures and lessons must
be exciting and intriguing to the students; they must be interactive. Statistics show that
traditional views on the process of communication are distant from reality. For example,
according to some studies, only 7% of the information is transmitted by means of words
during the interpersonal communication.
2
38% of the content of the message is trans-
mitted by various means of intonation. The remaining 55% of the speech is transferred
through facial expressions, gestures, and various body movements. Clearly, these indi-
cators of the communication process must be taken into account in process of teachinga
language.
The success of learning the skills of communication is dependent on the teachers
pedagogical skills. The communication process must be emotionally comfortable, and
personally-enriching. Only through such a teaching approach can the students gain
confidence in their communicative competence. It is no accident that modern methodo-
logical literature stresses creativity, which is manifested through cooperation of teachers
and students, and not the old authoritarian approaches that fail to engage the students
and therefore fail to educate them.
In general, to ensure successful communication, it is necessary to pay attention to
the following provisions:
- Any communication should start with a smile, and in a good mood;
- Everyone needs to learn to listen to others. No wonder they say that those who
know how to listen have more friends;
- Students should not be ashamed of their mistakes and mistakes of their peers
- It is important to experiment with speech, using nice words, good manners of
communication observed in other people.
Most of us simply want to be heard and understood being understood is happiness.
In order to make people happy you must teach them to communicate. The process of
teaching languages should be built on the process of forming communicative competence
in people. This requirement applies equally to the process of learning the mother tongue
and foreign languages.
Language is the primary means of communication between people. It is hard to
imagine a society without a language, however, the problems of formation and develop-
ment of communication skills, in the process of learning a language, is given a special
attention only recently.
Modern linguistics define language as an opportunity, speech as a product, and
communication as an activity. Therefore, when teaching a language, including mother
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tongue,it is important to teach the skills of using all opportunities that the language can
offer; while the process of teaching should be built on the process of teaching the skill
of communication.
The objectives of language teaching have evolved in the recent decades and can
be presented in the chronological order:
- Learning the language, i.e. grammatical structure of a given language;
- Training of speech - ability to speak in different situations with a variety of topics;
- Learning to communicate the ability to verbally react to the surrounding reality
and express ones opinion on a given subject.
3

Nowadays, the system of language teaching has experienced positive changes due
to the widespread introduction of new pedagogical and information technologies.
The ongoing changes in the education system must concentrate on the ultimate goal
of language teaching. Therefore, the aim of language teaching should not be a system
of a language, but rather a speech activity in its productive form, not by itself, but as a
means of interpersonal and intercultural communication.
A person studying any language, eventually turns into a linguistic individual. His
main indicators may take the form of communicative skills. Given that these qualities
can vary in different people, we can present them as the following indicators.
1. Linguistic skills related to compliance with the rules of grammar, orthopedic and
stylistic norms of the language.
2. Social indicators of native speakers are shown in communication with different
interlocutors. In this case, it is necessary to choose the right words, tone, intonation
and other language features; depending on where and with whom communication
is taking place.
3. The physical situation in which communication is taking place dictates its own terms:
limited time, the presence of various types of interference (noise, long distance
between the speakers, presence of outsiders), make their impact on the result of
communication and require the speakers to choose the most appropriate language,
and sometimes non-verbal communication.
4. National and cultural indicators of ability to communicate in the target language
is manifested in a variety of compliance requirements associated with the traditions
and customs of the carriers of the language. This indicator, when applied to the
native language, can be manifested in the form of high tone. With respect to the
second language, it may be satisfactory in exceptional cases. It should be noted
that lacking the possession of the national-cultural level of language often leads to
confusion when there is a dialogue between speakers of two different languages.
5. A person fluent in the language must know not only the lexical meaning of words,
but also plunge into the "world" of these words. This means that a good native
speaker needs to know a number of words meaning the same notion, and all of the
concepts expressed in one word.
4

April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
71
In conclusion, I would like to say that a person possessing the above indicators, in
the process of communication; can be considered a linguistically free person. Raising
such a person should be set as the core purpose of language teaching.
END NOTE
1. http://spot.colorado.edu/~craigr/Communication.htm
2. http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk/IPS/Interpersonal_Communication.html
3. http://www2.vobs.at/ludescher/Alternative%20methods/communicative_language_teaching.htm
4. http://answers.yourdictionary.com/language/what-is-communication.html
REFERENCES
1. W. Littlewood (1981) Communicative Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press. An intro-
duction to the principles of communicative language teaching, with practical examples.
2. J. Harmer (1983) The Practice of English Language Teaching (Chapter 8: Communicative activeties),
Longman. A description of various kinds of communicative activity, with examples of exercises.
3. http://spot.colorado.edu/~craigr/Communication.htm
4. http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk/IPS/Interpersonal_Communication.html
5. http://www2.vobs.at/ludescher/Alternative%20methods/communicative_language_teaching.htm
6. Passov E.I. Communicative foreign language education. insk, 2003.

ENGLISH NOMINAL CLAUSES: ANALYZING THE TRANSLATION
OF SUBORDINATE WH INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES AND
INFINITIVE WH - CLAUSES IN AZERI
Parisa Farrokh, Abolfazl Rajabli, Kambiz Mahmoodzadeh
English Translation Department, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Lahijan / IRAN
P farrokh @ Yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
This paper considers the Azeri translation of English nominal clauses with subordinate wh interrogative
clauses in complex sentences. Moreover, in this research, infinitive wh clauses have been studied.
Nominal clauses (clauses approximating in function noun phrases) fall into six major categories: That
clause or subordinate declarative clauses, Subordinate interrogative clauses, Subordinate exclamative
clauses, Nominal relative clauses, To - infinitive clauses and Ing clauses. An infinitive wh clause can
be formed with all wh words. The infinitive clause has an obligational sense .In this paper, the data are
drawn from studies based on the English Azeri translated texts. Based on the results of the present study,
78% of these sentences in Azeri, translated as simple sentences involving verb combinations, 12% translated
as simple sentences without verb combinations, 6% translated as complex sentences and 4% translated as
compound sentences. Regarding the structures involving infinitive construction, the findings indicate that
68% translated as simple sentences consisting verb combinations, and 32% translated as complex sentences.
It can be said that, in Azeri, there is a tendency of using simple sentences instead of compound or complex
ones. The results of this research also show that there are some mistranslations regarding the nominal
clauses involving both wh interrogative and infinitive constructions, due to ignoring of the "obligational
sense of these clauses in Azeri translation, the percentage of these mistranslations is 86%. In this research,
the most frequent wh interrogative word used in original texts, is "what" in 32 sentences and the least one,
is "whom" in 7 sentences, in addition, the most frequent wh interrogative word used in subordinates in-
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volving both wh words and infinitive construction in original texts is "how" with the percentage of 53%
and the least one is "where" with the percentage 11%.
Key words: Translation, Translator, Linguistics, Complex Sentences, Nominal Clauses.

Introduction
Translation is an activity of increasingly vital importance in the educational, political,
economic and cultural fields of human endeavors. Translation is a complex process
beset by several difficulties and many problems, yet at the same time it has a wide scope
with almost unlimited applications and prospects. Newmark defines translation as the
attempt to produce approximate equivalence or respectable synonymy between two
chunks of different languages on various levels of which two main ones are thought
and linguistic form. Newmark adds that translation is partly an exercise in the art of
writing as well as a field of comparative applied linguistics (1988,p.26). Newmark
believes that grammatical meaning is more significant, less precise, more general and
sometimes more elusive than lexical meaning (ibid). Basically, it will have attained
this fact that syntactic differences existing among languages may cause problem in
translation. Here it seems necessary to mention some characteristics of the Azeri lan-
guage generally, which differ from English and should be considered in order to produce
an acceptable translation. The Azeri language which is also known as Azeri, Azeri
Turkish and Azerbaijani, is the Republic of Azerbaijan's official language, though some
dialects of the language are spoken in several parts of Iran. The Azeri language can be
heard in parts of eastern turkey, northern Iraq, and in southeastern area of the Republic
of Georgia. Worldwide, there are about 27 million native speakers of this language.
The Azeri language is derived from the Oghuz family of language and linguistically,
it is most closely related to Turkish, Persian and Arabic. As part of the Oghuz family
of languages, it was brought from central Asia by Seljuk Turks and in the Middle East
it was greatly influenced by the vocabulary and grammar of Persian and Arabic.
Eventually, it replaced Tat, old Azeri and Middle Persian in Iran and became the most
dominant language in a multi lingual area by the 1500s. Regarding the grammar of
Azeri, it can be said that it is an agglutinative language and frequently used affixes and
specifically suffixes - Most of them indicate the grammatical function of the word.
Word order in Azeri is generally subject object verb as in Korean and Latin but
unlike English. In more complex sentences, the basic rule is that the qualifier precedes
the qualified; this principle includes, as an important special case, the participial mo-
difiers. The definite precedes the indefinite. It is possible to alter the word order to
stress the importance of a certain word or phrase. The main rule is that the word before
the verb has the stress without exception. Moreover as Azeri is a prodrop language,
the subject may not be mentioned in the sentence. This research focuses on the analyzing
of English complex sentences with nominal subordinate clauses which involve both
wh interrogative clauses and infinitive construction and their translation in Azeri
language. The importance of this research is showing some methods for translating of
these sentences into Azeri language, due to existing syntactic peculiarities and differ-
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
73
rences between languages which may cause some problems in the process of translating.
The underlying assumption of this research is that the translator must have enough
knowledge and information about the structures of English and Azeri while translating
these sentences in order to translate effectively. Since Azeri language does not have
such complexity-packaged constructions, Azeri learners, and translators find it difficult
to cope with these structures which are widely used in English writing. To this end
English fictions are studied to identify those structures in English and their Azeri
equivalents. In this relation the following research questions have been formulated:
How are English nominal clauses involving subordinate wh interrogative clauses
translated into Azeri?How are English nominal clauses involving both subordinate wh
interrogative clause and infinitive construction translated into Azeri? Are these struc-
tures translated as complex sentences in Azeri language? What are the most frequent
wh interrogative words found in original texts?
Translation and Translator
Translation deals with language. As language is a means of communication, so
does the function of translation. Nida (1981, p.12) states that translation means com-
munication because it has three essential elements to form a process of communication.
The three essential elements are source, message and the receptor, and these elements
must be found in all communication activities. So, it can be said that translation is the
medium of the source language and target language. We transform the meaning in
source language in the form of target language by translation, so the renders in the
target language understand the meaning in the source language. Successful translating
involves one of the most complex intellectual challenges known to mankind. Moreover,
in our present world, the need for extensive, accurate and effective communication
between those using different languages, gives the translator a position of new and
strategic importance (Nida, 1964, p. 155). Therefore translating from one language into
another language is a complicated task. There are many factors that should be considered
in the process of translation in order to make translation result be appropriate to be
comprehended. Based on Catford's idea (1965) translation is the replacement of textual
material in one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in another
language (target language). Larson (1984) believes that translation consists of studying
the lexicon, grammatical structure which appropriate in the receptor language and its
cultural context,i.e."translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language. The
closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first interms of meaning and
secondly interms of style". Newmark says that translation is rendering the meaning of
a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text (1988, p.73).
In translation, the translator possesses a satisfactory knowledge of the source lan-
guage. He must understand not only obvious content of message but also, the subtleties
of the meaning, the significant emotive values of words, and stylistic features which
determine the flavor of the message. Even more important that knowledge of the resources
of the language is a control of the receptor language. (Nida, 1964, p.150).
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Therefore, a translator must have reliable knowledge and experience in this field.
As a communicator, moreover, the knowledge and skills related to all communicators
have to possessed. He has to access the target language knowledge, text type knowledge,
source language knowledge, subject area (real world) knowledge and cultural knowledge
(Bell, 1991, p.36).
Generally, in translating, it is important to ensure the surface meaning of the two
languages in translation, are approximately similar and at the same time to ensure that
the structure of the source language preserved as well as possible but not so closely
that the target language structures will be seriously distorted.
Linguistics
Many researchers have still doubts about the importance of linguistics in translations
studies which is also reflected in the majority of scholarly papers devoted to the subject.
The linguistic relevance of information structure in the case of translation is even more
evident if Azeri and a language such as English are involved. Azeri is a free word order
language, as mentioned in introduction, in which grammatical structure is largely
determined by the articulation in theme (logical subject) and rheme (logical predictate),
whereas English does not permit much variation in word order, and syntactic structure
is defined in terms of grammatical subject and grammatical predicate. This fact alone
has important consequences for the theory and practice of translation. In addition, some
word order variation in Azeri language is due to a second type of articulation (which
may, but need not coincide with the first one), which concerns information structure
proper, i.e. distribution of known and new information in the sentence and its structural
consequences. So linguistics plays an important role in the investigation of the joint
functioning of two languages, i.e. "the translational behavior of languages". Dynamic
contrasts are differences in encoding strategies characteristic of different languages;
which become manifest only when these languages clash in the process of translation
and also, information structure is one such domain where drastic dynamic contrasts in
encoding may be encountered. The linguistic description of contrasting structures is
indespensable for adequate translation. Regarding the recognition of the importance
of context, it is quite clear that we normally do not translate sentences in isolation but
sentences which are part of a larger text or discourse. Klaudy points out research into
the translational behavior of languages and the decision making and problem solving
strategies behind translational operations may result in a systemic translation oriented
description of various language pairs. It is an adequate description of the linguistic
structure of languages. In addition to descriptive and theoretical linguistics, translation
studies may also profit from insights gained in sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics.
klaudy (1981) argues that the translator mediates not only between two languages but
also between two cultures. He must thus have certain ideas about the source language
society and the target language society, which need not always be very explicit. Socio-
linguistics attempts to reveal the relationship between language and society independently
of translation and provide scientifically well founded descriptions of this relationship.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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In this way, sociolinguistics may contribute to the clarification of the basis of the trans-
lators' decisions. Psycholinguistics may offer an explanation of how the translation
process works. Klaudy reports, among other things, on experiments which have tried
to find out whether or not it is possible to listen and speak simultaneously. Some of the
results seem to indicate that simultaneous interpreters do not listen and speak at the same
time, but they alternate between these two activities, using the pauses of the speaker
as well as their own pauses (ibid).
In sum, then, socio and psycholinguistics, too, are important branches of research
for translation studies. As translators, we must not only know what we are doing but
also why we are doing something in the way we are doing it (ibid).
Therefore, the importance of linguistics in translation studies is obvious and clear.
Complex Sentence
Complex sentences are widely used in English writing and specially literary works.
Since in literary work the writer expresses himself in many kinds of sentences and
making complex sentences is more challenging of the very large variety of clauses
signals to choose from many combinations.
Complex sentences can be used to judge whether a work is written in a good way
or not. By which, the accuracy and variety of the work can be known. Complex sentences
are the best means of eliminating choppy sentences and giving accuracy of literary
work. It will not be satisfied until he has at down the number of simple or compound
sentences and increase the number of complex sentences. (Fauzanah, 2009, p.15).
To make his writing more accurate and everything equal, a writer will build his
main idea into part of the sentence and tuck the detail into clause, in other words, he
writes more complex sentences. Moreover, the using of more complex sentences in
work, does not show the dullness of the sentences because of the variety of the sentences
in its paragraphs and subordinate clauses, on the other hand, expresses the relations of
the writer's ideas.
Complex Sentences in English
In English, sentences are either simple or multiple. A simple sentence consists of
a single independent clause. A Multiple sentences contains one or more clauses as its
immediate constituents. Multiple sentence are either compound or complex. In a com-
pound sentence the immediate constituents are two or more coordinate clauses therefore,
the clauses of a compound sentence provide classic instances of a paratactic relationship
that is they have equivalent function. (Quirk et al, 1985, p.987). In a complex sentence,
one or more of its element, such as direct object, adverbial and etc are realized by a
subordinate clause. A complex sentence is like a simple sentence in which it consists
of only one main clause, but unlike a simple sentence, it has one or more subordinate
clauses functioning as element of the sentence. Subordination is an asymmetrical relation:
the sentence and its subordinate clauses are in a hypotactic relationship that is they form
a hierarchy in which the subordinate clause is a consistent of the sentence as a whole
(ibid).
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On the basis of their potential functions, several major categories of subordinate
clauses are distinguished: Nominal, Relative, Adverbial and Comparative.
Since the study of subordinate wh interrogative clauses is the aim of this research
which are subcategorized in nominal clauses, here the syntactic and semantic function
of nominal clauses are mentioned briefly.
Nominal clauses (clauses approximating in function noun phrases) fall into six
major categories: That clause or subordinate declarative clauses, Subordinate inter-
rogative clauses, Subordinate exclamative clauses, Nominal relative clauses, To
infinitive clauses and Ing clauses. (Quirk et al, 1985, p.1049).
Subordinate wh interrogative Clauses
Subordinate wh-interrogative clauses occur in the whole range of functons available
to the nominal that clause and in addition may function as prepositional complement:
for example:
How the book will sell depends on the reviewers.
subject
I can't imagine what they want with your address.
direct object
The problem is who will water my plants when I am away.
subject complement
Your original question, why he did not report it to the police earlier, has not
yet been answered.
appositive
I am not sure which she prefers.
adjectival complementation
They did not consult us on whose names should be put forward.
prepositional complement
These subordinate clauses resemble wh questions semantically in that they leave
a gap of unknown information, represented by the wh element. An infinitive wh
clause can be formed with all wh words, though instances with "why" are rare. The
infinitive clause has an obligational sense (ibid). For example:
I don't know what to say: what I should say
I'm wondering where to put my coat: where I should put my coat.
As mentioned, in this research, English subordinate wh interrogative and infinitive
wh clauses have been investigated.
Complex Sentences in Azeri
In Azeri, a sentence can be either simple or complex by its structure. (Habibli, 2008,
p.241). Simple sentences are divided into four types according to their purpose and
intonation: Narrative sentences, Imperative sentences, Interrogative sentences and ex-
clamatory sentences. The sentence that consists of two or more sentences is called a
complex sentence. In Azeri, there are two types of the complex sentences: compound
sentence (Tbesiz Mrkkb cml) and complex sentence with one or more subordinate
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clauses (Tabeli Mrkkb cml). Like English, in Azeri also, there is one main clause
(Ba cml) and one or more dependent or subordinate clauses (Budaq cml). For
example: Mn bilmirmki, o sizin suallnza nec cavab verdi.
I do not know how he answered your
Semantically,based on the meaning of wh words used in subordinate clauses, the
are categorized; such as; time subordinate clauses (zaman budaq cml) or reason su-
bordinate clauses (sbb budaq cml) and etc.
It is necessary to mention that in Azeri instead of wh interrogative words used in
subordinations, some words and combinations are used and called connective words
(balayclar).
Syntactically connectives classified into two groups: coordinate connectives (Ta-
besiz balayclar) and subordinate connectives (Tabeli balayclar). In contrast to
compound sentences, in which coordinate connectives are used like v (and), ya (or),
Lakin (but) and so on, in complex sentences subordinate connectives are used, such as
hara (where), nec (why), kimi/ kim (whom), kim (who) and etc. Therefore, in subor-
dinate wh interrogative clauses, in Azeri, wh words, are replaced by subordinate
connectives or tabeli baglayclar (Rosta mova, 2010).
Research Method
The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze Azeri translations of English
subordinate wh interrogative clauses and infinitive wh clauses. This research deals
with the analysis of data in order to study Azeri translations of English complex sen-
tences, subordinate wh interrogative clauses, wh words used in subordinate clauses,
infinitive used in subordinate wh interrogative clauses. Moreover, finding the most
frequent "wh words" used in these two types of structures in original texts.
Materials
The material chosen for analysis are English fictions which involve the novels of
"For whom the Bell Tolls" written by Hemingway, "400 subjects in English" written
by vitalyevna, "Life essays" written by Gurbanov, "The Alchemist" and "By the River
Piedra I Sat Down and Wept", written by Coelho and Joyce's Dubliners (short stories).
200 subordinate wh interrogative clauses, which 100 sentences involving infinitive
constructions, along with their translations into Azeri taken from Hajiyev (2006), vi-
talyevna (2006), Gambarov (2010), Qojabayli (2006), Aslanl (2011) and Nijat (2011)
have been analyzed.
Procedures
The data classified into two main categories: subordinate wh interrogative clauses
and infinitive wh clauses.
Subordinate wh interrogative clauses translated as simple sentences
involving verb combinations.
* I dont know even what alchemy is.
Mn kimyagrlyin n demk olduunu bel bilmirm.
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* I read only what the birds wanted to tell me.
mn yalnz qularn anlat maq istdiklri eyi oxudum.
* The camel driver understood what the boy was saying.
Cavan olann ona dediyi eyi baa drd.
* She couldn't hear what Pilar was saying.
O, Pilarn n dandn etitmirdi.
* You will show me when we get there.
Drgy atanda gstrrsn.
* I don't know who is prepared to stand that.
Buna kimin tab gtir bilcyini bilmirm.
* You know why we didn't kill them.
Sn onlar n n ldrmdiyimizi bilirsn.
* He was repeating something which he had learned by heart.
O, zbr bildiyi ifaddlri tkrar edir.
* I don't know where he is posted.
Pot n harda yer sediyini bilmirm.
Subordinate wh interrogative clauses translated as
simple sentences without verb combinations.
* Oxford gives them what they need.
Oksford onlara hr ey verir.
* He understood why the owner of the bar had been so upset.
Qhvinin midsiz chdlrini indi anayrd.
Subordinate wh interrogative clauses translated as complex sentences.
* I don't know why I worried about it before.
bilmirm n cn bu mni vvllr ox tvi sald.
* No one know how he achieved the stern task of living.
He kim bilmirdi ki o yaamaq vasitlrini hans yolla ld edir.
Subordinate wh interrogative clauses translated as compound sentences.
* His mother was a clever woman whom he always loved.
Onun anas all idi v o anasn ox sevirdi.
* we have to turn a question why the man cannot go with man again though it is the
question of millenniums.
Niy insane insanle yola getmir, dey millrin arxasndan gln suala dnmy
mcbur oluruq.
Subordinate wh interrogative clauses and infinitive construction
translated as simple sentences involving verb combinations.
* You don't know how to continue the conversation.
shbt nec davam etdircyiniz bilmzsiniz.
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* He teaches people how to live.
O adamlara nec yaama yrdir.
Subordinate wh interrogative clause and infinitive
construction translated as complex sentences.
* I didn't know what to answer.
Bilmdim ki nec cavab verim.
* Juliet didn't know what to do.
Glyetada bilmir ki n etmlidir.
Data Findings
In this research there are two main categories, namely, subordinate wh interro-
gative clauses and subordinate involving both wh words and infinitive. Analyzing
100 data related to the Azeri translation of English subordinate wh-interrogative clauses
shows that most of them in Azeri are translated as simple sentences involving verb
combinations with the percentage of 78% and some translated as simple sentences
without verb combinations with the percentage of 12%.
Moreover, these structures, in Azeri, have been translated as complex sentence with
the percentage of 6% and as compound sentences with the percentage of 4% (Table 1).
According to table (2), it has been cleared that 68% English subordinates involving
both wh words and infinitive translated as simple sentences involving verb combi-
nations and 32% translated as complex sentences. Table (3) indicates the percentage
of errors of the mistranslation of English subordinates involving both wh-words and
infinitive in Azeri, that is 86% .
Based on table (4), it will be understood that the most frequent wh word found
in subordinate wh-interrogative clauses of original texts is "what" with the percentage
of 32% and the least one is "whom" with the percentage of 7%.
According to findings of this research, the most frequent wh-word used in subor-
dinates involving both wh-words and infinitive construction in original texts, is "how"
with the percentage of 53% and wh word "where" with the least one, 11%.
Discussion and Conclusion
Based on 200 data, it has been cleared that in Azeri, English subordinate wh
interrogative clauses and subordinates involving both wh words and infinitive cons-
truction, are translated as simple sentences consisting verb combinations.
Here it seems necessary to mention that verb combinations in Azeri, are generally
three types: verb conjunctions (Feli balama) which are some suffixes added to the verb
and semantically expressing notions like time, manner, reason and etc. For example,
"Drgy atanda gstrrsn".
anda = feli balama
Some verb conjunctions' suffixes are anda, nd, araq, rk, dqda, dikd, and so
on. Another verb combination is participle (Feli Sift), which involve some suffixes
added to the verb, functioning both like verb and adjective.
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Suffixes like acaq, ck, dq, dik, duq, dk, acaq, ck , are a number of participle
making suffixes. In the sentence, "Dyd zm nec aparacam bilmirm".
aca in "aparacam" named as participle making suffix. The word regarded as
particple or Feli sift.
The last verb combination is verb noun combinations.
They are also made by adding some suffixes such as
- a-a- , --, -ar, iyi, and ets. These combinations functioning both as the verb and
noun, such as: cavan olann ona dediyi eyi baa drd".

verb - noun
It should be noted that "participle" (Feli sifat) is the most frequent construction
found in Azeri translation of subordinate wh interrogative clauses and subordinates
consisting both wh words and infinitive construction. Generally it can be concluded
that these complex sentences are translated as simple sentences and there is a tendency
in Azeri, that is using of simple sentences involving verb combinations.
These structures are used for translating of majority of English sentences such as
complex sentences. Regarding the subordinates involving both wh-words and infinitive
construction, which have the obligational sense, it should be said that in Azeri translation
of these structures, the meaning of them has not been considered and majority of transla-
ted sentences do not express the obligational sense. For example the sentence "I learned
how to care for sheep" translated as "Qoyunlara baxma bilirm", which should be
translated as " Qoyunlara nec baxmaliyniy, bilirm", because the suffix "mal" in the
verb "baxmaliyniy" shows the obligation sense in Azeri. Another important point in
Azeri translation of these complex sentences, is that unlike English, subordinate clauses
come before main clause and the verb of subordinate clauses translated as verb com-
bination and the verb of main clause regarded as the main verb of the sentence. In
addition, the infinitive construction is not translated as infinitive in Azeri. Based on
findings of this research, it has been translated as verb combinations specially verb
conjunctions form (Feli balama).
As mentioned earlier, in translation, translator is transferring meaning of the source
language in the form of target language. Moreover paying attention to the structure of
the source language is necessary, and should be preserved as well as possible but not
so closely that target language structures will be seriously distorted. Therefore trans-
lation is always more than simply writing in the sense of putting words to paper. It is
suggested that in the literature of translation studies, in translation classrooms even in
language learning classes, students and learners compare and contrast translation with
their originals. It is useful for language learning, translation, education, lexicography,
finding equivalents for source language expressions, terms, structures and so on. It is
hoped that the results of the research may be used as additional information for the
teachers, especially in teaching English grammar and translation courses. Also, the results
may help Azerbaijanian translators, English learners and translator trainees for being
able to provide the translation of English subordinate wh- interrogative clauses and
subordinate involving both wh- clause and infinitive construction.
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Table 1. The translation of subordinate wh interrogative clauses
Total Percentage
simple sentences involving verd combinations 78 78%
simple sentences without verb combinations 12 12%
complex sentences 6 6%
compound sentences 4 4%
Table 2. The translation of subordinates involving both wh clause and infinitive
Total Percentage
simple sentences involving verb combinations 68 68%
complex sentences 32 32%
Table 3. Mistranslation of subordinates involving wh clause and infinitive
Total Percentage
ignoring of obligational meaning 86 86%
Table 4. The frequency of wh words in subordinates wh interrogative clauses in original texts.
wh - words Total Percentage
what 32 32%
how 17 17%
when 15 15%
where 12 12%
who 9 9%
why 8 8%
whom 7 7%
Table 5. The frequency of wh -words in subordinates involving wh-clause and infinitive in original texts.
wh - words Total Percentage
how 53 53%
what 23 23%
when 13 13%
where 11 11%
REFERENCES
1. Aslani, A. (2011). By the river, Piedra I sat down and wept. (pp.5 96). Baku: Ghanun Publication.
2. Bell,R.(1991).The Nature of translation.Frunkfort am Main:Peter Lang.
3. Catford, J.C. (1965). A Liguistic theory of translation. (pp. 33-75). An essay in applied linguistics.
Oxford: Oxford University.
4. Fauzanah, R. (2009). A Translation analysis of complex sentences in novel "The Scarlet Letters"
and its translation. Research paper for B.A degree. Indonesia: Muhammadaiyh University of Surakarta.
5. Gambarov, V.A. (2010). Life Essays. (pp.33 148). Baku: Mushfigh Bricjhali Publication.
6. Habibli, R. (2008). Azeri Language. Baku: Baku state University Publication.
7. Hajiyev, H. (2006). For Whom the Bell Tolls. (pp. 27 290). Baku: Avrasiya Press.
8. Klaudy, k. (1981). Translation and information structure. (pp. 42 46). Murica: Edutec, CAM.
9. Larson, M.L. (1997). Meaning based translation. (pp . 36-41).
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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10. University press of America, Inc.
11. Newmark, P. (1988). A Text book of translation. Perntice Hall International.
12. Nida, E.A. (1975).Toward a science of translating: with special reference to principles and procedures
involved in Bible translation (2nd ed). Leiden. E.J.Brill.
13. Nijat, A. (2011). Dubbliners. (pp.27 307) Baku: Ghanun Publication.
14. Qojabayli, N. (2006). The Alchemist. (pp . 5- 122). Baku: Chinar Punlication.
15. Quirk, R. Greenbaum, S. , Leech, G,. & Svartvik, S. (1987). A comprehensive grammar of the English
language. (5th ed). London and NewYork: Longman.
16. Rostamova, T. (2010). The comparision of Azeri and Persian grammar . (pp. 312 317). Baku: Adil-
oghlu Publication.
17. Vitalyevna, K.Y. (2006). 400 Subjects in English. (pp.70-275). Baku: Sorghu and Enycylopedia
Publication.

THE ROLE OF AFFIXES IN UNDERSTANDING THE
ETYMOLOGY OF ENGLISH WORDS
Pervine Valiyeva
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
pervine-77@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
We observe that many linguists carried out researches about the etymology of English words. The
vocabulary of English language, as well as any other language in the world, has a lot of borrowed words.
In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words and 70% of them are borrowed ones.
Usually most of the borrowed words belong to a specific semantic group which enables us to understand
its origin: names of fruits and vegetables; people, objects and ideas associated with church and religious
rituals are mainly from Latin origin. Numerous terms of everyday life were borrowed from French. Edu-
cational, military, legal and administrative words are from Norman-French origin. Especially the researches
on the structural features to understand the origin of words attracts the attention. Above mentioned article
deals with the ways to recognize the origin of English words due to its affixes. Affixation has always been
one of the productive and long lasting word building processes in English. In some words affixes are so
assimilated to a word that it is quite impossible to separate them from the stem of a word. The article
examines such affixes and their derivation. Moreover, the list of some affixes, the original language that
they belong to, as well as example words are given to make the purpose clear.
Key words: Etymology, affixation, suffixes, prefixes, origin of words and affixes.

Etymology - is the study of the origin of words, including an account of their ori-
ginal meaning, form and subsequent linguistic history. The word etymology is derived
from a Greek word etymologia: etymon-truth and logos-word, science. [5,101]
There is no language in the world that its word-stock would have consisted only
of purely native words. Etymologically the vocabulary of English language is far from
being homogenous. It consists of two layers - the native stock of words and the borrowed
stock of words. The words that have been inherited from the language, or dialects, of
the Anglo-Saxon invaders of Great Britain in the fifth century A.D. are called native
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words and are to be distinguished from borrowed words, those that have entered English
vocabulary from other sources, such as Latin and Greek. [1, 21] Borrowed words or
loanwords are words taken from another language and modified according to the patterns
of the receiving language. The number of the borrowings in the vocabulary of the lan-
guage and the role played by them is determined by the historical development of the
nation speaking the language. In English vocabulary the borrowed stock of words is
considerably larger than the native stock of words. In fact native words comprise only
30% of the total number of words
1
and 70% of them are borrowed ones. [6]
English itself belongs to the German languages group and it has borrowed a lot
of words from Roman and Greek languages groups. When analyzing borrowed words
one should distinguish between two terms - source of borrowing and origin of borrowing.
There is certain confusion between these two terms. So when describing the words as
Latin, French or Scandinavian borrowings we point out their source but not their origin.
The term origin of the word should be applied to the language the word may be traced
to. Thus the French borrowing table is Latin by origin. (Latin tabula). The Latin
borrowing school came into Latin from the Greek language (Greek schola), so it
is described as Greek by origin.
In many cases a borrowed word, especially one borrowed long ago is practically
indistinguishable from a native word without a thorough etymological analysis. But
there are certain structural features which enable us to identify some words as borro-
wings and even to determine the source language. For example, it is already established
that the use of sk (sc) group in a word, usually indicates Scandinavian origin: sky, skill,
skin, ski, skirt, to scowl, to scare, to bask. [3, 38], [4, 117]. Another way of distinguishing
a borrowed word is through analyzing the affixes in it.
Affixation has been one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout
the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of
speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.
French affixes
The suffix -ance arrogance, endurance, hindrance, etc.
The suffix -ence consequence, intelligence, patience, etc.
The suffix -ment appointment, development, experiment, etc.
The suffix -age courage, marriage, passage, village, etc.
Nouns
The suffix -ess tigress, lioness, actress, adventuress, etc.
Adjectives The suffix -ous curious, dangerous, joyous, serious, etc.
Verbs The prefix en- enable, endear, enact, enfold, enslave, etc.

The suffix -ion communion, legion, opinion, session, union, etc.
Nouns
The suffix -tion relation, revolution, starvation, temptation, unification, etc.
The suffix -ate [eit] appreciate, create, congratulate, etc.
The suffix -ute [ju:t] attribute, contribute, constitute, distribute, etc.
The remnant suffix -ct act, conduct, collect, connect, etc.
The remnant suffix -d(e) applaud, divide, exclude, include, etc.
Verbs
The prefix dis- disable, distract, disown, disagree, etc.
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The suffix -able detestable, curable, etc.
The suffix -ate [it] accurate, desperate, graduate, etc.
The suffix -ant arrogant, constant, important, etc.
The suffix -ent absent, convenient, decent, evident, etc.
The suffix -or major, minor, junior, senior, etc.
The suffix -al cordial, final, fraternal, maternal, etc.
Adjectives
The suffix -ar lunar, solar, familiar, etc.
Suffixation: The main function of suffixes in Modern English is to form one part
of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the
same part of speech, e.g. educate v educatee n, journal n-journalist n.
Prefixation: Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to
the stem. In English it is characteristic for forming verbs. The main function of prefixes
in English is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech, e.g. happy-
unhappy, head overhead.
We can recognize words of Latin and French origin by certain suffixes, prefixes
or endings. The two tables below will help us in this
2
.
Here is a list of some more affixes origin:
Origin of suffixes:
a. Native (Germanic): -er teacher, -ful careful, -less painless, -ly swiftly, -dom freedom,
-ed educated, -en shorten, -hood priesthood, childhood, -ing king (O.E. word),
meeting, -ish childish, -ness darkness, -ship friendship, -teen seventeen, -ty ninety, -
ward upward;
b. Romanic: -tion attention, -ment development, -able/-ible terrible, moveable, -age
package, -ance/ence reference, attendance, -ate cultivate;
c. Greek: -ist taxist, -ism capitalism, -ize organize;
Origin of prefixes:
a. Native (Germanic): un- unable, unrest, unhappy, over- over-nice, over-time, over-
feed, under- underestimate, to underlie, to undergo, to understand, undercoat, with-
withdraw, up- uphold, b- behind, to behead, to become, fore- to forecast, to forestall;
b. Romanic: in- inactive, co-coexistence, ex- expresident, re- rewrite, en- enlarge;
c. Greek: sym- sympathy, hyper- hypertension, dis- dissyllable, poly- polysemantic,
anti- antisocial, a- atypical.
END NOTE
1. http://www.omniglot.com/language/articles/etymology.htm
2. .. , ., , .. , English
Lexicology, ", , 1999, . 39.
REFERENCES
1. Charles W. Dunmore, Studies in Etymology, Focus Books, Focus Information Group, Inc., Newburyport
MA 01950, 1993.
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85
2. .. , ., , .. , English
Lexicology, ", , 1999.
3. . . ,
, , 1956.
4. . . , , , 1967.
5. http://www.omniglot.com/language/articles/etymology.htm

THE IMPORTANCE OF COHESION AND
COHERENCE IN DISCOURSE
Turana Aghayeva
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
turanaaghayeva@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
This article deals with the relationship between cohesion and coherence and its importance in discource.
An awareness of cohesion and coherence in all texts is a very important skill for language learners, students
to develop.
A text is cohesive if its elements are linked together. Cohesion can be thought of as all the grammatical
and lexical links that link one part of a text to another. Cohesive devices also include transitional words
and phrases ,repetition of key words and use of reference words. It means that for language learners it is
too important to understand cohesitive devices in a text. Otherwise in some occasions we can see some
misunderstanding .
A text is coherent if it makes sense. When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, discourse
can be understood easily and it will be coherent. It should be clear that cohesion and coherent are not the
same things. However, a text may be cohesive (linked together), but incoherent and this incoherentness
can lead some misunderstanding. The problem here is not so much that we cannot understand what is being
said but we cannot see the point of saying it.
The general point to be made is that no matter how many cohesive devices are used or the extent to
which it is interpreted as coherent, discource will always depend on contextual realities that readers are
familiar with in the particular socio-cultural world they live in. That is why in written discourse ,writers
should always keep their readers in mind.
Key words: discourse ,textual connections, cohesion, coherence, contextual realities.

An awareness of cohesion and coherence in all texts is a very important skill for
language learners,students to develop.
Text processing has always occupied a prominent place in discourse research. On
the one hand ,text researchers are interested in the mechanism of textual cohesion. On
the other hand, they propose hypothesis to explain assumptions of coherence in the
mind of the reader. Text discusses cohesion as the setting up of meaning relations across
sentences by means of a set of linguistic devices which links sentences together.[2,10]
Cohesion is the glue that holds a piece of discourse together. In other words, if a
paper is cohesive, it sticks together from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to
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paragraph.Cohesion can be thought of as all the grammatical and lexical links that link
one part of a text to another. This includes use of synonyms, lexical sets, pronouns,
verb tenses, time references, grammatical reference, etc. For example, 'it', 'neither' and
'this' all refer to an idea previously mentioned. 'First of all', 'then' and 'after that' help
to sequence a text. 'However', 'in addition' and 'for instance' link ideas and arguments
in a text.
Cohesive devices also include transitional words and phrases, such as therefore,
furthermore, or for instance, that clarify for readers the relationships among ideas in a
piece of writing. However, transitions aren't enough to make discourse cohesive. Re-
petition of key words and use of reference words are also needed for cohesion. For
example:
Tony Blair was on his way to BucharestThe Prime Minister astonished his ad-
visers by suddenly announcing on the airplane that he was going to promise Romania
early membership of the European Union in return for its continued asking.[4,43]
Here he is identified as having a referential link to The Prime Minister and Tony
Blair. Lets consider another pronoun ,its, as it occurs in the second part of this text. Its
encodes the semantic features of singular and non-human and these features are to be
found in Romania, the European Union ,and even in memberhip of the European Union,
so it could be linked linguistically to any of these three. Here the cohesive devices helps
us. The appropriate connection corresponds most closely with the readers contextual
knowledge of the world. The identification of connections that are linguistically sig-
nalled, like these between a pronoun and a noun phrase, enables us to recognize the
cohesion of a text.
It means that for language learners it is too important to understand cohesion con-
nections in a text. Otherwise in some occasions when writers use minimal pro-norms,
we can see some misunderstanding:
Unfortunately in the weeks to come autumn leaves will create a dangerous hazard,
especially to the elderly when they fall and become a soggy mess on the pavement.
Here the pronoun they copies only the semantic feature of plurality. There are two
plural noun phrases in the text which are linguistic candidates for co-textual linkage;
autumn leaves and the elderly. Here if we do not think about cohesion not paying
attention to the previous mention one-autumn leaves, we can call up a fanciful,comic
context which sets up an anaphoric connection with the pronoun and the elderly,so
that it is they who fall and become a soggy mess on the pavement.
As we have seen, how far texts are made cohesive depends on the judgement of the
producers of the texts about what meanings they can assume .Cohesive devices are only
aids to understanding and can only be effective to the extent that they enable readers
to construct meaning that makes contextual sense to them.In other words to the extent
that the cohesion in the text enables them to derive a coherent discourse from it.
Coherence can be thought of as how meanings and sequences of ideas relate to
each other. Typical examples would be general>particular; statement>example; problem
> solution; question> answer; claim> counter-claim.[1,29]
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When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along
easily, and the writing is coherent. The ideas tie together smoothly and clearly. The
cohesive devices link parts of a text together. It is important to note ,however they link
parts of the texts together so that new content is understood in relation to the context
that has been established in the readers mind by what has been said before .
The process may seem complicated but actually it is not really, so long as you
prepare things in advance and know what has to be done in what order. Some of the
things you need you may already have but others, of course, you may need to get. They
are not always readily available and when they are they can be quite expensive. But the
find result will make all the effort and cost worthwhile. [78,5]
It follows from this that it is possible for a text to be cohesive but incoherent. Here
we have a text that is co-textually well connected with cohesive devices.The trouble is
that the reader cannot key the text into a context so as to make sense of it.We cannot
tell what this text is supposed to be .The problem here is not so much that we cannot
understand what is being said but we cannot see the point of saying it and so we find
it incoherent as discourse , though it is as text.
Good writers are able to "keep their reader in mind". Keeping your reader in mind
does not guarantee coherence, but it would seem to be a prerequisite because discourse
will always depend on how far it can be related to contextual realities.
So, finally, we can come to such kind of conclusion that for texts being cohesive
and coherent is very important. Inspite of the fact that we can have such texts that lack
of cohesion or coherence, they are not considered well organized.
REFERENCES
1. Bublitz W., Lenk U. and Ventola E. Coherence in spoken and Written Discourse. John Benjamins,
1999, 300 p.
2. Halliday M.A.K., Hasan R. Cohesion in English. London, 1976, 374 p.
3. McCarthy M. Discourse Analysis for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2006, 213 p.
4. Widdowson H.G. Discourse Analysis. Oxford University Press, 2007, 136 p.
5. Yule G. Pragmatics. Oxford University Press, 1996, 138 p.

ENGLISH'S GLOBAL TRIUMPH
Vineet Kaul
Student of Ph.D Linguistics
DA-IICT University, Gandhinagar(Gujarat State), India
Vineetkaul2404@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
English today is one of the most hybrid and rapidly changing languages in the world. New users of the
language are not just passively absorbing, but actively shaping it, breeding a variety of regional Englishes,
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as well as pidgins and English-lexified creoles. Also, as in an increasing number of countries English is
becoming an element of core education, a near-universal basic skill, native-speaker norms are losing both in
relevance and in reverence. This unique linguistic phenomenon has immediate consequences for the lan-
guage classroom which is the subject of this present paper.
Keywords: English, power, status, diversity, young.

Historically, English originated from the fusion of languages and dialects, now
collectively termed Old English which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain
by Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) settlers by the 5th century with the word English being
derived from the name of the Angles. A significant number of English words are cons-
tructed based on roots from Latin, because Latin in some form was the lingua franca
of the Christian Church and of European intellectual life. The language was further
influenced by the Old Norse language due to Viking invasions in the 8th and 9th centuries.
Today the spread of English so unprecedented that the "non-native English-speakers"
worldwide outnumber native ones 3 to 1. In Asia alone, the number of English users
has topped 350 million - roughly the combined populations of the United States, the
UK and Canada. There are more Chinese children studying English - about 100 million -
than there are Britons (that's nearly twice as many) Some scholars maintain that you
cannot actually count the number of words in the language because it is impossible to
say exactly what a word is, talking rather of memes and other linguistic constructs, are
afraid that Global English is just another form of cultural Imperialism. One possibility
of its phenomenal growth could the plethora of localized lishes, such as Chinglish,
Hinglish (a Hindi-English hybrid) and Spanglish (an English-Spanish hybrid) branching
from English, they become mutually unintelligible tongues sharing a common root,
much as Latin did in Medieval Europe.
Many linguists agree that if the lishes splinter, Hinglish will likely become the most
prominent offshoot by virtue of sheer numbers, giving Indian primary ownership of the
language
GLM (Global Language Monitor) take the classic view of the language as understood
in Elizabethan England, where a word was a thing spoken or an idea spoken. Others
say that English is undergoing a rebirth unlike any seen since the time of Shakespeare,
when English was emerging as the modern tongue known to us today. (Shakespeare,
himself, added about 1700 words to the Codex.) English has emerged as the lingua
franca of the planet, the primary communications vehicle of the Internet, high technology,
international commerce, entertainment, and the like.
There are different ways in which English as a means of communication is evolving,
developing into literally separate languages, yet which are still understandable by those
who speak any version of English. The beauty of English is that from the earliest times it
has been able to incorporate and adapt words from other languages," said Jeremy But-
terfield, editor-in-chief of Collins Dictionaries. "Already we probably can't get through
the day without using words derived from Indian languages. At least 26 new words of
joint Hindi and English derivation - have found their way into the dictionary.
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The new English-speakers aren't just passively absorbing the language-they're
shaping it. New Englishes are mushrooming the globe over, ranging from "Englog," the
Tagalog-infused English spoken in the Philippines, to "Japlish," the cryptic English
poetry beloved of Japanese copywriters ("Your health and loveliness is our best wish,"
reads a candy wrapper. "Give us a chance to realize it"), to "Hinglish," the mix of Hindi
and English that now crops up everywhere from fast-food ads to South Asian college
campuses. The great number of Hindi speakers in the United Kingdom has produced
a strain of the language unlike that spoken on the Indian subcontinent where it began.
This has given rise to Hindlish, also known as Hinglish, an informal term for the mixture
of Hindi and English that includes such phrases as city kotwali or "city police station."
Hinglish is not considered a full-blown diaspora language but it appears to be developing
into one. Nevertheless, the abundance of new words and phrases, unlikely as this may
seem, can and will impact Global English as it evolves through the twenty-first century.
As a language with many originsRomance, Germanic, Norse, Celtic and so on
English was bound to be a mess. But its elasticity makes it messier, as well as stronger.
When it comes to new words, English puts up few barriers to entry. Every year publi-
shers bring out new dictionaries listing neologisms galore. The past decade, for instance,
has produced not just a host of Internettery, computerese and phonebabble (browsers,
downloading, texting and so on) but quantities of teenspeak (fave, fit, pants,
phat, sad). All are readily received by English, however much some fogies may
resist them.
All languages are works in progress. But English's globalization, unprecedented
in the history of languages, will revolutionize it in ways we can only begin to imagine.
In the future, there could be a tri-English world, one in which you could speak a local
English-based dialect at home, a national variety at work or school, and international
Standard English to talk to foreigners.
With native speakers a shrinking minority of the world's Anglophones, there's a
growing sense that students should stop trying to emulate Brighton or Boston English,
and embrace their own local versions. Researchers are starting to study non-native
speakers' "mistakes" - "She look very sad," for example - as structured grammars. In a
generation's time, teachers might no longer be correcting students for saying "a book
who" or "a person which."
Linguist Jennifer Jenkins, an expert in world Englishes at King's College London,
asks why some Asians, who have trouble pronouncing the "th" sound, should spend
hours trying to say "thing" instead of "sing" or "ting." International pilots, she points out,
already pronounce the word "three" as "tree" in radio dispatches, since "tree" is more
widely comprehensible.
English has become the common linguistic denominator. Whether you're an Indian
executive on business in Shanghai, a German Eurocrat hammering out laws in Brussels
or a Brazilian biochemist at a conference in Sweden, you're probably speaking English.
And as the world adopts an international brand of English, it's native speakers who
have the most to lose. Cambridge dons who insist on speaking the Queen's English
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could be met with giggles - or blank stares. British or American business execs who
jabber on in their own idiomatic patois, without understanding how English is used by
non-natives, might lose out on deals.
Technology also plays a huge role in English's global triumph. Eighty percent of
the electronically stored information in the world is in English; 66 percent of the world's
scientists read in it, according to the British Council. "It's very important to learn English
because [computer] books are only in English," say many Gujarati students, learning
English in coaching classes. New technologies are helping people pick up the language,
too: students can get English-usage tips on their mobile phones. English-language
teachers point to the rise of Microsoft English, where computer users are drafting letters
advised by the Windows spell check and pop-up style guides
The world is changing. Inevitably, so are our words. Ten years ago, no one had
heard of H1N1, Web 2.0, n00b, or talked about de-friending someone on
Twitter or Face book. Now these are part of peoples everyday vocabulary. The
English language is going through an explosion of word creation. New words are coined
some, like n00b, may not even look like words; old words take on new meanings
twitter today bears little relation to the Middle English twiteren. According to the
Global Language Monitor (GLM), in 2009 the English language tipped the scales with
a vocabulary of one million words. .
GLM, the San Diego-based language watcher, publishes annual lists of top words
and phrases by tracking words in the global print and electronic media, the Internet,
blogs, and social media such as Twitter and YouTube. Each years list reflects major
concerns and changes taking place that year. For instance, from the 2009 list, we have
to acknowledge the fact that technology is reshaping our ways of living (twitter, web
2.0). We need to face up to the after-effects of a financial tsunami (stimulus, forec-
losure), a pandemic (H1N1), the death of revered pop icon (MJ, King of Pop) and the
debates over healthcare reform and climate change that mark the year.
The extinction of most languages is probably unstoppable. Television and radio,
both blamed for homogenisation, may, paradoxically, prolong the life of some by narrow-
casting in minority tongues. And though many languages may die, more people may
also be able to speak several languages: multilingualism, a commonplace among the
least educated peoples of Africa, is now the norm among Dutch, Scandinavians and,
increasingly, almost everyone else. Native English-speakers, however, are becoming
less competent at other languages: only nine students graduated in Arabic from uni-
versities in the United States last year, and the British are the most monoglot of all the
peoples of the EU. Thus the triumph of English not only destroys the tongues of others;
it also isolates native English-speakers from the literature, history and ideas of other
peoples. It is, in short, a thoroughly dubious triumph. But then who's for Esperanto?
Not the staff of this newspaper, that's for sure.
REFERENCES
1. http://www.webpronews.com/the-globalization-of-english-2005-03
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2. http://inclusionparadox.com/as-more-of-the-world-speaks-english-who-is-a-native-speaker
3. http://www.languagemonitor.com/no-of-words/globalenglish/chinglish
4. http://www.economist.com/node/883997

CONTEXTUAL NEGATIVE ELEMENTS AND IMPLICIT NEGATION
Venera Suleymanova
Qafqaz University
vsuleymanova@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
This article contributes to the study of the category of negation and its explicit and implicit components
by providing linguistic evidence. Explicit negation denotes direct and clear denial while implicit negation
conveys indirect and confidential absence, lack and objection. Though the category of negation was learned
over and again in the history of linguistics implicit negation has not still been well investigated in com-
parison with explicit one. Therefore , the aim of this article is to give full description of implicit negation, its
usage, components and lexical, semantical, morphological, phraseological and syntactical characteristics. In
other words, implicit negation is analyzed as a syntax-morphology, lexic-semantical interface phenomenon.
Key words: negation, implicit negation, negative constituents.

Funksional-kommunikativ baxmdan mlum neqatorlarla eyniln v dilin drinlik
strukturunda yerln inkarlq dayclar demk olar ki, btn nitq hisslrini, sz
kateqoriyalarn hat edir. nkarlq hadissin kommunikativ kateqoriya kimi yana-
dqda myyn olur ki, inkarladrma funksiyas dilin baqa sviyylrind olduu kimi
leksik sviyyd eksplisit indikatorlarla yana, mxtlif implisit ifad formalar il d
reallar. Burada affiks inkarl v privativ inkarlq nmli yer tutur. Fodor D.J,
Fodor A.J, Garrett M.F inkarn drd frqli ifad formasn myynldirirlr, baqa
szl, onlara gr inkar semann ifadsi drd frqli leksik formada tqdim olunur:
1. nkarlq mstqil inkar morfem olan not vasitsi il eksplisit, yni vasitsiz -
kild ifad olunur.
2. nkarlq asl morfem in-, un-, im-, dis-,de- v s. vasitsil reallar ki, bunu ml-
liflr morfoloji inkarlq adlandrrlar.
3. nkarlq implisit inkar morfemlr (any, much, give a damn, doubt, deny, fail v s.)
vasitsil ifad olunur ki, bu zaman inkarlq vasitli yolla tqdim edilir.
Qeyd edk ki, bir ox hallarda morfoloji inkarlqla implisit inkarln srhdlrini
myynldirmk tin olur.
4. nkarlq sadc mnasnda inkar sema dayan, he bir inkar morfemi olmayan,
inkarln ifadsi n sintaktik mhit ml gtir bilmyn bir qrup sz vasitsil
ifad olunur. Msln, bachelor a man has not ever been married, subay-evli ol-
mayan adam, kill-cause to become not alive, ldrmk-yaama davam etdirm-
my sbb olmaq.[1, 242]
Eksplisit inkarlq inkarln ifadsind implisit inkarla nzrn daha aparc rol
oynayr. Bir sra linqvistik dbiyyatda da qeyd edildiyi kimi, eksplisit inkarln aq,
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aydn, vasitsiz, implisit is inkarln gizli, imal v vasitli ifadsidir. Gizli inkar
komponentlrin tdqiqi hr hans mtnin v ya fikrin inc mna alarlqlarn diqqt
almaa mcbur edir. Burada szn leksik-semantik mnas, sintaktik, morfoloji quru-
luu sas rol oynayr.
Qeyd edk ki, implisit kateqoriyann xsusi akar markeri olmad n dild ms-
tqil ifadsi mmkn olmur. Lakin bunu da demk olmaz ki, dild akar bir inkar kom-
ponentin olmamas implisit inkarln ifadsini tinldirir. ksin, digr eksplisit
komponentlr kimi xsusi bir formaya malikdirlr, lakin inkarl birbaa deyil, vasitli
yolla v gizli, tsdiqlik prizmasndan tqdim etmi olurlar.
mplisit inkarlq vasitlrinin ifad variantl, geni mtn daxilind onlarn digr
inkarlq komponentlri il laq v tsir vziyytlri mumn tsdiq v inkarn mx-
tlif mna incliklrinin, mntiqi v emosional-ekspressiv alarlqlarnn frqlndiril-
msind hmiyytli rol oynayr, nsiyyt prosesind hmin yarusda funksional-seman-
tik v slubi variativlik imkanlarnn znginliyini akara xarr. A.Ligeza implisit in-
kar inkarn pozitiv tqdim edilmsi, inkarn tsdiq alar adlandrr.[2, 61]
mplisit inkarlq ifad vasitlrini aadak kimi tsrif etmk mmkndr:
1. Privativ szlr (privativ sift, isim, zrf v s. bold, empty, scarcely, rarely, hardly;
kar, kel, subay, kosa; , , )
2. Privativ fellr (refuse, deny, omit, reject, fail, lack, postpone, ignore; susmaq,
imtina etmk, rdd etmk, inkiafdan qalmaq, dirnmk, itmk; o)
3. Privativ frazeoloji vasitlr-(Dash me if I do, like hell, like devil, God knows, skate
on thin ice, fall at a first hurdle, cut it out, go haywire; Sn n?, O hara, ourluq
hara?, Bu ndir, snin dediyin ndir?, Sn n db?(=Bunun sn dxli yoxdur?)
4. Ritorik suallar (Who cares? (= Nobody cares), What do I care? (= I care nothing),
What difference does it make? (= It makes no dofference/ It doesnt make any
difference), Whats the good of doing it? (= There isnt any good of doing it),
What right do you have? (=You dont have any right), Who can make the sun rise
in the West and set in the East? (= No one can); Sn el bilirsn o bizim yax ol-
mamz istyir? (= istmir), Kim bilir nedir dnyann ya? (= He kim bilmir.)
Qeyd edk ki, sual cmlsind, ritorik sualda inkarlq elementi olduqda tsdiq ifad
olunur. Dil faktlar tsdiq edir ki, sual cmllri il implisit inkarln ifadsinin inten-
sivliyi baqa dillr n d xarakterikdir [3, 9]. Wouldnt you like to be a star? Who
wouldnt?, Bs yazn glii eir deyilmi?
A.T.mirov implisit inkarn indikatorlarn linqvistik v ekstra-linqivistik olaraq
iki yer blr. Fikrimizc, bu indikatorlar verbal v qeyri-verbal da adlandrmaq olar.
Ekstra-linqivistik implisit inkarla mimika, gest, l-qol hrktlri (ban yralamaq,
qalarn qaldrmaq, iyinlrini kmk vs.) daxildir ki, bu hm d paralinqivistikann
tdqiqat obyektidir.
It is impossible, I said at last. A well-known man like Hector Blunt.
Poirot shrugged his shoulders. Who knows? At last he is a man with big ideas
(A. Christie)
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Yuxardak cmld onun danmadan vvl iyinlrini kmsi ifad edcyi cm-
ly mnfi sema yklmidir.( Who knows?- Nobody knows.)
Bu haqda daha bir eyi d qeyd etmk lazmdr ki, implisit indikatorlar kontekstual-
situativ indikatorlar da adlandrmaq olar ki, bunlar implisit inkarln mumi-universal
indikatorlardr:
1. - Do you love him?
- I loved him. (= I dont love him now.)
- Is he your husband?
- He was my husband. (= He is not my husband at the moment)
2. - Mn bir siqaret ver.
- Siqareti atmam. (= Artq siqaret kmirm)
A.T. mirov linqvistik implisit inkarlqdan danarkn onun leksik-semantik, fra-
zeoloji, morfoloji v sintaktik xarakteristikasn gstrmy almdr.
mplisit inkarn leksik-semantik indikatorlarn yrnrkn sual v tsdiq konstruk-
siyalar drindn nzrdn keirmk lazmdr. ngilis dilind good, much, a lot, swell,
excellent, well v s. kimi ironiya ml gtirn szlrin itirak maraq dourur. Msln,
A lot you know about Physics! (= You dont know anything about Physics), Well she
speaks English! (= She doesnt speak English well), ox tez glmisn! (= vaxtnda
glmyibsn)
mplisit inkarn sas indikatorlarndan biri d leksik tkrarlardr. Leksik tkrar da-
nann eitdiyin reaksiyasnn ekspressiv alarln ks etdirir. Msln,
- If you need any help, inform me, please.
- Help? From you.(= You never help anyone)
- Are you going to change your mind?
- Me? Change my mind? (You wont catch me doing a U-turn.)
- Bu drman idikdn sonra blk rahat yatasan.
- Yatmaq? Mn.... (=Yata bilcyimi dnmrm).
Grndy kimi, eksplisit inkarlqla mqayisd implisit inkarlq vasitli, gizli
yolla ifad olunsa da bu tip implisit inkar indikatorlarn kmyi il daha rngarng ifad
variantl, mntiqi v emosional-ekspressiv alarlqlar meydana xr.
mplisit inkarln leksik indikatorlarndan biri d mtn daxilind mqayisdir.
- We need to do housework.
- Am I your mule? Do you want to make me an ass of yourself? (=I am not your
mule/ I dont want to work like an ass)
- Mn snin atann nkriym? (= Atann nkri yoxdur)
Bu tip sual cml strukturlarnn ifad etdiklri mnalar onlarn hrfi mnalarndan
ox frqli olub nisbtn frazeoloji xarakter malikdir.
- Why is she still waiting there?
- How do I know? (= I dont know)
- Bu qap niy yen baldr?
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- Mn hardan bilim? (= Mn bilmirm)
Qeyd edk ki, privativlik anladan vasitlr d implisit inkarn leksik indikatorlarn-
dan hesab olunur. Bu vasitlr, yuxarda veriln indikatorlar kimi, dild pozitiv gr-
nm alarlanmasnda, tsdiqlik perifrazlarnn yaranmasnda fal itirak edrk my-
yn bir yann, hrktin v ya onlara aid olan hr hans bir lamtin yoxluunu, na-
qisliyini bildirir (fail, reject, dissuade, ignore, omit, absent, hell, nonsense v s.)
At the moment I failed to answer. I was shocked./I couldnt answer/I tried to answer;
Ham axra qdr vurudu, o is vziyytl bard (= vurumad, mbariz aparmad.)
Frazeoloji indikatorlar implisit inkarn, fikrimizc, n zngin indikatorlarndandr.
Frazeoloji (privativ) vasitlr verbal naqislik v inkarladrman mcazi-ideomatik
grmd, sintaktik metafora qlibind zngin ifad variyasiyas ml gtirir:
I wish the ground would swallow you up/I wish you would die/I wish you didnt live.
- Bs pullar han, pullar ver bri!
- Pul n gzir, bana da saldq!
Grndy kimi, myyn obraz sasnda qurulan privativ frazeologizmlr (fra-
zeoloji indikatorlar) aydn semantik motivliyi v daxili ekspressivliyi il frqlnir.
Yuxarda veriln ideomatik cml qurulular- sintaktik frazeologizmlr mvafiq olaraq
sintaktik sviyyli sah konstituentlri kimi x edir, ucqar sah komponentlr olmaqla
bir sra mna alarlqlarnn, emosional ekspressivliyin d reallamasnda itirak edir.
R.X.Volpert sintaktik frazeologizmlrin paradiqmatik konnotasiyaya malik olduunu
qeyd edir, onlara mtlq emosionallq markerlri kimi yanar.
mplisit inkarlq, yuxarda qeyd etdiyimiz indikatorlarla yana, morfoloji indika-
torlarla da reallaa bilir ki, bununla felin aspekt v zaman kateqoriyasndak dyiikliklr
nzrd tutulur. Morfoloji indikatorlar digr implisit indikatorlarla mqayisd implisit
inkarn tqdim olunmasnda zif itirak edirlr. Msln:
She is seeing her grandfather (= She doesnt see, but she is imagining)
He is hearing a noise (= He doesnt hear, but he is imagining)
Kemi zamanda veriln cmllr d bir ox hallarda implisit inkar ifad ed bilir:
- Dont you have a car?
- Oh, I had a car. (= I dont have it now)/ I wish I had it now (Ka olsayd).
mplisit inkarn sintaktik indikatorlar bir ox hallarda tkbana iln bilms
d vasitli inkarln ifadsind byk rol oynayr. ngilis dilind as if v as though
balayclar il ml gln tabeli mrkkb cml strukturlarnn bir oxu sintaktik-
frazeologiya sciyysi dayr, hr hans mtndn knarda ekspressiv tsdiq v ya inkar
ifad edir.
He treats me as if I were a child. (= I am not a child)
Mrkkb cmllrd ekspressiv inkarlq alarlqlarnn, struktur variativlik hal-
larnn yaranmasnda sah konstituentlrinin ilnib-ilnmmsi hmiyytli rol oy-
nayr [5, 194].
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ngilis dilind even if, even when, even while, though, although balayclar il
dzln gzt budaq cmlli tabeli mrkkb cmllrd hm ba, hm d budaq cml
tsdiqd glmkl ekspressiv inkarlq ifad olunur, qtilik semantik rti v kontrast
dncsi sintaktik forman btvlkd inkar hkmn ifadsin tabe etdirir. Msln:
Although the sun was shining, it was cold. (= it was not hot/ The sun was shining/
I expected it to be warm), Jim has to go to work although he is ill. (= Jim is ill, I expect
he doesnt have to go to work), Well have a great time even if it rains (= It may rain,
but it wont stop us); Qadn ox xst olsa da btn ilri z grrd. (= O, xst idi.
Onun btn ilri grmsi mmkn deyildi.)
Gstriln tabeli mrkkb cml qurulularnda ifad olunan aktual informasiya
haqqnda danlan i, hal, hrktin icra olub-olmamasn, ba tutub-tutmamasn my-
yn rt balamaq deyil, mhz bunlarn icra olunma, ba tutma imkann emosional
kild inkar etmkdir.
mumiyytl, vasitli ifad tiplri emosional sciyy dayr ki, bu da mumn
dild ekspressiv tsdiq v inkar hkmlrin, elc d ekspressiv thrikin ifad variyasi-
yalarn daha da genilndirir.
DBYYAT
1. Fodor D.J, Fodor A.J, Garrett M.F The Psychological Unreality of Semantic Representation in the
Block N. Readings in philosophy of psychology, Volume 2, 1981, 242
2. Ligeza A. Logical foundation for rule-based systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006, 61
3. Danec Fr. The Relation of Centre and Peripheru as a Lanquage Universal. Travaux linquistiqnes de
Pragne, 2. Les problemes du centre et de la peripheru du sustems de la langue Prague, 1966
4. . : : .. .
. - .1981, 32
5. Abdullayev S. Masir alman v Azrbaycan dillrind inkarlq kateqoriyas, Maarif, Bak-1998.

A MODERN APPROACH PERSPECTIVE TO THE
LEXICOLOGY OF NABIS DIVAN
Salih Sava
Qafqaz niversitesi
Bak / Azerbaycan
ssavas@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
Nb, whose real name was Joseph, was born in Urfa in 1642. In his early twenties he went to Istanbul,
the scientific and cultural center of the Ottoman Empire, and participated in discussions on science where at
the same time he was given a chance to meet the sultan and his viziers. Nb wrote several appraisals to the
rulers of the Empire, and consequently became famous soon and was recognized by the most significant
poets of the age.
One of the most important works of Nb, who was also considered to be the founder of "hikem ekol"
that aimed at making people use their thinking and reasoning skills, was the Turkish Divan. Nb was using
Hikemi style, especially much in Ghazals.
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There has not been any study done so far with regard to the lexicology of Nb Divan. We hope
that this study will fill in the existing huge gap on this subject.
Keywords: Nb, Divan, poet, literature.
NB DVNININ LEKSKASINA MODERN AIDAN YAKLAIM
ZET
Asl ad Yusuf olan Nb 1642 ylnda Urfa'da domutur. Genlik yllarnda Osmanl'nn ilim ve
kltr merkezi olan stanbul'a giderek buradaki ilim sohbetlerine katlm ve ayn zamanda padiah ve
vezirlerle tanma imkn bulmutur. Devlet byklerine yazd mersiyelerle ksa zamanda tannm ve
dnemin nemi airlerinden vg dolu szler almtr.
nsanlar dndrmeyi amalayan "hikem ekol"n kurucusu olarak kabul edilen Nb'nin en nemli
eserlerinden biri Trke Dvndr. Nb hikemi slubunu zellikle gazellerinde ok kullanmtr.
Nb Dvnnn sz varl ile ilgili bugne kadar herhangi bir alma yaplmamtr. mit ediyoruz ki
bu alma bu konudaki mevcut olan byk bir boluu dolduracaktr.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Nb, dvan, air, edebiyat.

XIII. yzyldan balayarak XIX. yzyln ikinci yarsna kadar byk bir deiik-
lie uramadan devam etmi olan Divan Edebiyat, Osmanl mparatorluu dneminde
olumutur. slam kltrne bal olarak gelien bu Edebiyat, Arap ve Fars Edebiyat-
larndan etkilendiinden dolay yazlan eserlerde Arapa ve Farsa kelimelere ska
rastlanmaktadr.
Dvn Edebiyat en parlak dnemini XVI. ve XVII. yzyllarda yaamtr. Bu
Edebiyatn en lirik airi olan Fuzl ile Sultnu-uar lakabyla anlan Bk, XVI.
yzyln en mehur airlerindendir. Kaside ve hiciv ustas Nefi, Gazel tarznn stad
eyhlislam Yahya Efendi ve hikem ekolnn kurucusu byk air Nb ise XVII.
yzyla damgasn vuran airlerdendir.
Edebiyatmzda hikmetli sz syleme slbu olarak da kabul edilen, insanlar
dnmeye ve dndrmeye ynelten hikem slbun en nemli temsilcisi Nb
olmutur. Bu ynyle Nb, gerek yaad dnemde ve gerekse daha sonraki donem-
lerde birok air tarafndan vgyle anlm ve takipileri olmutur.
Divan Edebiyat ve bu edebiyat bnyesinde yazlm eserler Tanzimat Edebiyatnn
ortaya kmas ve Bat hayranlnn balamasyla arka plana itilmitir. Eserlerdeki sanat
anlay ve Arapa, Farsa kelimelerin fazlalndan dolay bu edebiyata Yksek Zmre
Edebiyat ya da Saray Edebiyat denilerek sadece belli bir zmreye aitmi gibi
gsterilmeye allmtr.
Osmanl imparatorluu dneminde air ve yazarlar eserlerini Arap alfabesi ile ya-
zyorlard. 1928 ylnda Latin alfabesinin kabul ile birlikte bu kymetli eserlerden daha
fazla okuyucunun istifade etmesi iin Latin alfabesine eviriler yaplmaya balanmtr.
Nb, manzum ve mensur tarzda eserler yazmtr. En nemli manzum eseri Trke
Dvn'dr. Bu Dvn'n 1841 Bulak'ta ve 1875 stanbul'da olmak zere eski harflerle
baslm iki ayr basks bulunmaktadr. Ali Fuat Bilkan yapt doktora almasnda,
Nb Dvn ad altnda eski yazyla kaleme alnm orijinal nshalar karlatrarak
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Latin alfabesine evirmi ve 1997 ylnda 2 cilt halinde "Nb Dvn" adl eserini ya-
ynlamtr. Milli Eitim Bakanl'nn bilim ve kltr yaynlar arasnda bulunan bu
eser sayesinde Nb'nin iirleri daha geni bir okuyucu kitlesinin hizmetine sunulmutur.
Yaklak alt yz yllk bir mazisi olan Divan edebiyat her ne kadar Arap ve Fars
edebiyatlarndan etkilenmi olsa da kaynan slm kltrnden alarak gelimi ve
kendine has tarzyla bnyesinde yzlerce air ve yazar yetimi, ktphaneler dolusu
eserler yazlmtr. Her ne kadar belli dnemlerde deiik evreler tarafndan ktle-
mek maksadyla adna Saray Edebiyat ya da Yksek Zmre Edebiyat eklinde
adlandrlp sadece belli bir zmreye ait gibi gsterilmi olsa da herkesin faydalanaca
tarzda byk bir marifet ve sanat zellii tayan eserler kaleme alnmtr. Nasl ki
Halk edebiyatnn kendine has baz zellikleri varsa, Divan edebiyatnn da kendine
has zellikleri bulunmaktadr. XIII. yzyldan balayarak XIX. yzyln ortalarna kadar
uzun bir zaman dilimi ierisinde stanbul merkezli olarak zellikle Anadolu toprakla-
rnda gelien Divan edebiyatnda manzum olarak yazlan mesnevi, gazel, kaside, rubi,
tuyu, terkib-i bend gibi nazm eitlerinin yannda tarihler, hikyeler, tercmeler ve
biyografik eserler de mevcuttur. Bu denli geni bir alanda eserler yazlan bu edebiyat
sadece sarayda yaayan belli bir zmreye aitmi gibi gstermek doru olmaz.
Divan edebiyatndaki airlerin mesleklerine ve makamlarna baktmzda padiah-
lardan, vezirlerden, eyalet valilerinden tutun da demircilere, ipekilere, kunduraclara
kadar deiik kademelerden insanlarn olduunu grmekteyiz. Yani halkn en alt taba-
kasndan devletin en st kademesine kadar deiik meslek gruplarndan airler olmutur.
Divan airleri sadece saraylarda deil kahvehanelerde, meyhanelerde, uara mec-
lislerinde bir araya gelerek hnerlerini gsterirlerdi. XVI. yzyln mehur airlerinden
olan Ztnin meslei remilcilikti. Ayn zamanda iir yazarak da para kazanyordu.
Beyazt camisinin avlusunda at dkkn ise airler iin urak yeri olmutu. Yine
XV. yzyl airlerinden Enver okuma-yazma bilmeyen Divan edebiyat airidir. Yni
Divan edebiyat sadece belli kesime has, anlalmayan, yksek zmreye hitap eden bir
edebiyat deil; genel olarak o dnemde toplumun her kesimini iine alan geni bir alana
yaylm bir edebiyat tr olma zelliini gstermektedir.
Halk edebiyatnda iirler hece vezni ile yazlrken, Divan edebiyatnda aruz vez-
niyle yazlmtr. Tabi ki sanat yapma anlay n planda olduu iin Arapa ve Farsa
kelime ve terkipler daha fazla kullanlm, ssl ve mecazl ifadelere daha fazla yer
verilmitir. Ayrca Divan edebiyatnn teekkl ettii dnemde Arapa bilim dili, Farsa
ise kltr ve sanat dili olarak kullanlmaktayd. Medreselerde Arapa ve Farsa re-
tiliyordu. Yazlan eserlerde edeb sanata ve mnya nem veriliyor, daha nce kullanl-
mam orijinal ifadeler kullanlmaya gayret ediliyordu. Edeb sanat yapma gayesi n
plana knca yazlan eserler halkn konuma dilinden uzak kalyordu.
Divan edebiyatnn mehur airlerinden olan Nb, XVII. yzyln ikinci yarsnda
yaamtr. Onun yaad bu dnem Divan edebiyatnn zirvede olduu bir dnemdir.
ok kk yalardan itibaren airlie kabiliyeti olan Nb, Osmanl mparatorluunun
ilim ve sanat merkezi olan stanbula kilometrelerce uzakta olan Urfada dnyaya gelmi
olsa da bu yeteneini gstermek ve gelitirmek maksadyla daha gen yalarda stan-
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bulun yolunu tutmutur. Yetenei sayesinde ksa zamanda sarayda kendine yer bulmu
ve nm etrafa yaylmaya balamtr. Padiahlara ve vezirlere sunduu methiyelerle
onlarn honutluunu ve itibarn kazanm, iltifat grmtr.
Nb, kendine has olan hikemi slubu ile de farkllk gstermektedir. Bo konu-
may, bo ve faydasz eyler yazmay sevmedii gibi ona gre her sylenilen sz insan-
lar dndrmeli ve onlara t verme gayesiyle sylenmelidir.
Nbnin dikkat eken en nemli zelliklerinden bir de ahit olduu toplumsal olay-
lara sessiz kalmamasdr. (Kontantamer, 1984:84) Yeri geldiinde imparatorluun en
st makamlarnda bulunan ahslar isim vermeyerek usta kalemiyle eletirmi ve in-
sanlar yanl tutumlarndan dolay uyarmtr. Oluna nasihat etme tarznda Hayriyye
adl eserinde bunu en gzel ekilde ifade etmitir.
La'net ol devlete kim ola gd
Ek-i em-i fukar subh u mes (Pala, 2003:116)
(Gdas, sabah akam fakirlerin gzya olan o devlet ve ikbale lnet olsun!)
Yaad dnemde mahkemelerde hkm veren kadlar ve aldklar rveti ele-
tirmitir.
lmi yok ekseri b-mezheb dn
emi mahslde v rvetde hemn (Pala, 2003:170)
(Kadlarn birounda ilim olmad gibi bunlarn dini ve mezhebi de yoktur.
Gzleri daima kazanta ve rvettedir.)
Nbnin eserleri, sanatsal olma zelliinin yannda o dnemde yaayan insanlarn
sosyal yaantlarn, gelenek ve greneklerini, kltrlerini, ekonomik dzeylerini ve
aralarndaki ilikilerin seviyesini aka gstererek dnem hakknda kesin ve kalc
bilgiler vermektedir. Dvnda yer alan 156 tane tarih de yaad dnemde meydana
gelen nemli olaylar gstermede tarihi bir belge nitelii tamaktadr.
Her airin rnek ald, etkilendii airler olduu gibi Nb de Sebk-i Hindi tar-
znda iirler yazan Sb-i Tebrz, Molla Cm ve evket-i Buhr gibi airlerden etki-
lenmitir. (zgr, 1978:18)
Nbnin kulland hikem tarznda olduu gibi Hint tarznda da mnya nem
ve verilir. Az szle ok ey anlatma amalanr. Nb, klasik iirimizin en gl bir tem-
silcisi ve kendisinden sonra gelenlere en ok tesir eden stad bir sanatdr. (Karahan,
1987:71)
Nbnin etkilendii airler olduu gibi Nbden etkilenen airler de olmutur.
Bunlarn banda, Sadrazamlk makamna kadar ykselen Rm Mehmed Paa, Sbit,
Nzm, Sam, Rid, Seyid Vehb, Hm, Mnf, elebizde sm, Koca Rgp Paa,
Smblzde Vehb, insi ve Ziya Paa gelmektedir.
Nb, gen yalarda doduu memleketinden ayrlarak geldii ve hayatnn te
birini geirdii stanbula mrnn son yllarnda tekrar gelerek burada vefat etmi ve
stanbulda defnedilmitir.
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Daha nce Orhun ve Uygur alfabelerini kullanan Trkler, slmiyeti kabul ettikten
sonra Kurann da Arapa olmasnn tesiriyle Arap alfabesini kullanmlardr. slmi-
yetin Trkler arasnda hzla yaylmas sonucunda dn terimler bata olmak zere Arap-
adan Trkeye kelime girii hzlanmtr. Ayrca ranla olan ilikiler sonucunda Fars
edebiyatnn da tesiriyle Farsadan binlerce kelime Trkeye girmitir.
zellikle Seluklu devleti zamannda Arapann ilim dili, Farsann da edebiyat
dili olarak kabul edilmesi sebebiyle Trke ihmal edilmitir. Fakat Seluklularn ykl-
masyla Anadoluda kurulan Beylikler zamannda Trkeye nem verilmi ve halk ara-
snda yaygnlamasna allmtr.
Osmanl mparatorluu dneminde gerek ilim yuvalarnda Arapann ve Farsann
okutulmas ve gerekse airlerin eserlerini yazarken Arapa ve Farsa kelime ve tamla-
malardan ar derece istifade etmeleriyle bu dillerden Trkeye binlerce kelime girmitir.
Osmanlnn son dnemlerine kadar kelime girii devam etmitir.
Bu dnemde Trkeye nem veren, onun gzelliklerini ve stn ynlerini sade ve
anlalr dilde yazm olduklar eserlerinde gsteren air ve yazarlar olmutur. Bu airler
arasnda Nb de bulunmaktadr. Fakat Nb, her ne kadar sade ve anlalr yazmaktan
yana olsa da dneminin gerektirdii baz sebeplerden dolay bu dncesini birok
yerde uygulayamamtr. Mesel, gazellerini anlalr tarzda yazd halde kasidelerinde
ar ve ssl ifadeler kullanmtr.
XIII. yzyl Trk edebiyat airi Yunus Emrenin Dvnnda Arap ve Fars kkenli
kelimeler %53, Trk kkenli kelimeler %47; XVI. yzyl Divan edebiyat airi Bk-
nin Dvnnda ise Arap ve Fars kkenli kelimeler % 77, Trk kkenli kelimeler %23
oranndadr. XVII. yzyl Divan edebiyat airi Nbnin Trke Dvnnda Arap ve
Fars kkenli kelimelerin Trke kelimelere gre ok daha fazla kullanldn grmek-
teyiz. Nbnin on binden fazla farkl szck kulland Trke Dvnndaki kelimelerin
%85ini Arap ve Fars kkenli kelimeler, %15ini ise Trk kkenli kelimeler olutur-
maktadr. XVIII. yzyldan itibaren ise mahallileme ve Batya ynelme neticesinde
Arap ve Fars kkenli kelimeleri kullanm oran dmtr.
Dilde kullanlan kelimeler zaman ierisinde fonetik ve morfolojik ynden deiime
urayabilmektedir. Nb Dvnnda kullanlan Trk kkenli kelimelerin byk bir o-
unluu deimeden gnmz Trkiye Trkesinde de kullanlmaktadr. Mesela; ne,
baka, biraz, imdi, byle vb. Ancak belli bir deiime uram kelime says da az
deildir. rnein Nb Dvnnda (ND); altun, barmak, ana, degl, yohsa, ire, yalunuz,
gice, yir, v, kapu, in, kend, bell, canum, nki, kimn kelimeleri gnmz Tr-
kiye Trkesinde (TT) altn, parmak, ona, deil, yoksa iinde, yalnz, gece, yer, ve,
kap, iin, kendi, belli, canm, nk, kimin eklinde kullanlmaktadr. Ayrca fiillerin
kk ve eklerinde de deiim olmutur. ND. itdke, atd, aldatd, gedi, ddi, dimek,
gise, idelm, virdm, getrdi, viricek, urmd, kalmasun, evrdi, bitrdi, bastun,
bakup, irp, gdi, bozd, old, dkilen, grldi, dmi, bulnmaz vb. Bu kelimeler
TT. ettike, att, aldatt, geti, dt, demek, gese, edelim, verdim, getirdi, verecek,
vurmutu, kalmasn, evirdi, bitirdi, bastn, bakp, eriip, gt, bozdu, oldu, dklen,
grld, dm, bulunmaz.
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En eski Trk alfabesi olan ve Orhun-Yenisey kitabelerinin yazld Runik Trk
alfabesinde v sesi bulunmamaktadr. v sesi yerine b sesi kullanlmaktadr. var
kelimesi bar, varmak kelimesi de barmak eklinde gemektedir. (Orkun, 1994:17)
Ayn zamanda o dnem uygulanan iml kurallar ile gnmzdekiler arasnda fark-
llklar bulunmaktadr. zellikle baz fiillerin banda kullanlan t nsz gnmzde
d nszne dnmtr. ND. told, tayanmaz, tald, tokunsa, tolar, tolaur, turur
TT. doldu, dayanmaz, dald, dokunsa, dolar, dolar, durur. Ayrca Cumhuriyetten
sonra Trkiye Trkesindeki iml kurallarnn uygulanmasnda yaplan deiikler neti-
cesinde kelimelerin yazlnda ve telaffuzunda farkllk grlmektedir.
Trkeye baka dillerden X. yzyldan itibaren balayan kelime girii bin yldan
beri devam etmektedir. Trklerin slmiyeti kabul etmeleri ve alfabe olarak da Arap
alfabesini kullanmaya balamalaryla Arap kkenli kelimeler hzl bir ekilde Trkeye
girmeye balamtr. Anadoluda XII. yzyln sonlarna kadar etkisini srdren Arap-
adan sonra XIII. yzyldan itibaren hem devlet dili hem de edebiyat dili olarak kabul
edilen Farsaya kar rabet artmtr. Medreselerde Arapa ile birlikte Farsa da -
retilmitir. Yine bu dnemde ortaya kan Dvn edebiyatnda airlerin iirlerini ya-
zarken aruz veznini kullanmalar, Arap ve Fars kkenli kelimelerden daha fazla istifade
etmeleriyle Trkeye bu dillerden kelime girii ok fazla olmutur. Ayrca stanbulun
fethinden sonra randan birok bilgin ve airin saraya getirilmesi Farsann nemini
arttrmtr.
Trklerin yeni lkeleri fethetmeleri ve komularyla olan ilikileri neticesinde de
tarm, denizcilik, tp, asker, spor vb. gibi alanlardan kelimeler ve terimler Trkeye
girmitir. Trkeye giren kelimelerin birou Trkenin ses yapsna uygunlatrlarak
deiime uramtr. Fakat baz kelimeler ise hibir deiiklik yaplmadan aynen aln-
mtr. Bu kelimeler dilin iml kurallarna uymadklar iin istisna kelime olarak kabul
edilmilerdir. Bu istisna kelimeler, belli kurallara gre Trkeyi renen yabanclar
asndan zorluk karmaktadr.
XVII. yzyldan itibaren Osmanl mparatorluunun Avrupa devletleri ile olan
ilikilerinin artmas ve 1789 Fransz htillinden sonra Trklerde Bat hayranl ve
taklitilii balamtr. (Tanpnar, 1956,10-11) Tanzimat dneminde ise Avrupadan
retmenlerin getirilip okullarda ders vermesi, Trk rencilerin eitim iin Avrupaya
gnderilmeleri ve fikir, sanat, edebiyat adamlarnn Avrupallar taklit ederek onlarn
dillerini ve kltrlerini benimsemeleri sonucunda zellikle Franszcadan olmak zere
dier Avrupa dillerinden de binlerce kelime Trkeye girmitir.
Gnmz Trkiye Trkesindeki alnt kelimelerin %45inin Arapa, %32sinin
Franszca ve %10unun da Farsa kelimelerden olutuunu grmekteyiz. Franszca
kelimelerin Farsa kelimelere gre kat daha fazla olmas ksa bir dnem ierisinde
Franszcadan ne kadar hzl bir ekilde kelime girdiini gstermektedir. XX. yzyln
balarnda Osmanl Devletinin st kademelerinde grevli ahslarn Alman hayranl-
nn yannda Anadoluda alan Alman liselerinde ve enstitlerinde Almancann -
retilmesiyle Almancadan da yze yakn kelime Trkeye gemitir.
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Son zamanlarda teknolojinin gelimesi ile gelen yenilikler, internet araclyla
basn-yayn organlarna kolay eriim ve insanlarn yabanc dil renmeye kar istekleri
vb. sebeplerden dolay Trkeye her geen gn onlarca yeni kelime girmektedir. Bu
kelimelerin birou Trkenin ses yapsna uygun gelmedii halde olduu gibi aln-
makta ve Trke okunduu gibi yazlan, yazld gibi okunan bir dil olma zelliini
koruyamamaktadr. Bu sebeple baka dillerden alnan kelimeler halkn diline yerleme-
den nce denetleyici bir kurum tarafndan deerlendirilerek Trkenin ses ve gramer
yapsna uygunlatrlmaldr.
Nb dneminde yaz dilinde kullanlan alfabe Arap alfabesine birka harf eklenerek
oluturulmu Osmanl alfabesi idi. Arap ve Fars kkenli kelimeleri bu alfabe ile yaz-
mak kolayd. Uzatlarak okunmas gereken harflerin yanna uzatma harfleri konularak
bu harflerin uzun okunmas salanyordu. Trkiye Cumhuriyeti kurulduktan sonra 1928
ylnda Arap alfabesinden Latin alfabesine geildiinde Arap ve Fars kkenli kelime-
lerdeki uzatma grevini yapacak bir iaret ya da harf yoktu. Daha sonra bu ihtiyac
karlamak ve farkl anlama gelen kelimelerin farkl biimde yazlmasn gstermek
maksadyla a,,u seslilerin zerine dzeltme (uzatma, inceltme) iareti (^) konularak
bu problem zlmtr.
Nb Dvnnda geen yaklak be bin Arap kkenli kelimeden iki yz tanesi (%4)
gnmz Trkiye Trkesinde ses deiikliine uramtr. Dier kelimelerde ise ciddi
anlamda bir ses deiiklii olmam ve o dnemde kullanld ekliyle gnmzde de
kullanlmaktadr.
bide, acab, acem, ciz, adn, fet, fiyet, hiret, ahkm, ahlk, ahmak, alm, mil,
ar, aslet, asker, azril, beden, belde, beer, chil, ciz, cr, cef, cehennem, cell,
cennet, cevher, cezb, cilve, dim, dir, defter, devlet, devre, dikkat, dirhem, diyanet,
du, ecel, elem, emel, Enver, eser, evvel, ezel, fakat, fark, farz, felek, fer, Firdevs,
gamze, gayb, gayret, gaye, gazel, hamd, harem, harf, hasret, hayret, hedef, heves, hey-
bet, heykel, hukuk, huzur, ifls, imkn, inkr, islm, istifa, kader, kalem, kamer, kasem,
kefe, kerem, kymet, kudret, kuvvet, lzm, lezzet, mahrem, maher, masraf, mye, mz,
menzil, mesel, mesken, meslek, millet, mukaddes, mbrek, mlk, mnevver, mstes-
na, nefes, nihayet, rabet, rakam, raks, rz, rislet, rivayet, ruhsat, shil, slih, slim,
secde, sefer, seher, selef, sevk, silh, eref, ey, tenezzl, unsur, vlide, vecd, zafer,
zekt, zelzele, zirve, ziyfet, ziyret, zmre
Arap kkenli kelimelerdeki tm sesleri Latin alfabesindeki harfler karlayamad
gibi Trke kelimelerdeki tm sesleri de Arap alfabesindeki harfler karlayamamakta
idi. Mesel, baz Arap kkenli kelimelerin banda bulunan ayn () grtlak seslisinin
karl Latin alfabesinde yoktur. Bundan dolay Arap kkenli k ( ) kelimesi
Trke ak olarak deimitir. Bunun yannda Arap alfabesinde Trke kelimeler-
deki p,,j sessizlerini karlayacak harfler bulunmadndan yazda bu ihtiyac kar-
lamak maksadyla Farsada kullanlan ( ), ( ) ve ( ) harfleri alnd.
Nbnin yaad 17. yzylda kullanlan alfabe Arap alfabesi olduu iin Arap
kkenli kelimelerdeki uzun sesleri gstermede uzatma harfleri olan elif ( ), ye ( ) ve
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vav ( ) harfleri kullanlmaktayd. Mesel; () kelimesinde a seslisi uzun okun-
maldr. Latin alfabesinde bu sesi verecek bir iaret bulunmadndan dzeltme (uzatma,
inceltme) iareti adnda a, ve u seslerinin zerine (^ ) konularak (, , ) seslileri
oluturulmutur. Ayrca Arap alfabesindeki kaf ( ) ve kef ( ) seslerinin karl
olarak Trkiye Trkesinde k sesi kullanlmaktadr. Arapa kalem kelimesi kaf
ile ( ) kmil kelimesi kef ile ( ) yazlmaktadr. Bu ses farkn belirtmek iin
Trkiye Trkesinde a ve seslileri kullanlr. M. Ergine gre bu iaret, doru
okumay salayacak ve karkln giderilmesine yardmc olacak yerlerde mutlaka
kullanlmas gerekmektedir. (Ergin, 1999:178) T.N. Gencan, bu iaretin yerde kul-
lanlmas gerektiini belirtmektedir. Yabanc kkenli kelimeleri uzun sylenili keli-
melerden ayrmada, k, g seslerinden sonra gelen a, u kaln seslileri ince okumada ve
nispet isini belirtmede kullanlmaldr. (Gencan, 2001:623) Trk Dili Kurumunun
resmi internet sitesindeki iml klavuzunda da dzeltme iaretinin kullanlmas gerek-
tii vurgulanmaktadr.
Gnmz Trkiye Trkesinde dzeltme iaretinin kullanlmamas anlam kark-
lna sebebiyet vermiyorsa yazda kullanlmamaktadr. Fakat kelime seslendirilirken
dzeltme iareti varm gibi sylenmektedir. Mesela; adet (tane), det (gelenek, gre-
nek) burada anlam farkl olduu iin hem yazda hem de sylenite belirtilmesi gerek-
mektedir. Fakat silah, mbarek, mazi, raz vb. kelimelerin e seslileri olmad ve kul-
lanlmamas durumunda herhangi bir anlam karklna sebep olmayacandan d-
zeltme (uzatma, inceltme) iaretinin yazda konulmas gereksizdir. Sylenite ise d-
zeltme iareti varm gibi telaffuz edilir.
Trkler ve Farslar tarihin ok eski devirlerinden beri siyas, meden ve iktisad
olarak srekli etkileim iinde bulunmulardr. Bu etkileim neticesinde Trkeden
Farsaya kelimeler getii gibi Farsadan da Trkeye binlerce kelime gemitir. zel-
likle Seluklular dneminde devletin resmi dilinin Farsa olmas, Osmanllar dneminde
medreselerde Farsa retilmesi ve Dvn edebiyat airlerinin iirlerini aruz vezniyle
yazarken Farsa kelime ve terkiplerden faydalanmas vb. sebepler ok sayda Fars k-
kenli kelimenin Trkeye gemesinde etkili olmutur.
Arap alfabesinde olduu gibi Fars alfabesinde de Trkedeki tm sesleri karla-
yacak harfler bulunmamaktadr. Trke, Farsadan gelen birok kelimeyi kendi ses
sistemine uygunlatrmtr.
Nab Dvannda bine yakn Fars kkenli kelime bulunmaktadr. Trk edebiya-
tnda XVIII. yzyldan itibaren hzlanan mahallileme hareketleri, ardndan Bat hay-
ranl ve Batya ynelme ve Cumhuriyet dneminde gerekletirilen Dil Devrimi ile
Trkedeki Arapa ve Farsa kelimelerin birou dilden tasfiye edilmitir.
Trk Dil Kurumunun 2005 ylnda yaymlad Trke Szlkte 1363 adet Fars
kkenli szck bulunmaktadr. Bu da Nb Dvnnda kullanlan yaklak iki bin Fars
kkenli kelimenin gnmzde kullanlmadn ve Trke szlkte yer almadn gs-
termektedir.
Asl ad Yusuf olan Nbnin mahlasn oluturan heceler Farsadaki olumsuzluk
ekleri olan n ve bdir. Bu ekler, nne geldii kelimeyi olumsuz yapar. Gnmz
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
103
Trkiye Trkesinde nmert, nmahrem, nmalup ve bare eklinde kullanlmakta-
dr. Halkn diline yerlemi olan ve aktif olarak kullanlan alnt kelimeleri dilden bir
anda skp atmak imknszdr. Bir kelime halk tarafndan benimsenmezse zamanla
unutulur ve sadece szlklerde yer alr. Belli bir dnemde dile giren kelimeleri alnt
kelime olduklar iin dilden skp atmak yanl bir davrantr.
Nb Dvnndaki alnt kelimelerin byk bir ounluunu Arap ve Fars kkenli
kelimeler oluturmaktadr. Fakat az sayda da olsa baka dillerden gelen kelimelere de
rastlamaktayz. Trklerin Anadolu topraklarna gelmeleriyle buralarda bulunan Rum
ve Ermenilerle olan ilikiler neticesinde bu halklarn dillerinden kelimeler alnmtr.
Osmanl mparatorluu zamannda Avrupaya yaplan seferlerle oradaki lkelerin feth-
edilmesi neticesinde Trkeye yeni kelimeler girdii gibi o blgelerde yaayan halk-
larn dillerine de Trkeden kelimeler gemitir. Mesel; Macarca, Srpa, Arnavuta,
Hrvata vb. dillerde binlerce Trke kelime bulunmaktadr. zellikle Osmanl mpa-
ratorluunun siyas ve asker olarak byk bir gce sahip olduu dnemde Rus ve Av-
rupal dilbilimciler Trke ile ilgili aratrma yaparak gramer kitaplar ve szlkler ha-
zrlamlardr.
Nb Dvnndaki Avrupa dillerinden gelen kelimelerin byk bir ounluu Yunan
kkenlidir. Mesela; alay, efendi, rgad, kiras, liman, namus, snur gibi.
Trkler, Anadoluya geldiklerinde karlatklar ilk Avrupal millet Yunanllard.
Ayrca Yunanca, yaklak drt bin yllk bir gemii olan Hint-Avrupa dil ailesine
mensup bir dildi. Yunancadan Arapaya ve Farsaya birok kelime gemitir. "kiraz"
kelimesi de bunlardan bir tanesidir. Yunanca kerasi kelimesinden gelmitir.
Genellikle yapraklar kmadan nce iek aan, baz trlerinin odunu ince marangoz-
culukta kullanlan aa ve bu aacn krmz, sar renkli, tek ekirdekli sulu meyvesine
denilmektedir. (Ayverdi,2006:1712) Bu kelime Farsaya (gls), (kn, 1996:
1726) Arapaya ise (kiraz) (Sar, 1980:1299) eklinde gemitir. Kiraz genel ola-
rak krmz olduu iin bazen benzetme maksadyla dudak iin kiraz dudakl; yni
etli ve krmz dudakl anlamnda kullanlr.
Kirs kelimesi Nb Dvnnda iki yerde gemektedir.
Virdi nergis sepd-gn krts / Krmz bal mum
getrdi kirs (Bilkan, 1997:427)
Lal-i lebi kurtland mnend-i kirs / Defold
gzinden eski bmrlg (Bilkan, 1997:1233)
Nb Dvnnda dier Avrupa dillerinden kelimelere de rastlyoruz. talyancadan
gelen "tavolo" Latincede "tabula" Dvnda "tabla"; Macarcadan gelen "csaszar" Latin-
cede "caesar" Dvanda "sr" eklinde gemektedir. Bunlardan baka Dvnda r ve
kral gibi kelimelere "r- Moskov" ve "Krl- Moskov" olarak getiini grmekte-
yiz. Kral kelimesinin Frank hkmdar Carolusun (Karl) adndan geldii sylenmek-
tedir. (Ayverdi, 2006:1771)
Budur tafsli icmln ki r- h'in-i Moskov/Mukaddem r- svecle veg bbn
gd itdi (Bilkan, 1997:343)
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
104
Tamm- ge-i zeyl-i ars- memlekete/Krl- Moskov iderken itle-i mddet
(Bilkan, 1997: 256)
ok eski ve kkl bir gemie sahip olan Trkemize, tarihi seyri ierisinde yak-
lak otuz farkl dilden on binden fazla kelime geldii gibi binlerce kelimesini de baka
dillere vermitir. Bylece srekli canl kalarak dnyann sayl dilleri arasnda yerini
korumutur.
KAYNAKLAR
1. Ayverdi . (2006) "Misalli Byk Trke Szlk",Kubbealt Neriyat, stanbul
2. Bilkan, A.F. (1997) Nb Dvn MEB Yaynlar, stanbul
3. Ergin, M. (1999) niversiteler iin Trk Dili Bayrak Yaynlar, stanbul
4. Gencan, T. N. (2001) Dilbilgisi Ayra Yaynevi, Ankara
5. Karahan, A. (1987) Nb Trke iirinden Semeler, Kltr ve Turizm Bakanl Yaynlar, Ankara
6. Kontantamer, T. (1984) "Nbnin Osmanl mparatorluu Eletirisi", Ege nv. Ed. Fak. Tarih nce-
lemeleri Dergisi, Cilt XI, s. 84
7. Orkun, H.N. (1994) Eski Trk Yaztlar, TDK Yaynlar, Ankara
8. Pala, . (2003)"Hayriyye" L&M Yaynlar, stanbul
9. Sar, M. (1980) Arapa-Trke Lgat Bahar Yaynlar, stanbul
10. kn, Z. (1996) Farsa-Trke Lgat MEB yaynlar, Milli Eitim basmevi, stanbul
11. Tanpnar, A. H. (1956) XIX. Asr Trk Edebiyat, stanbul Edebiyat Fakltesi Yaynlar, stanbul
12. zgr, T. (1978) "17, 18, 19. Yzyl Eski Trk Edebiyat", Toker Yaynlar, stanbul




105





CONFERENCE MATERIALS





L I T E RAT URE

Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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International Young Researchers Conference
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AMERICAN NOVEL AND THE ORIENT: ARGUMENTS
AND COMMENTARIES
Shahin Khalilli
ABSTRACT
The article deals with the richness and complexity of American novel and of Oriental theme which
binds some major elements together in the unity of an American culture. The research on American Novel
and the Orient by the scholar Nigar Isgandarova is a valuable contribution to the comparative study of
Literature in Azerbaijan.
The value of this critical monographical research is presumably in its realistic approach to the above
mentioned theme. And the most impressive feature of the book is the way that the author expresses her
thoughts and arguments in a well-built style.
All the possibilities that Nigar Isgandarova explores, might be regarded as formulating her criticism
on intercultural relations.
Key words: American nowel, Oriental theme, relations.
Amerika Novellas v rq: Arqumentlr v rhlr
Novellae sz ilk df XVI srd dnya dbiyyat tarixind mhm simalardan
biri, florensiyal Covanni Bokkaonun (1313-1375) Dekameron (10 gn mnasn
verir .X.), Marqarit de Navarrenin (Marguerite de Navarre (1492-1549)) fransz
dilind yazd 72 sayda (yaz onlar 100 sayda yazmaq niyytind olsa da, toplu
yarmq qalmdr .X.) Heptameron (Bokkaonun Dekameronunun analoqu
sasnda yazlm srin ad 7 gn demkdir, sr ilk df toplu klind 1559-cu ild
nr edilmidir .X.) v buna bnzr srlr veriln termin kimi diqqti clb edir.
Lakin ngiltrd novel sz XVII srin ortalarnda sas etibar il qeyri-qanuni sevgi-
dn bhs edn romanslarla laqdar olan hekaytlr amil edilmidir. Lakin sonrak
srlrd roman janrna yksln novella daha geni mnada XVIII srdn etibarn
Daniel Defo, Smuel Riardson, Henri Fildinq..., XIX srd Valter Skottun tarixi ro-
manlar il dbi tarixin yeni formasnda x etmy balamdr.
Bu baxmdan Nigar sgndrovann Amerika novellas v rq adl yenic nr
edilmi monoqrafiyasnda kiik annotasiyan tqdim etdiyimiz novella janrnn, elc
d Amerikada rq mvzusunda yazlm srlrin bir araya gtirilmsi istr-istmz
kitabn hat etdiyi mvzu dairsini myynldirir. XVIII srin axrlarnda v XIX
srin vvllrind Amerika dbi-bdii dnc tarixind novella janrnn formalamas,
elc d rq mvzusunda novella janrnda yazlm srlrin ideya-bdii thlil gti-
rilmsi hmiyytli v aktual bir problemin sirlrin bldilik edir.
n sz, giri, iki hiss v mllifin yekun szn 250 shifd ardcl v mntiqi
kild znd tcssm etdirn monoqrafiya szn hqiqi mnasnda tdqiqat alimin
axtar v vzsiz xidmtindn xbr verir.
Amerika mdniyyti v dbiyyatnn tarixini lk-vlk edn, daha dorusu,
dnya tarixind z doum gn il az qala dnyann sonbeiyi olan v bu gn dnyann
hegemon lksin evriln AB-n dbiyyat sahsind qazand uurlar onun zngin-
lr lksinin dbiyyat estafetind n crgd dayandna zrr qdr d bh yaratmr.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
107
Nigar sgndrovann iki hissdn ibart olan monoqrafiyasnn birinci hisssi
Amerika xalqnn tarixi kontekstind 1776-c il inqilabndan sonra Amerika nsrinin
yaranmas tarixi, elmi v dbi faktlar sasnda rh v thlillr il mntiqi ardcllqla
tqdim edilmidir. Yeni sivilizasiyann tkklnn tarixi saslarndan tutmu
Amerika nsrind (XVIII-XIX yzilliklrd) gender problemi, xsusil qadn yaz-
larn novella janrnn yarannda v onun inkiafnda rolu, xidmtlri haqqnda elmi
sasl mhakimlri polemik trzd oxucu ixtiyarna verilmidir. Qadnlarn novella il
mnasibtlri, xsusil novellada qadn nnlrinin axtar, 1970-ci illrd feminist
tnqidilrin qadn yazlarn dbiyyat tarixindn xarlmas haqqnda qrar istr-
istmz bu problemin daha diqqtl zmn, yaxud aradrlmasn tlb edir. l-
btt, bu bard mxtlif rylrin olmas tbii grnr. Qadnlarn bdii sr yazmas
mxtlif stereotiplrin yaranmasna rvac vermidir.
1987-ci ild Nnsi Armstronqun aradrmasnda bel bir mhakim istr-istmz
hr ksi dnmy vadar edir: ngilis novellasnn tarixin nzr salanda mn hl
d baa d bilmirm ki, n n qadnlar zlrinin n byk nsr srini yalnz XVIII
srin axrlarnda yazmaa balam, XIX srd yaz kimi tannmlar v bunun sa-
snda masir dvrd bdii snt adam statusunu almlar.
Bel bir tqdimat prizmasndan Amerikada yaranan qadn yazlarn, btvlkd
is Amerika novellasnn tkkl v inkiaf yollarn kitabnn birinci fslind thlil
gtirn Nigar sgndrova dvrn ictimai-siyasi fonunda novella haqqnda oxucuda
myyn tsvvr yaratmaa almdr.
Monoqrafiyann XIX sr Amerika romantik novellas. Amerika novellasnda rq
mvzusu adl hisssi slind mllifin aradrd problemin nvsini tkil edir. No-
vella v Amerika arasnda he bir mumi oxarln olmadn qeyd edn mllif 1776-
1784-c illrd nqilabn Amerikaya hyatn romantikasn bx etdiyini sylmkl
Amerika nsrinin Vainqton rvinq, Uolt Uitmen, Nataniel Qotorn, Herman Melvill,
Edqar Allan Po, Emili Dikinson v transendentalistlrin Amerika dbiyyatnda birinci
nslin ilk byk yazlar kimi yaratd orijinal obraz v personajlar il dbiyyatn
unudulmazlar srasna daxil olduunu n plana kir.
Nigar sgndrovann n byk uuru onun mvzu seimidir: Amerika novellas
v rq. Bu iki qanad tdqiqatnn fantaziyas deyil, axtar-yaradclq dncsind
bir-birinin mntiq v reallqla vhdtini yaradan mvzu btvlynn mnzrsind
fakt v onu oxucu diqqtin atdran dyrli bir tdqiqatn ifadsidir.
Monoqrafiyann ikinci hisssind XIX sr Amerika romantik novellas v novellada
bdii ksini tapm rq mvzusu haqqnda dbi-tnqidi dnclrini mumildirn
mllif romantik dvrn mxsusi zlliklrini v sciyyvi xsusiyytlrini mumil-
dirrk mvzu dairsind rqin dbiyyata gtirdiyi ecazkarlq v qeyri-adiliyinin
nzr arpan hmiyytin xsusi diqqt yetirmidir.
Orta srlr dvrnn mdhi klgsi altnda mrglyn Qrb el bu dvrn
oyan anda rq zrind znn stnlyn byan etmidir. Lakin tarixin yad-
danda qalan rqin Qrb gstrdiyi tsir, yaxud Qrbin rql ox ilgili balants
unudulmaz tarixi faktdr.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
108
XVIII srd Amerika dbi jurnallarnda rq nallarnn ap bu tarixi mnzrd
rq maran ilk qaranqular olmasa da, amerikallarn rq lklrin syahti, x-
susil bir sra tannm yazlarn (Mark Tven, Herman Melvillin) yaradclnda hind
flsfsi il mkalimsi unudulmamaldr.
Uilyam Counzun rq tdqiqatlar Amerika dbi-mdni dnc tarixind mhm
rol oynamdr. Xsusil, XIX srd Amerika dbiyyatnda rq maran, bu dbiy-
yatda rq motiv, sjet v obrazlarn bdii inikas bir sra tannm yazlarn yarad-
clnda ifadsini tapmas monoqrafiyada thlil v rhlrl tqdim edilmidir.
Amerika dbiyyatnn byk yazs Vainqton rvinqin yaradclnda rq mv-
zusu il tdqiqat alimin fakt v thlil material aydn elmi dild ifad olunmudur.
Elc d Edqar Allan Ponun hekaylrind rq (onun 25 hekaysindn 20-ci Yaxn
rq mvzusundadr-.X.) mvzusunun spesifikasnn yaradc thlili myyn maraq
dourur.
Hr hans tdqiqat o vaxt unudulmaz olur ki, o, dbi elmi dairnin marana sbb
olur, hmin aradrmadak problemlr sni dndrr. Nigar sgndrovann Amerika
novellas v rq adl monoqrafiyas dnmk v ondan bhrlnmk n keyfiyyt
drcsi il seiln, oxucuda mmnunluq hissi douran aradrmadr.
DBYYAT
1. Nigar sgndrova. Amerika novellas v rq. Bak: 2011 (rus dilind).
2. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Printed in the United States of America, 1986.
3. Quliyev Qorxmaz. XX sr Amerikan dbiyyatnaslnda aparc cryanlar. Bak: 2011.


MODERN APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEMS OF A MAN AND
SOCIETY IN THE CREATIVITY OF IRIS MURDOCH
Nurlana Alaskarova
Qafqaz University, Doctoral Student
lanajafa@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
Dame Iris Murdoch (15 July 1918-8 February1999) an Irish-born British novelist philosopher and
poet,. one of the most famous and respected writers of the XX century, the author of 28 fiction, 5 philosophy
works, 6 plays and two poetry collections. She is the winner of the Booker Prize and other prestigious
literary awards, honorary member of the Royal Literary Society, a nominee for the Nobel Prize. The Times
named her among their list of The 50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945. She was made a Dame
Commander of the British Empire She became a classic during her lifetime.
Murdoch defines a novel as a picture and a comment of human existence. She is a supporter of the
philosophy of the novel, which restores a sense of fullness and complexity of human life. The novel should
include a "tragic discovery." Iris Murdoch said that the literature has assumed some of the tasks previously
carried out by philosophy. The novel requires eloquence and reasoning. However, the truly philosophical
can only be the novel, where the man isnt theorizes, but represents the unique human personality. Roman
must tell the truth about the man. The writer appreciates romance, dreams and rebellion in a man and his
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
109
desire for spiritual values. E. Dipple points out: One of Murdoch s primary aims as a novelist is to convince
her reader of the unpredictable, uncontrollable nature of real people in the real world .. . .
1

Key words: Iris Murdoch, prestigious literary awards, Philosophy, novel, human personality,
spiritual values.

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Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
110
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April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
111

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END NOTE
1. Elizabeth Dipple : Iris Murdoch: Work for the Spirit
2. / . Under the Net (1954)
REFERENCES
1. Special Collections Department PAPERS OF IRIS MURDOCH (.). University of Iowa
Libraries ( 1997).
2. / . Under the Net (1954)
3. / The Black Prince (1973), .
4. Lenora Clary McCall The Solipsistic Narrator in Iris Murdoch.-University of South Carolina, 1990.
5. Peter Wolfe The Disciplined Heart: Iris Murdoch and Her Novels.-University of Missouri Press, 1966.
6. . .

SHEAKESPEARES APPROACHES TO POLITICS
AND POLITICAL THEORY
Ali Tatli
Qafqaz Universty
atatli@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
From the ocean of Sheakespeare one may expect tolerance, death, suicide, assault, history, glory and
many other ornaments .These are mostly of human nature . It would be meagre to think Sheakespeare
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
nd
International Young Researchers Conference
112
without having ideas and practical writings on Politics.Sheakespeare has given attention to Polictics is
generally revealed on Richard II and Henry IV.Sheakespeare has brough out the instincts of Politics and
social life .
Key Words: Politics , Humankind, Political Theory.

ekspirin siyast v siyasi mssllr yanamas
ekspirin siyast v siyasi nzriyyy dramaturq kimi yanamas onun xsi
mdniyytin ox mnasib olan tarixi mzakirlrin sralarndak ideyalarn sri h-
vslndirici bir mahiyytdir. O tez-tez qeyri-myyn olan mzakirlrd trflr tu-
turdu. (1) Qeyri adi fikirlr il v iddia edilmi nticlrin lazmnca ifad edilmsin
onun etdiyi chdlr nec d aydndr. ekspir siyasi nzriyyi deyildir, ancaq onun
analitik bacarqlar hmiyytlidir v dramaturq kimi unudulmaz dqiq xarakterlrin
faliyyti v szlri shnd canl mzakir obyektlrinin gtirmsi onun bacardr.
Ntic onun tamaalar n maraql v faydal olmasdr.(2) srlr ngilis xalqnn
drin qaysnn, hr hans seilmi siyasi qidlrinin onun z nslinin hmiyytinin
saxlanlmasdr v onlar txminn drd yz ilin keidin zidd olaraq bizi bu gn d
maraqlandran dyrlrdir. (3)
ekspirin n yax iki tarixi srlri olan Richard II (1595-6) v Henry IV (1596-7)
srlrind siyasi konfliktin tsvirini sas nmun kimi gtrk. Mvzu on beinci srin
vvllrind ngiltrd vtnda vurumasnn btv srinin knarnda qalan vtnda
mharibsidir. Mharib 1485-ci ild ekspirin hyatnn ilk otuz yeddi ili rzind n-
giltrni idar edn kraliann babas Tudor slalsinin sasn qoyan olan VII Henrinin
taxta glmsi il bitmidir v konflikt Elizabetin hakimiyyti altnda olmasna geni
mna vermidir. (3)mumiyytl onlar bunu z klndn sirli yenidn brpada yaranan
fsanvi bir mcz kimi ngiltrnin tbbsnn knarladrlmas kimi qiymtln-
dirmilr. ziyytli mharib masir ngilis xalqnn idar edilmsi idi.
Uzunmddtli vtnda konfliktinin idar edilmsi n idi v bu shvd gnahkar
kimi idi? Richard II srind ekspir mhur qrzsizlik il cavabdehliyi yaymdr.
Richard zif v msuliyytsiz bir hkmdar idi, ancaq o bhsiz ngiltrnin qanuni
kraldr v o zmtli karizma il dvlti idar edirdi. Thlkli erkn yalarndan (ta-
rixn, Richardn atas Edward The Black Prince (Qara ahzad)vfat ednd onun on
ya var idi) o taca varis olmudur, o zn gcl v hrtprst milrinin hatsind
tapd. Birinciliyin feodal qaydasna gr onu atasnn lmnnd byk olu varis
olmaldr, bu is o demkdir ki, kral olan Richard digrlrin nisbtn olduqca yal
v ail zvlrindn daha tcrbli idi. Bu xsusi hadisd mli ntic byk misi
Gaunt John, Lancaster Hersoqudur. Richardn hddi bulua atmas vaxt rzind dv-
ltin ilri vzifsind o hkmranlq edirdi. Cavan misinin, Thomas of Woodstock,
Glouceste Hersoqur, sbinin sbbi gnc kral idi. Tarixn, Richardn be trfdarnn
ittiham edilnd v gnahkar bilinnd Woodstock uurlu sy gstrmidir. Bu mba-
his Richard II srind verilmmidir, ancaq bu aqibt srd davam etmidir. (4)
Woodstock, Thomas Mowbrayinin, Norfolkun hersoqu, himaydarl il Calaisd l-
drlr, Richard Mowbarridn bhlnir. Richardn siyasi dmnlrinin tqsiri ol-
mad mlum idi. Woodstockun dul arvad z qaynn bel deyir: Oh, Herefordun ni-
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zsind oturmaq mnim hyat yoldamn shvi idi, Buna cllad Mowbarrinin vicdan
daxil ola bilr! (5). Hereford Gauntun oludur, Henry Bolingbroke, Herefordun hersoqu,
Mowbrayi Glaucesterin hersoqunun lm sui-qsdind tqsirlndirmk zr dy
arr.
Bu arla, siyasi konflikt gclnir, indi Richard Mowbrayin sl siftinin aq
aydn grsndiyi dy rhbrlik etmlidir. Richard v onun byk miolusu, Boling-
broke, Gaunt John varisi v olu, il aralarnda mhbbt itmmidir. Richard Boling-
broka qar xmaa csart etmirdi, nki Richard Woodstockun lmn onu qar-
drmrd. Gnc kraln hlli hr iki antaqonistlri srgn etmk idi. O Mowbrayini h-
milik qovur, ancaq Bolingbrokun 10 il mhkum edilmsind siyasi tzyiql razla-
araq onu altya salr (6). Bu qrar srd qanuni olaraq ifad edilmidir, bu Gaunt John
v Kraln mavirsi zvlri trfindn olan hvssiz razlamadr (124), ancaq bu Ri-
chardn trfindn qti aq-akar olmasa da mqsduyunluq mslsind aydndr.
Kral ailsinin mxtlif zvlrinin cavablar lv edilmi tbbsn v qovulmann
seilmsidir. Woodstockun dul arvad qan n alayrd. Onunku, qan qohumluunun
balanm hr hans bir insann lmnd gnahkarn cinayt qar xmas n
Aeschlusun Erinyes v ya Furiesin tlbatlar daxilind xlaqi intiqamdr. Gloucester
Duches onun qaynn tkid edir:
Ah, Gaunt, onun qan seninki idi! Bu yataq, bu qucaq,
Bu metal, naxldr snin z forman
nsan yaratmd: v baxmayaraq ki, sn n canl nfs (7)
O hmin ar il Hamletin misi trfindn ediln yaman v qeyri-tbii qtl
intiqamnn onun oluna inandrlmasnda Hamletin atasnn xyalndan istifad etdiyi
intiqam ifrsi haqqnda deyir. Bu ifr qdimdir: bu hmi slahiyyt trfindn hat
edilmi vtnda cmiyyti n mslni qoyur, bu msly dvlt n olan intiqam
aid deyildir. Ancaq bu qtl yetirilmi xsusi aillrd qisas v ks qisasn qalmaz
dvrsin gtirib xarr. ntiqam ifrsinin znmxsus mnas vardr, v bu arlar
gcl qohumluq laqsinin ba tutmamasdr. ar v ks-ar n tlblr vtn-
da mharibsinin hrktverici qvvsi on beinci srd olmudur. Bu qvvni eks-
pirin akopaliktik rtlrd grr.
REFERENCES
1. Bevington, David M. Sheakespeares ideas, Wiley Blackwell (great minds) 2008 Page 41.
2. Alexsandr, Catherine, Skhakespeare and Politics.Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.2004 Page 34
3. Sabir Mustafa,Ismihan Rahimov(On sozun muellifi) VilyamSekspir,Secilmis Eserleri,Onder
Nesriyyat Baki,2004 Page 4
4. Calderwood,James, Meatadrama in SheakespearesHenriad:Richard II to Henry V,Berkley, University
of California Press ,1979
5. Greenblatt Stephen ,The Northorn Shakespeare (The Tragedy of King Richard the Second) W.W.
Northorn and Company Page 931.2.47-8
6. Greenblatt Stephen ,The Northorn Shakespeare (The Second Part of Henry the 4th )W.W.Northorn
and Company Page 9311.3.140-212
7. Greenblatt Stephen ,The Northorn Shakespeare (The Second Part of Henry the 4th )W.W.Northorn
and Company Page 9311.3.140-212
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THE ONLY WAY TO SAVE FROM LONELINESS
(ON THE BASIS OF VLADIMIR NABOKOVS THE LUZHIN DEFENSE)
Ayten Zeynalli
Undergraduate student
Azerbaijan University of Languages
zeynalli_ayten@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
Vladimir Nabokov was a Russian-born writer who wrote both in russian and, after emigrating to
America, in english, and is one of the great literary figures of the 20th century. He was known to be a great
chess problemist,he wrote several books containing chess references,most notably The Luzhin Defence,
the story of a chess genius descent into madness,which was adapted in a movie in 2000. In 1929, he wrote
Luzhins Defense which was published in 1930 in Berlin. The plot concerns Aleksandr Ivanovich Luzhin
who learns how to play chess and becomes a world class player. He is later paired against Turati ,a world
class player from Italy, to determine who would face the current world champion. Before and during the
game, Luzhin has a mental breakdown.He later climbs out a window and falls to his death, committing
suicide.The character of Luzhin is based on Curt von Bardeleben,who committed suicide by jumping out
a window in Berlin on January 31, 1924.
I want to analyse this novel not only as a ordinary reader, because Luzhin Defense attracted me as
a chessplayer.So, Luzhin is the main character of novel and he is chessplayer.Chess is the game ,but it
becomes the real life of Luzhin. In my opinion, Luzhin is weak willed person and feels himself so alone in
real life, therefore he wants to live in chess life. Even he comprehends the world as a chessboard. Furthermore,
he can not understand that it is possible to lose the game, but to lose in your real life is horrible. The writer
describes two Luzhin-real lifes Luzhin (Aleksandr Ivanovich) and chess worlds Luzhin. Beauty, cruelty
and time is the main idea of novel. The last line of the novel reads: The door was burst in. 'Aleksandr
Ivanovich, Aleksandr Ivanovich,' roared several voices. But there was no Aleksandr Ivanovich. It shows
that death was the only way for Luzhin to save himself .
Key words: Nabokov, Luzhin, chess, Vladimir Nabokovun Lujinin Mdafisi romannda ahmat
tnhalqdan xilas yolu kimi.

sl hyat ahmat hyat gzl,aydn v macralarla doluydu v Lujin lzztl hiss
edirdi ki,bu dnyaya aalq etmk nec d asandr stirlrinin mllifi, rus dbiyya-
tnn sirli yazs Vladimir Nabokovdur.
Vladimir Nabokov 1899-cu ild aprelin 10-da Sankt-Peterburq hrind anadan
olmudur.Uaqlnn n gzl anlarn Vtnind keirn Nabokov 1917-ci il inqila-
bndan sonra mhacir hyat yaamdr. vvlc, Berlind yaam,faistlrin hakimiy-
yt gliindn sonra is ailsi il birlikd AB- a kmdr. Rus dbiyyatnda bilinq-
vizmin nmayndsi olan V.Nabokov srlrini iki dild qlm alm,eyni zamanda
A.S.Pukinin, M.Lermontovun srlrini ingilis dilin trcm etmidir. Qiymtli yara-
dcl Nabokova Nobel mkafatn qazandra bilrdi, ancaq ndns yaznn Lolita
roman onu bu ali mkafatdan mhrum etdi.
Nabokov yaradcl myyn oyun qaydalar zrind qurulmudur v bu oyunun
qaydalar tkc zn blli idi. Onun ahmat oyununa byk mara vard v bu maraq
mhur Lujinin Mdafisi romannda z ksini tapmdr. srd btn hadislr
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Lujinin trafnda cryan edir.Lujin melanxolik bir obrazdr. sr boyu ruhi- psixolji
sarsntlar keirn Lujin byk ahmatdr,onun btn hyat bu oyunla baldr. Bel
ki, ahmat Lujinin yaad hyat ,fiqurlar is onun sevdiklridir. mumiyytl, Nabo-
kov yaradclnda gerklik v txyyl (oyun) daim mbarizddir. srin qhrman
Lujin gerk hyatda arzuolunmazdr v zglmi cmiyytd tkdir. Blk d bu
tnhalq onunla real hyat arasnda uurumlar yaradr v o ahmat hyatn seir. Belc
Lujinin hyat da z kimi ikidnyal olur.nki romann vvlindn Lujini soyad il
grrk. Onu n ox heyrtlndirn bu oldu ki, bazar gnndn etibarn Lujin a-
rlacaqd.El roman da bu cml il balayr v yaz qhrmana ilk cmldn soyad
maskas geyindirir. Yalnz srin sonunda biz Lujinin sl adn tanyrq.Aleksandr
vanovi, Aleksandr vanovi!-bir ne ss barmaa balad.
Luji dnya empionu urunda italyan ahmats Turati il oyundan mlub ol-
maqdan ox qorxur v bu oyun n xsusi mdafi kombinasiyas qurur.Lakin oyun
tamam baqa debtl baladndan bu kombinasiya uyun olmur v oyun vaxta gr
yarmq qalr. Ax, vaxt ahmat dnyasnda ox amansz eydir. Belc,yaz qeyd
etmk istyir ki, ahmat bir oyundur ,onunla uduzmaq bel olar.Ancaq gerk hyatda
mlubiyyt dhtlidir. Real hyatda tk olan Luji bu hyatla mbarizd yegan -
x yolunu - mdafisini lmd grr. Fikrimc,dnyan ahmat taxtas kimi tsvvr
edn Lujin qalib oyunudur,onun mdafi mexanizmi hm ahmatda ,hm gerk h-
yatda onu xilas etdi. Artq hr iki aya bayra sallanmd v yalnz yapd ey n
idis ,lini ondan buraxmaq lazm idi belc xilas olmu olard.
REFERENCES
1. Vladimir Nabokov The Luzhin Defense.


APPROACHES TO JUSTICE AND MERCY IN RENAISSANCE DRAMA
(On the basis of Shakespeares Tempest and Merchant of Venice)
Aziz Chankaya
Qafqaz University
acankaya@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
Shakespeare's uses the themes of Justice and Mercy in the Tempest and the Merchant of Venice in
order to focus the attention of audience on justice and mercy. He wants to define what they are and
expect the audience to take their lesson from them.Sheakespeare correlates the similar endings in both
plays.
Key Words. Justice , Mercy ,Tempest , Merchant of Venice .

In Renaissance period of plays Merchant and The Tempest, Shakespeare proposes
ideas of justice and mercy that hold true in both plays. In order to understand that they
mean we should look up dictionaries but in order to judge if something is merciful, one
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must look to see if it fulfills the qualifications of mercy in the Holy Books especially
the New Testament. Now that we have firm definitions on what mercy and justice are
in the context of Shakespeare's time, it is possible to see how each of these played a
role in these plays.(1)
In The Merchant of Venice, mercy and justice play an important role in determining
the results of it. It would be fair to say that mercy was given to Antonio and not Shylock.
For Antonio, the other cheek was turned and he was able to be spared the loss of his
life, even though he had entered into a contract in which he put this on the line. On the
other hand, money was not given to Shylock who was also harmed by being forced to
convert. However, when looking at why mercy was given to one and not the other, we
must look at how justice was applied. In Antonio's case, he is a Catholic merchant from
Europe, unlike the prince of Morocco. However, even though Shylock was also a Euro-
pean, he was not a Christian , justice did not apply. However, in context, was justice
served? Of course it was served, for not only was the spirit of it upheld but it was also
carried out how it was meant to be carried out. (2)
In The Tempest, Shakespeare again uses the concepts of justice and mercy in order
to have his audience think about what just and merciful actions were taken. At the end
of the play, when Prospero releases Caliban from his bondage, this action, by definition,
is merciful, but in no way is it just. By releasing Caliban from his control, Prospero has
taken a love thy neighbor as yourself mentality and, this, is merciful. However, when
determining if these actions are just, they are only just if Prospero wanted to give up
his control. In lines 163 - 175 of act four, scene one, Prospero gives up his control over
nature. In these lines we see that Prospero is troubled and in general just worn out, but
we do not see if he wants to do it. (3)When he arrived on the island and imprisoned
Caliban, this was just because Prospero was doing what he wanted to do and was not
harming any other Catholic European in the process. However, this behavior of mentally
imprisoning someone else is and was not merciful. In this play, Shakespeare's views
of justice and mercy again come into conflict when dealing with Prospero and Caliban.
(4)However, by applying the same idea of mercy in this play, as he did in Merchant,
Shakespeare is able to correlate a merciful end in both plays.
REFERENCES
1. Gurr , Andrew ,The Shakespeare Stage ,1574-1642 ,Cambridge, Cambridge University Press ,1996
2. Wells Stanley , The Oxford Shakespeare , OUP .2005
3. Wells Stanley , The Oxford Shakespeare , OUP .2005
4. Lambert Robert ,Houghton Mifflin Company ,1967




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MODERN APPROACHES TO AGATHA CHRISTIES
HERO HERCULE POIROT
Fidan Hacyeva
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
Nemesis768@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Agatha Christie is known as Queen of Crime and she is the best-selling novelist of all time. Christie`s
most famous and long-lived character is a Belgian detective Hercule Poirot. He is a Belgian refugee and
he begins his career as a police officer then he becomes a private detective. He always uses his little grey
cells for every case and it is the most famous phrase of his personality.
Agatha Christie used Poirot in thirty-three novels and fifty-four short stories and he became a star.
He is a real hero and idol of a modern life. Poirot dies in Christie`s last book Curtain from complications
of a heart in 1975.
Key Words: detective, novel, famous.

Agatha Christie`nin efsanevi karakteri Hercule Poirot
Cinayet edebiyatnn lm desi olarak da bilinen Agatha Christie, 15 Ekim 1890
ylnda, ngiltere`nin Torquay kasabasnda domutur. Dnyann en nl yazarlar ara-
snda ilk sralarda yer alan ve kitaplar 103 dile evrilen tek yazardr. Agatha Christie`nin
bu inanlmaz baarsnn srr; tabii ki ondan nce yazlm birok dedektif romann
etkisi, kitaplarnda olay-zaman-mekan birliini profesyonelce kullanmas, aldatmadan
artma kuraln benimseyip, bunu en gzel ekilde kullanmas ve tabii ki literatre
geen birok nemli, lmsz kahraman yaratmasnda yatar. Miss Marple, Tommy and
Tuppence, Ariadne Oliver, Harley Quin, Bamfetti Battle, Mfetti Japp gibi birok
nemli karaktere hayat veren polisiye romanlarn kraliesi, kahramanlarn en nlsn
1920 ylnda The Mysterious Affair at Styles (lm Sessiz Geldi) adl kitabnda okuyu-
cuyla buluturmutur. lk olarak bu romanda karmza kan Hercule Poirot iin, Agatha
Christie otobiyografisinde unlar sylemitir; Neden dedektifimi Belikal yapma-
yaym ki? Onu titiz, kk, her daim bir eyleri dzelten, simetri hastal olan biri gibi
gstermeliyim. Ve tabii ki zeki olmal, kk gri hcrelerini en iyi ekilde kullanabil-
meli. Ve bylece edebiyatn en nl dedektiflerinden biri domu oldu!
Bu kk, Belikal mlteci, kariyerine polis mfettii olarak balar ve daha ileriki
yalarda zel dedektiflie soyunur. Christie, Poirot`nun cinayetler hakkndaki zel bilgi-
lerini, nemli tandklarn, onun eskiden polis olmasna dayandrrak okuyucuya ulatrr.
Poirot, kendisine mkemmel diyen ve mtevazilikten holanmayan ilk karakterdir.
Her zd olayn sonunda, dramatik bir ekle brnp; ktlerin her zaman ce-
zalarn ekeceini, Hercule Poirot var olduu srece hibir cinayetin karanlkta kal-
mayacan dile getirir. Buradan da anlalaca zre, Poirot olduka kendini beenmi,
bencil ve ukaladr. Fakat bu, okuyucuda kesinlikle bir antipati yaratmaz, hatta tam ter-
sine kendisine hayranlk uyandrr. Bu ynyle Agatha Christie bir ilke de imza atmtr.
Bu kadar kibirli bir dedektifin, insanlar tarafndan beeniden ok nefret kazanacan
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dnen Christie, bu konuda yanlmtr. Okuyucu, Poirot`yu her haliyle benimsemi
ve en sevilen dedektif karakteri olarak, Christie`nin dier btn dedektifleri arasnda,
ksa srede n plana kmay baarmtr.(1)
Christie kitaplarnda, Poirot`nun gzellik ve zerafete olan tutkusunu her zaman n
plana karmtr. Onun hastalk derecesinde dzenli olmas, midesine dknl, et-
rafndaki herkesin demode bulduu fakat kendisinin olduka beendii pos byklar,
yumurta eklindeki kafas ve tabii ki mehur gri hcreleri Hercule Poirot`yu efsane ya-
pan en nemli zelliklerdir.
Belikal dedektif, Christie`nin 33 romannda ve 54 ksa hikayesinde balca karakter
olarak yerini almtr. Bu romanlarn en nllerinden bazlar unlardr: Murder on the
Orient Express (Dou Ekspresinde Cinayet), The Murder of Roger Ackroyd (Roger
Ackroyd Cinayeti), Death on the Nile (Nil`de lm), Three Act Tragedy ( Perdelik
Cinayet), The Big Four (Byk Drtler).(2)
Agatha Christie`nin birok roman ve ksa hikayesi, gnmze kadar, birok kere
sinema ve tiyatro sahnesine tanmtr. Hercule Poirot da birok baarl aktr tarafn-
dan canlandrlarak seyirci karsna kmtr. Peter Ustinov, 6 filmde Poirot karakte-
rini canlandrarak 2 Akademi dl almaya layk grlmtr.
Fakat Poirot ile en ok zdeletirilen oyuncu David Suchet olmutur. lk olarak
1989 ylnda Belikal dedektif olarak karmza kan Suchet`yi, 1976 ylnda vefat eden
Agatha Christie hi izleme ansna sahip olmamtr. Fakat Agatha`nn torunu Matthew;
Agatha`nn David Suchet`yi grememesine ok zlyorum. Fikrimce, Poirot`ya fi-
ziksel olarak en ok benzeyen, onun fikirlerini ve mkemmelliyetiliini en iyi yanstan
aktr o oldu. demitir.
Agatha Christie, lmnden bir yl nce yazd son polisiye romannda, Hercule
Poirot`yu ldrmtr. Poirot, okuyucuyla ilk bulutuu romandaki gibi gene Styles
kkne, en yakn arkada Hastings ile gider ve orada esrarengiz olaylar olmaya balar.
Kitap; Poirot`nun lmnn ardndan, iin iinden kamayan arkada Hastings`in,
Poirot`nun yazd mektubu almasyla sonlanr. Poirot mthi zekasn, hastalna ve
ihtiyarlna ramen gene en gzel ekilde kullanmtr. ntihar ettii zannedilen katilin,
cezasn kendi elleriyle verdiini, yani katili kendisinin vurduunu mektubunda itiraf
eden Poirot, sonrasnda, onu bekleyen lme kendisini teslim etmitir. Arkadana yaz-
d mektup da, Poirot`nun kiiliini bilen okuyucuya hem tebessm ettirir, hem de onun
kk gri hcreleriyle bir daha buluamayacak olmann hznn yaatr. (3) Agatha`-
nn kitaba verdii isimde olduu gibi (Ve Perde ndi Curtain), perde gerekten inmi
ve seyirciler Poirot`nun muhteem sonundan sonra dalmtr.
Hercule Poirot tarihte, adna lm ilan verilen tek roman kahramandr. The New
York Times gazetesi Hercule Poirot is dead bal altnda, Belikal Dedektifi uur-
lamtr.
KAYNAKLAR:
1. Orient Express , Agatha Christi , Millwood Press 1923
2. Death in Nile , Agatha Christi , Millwood Press 1923
3. Ten Little Niggers Agatha Christi , Millwood Press 1929
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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE'S CREATIVITY
Khonul Anvarzade
Undergraduate Student
Scientific adviser: Qasimova Azade
Azerbaijan Cooperation University
ABSTRACT
William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in
the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and
the "Bard of Avon". Amazingly, we know very little about Shakespeares life. Even though he is the worlds
most famous and popular playwright, historians have had to fill in the gaps between the handful of surviving
records from Elizabethan times. So, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the
age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and
Judith. Between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an aactor, writer, and part owner
of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to
have retired to Stratford around 1613 at age 49, where he died three years later.
Key Words: Creativity , Globe , Plays.

Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613.His early
plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication
and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about
1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest
works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known
as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published
in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, two of his former
theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works
that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's.
Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day. In the 20th century,
his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship
and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied,
performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the
world. His surviving works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays,
154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been
translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those
of any other playwright.
Shakespeare's dramatic career falls naturally into four successive divisions of in-
creasing maturity. The first of the four periods thus disclosed is that of experiment and
preparation, from about 1588 to about 1593, when Shakespeare tried his hand at virtually
every current kind of dramatic work. Its most important product is 'Richard III,' a me-
lodramatic chronicle-history play, largely imitative of Marlowe and yet showing striking
power. At the end of this period Shakespeare issued two rather long narrative poems
on classical subjects, 'Venus and Adonis,' and 'The Rape of Lucrece,' dedicating them
both to the young Earl of Southampton, who thus appears as his patron. Both display
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great fluency in the most luxuriant and sensuous Renaissance manner. Probably at about
the end of his first period, also, he began the composition of his sonnets, of which we
have already spoken.
The second period of Shakespeare's work, extending from about 1594 to about 1601,
is occupied chiefly with chronicle-history plays and happy comedies. The chronicle-
history plays begin with the subtile and fascinating, though not yet absolutely masterful
study of contrasting characters in 'Richard II'; continue through the two parts of 'Henry
IV,' where the realistic comedy action of Falstaff and his group makes history familiarly
vivid; and end with the epic glorification of a typical English hero-king in 'Henry V.'
The comedies include the charmingly fantastic 'Midsummer Night's Dream'; 'The
Merchant of Venice,' where a story of tragic sternness is strikingly contrasted with the
most poetical idealizing romance and yet is harmoniously blended into it; 'Much Ado
About Nothing,' a magnificent example of high comedy of character and wit; 'As You
Like It,' the supreme delightful achievement of Elizabethan and all English pastoral
romance; and 'Twelfth Night,' where again charming romantic sentiment is made beli-
evable by combination with a story of comic realism. Even in the one, unique, tragedy
of the period, 'Romeo and Juliet,' the main impression is not that of the predestined
tragedy, but that of ideal youthful love, too gloriously radiant to be viewed with sorrow
even in its fatal outcome.
The third period, extending from about 1601 to about 1609, includes Shakespeare's
great tragedies and certain cynical plays, which formal classification mis-names comedies.
In these plays as a group Shakespeare sets himself to grapple with the deepest and
darkest problems of human character and life; but it is only very uncertain inference
that he was himself passing at this time through a period of bitterness and disillusion.
The theory persistently advocated during the last half century that Shakespeare's
works were really written not by himself but by Francis Bacon or some other person
can never gain credence with any competent judge. Our knowledge of Shakespeare's
life, slight as it is, is really at least as great as that which has been preserved of almost
any dramatist of the period; for dramatists were not then looked on as persons of per-
manent importance. No poet bending his energies to the composition of such master-
pieces as Shakespeare's could. Second, the cipher systems are absolutely arbitrary and
unscientific, applied to any writings whatever can be made to 'prove' anything that one
likes. Third, it has been demonstrated more than once that the verbal coincidences on which
the cipher systems rest are no more numerous than the law of mathematical probabilities
requires. Aside from actually vicious pursuits, there can be no more melancholy waste
of time than the effort to demonstrate that Shakespeare is not the real author of his
reputed works.
In the scientific area his creative works have been used by great pleasure in abstracts,
course works, articles, diplomas up today. Because of modern life his plays are being
reviving in the films. Especially the youngs love his masterpiece Romeo and Juliet that
deals with love. The thousand of centures had been already passed and after this will
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be passed, but Shakespeare' s valuable and irreplaceable creativity will be read, lived,
preserved by the world proudly.
REFERENCES
1. Oruch, Jack B., "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February," Speculum, 56 (1981): 53465.
Oruch's survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer.
He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be "the original mythmaker in this instance."
2. http://www.morrissociety.org/JWMS/SP94.10.4.Nichols.pdf
3. Thomas Weber, "Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor," Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 2829.
4. David, Deirdre The Cambridge companion to the Victorian novel p.179. Cambridge University Press,
2001.
5. Elleke Boehmer (2008). Nelson Mandela: a very short introduction. p. 157. Oxford University Press,
2008. "'Invictus', taken on its own, Mandela clearly found his Victorian ethic of self-mastery"
6. Beebe, Maurice (Fall 1972). "Ulysses and the Age of Modernism". James Joyce Quarterly (University
of Tulsa) 10 (1): p. 176.
7. The Cambridge companion to Virginia Woolf. By Sue Roe, Susan Sellers. p.219. Cambridge University
Press, 2000.


THE ANGRY YOUNG MAN : JOHN OSBORNE
Gunay Allahverdiyeva
Qafqaz University
Instructor at Cult, Ph.D Student
gunayallahverdi@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Wars and revolutions has dramatically changed the lives of human beings since the earth was created,
so has World War II. In England postwar period caused to rise the movement of Angry Young Men.
Angry Young Men became the voice of desperate generation of England. Kingsley Amis, John Osborne,
Arnold Wesker and John Braine can be counted as the pioneers of this movement. In this essay, it is aimed
to examine the postwar situation and its effetcs in England by giving the biography of John Osborne who
played a far-reaching role in pushing many young dramatists along sociopolitical paths by his play Look
Back in Anger.
Keywords: Angry Young Men, John Osborne, Look Back in Anger.

Introduction
Society is a human community, usually with a relatively fixed territorial location,
sharing a common culture and common activities. There is cultural and institutional
interdependence between members of the society and they are, to some extent, from
other communities and groups
1
. Sharing a common culture and common activities so-
ciety can be easily affected and changed by the convulsive events such as world wars
and revolutions. After World War II all European countries included England faced
innumerable predicaments and shifts. Labour Party which governed England during the
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1950s did not meet peoples demands. Having lost the domination on its colonies such
as India and Burma inequality, unemployment, class consiousness still existed in their
governing period. All these conditions which can be seen as predicament for society
caused desperation, unwillingness on new generations minds which led them dissa-
tisfaction. The plans for postwar secondary education in Britain aimed to remove the
inequalities which remained in the system. The proportion of 'free places' at grammar
schools in England and Wales increased from almost a third to almost half between
1913 and 1937. However, when poorer children were offered free places, parents often
had to turn them down owing to the extra costs involved
2
. The Education Act which
was aimed to bring equality for lower class people did not work out. Graduated from
universities the youth was unemployed.
Angry young men movement
In this gloomy atmosphere British theatre became a mirror reflecting sociopolitical
events and changes which means societys attraction on sociopolitical events got more
deeper than before because after postwar period a new sociocultural movement was
born in England Angry Young Men. It was based on the disaffection and anger that
a group of writers felt towards society. John Osborne, Arnold Wesker, John Braine,
Kingsley Amis were the pioneers of the Angry Young Men. One could say that John
Osbornes play Look Back in Anger first produced in 1956 started the Anger move-
ment. Both the Angries and their protagonists exhibited the need to voice the ills of
society, to tell the truth at all costs. Angry Young Men became the voice of dissappointed
generation and minority who was aware of hypocrisy of the society. Their main cha-
racters shared really similar characteristics as rebelliousness, criticism and contempt
towards the society in which they lived and also they describe the monotony, mediocrity
and injustice of their lives.
John Osborne
The man who turned anger into art ,John Osborne, changed the face of British
Theatre. His play Look Back in Anger was the turning point in postwar British theatre.
He was an 'Angry Young Man' who spent his happiest years in Shropshire
3
. John James
Osborne was born in London, England in 1929 to Thomas Osborne, an advertisement
writer, and Nellie Beatrice, a barmaid. His father died in 1941, leaving Osborne an insu-
rance settlement which he used to finance a boarding school education at Belmont Col-
lege in Devon. Osborne was expelled after only a few years for striking the headmaster.
After coming back home, Osborne worked several jobs before he found a niche in
the theatre. He began working with Anthony Creighton's provincial touring company
where he was a stage hand, actor, and writer. Look Back in Anger was written in a short
period and was finally accepted by George Devine for production with his failing Royal
Court Theatre. Both Osborne and the Royal Court Theatre were struggling to survive
financially and both saw the production of Look Back in Anger as a risk. After opening
night, the play received mixed reviews, however, Osborne was soon pronounced to be
one of the most promising young playwright's in British theatre.
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In the late 1950s, Osborne was persuaded by Lawrence Olivier, the famous actor,
about writing a play for him. Osborne wrote The Entertainer, a play that metaphorically
explores the decline of the British Empire through the eyes of a failing music hall.
Olivier played the lead role in the production and the play received critical praise. Os-
borne would continue to write for the stage through the 1960s. He produced a number of
critical and commercially successful works including Luther, a play based on the life
of Martin Luther. In 1963, Osborne won an Academy Award for his screen adaptation
of Tom Jones.
Osborne continued to work in the artistic and entertainment worlds through the
1970s and 80s. He wrote plays, but also turned into writing screenplays, television
adaptations, and autobiography. Osborne made several appearances as an actor during
this period. He starred in several popular Hollywood films including Get Carter and
Flash Gordon. Later in life, he received considerable awards for his work including a
Lifetime Achievement Award from the Writer's Guild in Britain. Osborne died at the
age of 65 from complications related to diabetes.
Conclusion
To sum up, before Osborne arrived on the theatrical scene, the British theatre just
composed of melodramas and middle class drawing-room comedies. But in 1956, Os-
borne's play Look Back in Anger shocked audiences and "wiped the smugness off the
frivolous face of English theatre," as John Lahr put it in a New York Times Book Review
article. Osborne's protagonist, Jimmy Porter, caught the angry and rebellious nature of
the postwar generation, a dispossessed people who were clearly unhappy with things
as they were in the decades following World War II. Jimmy Porter came to represent
an entire generation of Angry Young Men. Look Back in Anger established Osborne,
the struggling actor and playwright, as a leading writer for theatre, television and film.
It also had a profound effect on British culture. The play threw cold water in the face
of a sleepy popular culture. All manner of writers, actors, artists, and musicians (inclu-
ding the Beatles) soon reflected the influence of Osborne's Angry Young Man.
END NOTE
1. http://bitbucket.icaap.org/dict.pl Online Dictionary of Social Sciences
2. www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transforming ociety/livinglearning/school/overview/edu-
cationalact1944/
3. www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/content/articles/2005/04/07/great-salopians-john-osborne feature-shtml
REFERENCES
1. Colby, Douglas. As The Curtain Rises: Contemporary British Drama. London: Associated Univ
Press, 1979.
2. Hayman, Ronald. John Osborne. London: Heineman, 1968.
3. Taylor, John. R. Anger and After: A Guide to the New British Drama. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963.
4. http://bitbucket.icaap.org/dict.pl Online Dictionary of Social Sciences
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5. www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transforming society/livinglearning/school/overview/edu-
cationalact1944/
6. www.bbc.co.uk/shropshire/content/articles/2005/04/07/great-salopians-john-osborne-feature-shtml


MODERN APPROACHES TO SHAKESPEARES LANGUAGE
Gunay Guliyeva
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
su.quliyeva@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
West. from which side, which point of view to analyze West? Lets see ,not impressive side-
technology for nowadays, look to the literature from the past bevel. Lived in Victorian and Elizabethan
period, carrying the West conception form and thoughts of his epoch, without any restrictions but some-
times as they are, sometimes with exaggerating to the literature was eminent writer Shakespeare. From
centuries he was recalled, proved himself and precious works which he left behind, have difficulties in
understanding but stating sayings, imagery beauty are inestimable in his work. So, I wont to cite you about
the person who had such kind of values.
Key words: Eminent Shakespeare ,West conception form ,difficult language ,personal precious.

One of eminent writers of worlds literature , who was recalled mostly with his
name, who tried to quote West mans sentiment to the humanity accurately was forceful
pen user Shakespeare. Born in England, was neither a genius nor a superman with
special powers. Just born in the village but actually started robust words and could use
precious thoughts. He was an important nominee of words literature. In his time the
globe was under the pressure of his writings. Saying efficiency, we mean that, actually
W. Shakespeare indicated such kind of points that life truths could find like their
shadows in the literature. And this was the most striking feature of Shakespeare .(1)
The English language has changed a great deal over the last few hundred years,
and it is still changing like other languages. Several words in use during those periods
either have different meanings today or have been nearly forgotten. Also Elizabethan
dialect differs slightly from Modern English, but the principles are generally the same.
On those times there were no dictionaries. Although especially grammar issues organized
but they would not appear until the 1700 s. So Shakespeare as a youth would have no
more systematically studied his own language. But he was well educated conversa-
tionalist in the language from inside . Shakespeare could use words where they fitted.
Maybe that is why Shakespeare is as relevant today as he was in his own time? The best
answer for this question is that: From my point of view he is relevant and important
person for all ages because people die, but words never die. If he left memorable and
unforgettable sayings behind himself, so he would never die. But actually for many
people today, reading Shakespeares language is a problem but it is a problem that can
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be solved. 2 In Shakespeares works there are many wordplay, also compressions,
omissions that readers must recognize and understand. But for this we-Modern readers
need to develop the skills for understanding this writing. But really in Shakespeares
works there are many unusual sentence structures which can bored reader from beginning
and may have trouble with Shakespeares words. Because most of his immense voca-
bulary is still in use, but a few of his words are not, worse, some of them now have
meaning quite different from they were in 16 and 17 centuries. Thats why as a litera-
ture learner I can say that, if readers of Shakespeare want understand him it is essential
Solving Shakespeares puzzle in his thoughts and get the message behind his words.
In the words of Louis Marder: Shakespeare was so facile in employing words that he
was able to use over 7.000 of them-more than occur in the whole King James version
of the Bible-only once and never again From my point of view, it is evidence that
Shakespeare was master of his work. As we said before, in Shakespeares plays we can
face with sentences which very difficult to understand. For ex: Wherefore dost than
leave? Like a foreign language, yes? That is why we must know all words in sentences
otherwise we cant solve puzzle. Shakespeare used in his works certain words which
created as if William Shakespeares Glossary. Today we can find them from different
sources. For ex: especially from internet or from library. Lets see some examples
Shakespeares diction.
aery nest ( Hamlet )
bewray reveal ( King Lear )
cubiculo room , chamber ( Twelfth Night )
dunnest darkest ( Macbeth )
ensteeped submerged ( Otello )
Flirt-gills-loose women Gill was a familiar or contemptuous
term for a girl (as Jack for a boy) (Romeo and Juliet)
gouts drops (Macbeth)
husbandry thrift (Hamlet)
intermit hold off (Julius Caesar)
jowls bumps (Hamlet)
Leman sweetheart (Twelfth Night)
moe more (Julius Caesar) (The Merchant of Venice)
nimble footed madcap (King Henry IV . part I)
out angry (Julius Caesar)
pignuts peanuts (The Tempest)
quillest quips (Othello)
theumy moist (Julius Caesar)
sooth truth (Macbeth)
tristful sorrowful (Hamlet)
unsinewd weak (Hamlet)
vizards masks (Macbeth)
wilt must (Romeo and Juliet)
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wot know (Romeo and Juliet)
thee you When will I see thee next?
thou you Thou art a villain
thy your Thy name is more hateful than thy face
hark listen Hark to the owl(3)
In the theatre sometimes most of these difficulties are solved for us by actors who
study the language and articulate it for us so that the essential meaning is heard or,
when combined with stage action, is at least felt. When reading on ones own, one must
do what each actor does; go over the lines until the puzzles are solved and the characters
speak in words and phrases that are, suddenly, rewarding and wonderfully memorable.
Also the New Folger Library Shakespeare editions of Shakespeares plays and poems
offer readers assistance in understanding Shakespeares language with notes and images
placed beside the play text.
They also include essays on how Shakespeare uses language in each work. Also
Shakespeare is known for his prolific use of figurative language. He used many metaphor,
smile, personification, alliteration and allusion. Thats why for Shakespeares readers
it is hard to get the message behind his words. Below are examples where Shakespeare,
used these literature devices.
My bounty is as boundless as the sea,
My love as deep, the more I give to thee,
The More I have, for both are infinite.
(Romeo and Juliet) (4)
So, Shakespeare was famous man of letters over the world. But he gained with
friends more enemies, too. Even some of his enemies claimed that Shakespeare didnt
exist or his works, plays were written by different unknown people. 5 As we said about
Shakespeare there are different points of view. Plus, in another claim they said Shakespeare
gave some religion points in his works. Last but not least, I think Shakespeare was a
great writer. He could use his world outlook in better form. Also maybe sometimes he
was able to appear a cultural shock with his writings but Shakespeares plays inesti-
mable of course. Thats why we say Shakespeare as relevant for today as he was in his
time. 6
REFERENCES
1. Shakespeare William, The Library Shakespeare Really Useful Map Company Ltd.India, 2007, 183-218
2. Shakespeare William, Romeo ve Juliyet , Remzi Kitapevi ,2000, 142
3. Kolcu Ali Ihsan,Bat Edebiyat ,Aka,Ankara 2003,238
4. http://www.william-shakespeare.info/william-shakespeare-dictionary-c.htm
5. http://www.bathcsd.org/webpages/edepartment/shakespearean_terms.cfm
6. http://www.bardweb.net/language.html

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MODERN APPROACHES TO CHARACTER OF HAMLET
Tue zdemir
Undergraduate Student
Baku State University
Faculty of Azerbaijan Language and Literature Department
ABSTRACT
Today, English writer William Shakespeare's great works as tragedies, historic plays, drams, comedies
are very popular. The main characteristic features of his works, is that, his heroes are not the character of
the book and their brightness have survived four hundred years until today. And, the common similarities
of the characters are crimes and the revenge sense to enemy. All these features, characteristic of the macabre
killings and revenge sense is shown the writers famous tragedy by the character of Hamlet. The topic of
the tragedy was created Hamlets entering to Denmark from Germany where he got University education,
knowing his fathers enemy by his fathers ghost and revenge on his uncle.
Key words: hamlet, revenge, human nature.

Shakespeare her biri birbirinden farkl komedi ve trajedi trnde eserler kaleme
almtr. Komedi trndeki eserlerinde benzersiz gldr yeteneini ortaya koyarken,
trajedilerinde tylerimizi diken diken eden bir gerilim yaratmaktadir. Hamlet eseri de
tylerimizi diken diken eden trajedi trnde bir eseridir. Shakespear eserlerinde daha
ok hadiselerin derinliyine inmitir.Onun eserlerinde ilk bakita nemsiz grnen kk
bir olayn arkasnda aslnda toplumu ilgilendiren meseleler durmaktadir. Hamlet eseride
sadece intikam alma duygusu zerine yazlm gibi gzkse de aslnda dnemin sosyal
ve siyasi meseleleri ile bal yazd bir eseridir. Hamlet hakknda ok sayda yazlar
yazlmtr ve bu yazlarn ou da ba kahramanmz Hamlet karakterinin tahlili zerine
olmutur. Karakterimiz hakknda bir birine zt ve muhtelif fikir syleyenler olduu gibi
eserin esas ideasn Hamletin dnceleri ile iradesi arasnda olan ztlklarda arayanlarda
olmutur. Rus yazar Turgenyev 1860 ylnda yazd Hamlet ve Don Kiot adl ma-
kalesinde Hamletin bencil ve her eye phe ile yanaan biri, Don Kiotun ise igzar
biri olduunu yazmtr. Ona gre Hamlet dnen insandr lakin fealiyetsizdir. Don
Kiot ise iradelidir, ama, akll deil demitir. Turgenyev unu da belirtmitir ki, Ham-
let de Don Kiot gibi ktlklerin karsnda duran bir karakter olmutur (Dnya Ede-
biyat William Shakespear seilmi eserleri). Evet, Hamlet toplumda olan hakszlklar
kanunlarn ikiyzllyn saf ve temiz olan duygularn nemsenmediini insanlarn
ne kadar alaldn ve yalanc olduklarn grr fakat Hamlet btn bunlara kar bir-
eyler yapmak istese de baaral olamaz. Bunun en nemli nedeni ise karakterimizin
iradesinin zayf olmas ve iinde bulunduu ikilemlerden kurtulamamasdr. Hamletin
yaad bu ikilemleri babasnn hayaleti ile karlatktan sonraki davranlarnda
daha da net grmekteyiz. Hamletin cevabn veremedii bir soru vardr ki, o babasnn
intikamn almal mi, yoksa almamal m? Hamlet karakterini incelediimizde yazar-
mzn,dier eserlerinde olduu gibi bu eserinde de kitap karakteri oluturmak yerine
hemen hemen, gnlk hayatta karmza kabilecek sradan bir karakter oluturduunu
grrz. Hamletin tam olarak anlalamayan bir kiilii vardr. Bu da onu her ada
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yoruma ak bir karakter yapmaktadr. Hamletin en nemli sorunu ise kendi zayflklar
olmutur. Esere dnp baktmzda Hamlet, babasnn amcas tarafndan ldrldn
rendikten sonra ac ekmeye balar. Hamlet ya bu acy ekecek ya da kendini l-
drerek bu acy dindirecektir. Karakterimizin bu ikilemini Shakespeare Olmak ya da
olmamak ite btn sorun bu dizesiyle dile getirmitir.
KAYNAKLAR
1. Vilyam ekspir 1564-1616, Seilmi srlri (rq-Qrb, Bak-2009).

A NEW APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF ORIENTAL
THEME IN ENGLISH LITERATURE
Lala Isayeva
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
ABSTRACT
Richard Knolless (?1550-1610) The General History of the Turks (1603) was much appreciated
by Samuel Johnson, the most eminent Literary figure of the XVIII century. He took from the history of
the Turks the plot for his verse tragedy Irene. They say that Samuel Johnson was disappointed by the
plays mixed reception. The oriental colouring much affected the XIX century Romanticists, especially
the inspiration of the Oriental history made the poets write their some works on that theme.
So it was a magnetic theme that appeared in Medieval Ages and further on periods of Literature.
The article presents the characteristic elements of Oriental conception that appeared through-out
various periods of English culture and literature.
Key words: Orientalism, oriental colouring, Medieval Literature, complex identities, the history of
the Turks, Western audience.

ngilis dbiyyatnda rq mvzusunun yrnilmsin yeni bax
ngilis ensiklopedik nrlrind oriental (or Eastern) novel, elc d oriental
(or Eastern) tale kimi tqdim ediln rq hekaylri Orta (Yaxn), yaxud Uzaq rqd
vaqe olan hadislri, xsusil XVIII sr Qrbi Avropa, o cmldn ingilisdilli dbiy-
yatda bdii inikasn yaradan xeyli sayda dbiyyat toplusunu ifad edir. ngilis tarixisi
Riard Knollesin (Richard Knolles (?15501610)) 1603-c ild yazd Trklrin
mumi tarixi (The General History of the Turks) sri dbiyyat almind XVIII
srin grkmli snt adam Smuel Consonun (1709-1784) (o, znn mhur Ayrin
(rene) srinin sjetini bu kitabdan gtrmdr L..), habel Trk poemalar
il hrt qazanan Corc Qordon Bayronun (1778-1824) yaradclnda, poeziyasnda
rq koloritin myyn tsir izini qoymudur.
XX srin vvllrind - 1900-1920-ci illrd Azrbaycann elmi, dbi v bdii d-
nc tarixind mhm v hmiyytli mrhlnin dayclar olan Fyuzatlarn
iql v dnyvi baxlar onlarn rq v Qrb mdniyytlrinin ideologiyasn vhdt
klind yrnmsi il baldr. Tbii ki, bel bir yol milli intibahn yaradlmasnda n
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dzgn v yegan mtrqqi yoldur. Prof. amil Vliyev (Krpl) bu haqda yazr:
... Fyuzatlarn rq v Qrb, mslman v xristian alminin mdniyyt v d-
biyyatnn qarlql laq v mqayisd thlili onlarn btv dnyan anlamaq istyin
saslanrd (1, 135).
Fyuzatlarn rq v Qrb laqlrinin yrnilmsind qazand uurlar n
qdr diqqti clb ets d, indiki gnlrimizd d nnvi tdqiqat prizmasnda bu la-
qlrin daha hatli kild tdqiq edilmsin ehtiyac olduunu sylmliyik.
ngiltrd rq lklrin, xsusil onun mdniyyt v dbiyyatna hdsiz ma-
ra rb dbiyyatnn klassik toplusu olan Min bir gecnin XVIII srin vvllrind
- 1705-1708-ci illrd anonim Grub Street adl versiyasnn ingilis dilin trcmsi
il balanmdr. Lakin rb dilind yazlm bu snt abidsinin Qrbi Avropada tann-
mas Antoni Qallandn (Antoine Galland (1646-1715)) trcmsi il laqlndirilir.
Antoni Qallandn trcm versiyas 1704-1717-ci illr arasnda ap olunmudur.
Lakin Min bir gecnin ilk mkmml trcmsinin Con Peyn (John Payne
(1842-1916)) mxsus olduunu sylmk lazmdr v onun trcmsi ox az nr tiraj
il 1882-1884-c illrd ingilis oxucusuna tqdim edilmidir. Ser Riard Brtonun (Sir
Richard Burton (1821-1890)) rb erotologiyasnn mkmml snt nmunsi Min
bir gecsinin 1885-1888-ci illrd trcmsi ona tnqidin v maliyynin byk uu-
runu gtirn sr evrildi.
vvla, onu da vurulamaq yerin dr ki, rq v Qrb mfhumlar he d co-
rafi trayektoriyalar, yaxud corafi mkanlar btvlkd znd ehtiva etmir. slind,
rq slam, Qrb is Xristian dnyasn ifad etmk mram dayr.
Anqlo-Sakson dvrnn VII srin vvllrind meydana xmas slam dini dn-
yagrnn, o cmldn slamn prvri tapd dvr tsadf edir. Erkn ingilis ya-
zarlarnn n lklrin artq mlumatlandrld slam konsepsiyas, n d sonrak sr-
lrd Qrb yazarlarnn sarasinlr (Orta srd qrblilrin Afrika mslmanlarna verdiyi
ad-L..) hsr edcyi srlr xsusi, yaxud fantastik diqqt yetirilmdiyini qeyd edn
ova Universitetinin ingilis dili v dbiyyat alimi Keyti Lavezzo (Kathy Lavezzo)
yazr: Erkn v indiki gnlrimiz glib atan Anqlo-Sakson dvrnn rb iallarnn
tsviri Bidin (The Venerable Bede (673-735)) Genezis (Bibliya: Varlq kitab) ki-
tabna dair rhind shny xd (2, 435-436).
Ser Con Mandevillenin (Sir John Mandeville) ilk df 1356-1357-ci illrd Anqlo-
Norman fransz dilind yazya ald mhur syaht lyazmas XIV sr ingilis dbiy-
yatnda rq lklrinin corafiyasnn, romans v mczlri il tbii tarixinin yadda
qalan shiflrinin tsvirini vern tsiredici, czbedici sr kimi dyrlndirilir. Sonra-
lar bu sr dbi almd qdrtli ingilis yazarlar kimi dnya hrti qazanan Cefri o-
serdn Vilyam ekspir kimi bir sra snt adamlarnn yaradclna mhm v h-
miyytli tsirini gstrmidir. Ser Con Mandevillenin syaht kitab ingilis dbiyya-
tnda yaranan fsanvi syaht kitabnn mhur janrnn prototipi kimi qbul edilmi-
dir. Oxucunu Trkiyy, Tatar lksin (orijinalda Tartary kimi tqdim ediln bu lk
slind Azrbaycan lksi kimi nzrd tutulmudur-L..), rana, Misir v Hindistana
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aparan syaht kitabnda rq tarixi, corafiyas il bal elementlrin yrnilib tdqiq
edilmsi ayrca bir tdqiqat mvzusu ola bilr.
lk df bu lyazmann txminn 1357-ci ild Fransada yaymndan sonra onun bir
sra Avropa dillrin trcm edildiyini qeyd edn aradrclar hmin dvrdn Sya-
htlr srinin 22 versiyasnn indiki gnlrimiz glib xdn sylyirlr. slind
bu sr z dvrnd Mqdds torpaa-rq lklrin xan zvvarlar n hm co-
rafi, hm d etik mlumatlar znd tcssm etdirn bldi kitabdr. Bir fakt da
qeyd etmk lazmdr ki, bu lyazma Boldenseleli Uilyamn (William of Boldensele),
Pordenoneli Frayer Odorik (Friar Odoric of Pordenone) v Beauvaisli Vincentin (Vin-
cent of Beauvais) srlri sasnda trtib edilmi bir toplu kimi d dyrlndirilir.
Qrb tcrbsinin v dyrlrinin tnqidisi kimi Ser Con Mandevillenin kitab
ekzotikldirilmi rqin yenidn snaqdan keirilmsi prizmasnda bir ox tarixi hadi-
slrin yrnilmsi baxmndan tccbl deyildir. XIX srin ortalarnda yazlan kita-
bn Avropada qsa mddtd v geni kild yaylb populyarlamasnn sbbi tbii
ki, Qrb oxucusu n qrib v ecazkar grnn rq dnyasnn real grntlri ol-
mudur. ngilis, ispan, daniya dillrind yaymlanan bu syaht toplusu n az iki srlik
bir zamanda rq dair mtbr mlumatlarn mnbyi olaraq z aktualln v h-
miyytini qoruyub saxlamdr. Syaht dbiyyatnn qeyri-adi populyarl bir d ona
gr yksk dyrlndirilir ki, o digr dbiyyat jurnallarndan frqli kild birinci x-
sin dilindn tqdim ediln mtnin faktiki mahidsi sasnda fsanvi qhrmann de-
yil, sl syahtinin dili il tqdim ediln inandrc thkiyni znd ehtiva edir.
Sonrak dvrlrd, xsusil ingilis romantizmi dvrnd rq mvzusunda srlr
yazm mmmal hyat v trk dnyasna qar qrzli siyasi mvqeyi v faliyyti
il dnyada yax tannan Corc Qordon Bayron, gzl v oxunaql mahnlarn v poe-
malarn mllifi, irland silli Tomas Mur, Min bir gec nallar kimi macra janrnda
yazd romanlar il mhur olan Ceyms Yustinyan Moriyerin rq mvzusunda yaz-
d srlri dbiyyat tarixinin yaddana yazlm, oxucu marann v heyrtinin
unudulmaz stolst kitab kimi dyrlndirilmidir.
XIX sr ingilis romantizmind rq konsepsiyas ayr-ayr yaz v airlrin rq
dnyasna ictimai-siyasi baxlarnn grntlri evrsind aradrlb tdqiq edilm-
lidir. Fikrimizc, rq dnyasnn Qrb dbi arealnda bdii ksi veriln mnzrsind
ruhani dnyamz, tarix v mdniyytimiz haqqnda deyiln hr szn, hr obrazn ar-
xasnda heyrt v hsdl yana, tdqiq ehtiyac olan o qdr d aq-aydn grnmyn
syan v thqirlrin d thlil v rh edilmsin ehtiyac vardr.
DBYYAT
1. Veliyev (Krpl) amil. Fyuzat edebi mektebi. Ankara: Edjat yaynlar, 2000.
2. Lavezzo Kathy. Complex Identities: Selves and Others.-The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Litera-
ture in English. Printed in Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 2010.
3. Knolles Richard. The General History of the Turks. London, 1603.
4. Gower Roger. Past into Present. Longman, 1990.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
131
OTTOMAN POETRY AND BRITISH CRITICISM
Ali Bereket
Qafqaz University
abereket@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
The work deals with the Ottoman poetry in British criticism based on some serious researches. It is
important to note that study of Ottoman poetry within the frame of British orientalism is nearly a profound
view to the history of Ottoman Literature. The ideas of some critics such as, Sir Philip Sidney and George
Puttenham on Ottoman poetry are analyzed and reviewed in the report. E.J. Gibb noted in the preface of
his research A History of Ottoman Poetry that he had endeavoured to trace the successive phases through
which Ottoman poetry has passed, to discover the influences which have brought these about, and in this
way to present as it were a panorama of the rise and progress of this poetry. So we can say that research
of Ottoman poetry which had been carried by E.J. Gibb is of great value. The author of the article concerning
the conclusion states that the Turks had no literature was a shock for some scholars. So the author of the
article presents his commentaries on Ottoman poetry which was mainly composed in mesnevi form.
Key words: Ottoman poetry, British criticism, Turkey, orientalist.

As antique Greek poetry and the works by Greek philosophers as well as poems
of Ottoman and of an ancient East literature had a vast influence on English literature
and scientific circles. So in British criticism different investigations have been made
on Ottoman poetry and scientific explanations have been rendered in English.
While thinking about investigation of Ottoman poetry, we feel under obligation of
mentioning the names of critics, Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) and George Puttenham
(?1529-1591) who wrote some sharp statements on poetry problems. Those critics faced
with the decline in the English poetry. The Arte of English Poesie by Puttenham
1

(1589) and The Defence of Poesie(1595) by Sidney
2
attracts attentions as the charac-
teristic of arguments and trials to return back to poetic traditions of the ancient English
poetry. From this point of view it is important to mention the logical scientific discourses
of Sidney against those are of the opinion that poetry is unnecessary. He wrote:
neither Phylosopher nor Histoririographer could at the first have entered into the gates
of popular judgements, if they had not taken a great Passport of Poetry, which in all
Nations at this day, where learning florisheth not, is plaine to be seene, in all which they
have some feeling of Poetry.
3

After such kind of judgments Philip Sidney remind the way that the poetry was
created and developed in Turkey. H noted: ... in benighted Turkey besides their lawe
giving Divines they have no other Writers but Poets.
4

It is not coincidence that Philip Sidney who created the first scientific work of cri-
ticism in the English literature mentioned such kind of judgments. The extraordinary
poetic samples of literature touched the cords of hearts of people not only in Turkey
but also in other parts of the world.
Prof. Hamid Arasl noted one sided characteristic of works written about Turkic
as well as Eastern poets by European orientalists: Generally European orientalists
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couldnt go beyond regulating scientific information about oriental poets. Instead of
giving scientific analysis of the poets they were under impacts of memoirs.
5

Naturally the demands of considerations, praise and writing peculiar for that period
by Indian, Persian and Turk memoirs experts reveal the limitations and one sidedness
in their memoirs. And Western Europe scholars and literary figures had to follow the
same way and they avoided presenting detailed analysis.
ENDNOTE
1. http://www.poetspath.com/Dave_Cope/Puttenham.htm
2. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/learning/essay/237818
3. Sanders Andrew, The Short Oxford History of English Literature, Second Edition, London: Oxford
Univ. Press 1999, p.107
4. Ibid., p.107
5. Arasl Hamid, The life and creativity of Saib Tebrizi; Arasl Hamid, Azerbaijan Literature: history
and problems, (selected works) I volume, Baku: Youth, 1998, p.562
REFERENCES
1. Sanders Andrew, The Short Oxford History of English Literature, Second Edition, London: Oxford
Univ. Press 1999
2. Arasl Hamid, The life and creativity of Saib Tebrizi; Arasl Hamid, Azerbaijan Literature: history
and problems, (selected works) I volume. Baku: Youth, 1998
3. E.J. Gibb, A History of Ottoman poetry, Volume I, London1958
4. http://www.poetspath.com/Dave_Cope/Puttenham.htm
5. http://www.poetryfoundation.org/learning/essay/237818

COINCIDENCES CHANGED TESS`S LIFE IN THOMAS
HARDY`S TESS OF THE D`URBERVILLES
Aynur Hacyeva
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
hacizade_aynur@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
Some people thinks that fate is something that directs their life and they can do nothing to change it
because the order of things is determined beforehand. That`s why we have to live what we are meant to
have. Despite this, others believe that coincidence is the only explanation for the way their lives turn out.
Great English novelist Thomas Hardy portrays chance and coincidence as having very significant role in
Tess of the d`Urbervilles. In this novel three such coincidences had a great impact on Tess`s future. The
first being that Tess Durbeyfield`s father knew that their family came from the oldest and the wealthiest
family in England. Another one occurs when Tess slips a letter of confession underneath both her lover`s
door and the carpet which is resulted with him losing sight of it. The last coincidence would be the death
of Tess`s father which leaves the whole family in a state of disappointment, and after this Tess had to step
up and take care of the family. Each of these coincidences were the beginning of Tess`s further misfortune
and changed her life. Of course, she had not chosen this fate, this fate had chosen her.
Key words: coincidence, consequence, fate, change.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
133
Tess Durbeyfield and her family which belonged to a middle class lived in the town
of Marlott in a state of destitution. Her father`s, John Durbeyfield`s rank was above the
farm laborers. He does not put much interest in working and instead spends time drinking.
One evening his meeting a man upon returning to his home was the first coincidence
in Tess`s life. This man named Parson Tringham makes him aware about the fact that
the Durbeyfield family is the lineal representative of the ancient and knightly family
of the d`Urbervilles who came from Normandy with William the Conqueror.(1,18)
This news suddenly changes Durbeyfield`s view on his family`s lifestyle and decides
that they should be living as their noble ancestors once did. If all the things had gone
as they planned, they should have lived in prosperity and wealth. But the events tended
to other direction.
Being aware of this news John`s wife Joan Durbeyfield says that a man by the name
of d`Urberville lives not far from their home and considers that he might be able to help
them in their hard times. After the death of their only horse, the Durbeyfield family
have to do something to earn for living, but Mr. Durbeyfield refuses to sell the horse
due to his newfound d` Urberville pride. Because this knightly family never sold their
chargers for cat`s meat. (1,45) So, the family decides to send their eldest daughter,
Tess to see if the d` Urberville family would help them, with hopes of Tess marrying
a gentleman and restoring their family`s status. This egoist decision of sending Tess to
the d`Urberville would be the change in her life that would lead to so many other events
for her and would be the beginning of her life`s destruction. Had Tess not been sent to
the d`Urberville home, she would not have met Alec nor would bore his child and her
life would have been completely different.
With hopes of finding work at a diary called Talbothay`s Tess left her birthplace
of Marlott after her son`s death. The people there was unaware of her past because he
told nothing to them about it. After much time, Tess would accept the marriage proposal
of a co-worker named Angel Clare, who was in love with her. She decides to tell him
everything about herself to Angel before getting married him. But she couldn`t tell it
face to face that is why she sat down and wrote a succinct narrative of those events and
put it into an envelope. Despite this letter, Tess`s confession did not reach Angel Clare.
By chance, her letter was not only slipped underneath his door, but also slipped under-
neath his carpet, where he could not see it. Tess did not discover this until her wedding
day, when she decided to tear up the letter and not let him know of her past.
Tess`s life again had been changed by another coincidence. Writing a letter and
putting it under Angel`s door, Tess felt much ease knowing that he would know all of
her past. Now she hoped that despite of every disaster happened to her Angel would
still love her as much as he did before.
Little after their marriage, Tess confesses to Angel of her past. Angel goes to Brasil
to find land where he might be able to start a farm and also think about Tess`s confession
and decide which step to take next. Soon after Angel`s leaving, she decides to leave
Marlott and find work. But due to the time of year, she was forced to go to Flintcomb-
Ash, where she works to death.Tess struggles through the work and finds the courage
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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to ask her father-in law for help because of bad condition and lack of money. All this
time there was not any information of Angel, even he did not write any letter to her.
On her way back to the farm, Tess mets Alec who persues her for some time trying to
persuade her in his love. Remember, my lady, I was your master once! I will be your
master again. If you are any man`s wife you are mine! (2) The main coincidence is
that during the time d`Urberville is pursuing her, Tess`s mother becomes ill and her
father soon dies.
After the death of Tess`s father, the Durbeyfield family loses its the only shelter.
So, D`Urberville gets great opportunity to move in on Tess. He convinced Tess that
Angel would never come back and by this way he had Tess to get marry him. He then
gives her family a home and money, and he himself lives with them. All of these events
happens just in time because he does return, but it is too late and Tess had already
married.This coincidence of Tess`s father dying at just the right moment for Alec to
marry her and Angel returning only a little after, leads to the murder of Alec. If her
father had not died and Angel had not returned at just the right moment, she would not
have killed Alec and would not have been sentenced to an execution for her crimes.
All of these coincidences had a great impact on Tess`s life and changed it drama-
tically. Each event that occurred by chance left Tess in a predicament where she was
compelled to take control and do something to improve the situation.
REFERENCES
1. Thomas Hardy Tess of the D`Urbervilles , 2004.
2. http://classiclit.about.com/od/ttitles/a/aa_tessquote.htm

NEW AZERBAIJANI PROSE AND ITS STYLE VARIETY
(YENI AZRBAYCAN NSRI V ONUN SLUB LVANLII)
Ayten Zargarova
Institute of Literature, ANAS, doctoral student
ayten3@rambler.ru
ABSTRACT
In the article we endeavored to reveal style diversity in new Azerbaijani prose. It is undeniable that
the prose of 60s or a new prose literature is recorded in our history as a new stage not only for its subject,
content, heroes, characters, but also for its genre-style quest diversity. Thereby, one of the facts drawing
attention in exploration of new prose is its style quantity. Certainly, it is not reasonless. Changing atoms-
phere and environment required new approach and style. Although new Azerbaijani prose styles have passed
a rather short period, their development is profoundly rich as far as context is concerned. New prose rep-
resentatives apply mostly traditions of the previous centuries writers (J. Mammadguluzada, A. Hagver-
diyev etc). Creative styles of new prose are as follows: intellectual style, analytic style, psychological style,
dramatic style, lyric-psychological style, publicist style. Usage of psychological analysis as a manifestation
form of style happens to be one of the most important incentives familiarizing us with the prose of 60s.
Though, we consider that the usage of psychological analysis in Azerbaijani literature is not in appropriate
level.
Key words: style, psychological analysis, Azerbaijani prose.
Aar szlr: slub, psixoloqizm, azrbaycan nsri.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
135
Danlmaz bir hqiqt var ki, 60-c illrin nsri, v ya yeni nsr dbiyyat tariximiz
tkc mvzu, mzmun,qhrman, xarakterlr v s. frqlri il deyil, elc d janr-slub
axtarlar, frqlri il yeni bir mrhl kimi daxil olurlar. 50-ci illrin sonu, 60-c illrin
vvlrind ortaya xan yeni nsrin dbiyyatmzda zntsdiq mrhlsi artq
arxada qalmdr. Aradan ken bu mddt rzind dbiyyatmzda bir mrhl tkil
edn yeni nsrin tdqiqi il bal myyn tdqiqat ilri d aparlmdr. Hl d
mbahisli olaraq qalan mxtlif msllr baxmayaraq, tnqidi v dbiyyatnas-
larn yekdillikl tsdiq etdiyi kimi, yeni nsr masir Azrbaycan nsrinin aparc
istiqamtini tkil edir. Yeni nsrin yaranmas, formalamas prosesini izah edrkn,
tnqidi v dbiyyatnaslarn arasnda mbahislr sbb olan fikirlrdn biri yeni
nsrin tkc zaman, yaxud nsil, v ya keyfiyyt anlaylar il bal olduunun gs-
ttrilmsidir. Tannm dbiyyatnas v tngidi Yaar Qarayev Nsrin yeniliyi
adl yazsnda yeni nsrin yaranmas prosesind dbi nsliln itirakn qeyd edir: Alt-
m-yetmiinci illrd qnclr nsr dst il gldilr v mcbur eldilr ki, hm oxucu,
hm dbielmi-estetik fikir z diqqt v maran onlarda cmldirsin. Yeni Azr-
baycan nsri, yeni dala ifadlrini d bizim cari leksikonuna el onlar daxil eldilr.
Hmin ifadlr bu nslin masir milli nsr gtirdiyi yeniliyi (istr mzmun, ideya,
mvzu yeniliyi, istrs d forma, yaxud indi deyildiyi kimi, struktur baxmndan tz-
trliyi) ehtiva v ifad ely bildi. (3,124).
Baqa bir dbiyyatnas alim, Arif Hacyev is o zamank gnc nasirlrin grdkl-
ri ii, hmin illrd rus dbiyyatnda v lknin digr dbiyyatlarnda ba vern dyi-
ikliklr, tmayllr cavan yazlarn sadc olaraq reaksiyas kimi qiymtlndirir.(5,8)
bhsiz, hr iki fikird tkzib olunmayaz hqiqt vardr. Yeni nsrin mhz 60-c
illr dbi nslinin faliyyti il balamaqda tnqid tamamil haqldr, nki bhs olu-
nan dvrd dbiyyatmzda yeniliyin, novatorluun sas dayclar mhz gnclr
oldular v yeni nsrin ideya-estetik platformasn rsy gtirmyin, mdafi etmyin
btn arl da onlarn iyinlrin dd. Buna gr d, almnclar,adlandrlan
dbi nslin yeni nsrin tkkulnd v formalamasndak nmli rolu tbii v qa-
nunauyun saylmaldr, lakin bunu mtlqldirrk, ancaq bu meyar sasnda konkret
bdii sr v onun mziyytlri haqqnda mhakim yrtmk birtrfliy mexaniki
qiymtlndirmy gtirib xara bilr. Yeni nsrin tdqiqind diqqti clb edn ms-
llrdn biri d onun zngin slublara malik olmasdr. Bu da sbbsiz deyil. Dyin
ab-hava , mhit zn yeni yanama trzi ,yeni slub tlb edirdi. nsann daxili-psi-
xoloji almin ynln srlrin nnvi metodlarla tsviri artq mmkn deyildi. 60-
ci illr nsrind hyat materialna mnasibtd ba vermi dyisiklikliyi, bhsiz ilk
nvbd hyat materialna mnasibtd ba vermi dyiikliklrd axtarmaq lazmdr.
Bu material-real gerkliyin zn yeni mnasibt tlb edirdi, bu yeni mnasibt is
yeni yanama trzind, yeni ifad trzind v nhayt yeni yaz manerasnda, stilind
reallard ( 2,137). Yeni nsr nmayndlrini bdii tsvir predmetin mumi bax,
eyni ovqat v dnyaduyumu, ghrmanlarn hiss v duyularna hssas mnasibt bir-
ldirir. nnvi dbiyyatdan frqli olaraq, yeni nsrin qhrmanlar adi adamlar oldu.
Hr biri mrkkb psixoloqiyaya malik bu adamlarn, tsvir etm missiyasn is sovet
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nsri yerin yetir bilmzdi, nki sosialist realizmi canl, real insanlardan daha ox
mxtlif hadis v epoxal dyimlri qlm alrd. Bununla demk olmaz ki, yeni
nsr hmin stereotip v rivlrdn birdn-bir xd.
Yeni Azrbaycan nsrinin slublar zaman etibaril ox qisa , mzmunca is dol-
un tarixi inkiaf yolu kemidir. Bu yolun elmi-nzri tdqiqi frdi yaradclq xsu-
siyytlrin gr bir-birin yaxn olan sntkarlarn tkil etdiklri slub istiqamtl-
rinin hr birinin novator xarakterinini akarlamaa imkan verir. bhsiz, slub tma-
yllrin, slublarn novator xarakterini akar edrkn onlarn nny n drcd bal
olduqlar da nzr alnmaldr.Yeni nsr nmayndlri nny saslanmaq mnasnda
yal nsil yazlarna deyil,daha vvlki dvrn nnsin mracit edirlr (C.Mm-
mdqluzad, .Haqverdiyev v b.).Bu da ygin ki, hr iki dvr sntkarlarnn insann
mnvi-daxili almin olan mara, hsiyytin mnvi almind ba vern tbdduat-
lar thlil etmlri il baldr. 60-c illrd slub probleminin kskinlmsi (gr bel
demk mmkndrs) mnvi xarakter dayr, slubi tendensiyalarda grginlikl ay-
dn insan mvgeyi nzrdn keirilir (6,164) .
Bellikl, dbiyyatda masir hyat haqqnda artq khnlmi tsvvr v ifad
vasitlri il yazman mmkn olmamas qnatinin dourduu qvvti, smrli
axtar ruhu, yeni vziflr uyun gln frqli, orijinal estetik boyalar tapmaq chdi-
nin bdii fikrin inkiafnn mahiyyti v istiqamtini myyn etdiyinin ahidi olduq.
Yeni nsrin yaradclq slublar bunlardr: intellektual slub, analitik slub, psixoloji
slub, dramatik slub, lirik-psixoloji slub, publisistik slub. Bu yaradclq slublar
nn v novatorluun qsa zaman ksiyind ox mrkkb qarlql mnasibtlr -
raitind yarandndan diqqti onlarn hansnn daha aparc rol oynadnda deyil, on-
lar birldirn bdii estetik xsusiyytlri myynldirmy ynltmk lazmdr. Hr
biri z yaz maneras, stili il maraql olan yeni nsr nmayndlrini hyata mumi
bax, dnya duyumunun bnzrliyi, qhrmanlarn hiss v duyularna hssaslq bir-
ldirir. lk baxda problemlrin qoyuluu tematika baxmndan bir-birin yaxn olan
sntkarlar slublarna gr mhz hyata, real gerkliy subyektiv, yaxud obyektiv
mnasibti ayrr. Yeni nsrin slub istiqamtlrini bu baxmdan myyn edn tnqid-
ilr tamamil haqldrlar.
slub mxtlifliyin, rngarngliyin malik olan yeni Azrbaycan nsrinin balca
slub tmayllrindn olan analitik v lirik-psixoloji slub xsusiyytlri bir nv kslik
tkil edirlr. Bu slub istiqamtindn istifad edn sntkarlar psixologizmi btv bir
sistem sviyysind tzahr etdirrk, qhrmanlarn dncli, mrkkb tbitli ol-
duunu gstrirlr. S.hmdovun Toana romannn qhrman Adilin daim z-z
il mbahissini, dialoqunu ziddiyytli dolaq fikirlrl doladn grrk. Bununla
yana, biz onun dnclrind btn yaylaq qonularnn rftar v davranlarn,
xasiyytlrini, onun yaad mhit v tbitin md chtlrini, eyni zamanda bunlarn
hams haqqnda onun ryini yrnirik. Bdii tsvir nisbtn thlilin nisbtn stnlk
tkil etdiyi bu cr srlrd mllif thkiysi nnvi nsrdn frqli olaraq, bdii struk-
turda ox az, bzn d hmiyytsiz yer tutur. Anarn Macal povestini qhrman
Fuadn daxili almindn baqa srd hm d biz onun vasitsil, bilavasit onun tq-
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
137
dimi, tsviri v thlili vasitsil digr adamlarla, onlarn arasndak mnasibtlrl tan
ola bilirik.
Analitik slub istiqamti bir nv kslik tkil edn lirik psixoloji slub istiqamtin
aid olan yazlarin (.ylisli,.Mlikzadnin,Elinin) srlrind psixologizmdn
geni istifad olunur. Bu yazlar psixologizmdn hsiyytin daxili alminin alma-
snda slubi mqam kimi istifad edir, lakin bu onlarn he d eyni sluba malik olduq-
larn demy sas vermir.gr analitik slub istiqamtin daxil olan sntkarlarn sr-
lrind hadislr, traf mhit qhrmann tqdimi v thlili il gstrils, mllif th-
kiysi bir nv sxdrlsa, lirik-psixoloji tmayll nsr nmunlrind is qhrman
mvqeyind yaz mninin z x edir. Bu zaman lirik psixoloji slubun tlbin
uyun olaraq, mlum msldir ki,dncvilik, hissi-emosional fallq, daxili almin
psixoloji alarlar ,bir szl desk, obyektiv hyatn subyektiv tsviri n plana keir.
gr lirik nsr slubunda gerkliy mnasibt qhrmann subyektiv qavraynda
ks olunursa, psixoloji slubda tsvir olunmu konkret dncnin urda ks olunmas
nsrd qhrmann dnyaduyumunun btvly v znmxsusluu saxlanlmaqla,
onu daxildn gstrmkn istifad olunur. Bu cr frqli chtlr onlarn slubi
mqayisli thlili nticsind daha aydn olur.
Anarn Macal povestind qhrman hadislr irisind tqdim edilmkdn daha
ox, hadislr qhrmann qavraynda tqdim olunur, bdii mtn sasn onun dn-
clri sasnda qurulur. Psixoloji nsrin mhz bu xsusiyytindn bhs edn Baxtin
qeyd edir ki, qhrman yad dncnin tamhquqlu subyekti kimi tsdiq etmk ch-
dini Dostoyevski qhrman lirik qhrman etmyrk, onun ssini z ssiyl qar-
drmayaraq, duymayaraq, eyni zamanda tsvir olunan psixoloji gerkliyi nfuzdan
salmayaraq onu yad, baqa adam kimi gstrmidir. (4,19).
Psixoloji slublu nsr srlrind ox vaxt qhrmanlarn sl tbitini ks etdirmk
n daxili monoqlardan istifad olunur. Psixoloji slublu nsr srlrind ox vaxt
qhrmanlarn sl tbitini ks etdirmk n daxili monoloqlardan istifad olunur.
Anarn Macal povestinin qhrman Fuadn daxili nitqin diqqt yetirk : Qribdir,
niy mn z iimd bu qdr mbahis edirm, Oqtayla, oqtaylarla, htta hirslnirm,
qzram onlara. Niy fikrimi bu qdr mul edirlr? Niy mn el glir ki, Oqtay
da, onun dostlar da n sbbdns zlrini mndn yuxar tuturlar, mni zlrin tay
bilmirlr. Halbuki trsin olmaldr mntiqnn (1,63)
Elin psixoloji hekaylrind qhrmann znthlil formasndan bdii sul kimi
istifad edir. Bu baxmdan, onun Be qpiklik motosikl hekaysind Sabir Mlikov
obraz uurla seilmidir. Grndy kimi, yeni nsrin nmayndlri insann daxili-
mnvi alminin, xsusn d, uralt proseslrin ks etdirilmsind psixologizmdn
vzedilmz vasit kimi istifad etmilr. Bu is xarakterlr nsri adlanan 60-c illr
nsrinin insan n plana kmsi, insana diqqtin artmas il bal idi.
Demk olar ki,bu nsrin qoyduu problemlrdn, bu problemlrin bdii hllindn
asl olmayaraq, onlarn hamsnda mumi bir fon var: insan, nsrin qhrman xarici
mhitd z-z gldikd, toqquanda,o,acizlir,tnhalar. Dzdr, dbiyyatn mhz
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insan problemi il mul olduunu nzr alsaq, bu cr problemlrin he d yeni ol-
madn grrik. Lakin onlar hans insan qlm alblar? Yeni nsr nmunlrind
nnvi nsrdn frqli olaraq, hyatda baxt gtirmy nlr, mhit trfindn qbul
edilmynlrdir. Hr birinin z individual yaz das, slubu il seiln yeni nsr n-
mayndlrinin hams n mvcud olan mumi bir slub var: bu is hyat materialn
ks etdirmsind psixoloqizmdn geni istifad olunmasdr.
Bellikl, slubun tzahr formalarndan biri saylan psixoloqizmdn istifad olunma
60-clar nsrini yaxnladran, domaladran n mhm amillrdn biri saylmaldr,
lakin biz el glir ki, Azrbaycan dbiyyatnda psixoloqizmdn hl lazmi sviyyd
istifad olunmamdr.

1. Anar. Macal.B.,Gnlik,1978,264s.
2. liyeva N. 60-80-ci illrin Azrbaycan nsrindqhman v slub axtarlar. Bak:Elm,1997,159s.
3. . -. : , 1988, 456. Rus dilind
4. .. . ., , 1973, 318 .
5. . . : , 1981, 128c.
6. . . .,1983,286.

JAMES JOYCE AND MODERNISM
Gunel Mammadkarimova
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
memmedkerimova@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
James Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet. Joyces major works are the short-story collection Dub-
liners (1914); novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1932). But
at the top of his creative activity stands his best known work Ulysses (1922), which the episodes of ancient
Greek writers Homers Odyssey are paralleled with the contrasting literary styles. With the appearance
of the Ulysses (also T.S Eliots poem The Waste Land) 1922 was a key year in the history of English
language literary modernism. Stream of consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental
prose-full of puns, parodies and allusion, as well as its characterization and broad humor, made this book
a highly regarded novel in the modernist grade. In 1988 the Modern literary, ranked Ulysses first on its
list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20
th
century.
Key words: James Joyce, Ulysses, Homers Odyssey, modernist grade.

James Joyce Augustine Aloysius was an Irish novelist and poet, regarded to be one
of the most effective and influential writers in modernist grade of the early 20
th
century.
He was born to a middle class family in Dublin, where he studied as a student at
the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, then at University College Dublin. From
his early ages, Joyce emigrated to the different parts of Europe, lived in Trieste, Paris
and Zurich. Though Joyces fictional creative activity was not beyond Dublin, most of
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
139
his characters resemble family members, enemies, friends from there. As he claimed:
For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I
can get to the heart of all cities of the world. (Elman,p505.Citing power, From an Old
Waterford House(London,n.d)p-63-64)
Joyces major works are the short- story collection Dubliners (1914); novels A
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1932).But at the
top of his creative activity stands his best known work Ulysses (1922), which the
episodes of ancient Greek writers-Homers Odyssey are paralleled with the contras-
ting literary styles. With the appearance of the Ulysses (also T.S Eliots poem The
Waste Land) 1922 was a key year in the history of English language-literary moder-
nism. In Ulysses, Joyce employs stream of consciousness which is the base of moder-
nism according Sigmund Freud.
Joyce also used in this novel parody, jokes, and virtually other literary technique
to present his characters. The action of the novel, which takes place in a single day, 16
June 1904, sets the characters and incidents of the Odyssey of Homer in modern Dublin.
And Joyce presented Homers characters Odysseus, Penelope and Telemachus in the
image of Leopold Bloom, his wife Molly Bloom and Stephan Dedalus, parodically
contracted with their lofty models. In this novel we can come across various areas of
Dublin life. Ulysses is a book of privacies and subjectivities, a remarkable number of
its scenes are set in public space-library, museum, bar, cemetery, and, most of all, the
street (www.guardaian.co.ok/books/2009/jun16/jamesjoyces classics). So, the book is
also detailed study of the city. Joyce said that if Dublin were to be destroyed, in some
catastrophe it would be rebuilt, brick by brick, using his work as a model.
The book consists 18 chapters, each covering about one hour of the day, beginning
around 8a.m and ending some time after 2a.m the following morning. But at first glance
much of the book may appear unstructured and chaotic. Joyce once said that he had put
in so many puzzles that it will keep the professors busy for centuries arguing over what
I meant which would earn the novel immortality. (Hefferman, James A.W. (2011)
Joyces Ulysses Chantilly,VA.The teaching company)Each chapter employs its own
literary style and parodies a specific episode in Homers Odyssey.
The book is also unusual in the history of modernism for its suggestion that there
need be no conflict between bohemian and bourgeois. At its climax the ad-canvasser
Bloom invites the poet Dedalus home with him for conversation and cocoa. In recording
the dailiest day possible, Joyce teaches us much about the world: how to cope with
grief and loss; how to tell a joke and how not to tell a joke; how to be frank about death
in the age of its denial; how to walk and think at the same time; how to purge sex of
possessiveness; how the way people eat food can tell us who they really are. (Kebard
Declan (2009-06-16)Ulysses modernisms most sociable masterpieceLondon Guar-
dian.co.ok.retrieved june 28,2011)
Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking. The
soliloquists of Shakespeare and the nineteenth-century novel were aristocrats conside-
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ring ultimate questions of death or suicide. Joyce offers the stream-of-consciousness
of an ordinary citizen as prelude to nothing more portentous than the drinking of a cup
of tea.(Kebard Declan(2009-06-16)Ulysses modernisms most sociable masterpiece
London Guardian.co.ok.retrieved june 28,2011).
Stream of consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose-full
of puns, parodies and allusion, as well as its characterization and broad humor, made
this book a highly regarded novel in the modernist grade. In 1988 the Modern literary,
ranked Ulysses first on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20
th
cen-
tury. (Kebard Declan(2009-06-16)Ulysses modernisms most sociable masterpiece
London Guardian.co.ok.retrieved june 28,2011).
At the end I want to finish by Joyces own words: "If Ulysses isn't fit to read."
replied its author, "then life isn't fit to live". But he never took his extraordinary celeb-
ration of the ordinary over-seriously. When a fan asked to kiss the hand that wrote
Ulysses, Joyce laughed and said "no-that hand has done a lot of other things as well".
REFERENCES
1. Elman,p.505. Citingpower,From and Old Waterford House(London,n.d)p-63-64
2. Kebard Declan (2009-06-16) Ulysses modernisms most sociable masterpiece London: Guardian.
co.ok Retrieved June 28,2011
3. Hefferman, James A.W(2011)Joyces Ulysses Chantilly,
4. VA:The teaching company LP


THE AMERICAN DREAM IN THE MASTERPIECE
OF FRANCIS SCOTT FITZGERALD
Naila Bandiyeva
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
nayka89@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Henry David Thoreau says: Dreams are the touchstones of our character. The American Dream is
one of the most familiar and resonant phrases in American national lexicon, so familiar that they seldom
pause to ask its origin, its history, or what it actually means. The American Dream, or rather the several
American Dreams have both reflected and shaped American identity from the Pilgrims to the present. The
United States, unlike most other nations, defines itself not on the facts of blood, religion, language, geog-
raphy, or shared history, but on a set of ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence. The American
dream is conceived of in terms of success and of material success in particular; getting rich quick is what
it is all about. It was to go to the WEST and become a millionaire. All American literature- like all of
American life- it often about the American dream and Scott Fitzgerald has been identified with the American
dream. It was his subject of matter and it was a subject that had come to fascinate readers everywhere. His
masterpiece The Great Gatsby is an exploration of the American dream as it exists in a corrupt period and it
is an attempt to determine that concealed boundary that divides the reality from the illusions.
Key words: American dream, nation, American life, literature.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
141
Since the end of the Second World War the United States of America has been the
most powerful country in the world. American power has included its cultural power,
too. Writing or talking about America means invoking the American Dream, which
remains a major element of the national identity. People believed that American dream
was a part of American history, culture and language so they said: America was born
out of a dream. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness- this is the soul and heart
of American dream.
The concept of American dream could enter the national lexicon during the time
of political and cultural upheaval. The true origin of the phrase was first mentioned in
1931, by a historian James Truslow Adams in his book The Epic of America. In the
Preface, when Adams refers to the American dream of a better richer and happier life,
adding that dream or hope has been present from the start the phrase was first time
used. In the Epilogue, Adams goes into more detail and broadens the scope of the Ame-
rican dream concept, explaining that the most distinctive gift that America has made
to the world is the American dream. It is such a dream of a land where life should be
better, richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability
or achievement.
All American literature - like all of American life - it often about the American
Dream and Scott Fitzgerald has been identified with the American dream. It was his
subject of matter and it was a subject that had come to fascinate readers. Fitzgeralds
novels have been based o a concept of class. He is the first American writer seems to
have discovered that such a thing as American class really existed.
Who wants really to understand it, one has to dig into the fresh insides. On the
surface of The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald portrays a romantic love between a man and a
woman, but inside the real meaning is much deeper. Fitzgerald depicts the 1920s as a
time of decay social and moral values, evidence of this is the greed and the pursuit of
pleasure. Jay Gatsbys constant parties epitomized the corruption of the American Dream
as the desire for money and worldly pleasures overshadowed the true values of the
American Dream.
The Great Gatsby is an exploration of the American dream as it exists in a corrupt
period, and it attempted to determine boundaries between the reality and illusion. The
illusion seems more real than the reality itself. Embodied all characters in novel, they
threaten to invade the whole of the picture. Here the reality is a thing of the spirit, a
faith in the half-glimpsed, but hardly understood, possibilities in life, the reality is un-
defined to itself. It is inarticulate and frustrated. Nick Carraway, Gatsbys friend and
also, Fitzgeralds narrator, says of Gatsby:
Through all he said, even through his appalling sentimentality, it was reminded
of something-an exclusive rhythm, a fragment of lost words, that I had heard somewhere
a long time ago. For a moment a phrase tried to take shape in my mouth and my lips
parted like a dumb mans, as though there was more struggling upon them than a wisp
of startled air. But they made no sound and what I had almost remembered was incom-
municable forever. (F. Scott Fitzgerald Great Gatsby, pg.89)
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On the last page of the novel Nick compares the green breast of the new world
to the green light at the end of Daisys dock. The green breast of the world represents
the dreams of the immigrants that came to the new world seeking religious freedom,
opportunity, love, and democracy, along the way instilling universal family values. As
they settled with these goals in mind, they strived and created what is America today.
Gatsby realized that the illusion was there-there where Tom and Daisy, and generations
of small-minded, ruthless Americans had found it-in the dreamless. After this recog-
nition, Gatsbys death is only a symbolic formality, for the world into which his mere
body had been born rejected the gift he had been created to embody-the traditional dream
from which alone it could awaken into life. As the novel closes, the experience of Gatsby
and his broken dream explicitly becomes the focus of that historic dream for which he
stands. Nick Carraway is speaking:
Most of the big shore places were closed now and there were hardly any lights
except the shadowy, moving glow of a ferryboat across the Sound. And as the moon rose
higher the essential houses began to melt away until gradually I became aware of the
old island here that flowered once for Dutch sailors eyes- a fresh , green breast of the
new world. Its vanished trees, the trees that had made way for Gatsbys house, had once
pandered in whispers to the last greatest of all human dreams... (F. Scott Fitzgerald
Great Gatsby, pg.330)
Gatsby fades into the past forever to take his place with the Dutch sailors who
had chosen their moment in time so much more happily than he.
REFERENCES
1. Charles D. Hayes Beyond the American Dream, USA, 1998, 369 pg
2. Francis Scott Fitzgerald, Ruth Prigozy The Great Gatsby, Oxford University Press, 1998, 151 pg
3. F.S. Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby, Microcard Edition Books, 1973, 336 pg
4. Hildegard Schne The American Dream, Verlag, 2010, 36 pg
5. James Truslow Adams The Epic of America, Taylor& Francis edition, 1938, 446 pg
6. Jennifer L. Hochschild Facing up to the American Dream, New-York, 1996 , 412 pg.
7. Jim Cullen The American Dream, New-York, 2003, 214 pg
8. The American dream and the power of wealth, Routledge, 2006 , 231pg
9. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/fitzgerald/gatsby/gsix.html
10. http://books.google.az/books?id=FV5R6_FgLUAC&pg=PA89&lpg=PA89&dq

A TALE OF LOST ILLUSIONS OF VICTORIAN PERIOD BASED
ON GREAT EXPECTATIONS BY CHARLES DICKENS
Rena Qurbanova
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
qurbanova-rena@rambler.ru
ABSTRACT
During the novels journey towards modernity in English literature, Charles Dickens was the main
figure in the Victorian Period who responded to the changes taking place in contemporary society through
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
143
realistic point of view with his brilliant novels. Great Expectations is Charles Dickens thirteens novel,
one of the greatest examples that he gifted to the world fiction. In this work, Dickens confronted an orphan
boy, Pip, who could not find himself in society, was absorbed with hopes that the future would be as he
wanted, and believed in possibility of getting anything, with the real face of life; throughout the novel, Pip
steps towards to see the world of truth, to perceive the people around him and the life itself by dint of his
dashed hopes and ruined expectations.
Edgar Johnson, perhaps, the greatest Dickens biographer of our times, called Great Expectations
(barring the changed ending, which he thought a flaw) the most perfectly constructed and perfectly written
of all Dickenss works.
1

Key words: Charles Dickens, Victorian Period, Pip, expectation, hope, illusion, life, identity, society.

Charles Dickens is known as a master of the serialized novel; Great Expectations
as a weekly serial appeared in All the Year Round from December 1, 1860 to August
3, 1861. This serial periodical, like others, both was determined and to some extent
controlled by the readers response and demand; and with it the writer hit the financial
rescue for his periodical.
Charles Dickens was drawn especially to social justice and to commenting on the
inequalities inherent to Victorian society. While England was growing rich and powerful
in the era of colonialism and the Industrial Revolution, Dickens saw the injustice that
ran rampant among the working and lower classes and saw the people who couldnt
find himself in society in a complexity time of such wealth and run away with the
desperate, fatuous hopes which would ruin their life. Great Expectations is the ironic
title given to the novel in which the Victorian Period is described as a world of expec-
tations and in which Dickens celebrates the human will and capacity to stay alive against
great odds. The autobiographical mode of the novel focused on the development of
the main character, Pip.
The novel opens the presentation of Pip in the graveyard, viewing his family. We
basically grow up with him over the course of 59 chapters. Threatened by the convict,
Magwitch little Pip helps him, towards the end of the novel he appears as Pips bene-
factor in exchange for his goodness. This is one of the main points of the novel, but the
core theme rests on Pips love to Estella, adopted girl by the rich, old lady Miss Havisham
who influences greatly his life. After their first meeting in Miss Havishams house -
Satis House, the world of expectations begins for Pip.
Dickens laid out three chronological episodes of the novel : the first takes us through
Pips childhood and early youth to the moment when he leaves to discover where his
newly announced Expectations will bring him. The second show the working out of
these Expectations to the moment of their shattering by the arrival of Magwitch. The
last leads Pip and Magwitch through struggle and catastrophe and so to deatch in Mag-
witchs case and near-death in Pips. Expectations are demolished, and past and future
are at last annealed in a sober, responsible present.
2

Wishing to be loved, at least to be noticed by Estella, little Pip devotes his time to
learning how to become uncommon; in his new self-absorption he begins to ignore
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everything, everybody important around him; he is now discontented with his life, way
of living, begins to hope something better. When it is revealed that Pip has inherited a
large sum of money from an anonymous benefactor on the condition that he moves to
London to become a gentleman. He expects Estella to be affected by his becoming a
gentleman and new life with new expectations will wait him
But soon Pip considers himself lost even in his most familiar surroundings, because
he could not define his place in community. He realizes that the relation between society
and a person is mutual, it is not just changing your place from one class to another.
Throughout the novel Pip undergoes internal changes that separate him from the ephe-
meral world of great expectations and guides to the eternal world of Truth. For Pip,
the indication of this truth disappointed expectations, comes gradually, for instance,
when he puts on his new suit, when he sees his new home, when he lunches at his first
London restaurant:
We went and had lunch at a celebrated house which I then quite venerated, but
now believe to have been the most abject superstition in Europe.
3

Pips expectations are not the only illusory ones. So Dickens didnt give such a
title to the novel in vain: almost every character in the story experiences disappointed
hopes from time to time. Those characters in Great Expectations who dream the most,
hope the most, and plan the most are ultimately wounded by their dreams, hopes, and
plans. The first is Miss Havisham, desolated by her elated expectation as she prepares,
dresses for her wedding; then the crushing of Magwitchs hope for freedom; Mrs. Joes
hopes for benefit from Pips connection with Miss Havisham; Biddys hope for lifelong
partnership with Pip; Compeysons plans to catch Magwitch and gain a revenge; Joes
expectation of Pip being a blacksmith and living with him, etc. Likewise, when characters
realize their dreams, they do not find the happiness that they expected, they only find
loneliness and loss. We love what we cannot have and the world of illusions dont give
them what they want, at times there occurs changes, getting entagled by the life they
see the new facets of life. Even the main figure here, Pip discerns that the contours of
his goal have been changing all this while. He learns that the gap between perception
of a little boy and reality is never bridged; life is a world of great expectations and his
expectations, impressions are nothing more than self-deception.
Miss Havisham's intentions towards me, all a mere dream; Estella not designed
for me; I only suffered in Satis House as a convenience, a sting for the greedy relations,
a model with a mechanical heart to practise on when no other practice was at hand;
those were the first smarts I had.
4
- here Pip comprehends that his greatest dream has
only led him to his suffering and this helps him to grow in life and become a wiser. The
ferocity and strength of his love for Estella in spite of her scorn for him is stunning in
light of the fact that he himself ignores the people who love him most in life. But Joes
and Magwitchs love and Herberts friendship which are not tied to any of his expec-
tations teach him the valuables of life. Pips extreme remorse is obvious, and he looks
back from the assurance of knowledge gained by experience: in the moments of defeat
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
145
and shame, he accepts that he had been wrong to give up his old happy life for his
expectations.
Fundamentally, this is a novel of hope, not one of despair. G.K.Chesterton points
out that of all Dickens novels, the only book to which he gave the name Great Ex-
pectations was the only book in which the expectation was never realized
5
, but he
notes too that the novels best moments chronicle the vacillations of the hero between
the humble life to which he owes everything and the gorgeous life from which he ex-
pects something.
6

In Pip, Charles Dickens creates a truly evolution of the character from simplicity
through deceptive, ostensible success to an authentic self-reliance. Pip fails as a fortu-
nate orphan but ultimately prevails as a self-made man.
Great Expectations is a tale of illusions and an illusoriness of expectations or
assumptions about what the future holds. The world of Great Expectations heralds
only one thing: suffering which brings experience
ENDNOTE
1. Johnson Edgar. Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. 2 vols. New York, 1952. p.993
2. George Newlin. Understanding Great Expectations: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and
Historical Documents. USA, 2000. pp.3-4
3. Charles Dickens. Great Expectations. Great Britain, 2010. Volume 2, chapter 3, p.166
4. Charles Dickens. Great Expectations. Great Britain, 2010. Volume 2, chapter 20, p.287
5. G.K.Chesterton. Appreciations and Criticism of the Works of Charles Dickens, in Chesterton on
Dickens. San-Francisco, Ignatus Press, 1989. p.383
6. G.K.Chesterton. Charles Dickens, in Chesterton on Dickens. Great Britain, Wordsworth Editions
Limited, 2007. p.172
REFERENCES
1. Charles Dickens. Great Expectations. Great Britain, 2010.
2. G.K.Chesterton. Appreciations and Criticism of the Works of Charles Dickens, in Chesterton on
Dickens. San-Francisco, Ignatus Press, 1989
3. G.K.Chesterton. Charles Dickens, in Chesterton on Dickens. Great Britain, Wordsworth Editions
Limited, 2007.
4. George Newlin. Understanding Great Expectations: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and
Historical Documents. USA, 2000.
5. Harold Bloom. Modern Critical Interpretations: Ch. Dickens Great Expectations. New York, 2000.
6. Johnson Edgar. Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. 2 vols. New York, 1952.
7. http://www.shmoop.com/great-expectations/ 02.03.2012



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REVENGE AND THE RESULT IN WUTHERING HEIGHTS
BY EMILY BRONTE
Saida Mehdiyeva
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
seide-86@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
I want to explain my topic on Wuthering Heights written by Emily Bronte. This novel is full of love,
hate and revenge. Though there are different themes revenge is the most important theme in this novel.
Why did I choose the name revenge? In real life we can come across to such feelings. I want to show
psychological situations of heroes when they cannot get the things which they want too much. While reading
this novel I understood that an honest man can be known as a cruel person for the peoples attitude around
him. Some group of people overcome their bad feelings and try not to lose their humanism. But I want to
show the other group of people who yield to their weak points and suffer from this. With the help of my
hero I want to show how poor people grow unpleasant feelings in their hearts and how they live with the
aim of revenge and what can be the result of revenge. Even Sigmund Freud told in his psychoanalytical
theory that if someone dreams something much and cannot get it he can be mad. In this novel we see the
result of this dream.
Key words: love, loss, cruelty, hate, revenge and result.

Wuthering Heights tells us about the relationship between Catherine Earnshaw and
an orphan boy Heathcliff, who was adopted by the girls father. At the beginning of the
novel Heathcliff is introduced as a kind and strong man. He barred for difficulties. But
he heard that his lover was going to get married to a rich man Edgar and on that day
he left home for three years. He did not give any information about his life and I think
that it was his first step towards the feeling of cruelty. Catherine married to Edgar not
for love but for her comfortable life that she dreamt. Both Robert McKibben and John
Hagan who wrote about this play prove that neither Catherine nor Heathcliff are guilty
for their wrong actions.
1
Because in the Victorian period good life and marriage were
the main aim for girls.
Some people who dont get the things they want from life have to accept their troub-
les. Even they want to show themselves as happy people and they put up with their fates.
But people like Heathcliff live with the feeling of revenge. With such feelings he made
his life harder even though he knew that he couldnt get the previous life and love.
While reading this novel a reader can understand the heros sorrow. But when the
hero lives only with the feeling of revenge a reader begin to hate him as in real life. This
feeling even made Heathcliff as a mad man. He is shown as a character of evils.
He got married to the sister of Edgar Linton who was Catherines husband. But,
of course, not for the feelings of love but for the revenge. He wasnt happy himself and
he made some people unhappy who were around him.
Day by day he became cruel and even when he learnt that his lover Catherine got
ill for him, he was happy.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
147
When Catherine died the author showed Heathcliffs troubles and he didnt deny
his cruelty. A reader may think that after losing his lover he can change his character
but he had more aims to revenge. He didnt forgive her. His wife Isabella also left him
for this reason.
After some period he got information about his son. He was glad for sons
coming. We can think that he is going to change his life. But it is not so. His aim of
revenge made him so cruel that he used his son to reach his bad aims.
His second aim was to make Catherines daughter-Cathy and his own son Edgar
unhappy. He made them get marry in order to get the inheritance of the Catherines
family. But even when his son became ill he didnt give his love to him. He showed
his bloody feelings. A reader both hates and feels sorry for Heathcliff till the end of the
novel.
But Cathy acknowledged her feeling to her cousin Hereton. Hereton also was one
of the heroes who became cruel and careless to Cathys feelings. He explains his indif-
ference with his words to Cathy: When I was in trouble nobody helped me thats why I
hate everyone around me.
In real life we can see such facts. When we have difficulties we expect care from
our close friends, parents or lover.
Unlike Heathcliff, Cathy could get her love. She found a way to get Heretons heart,
they got married and became happy but at the end of the novel the author showed that
Heathcliff who lived with the feeling of revenge was defeated by love.
People like Heathcliff admit their faults when they are alone. Even he said: What
will I get if I revenge. He decided to be free and he stayed alone in his room. Heathcliff
refused to eat or drink something. Finally he died alone in his room. He believed that
he would be together with Catherine after death. We recognize in them tragedy of pas-
sionate natures whom intolerable frustration and loss have stripped them of their hu-
manity (Critic Hagan).
2
E. Bronte shows that we can solve conflicts with better ways
but not with revenge. Because the result of revenge is hurtful.
At the result, we can see that cruelty and the feeling of revenge give us nothing but
hard life which is far from peace and love. Revenge can take the best things from us.
END NOTE
1. www.123.helpme.com-WutheringHeights
2. www.123.helpme.com-WutheringHeights
REFERENCES
1. Emily Bronte. Wuthering Heights. England, by Cox and Wyman Ltd.1994
2. www.123.helpme.com-wutheringheights

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GREAT OPPORTUNITIES OF LITTLE GENRE
(BASED ON RAFIG TAGIS LATEST STORIES)
Shafa Jabiyeva
Doctoral Student
ANAS, Institute of Literature named after Nizami
shefa_cebiyea@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
It was researched the story problem of epic genre of contemporary literature in this article. Especially,
this theme was investigated based on Rafig Tagis latest stories. Because, Rafig Tagis stories draw
attention to its themes and writing style. And his stories informed us about starting a new stage of this
genre. Specific limits and known schemes belonging to Azerbaijani story is not repeated in these
stories. Reality and unreality, allegory, symbol is striking widely in the stories of this author. Rafig
Tagis stories is interesting just because, it is impossible to speak about these prose works with tra-
ditional, standard canons.
Key words: Rafig Tagi, Azerbaijani story, modern period, epic genre.

Kiik janrn byk imkanlar (Rafiq Tann son hekaylri sasnda)
Hekay epik nvn olduqca geni yaylm janrdr. V sjetli nsrin janrnn
hcmc n kiiyidir. sasn tk sjetdn, yaxud bir ne sjet zrin kmki sjet
vasitsi il lav edilmi fikirlrdn ibart olan hekaynin adtn n tin dbiyyat
janr olduu dnlr. Hekay il dbiyyata glmk ox asandr, amma hekay il
tannmaq v oxucularn diqqtini clb etmk ox tindir.
Romanda hyat tsvir etmk, cmiyytd, htta dnyada ba vern hadislri qlm
almaq n meydan var, roman janr buna imkan verir, povestd d bu mmkndr.
Amma sl istedad bir romana, povest sa bilck hadislri, mqsdi, qayni, xarak-
terlri hcmc qat-qat kiik olan hekayd ks etdir bilr. Demli, kiik janr adlandr-
dmz hekaynin byk imkanlarn istedadl qlm sahibi gstr bilir.
ada Azrbaycan hekaysinin struktur dyiikliy uramas z ksini bir sra
nmunlrd, xsusil d yaz Rafiq Tann yaradclnda z ksini tapd. Son 20
ild Rafiq Tann xeyli sayda hekaylri mxtlif qzet v jurnallarda, dbi portallarda
drc olunub. O hl sovet dvrnd yaradcla balasa da, Rafiq Ta imzas il ap
olunan srlr 90-c illrdn sonra daha ox tannd. Yazarn 1987-ci ild Yana ul-
duzlar, 1991-ci ild Dmnimin xatirin, 1996-c ild Pozitiv. Neqativ nsr kitab-
lar ap olunub. 2005- ci ild, iki cildd nr etdirdiyi srlri is ahzad Dipendrann
mhbbti v Ucaboy liliput adlanr. Bu cildlrd mllifin vvlki kitablarnda ap
olunmayan, hr biri zrind yenidn ildiyi hekaylri toplanmdr.
Rafiq Ta bir nasir kimi inc mahid qabiliyytin maikdir, bu rngbrng il-
mlr hekay mkannda bir-birin hrl-hrl gedir, ox evik, ani bir hrktl
birlrk hekaynin mzini, mtlbin iind olan hrkt stixiyasn canlandrr. Rafiq
Tann dialoqlar z tbiiliyi il tsirlidir. Bzn adama el glir ki, bu dialoqlarn ssi
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149
d qulana atr; szlrin, cmllrin iindki hirsi-hikkni, sevinci-kdri, nhayt,
ovqatn zn gr bilirsn.
mumiyytl, bu yaznn hekaylrinin demk olar ki, ksriyytind ironiya,
sarkazm var. Btn nsr srlrind hyata, dnyaya bir etiraz duyulur. Bundan baqa,
Rafiq Ta bzn n kiik bir problemi qlobal hadis kimi, dnyvi hadislri, byk
msllri is hmiyytsiz, xrda bir nans kimi tqdim edir. Bu, onun yaz slubudur.
Rafiq Tann n maraql nsr srlrindn biri Anna Karenina il mhbbt kimsi
perspektivlri hekaysidir. Yaz yen d dbi priyoma mracit etmidir. Onun
yumorla yazlm cmllrind inc bir kinay hiss olunur. Mllif Anna Kareninaya
mnasibtini gstrmkl slind mtlbi bel hyat trzi keirn btn qadnlara amil
edir. V Annann srd intihar etmyini hesabdan saymr (xyant edn qadnlarn
sonda intihar etmsini bel doru ml hesab etmir). xlaq bdi vacib eydi. Tolstoy
istsydi, romanda onu ktkltdir bilrdi. Ktk - elsi n yegan drs vsaitidir.
Amma o boyda srd bir ks ona gzn st qan var demdi, yngl bir rtma da
vurmad...
1

Rafiq Tan oxuyarkn Clil Mmmdquluzadnin hekaylrini xatrlamamaq
mmkn deyil. Msln, gtrk el bir az vvl bhs etdiyimiz hekayni. Bu hekayni
oxuyanda insann simasnda azacq tbssmn olmamas mmknszdr. Hqiqti
yumorla, gizli bir istehza il sylmk! Rafiq Ta mhz bu yolu sediyindn yumor
v ironiya onun demk olar ki, btn srlrind var. Ndns Rafiq Tan oxuyarkn
Clil Mmmdquluzadnin Bizim obrazovannlar hekaysi yada dr: mn tatarski
panimat elmirm, da, da, qofta, qofta. Qhrmann z dili il zn ifas, bundan
lav inc yumor, gizli istehza, kinay v n nhayt ntic xarma oxucunun hdsin
buraxmaq! Btn bu nanslar Rafiq Tann nsr yaradclnn ana xttini tkil edir.
Mhz bu sbbdn hekaylr darxdrc deyil, srlrin dili sad v asandr, n sas
insan dnmy vadar edir.
Stansiya aptekisi hekaysin diqqt yetirsk, Rafiq Tann z qhrmanna
mnasibtind kiik d olsa mdaxilsin rast glmirik. Yaz Miri obrazna grn-
dyndn artq he bir lav mziyyt, stnlk bx vermyib v buna ehtiyac da
duyulmur. Ancaq sirr deyil ki, Rafiq Tann yaz mvqeyi Mirinin trfinddir. Ya-
z nsrd qhrman olaraq adidn d adi bir adam-stansiya aptekisi Mirini seir, onun
mnviyyatn, insanlara nec qiymt vermsini tsvir edir. Yal mtri yalnz im-
portnu drmanlar uda biln alicnab insana deyilir.
2
Bu, lbtt, Mirinin uzun illrin
tcrbsi il gldiyi xsi qnatdir. Miri aptekind kasb insanlar n olan drmanlar
vitrin dzr, bahallarn is varl mtrilr n saxlayr. Hekayni oxuduqca Miri
kimi stansiya aptekilri gzmzn nnd canlanr. nki, onlarn say lkd yet-
rincdir v ox dqiq, inclikl tsvir olunmu Miri haqqnda oxuyarkn sanki bu obraz
oxdan tanyrsan. Miri mtrini adla yox, baqa cr tanyr: beqpiklik drmana
belik atan mtri, qpiy gll atan, qaln, naziyi. Mtrinin mrdi-namrdi var.
sas da kasb iki gznn dmni idi.
3
Zman adam olan Miri o qdr real v canl
tsvir edilmidir ki, bu da yaznn yeni xarakter tsvir etmsinin uurlu nticsidir.
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gr yaz istedad v uzun illrin mahidsi, tcrbsi il birlirs, o zaman dbiy-
yatda kiik adamlarn iindki byk iddialar v onlarn hyata, dnyaya baxlarn
oxucuya gstrmy nail olmaq mmkndr. Rafiq Ta da bu insanlar hekaynin
qhrmanna evirdi v milli dbiyyatda yeni, bdii obrazlar yaratd.
Azrbaycan hekaysin mxsus l v kanonlar, mlum sxemlr bu hekaylrd
tkrar olunmur, reallqla irreallq, alleqoriya, simvol, bdii rtilik, bir szl, maraql
bdii tsvir vasitlri mstqillik dvrnn hekaylrind daha qabarq nzr arpr.
Adn qeyd etdiyimiz bu mllifin hekaylri hm d ona gr maraqldr ki, bu nsr
nmunlri haqqnda nnvi, standart llrl danmaq mmkn deyil. V n balcas
bu hekaylrd mllif artq ehkama evrilmi donuq thkiy trzindn imtina etmidir.
END NOTE
1. Rafiq Ta. ahzad Dipendrann mhbbti. I cild. Bak, Adilolu, 2005, s.106
2. Yen orada, s.131
3. Yen orada, s.131
REFERENCES
1. Cabbarl Nrgiz. Yeni nsil dbiyyat. Bak, Elm, 2006, 374 s.
2. Hbibbyli sa. Mirz Clil qaytmaq zrurti // dbiyyat qzeti, Bak, 1995, 29 dekabr
3. Hseynov Akif. Nsr v zaman. Bak, Yaz, 1979, 185 s.
4. Ta Rafiq. ahzad Dipendrann mhbbti. I cild. Bak, Adilolu, 2005, 374 s.


THE PIE WHICH LEADS GREAT EXPECTATIONS
Khanim Ahmadova
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
ahmadova_khanim@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Great Expectations is one of Dickens's later novels, a work of his artistic maturity. The narrative is
symbolic rather than realistic. It depicts the growth and personal development of an orphan named Pip.
The story is set in England.
The novel was first published in serial form in All the Year Round from 1 December 1860 to August
1861. Two chapters were published every week. The narrator of the story is a Pip who aspired to be a
gentleman and win over the beautiful Estella. People waited anxiously every week for the next episode to
arrive in the newsstands. Great Expectations has been filmed several times.
The main character of the novel is Pip. In the beginning chapters Dickens paints an extremely vivid
picture of Pips childhood. The reader is able to enter Pip's mind and see the world through the eyes of a
child. This is possible because Dickens understood the thoughts and feelings of children and applied this
to Pip's every thought and action when he wrote the novel. The word "pip" itself refers to a seed from a
plant. Seeds need to be nurtured if they are to grow and flourish. In Dickens' view of childhood, he felt
that children have certain needs: guidance in a nurturing home, to be free from emotional and physical
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
151
abuse, to have a good education, and to be allowed to use their imaginations. He also shows how little
goodness can bring great expectations to little Pip.
Key words: great expectations, pie, Pip, Estella, Miss Havisham, Abel Magwitch.

The story is set in England on Christmas Eve, around 1812. The first part of Great
Expectations is an account of the childhood of, Pip, the main character of the novel.
Pip is an orphan of about six. Hes adopted by his older sister and her husband Joe
Gargery, a blacksmith. But his sister behaves very rudely to him. So Dickens shows just
how alone Pip is, as he sits on the gravestones of his parent in the churchyard. While
coming back Pip encounters an escaped convict. The convict scares Pip into stealing
him a file to grind away his shackles, from the home he shares with his older sister and
her husband Joe Gargery. Frightened, Pip agrees to help the convict and aids him by
giving him food and cutting his handcuffs. Pip encounters another stranger as he heads
back to the marsh. He is frightened again, and runs home without stopping. Pip goes
home, where his sister's husband Joe reads an advertisement about a Miss Havisham
who is a wealthy spinster and lives in the dilapidated Satis House. She asks Pip's Uncle
Pumblechook to find a boy to play with her daughter. The next day, soldiers recapture
two convicts engaged in a fight and return them to the prison ship. Pip is taken to Miss
Havisham's manor. He begins to visit Satis House where meets Estella. Estella is Miss
Havishams adopted daughter. She constantly insults Pip. Miss Havisham hires Pip and
throughout their playtimes he eventually is affected by Estella. Miss Havisham knows
about Estellas love to Pip. So she pays money to Joe Gargery for teaching Pip the
secret of blacksmith. Joe visits Satis House to finish Pip's papers. But Pip is angry at
the current turn of events. He is devastated by Miss Havisham's decision.
Pip works diligently for Joe at the forge, but continually longs to return to Satis
House. Pip is approached by a lawyer, Mr Jaggers, who tells him he is to receive a large
sum of money from an anonymous benefactor and must leave for London immediately
where he is to become a gentleman. Pip fears Estella could never marry a commoner
like him and so that he accepts a large sum of money from an anonymous benefactor
to become a gentleman. Pip assumes the benefactor is Miss Havisham and so that accepts
a large sum of money. Pip prepares to leave for London feeling guilty about his behavior.
Pip and Jaggers travel to London. In London, Pip meets his roommate Mr. Pocket and
gives anonymous assistance to him. Mr. Pocket tells the story of Miss Havisham: she
got engaged but was left at the altar, causing her to stop all the clocks in the house and
never leave the house again. Pip spends the rest of his time in London learning how to
be a gentleman.
Joe visits Pip in London. Pip is informed of Estella's return to Satis House. Pip
believes Miss Havisham to be his benefactress and visits her and Estella. Miss Havisham
tells Pip that he can find Estella at a party at the palace. News arrives concerning Mrs.
Joe. Pip returns home for his sister's funeral. Joe Gaggery wants him to stay but Pip
refuses. So he has promised to Estella to go to the party with her. At the ball, Pip and
Estella dance, and talk about how Pip is now a fine young gentleman. Estella says that
she has no heart, and cannot love. Because Miss Havisham has raised her to break mens
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hearts, as revenge for the pain her own broken heart caused her. Pip was merely a boy
for the young Estella to practice on; Miss Havisham delighted in Estellas ability to toy
with his affections. Right before Pip asks Estella to be his girlfriend. Then Estellas
boyfriend Bentley Drummle comes in. Pip, saddened, runs to tell Miss Havisham, only
to find that she approves of Steve. So Miss Havisham is glad that Estella has broken
Pip's heart. Because Miss Havisham thinks that all the men are savage and she is sure
that Estella will triumph.
Pip is visited by his benefactor, and although horrified by the implications, Pip feels
a loyalty to his benefactor. His benefactor is revealed to be Abel Magwitch, the convict
he helped, who was transported to New South Wales where he eventually became
wealthy. There is a warrant for Magwitch's arrest in England and he will be hanged if
he is caught. Magwitch tells the story of his life to Pocket and Pip. While in hiding,
Wemmick says that there is going to take a little time and there are no guarantees. So
Abel is pursued both by the police and by Compeyson. Compeyson was his former
partner in crime and the man who abandoned Miss Havisham at the altar. Compeyson
puts a thousand pounds on his head. Pip learns of Estella's marriage. He confronts Miss
Havisham with Estella's history. Miss Havisham begs for Pips forgiveness. Estella refu-
ses writing to Miss Havisham. Miss Havisham stands too close to the fire which
ignites her dress and she eventually dies from her injuries.
Pip cannot understand why Magwitch gives him a large sum of money. He does
not want to receive this benefactor. Pip wants to know the reason Magwitchs help: Pip.
I was hasty. Compeyson was the second man on the marshes. Abel. I tried killing him
that night. I should have tried harder. Pip. Why? Abel. He owes me. Pip. Were you
partners? Abel. What are you asking for? Pip. I need to know. Abel. Once Pip. And
this once, did you hear of a Miss Havisham of Satis House? Abel. Should I? That turns
your guts, dont it? You think I murdered for that? Ive taken lives for less. Pip. I dont
know what you did to get it. Abel. No, you dont. Pip. Why me? Why do this for me?
Because I stole you a file? I only did that because I was scared. You said youd cut my
throat. Abel. I know what I said? And it werent the file, it was the pie. Pip. Id forgotten
about the pie. Abel. The file you took because you were scared, but... that pie that
was out of goodness.
Herbert and Pip construct a plan for Magwitch's escape. A plan is therefore hatched
for him to flee by boat. It is also revealed that Estella is the daughter of Magwitch and
Mr Jaggers's housemaid, Molly, whom Jaggers defended in a murder charge and who
gave up her daughter to be adopted by Miss Havisham. While attempting to escape,
Magwitch is captured and sent to jail where he dies shortly before his execution. Pip
is about to be arrested for unpaid debts when he falls ill. Joe nurses him back to health
and pays off his debts. Pip decides to return home. On the way to forge Pumblechook
tells him that Estella is a widower and shes coming back. The store ends in two forms.
In the first ending of Great expectation, Estella finally declares her love for Pip and the
narrator states that all the characters lived happily, except Pocket died of Hepatitis B.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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The Second Ending of the novel was urged by Bulwer-Lytton, a close friend of
Dickens. This version was originally published in 1861. It includes an extra chapter
(chapter 59) for the revision. In this ending, Pip returns to the forge after eleven years,
instead of the eight, that Dickens had originally intended. Also, the last part of the final
sentence went through further revision as the novel when through subsequent publishings.
The original sentence was:
. . . I saw the shadow of no parting from her but one.
During the proof stage, Dickens dropped the last two words. In 1861, it appeared
in All the Year Round as:
. . . I saw the shadow of no parting from her.
In 1862, the final revision was to the first published edition of the novel. The sen-
tence then read:
. . . I saw no shadow of another parting from her.
REFERENCES:
1. Dickens, Charles. (1861).Great Expectations. Chapman and Hall, 193, Piccadilly.
2. Dickens, Charles. (1996). Great Expectations. Ed. Janice Carlisle. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins.
3. Dickens, Charles. (1999). Great Expectations. Ed. Edgar Rosenberg. New York: Norton.
4. Crawford, Shawn. (1991). No Time to Be Idle: The Serial Novel and Popular Imagination.
Washington, D.C.: Washington P.
5. Hughes, Linda K., and Michael Lund. (1991). The Victorian Serial. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia.
6. Rawlins, Jack P. (1983). "Great Expectations: Dickens and the Betrayal of the Child." Studies in
English Literature.
7. Sutherland, J.A. (1976). Victorian Novelists and Publishers. Chicago: U of Chicago P.
8. Jordan, John O., and Robert L. Patten. (1995). Literature in the Marketplace. Cambridge:
Cambridge UP.
9. Bell, Vereen. (1965). "Parents and Children in Great Expectations." Victorian Newsletter 27.
10. Collins, Philip. (1964). Dickens and Education. New York: St. Martin's P.
11. http://www.dizimag.com/great-expectations


THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO LITERATURE
(BASED ON THE THEORY OF FREUD)
Khayala Maharramova
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
xeyish89@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The Psychological Approach to literary criticism is very controversial and is easily abused. Some
critics argue that it was already used by Aristotle in his Poetics in the 4
th
century B.C, when hi defined
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tragedy as combining the emotions of pity and terror to produce Catharsis. The compleat gentleman
of the English Renaissance, Sir Philip Sidney, with his statements about the moral effects of poetry, was
psychologizing literature, as were such Romantic poets as Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Shelley with their
theories of the imagination. Every literary critic has been concerned at some time with the psychology of
writing or responding to literature. Psychological approaches consider literature as the expression of per-
sonality, of inner drives of neurosis. It has resulted in an almost exhausting and exhaustive psychological
analysis of character, of symbols and images, of recurrent themes, and the likes. During the twentieth century,
however, psychological criticism has come to be associated with a particular school of thought, the pscho-
analytic theories of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and his followers.
Key words: psychoanalytic, conscious and unconscious aspects, psychoanalytic criticism, mental
processes, human psychology.

All psychoanalytic approaches to literature have one thing in common-the critics
begin with a full psychological theory of how and why people behave as they do, a theory
that has been developed by a psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst outside of
the realm of literature, and the apply this psychological theory as the standard to interpret
and evaluate a literary work. This psychological criticism is one of the approaches to
literature. This approach reflects the effect that modern psychology has had upon on
both literature and literary criticism. Fundamental figures in psychological criticism
include Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud was interested in literature because he ac
knowledged the great authors of the past to be intuitive psychologists. According to
Sigmund Freud (A handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Wilfred L. Guerin.
2005), psychoanalytic theories changed our nations of human behavior by exploring
new or controversial areas like wish-fulfillment, sexuality, the unconscious and repression
as well as expanding our understanding of how language and symbols operate by de-
monstrating their ability to reflect unconscious fears desires. Psychoanalytic literary
criticism has a number of approaches, but in general, it usually employs one (or more)
of three approaches:
1. the author: the theory is used to analyze the author and his/her life, and the literary
work is seen to supply evidence for this analysis. This is often called psychobio-
graphy.
2. the characters: the theory is used to analyze one or more of the characters; the
psychological theory becomes a tool that to explain the characters` behavior and
motivations. The more closely the theory seems to apply to the characters, the more
realistic the work appears.
3. the audience: the theory is used to explain the appeal of the work for those who read
it; the work is seen to embody universal human psychological and motivations, to
which the readers respond more or less unconsciously.
A Freudian approach often includes pinpointing the influences of a character`s id
(the instinctual, pleasure seeking part of the mind), superego (the part of the mind that
represses the id` impulses) and ego (the part of that controls but does not repress the id`
impulses, releasing them in a healthy way). According to Jacque Lacan (Modern Cri-
ticism and Theory. David Lodge. 2000.), the symbolic is the point of organization, the
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
155
point where sexuality is constructed as meaning, where what was heterogeneous, what
was not symbolized, becomes organized, becomes created round these two poles, mas-
culine and not-masculine; feminine. Freudian critics like to point out the sexual impli-
cations of symbols and imagery, since Freud`s believed that all human behavior is
motivated by sexuality. Repressed to an unconscious state, they emerge only in disguised
forms: in dreams, in language (so-called Freudian slips), in creative activity that may
produce art (including literature), and in neurotic behavior. According to Freud, all of
us have repressed wishes and fears; we all have dreams in which repressed feelings and
memories emerge disguised, and thus we are all potential candidates for dream analysis.
One of the unconscious desires most commonly repressed is the childhood wish to
displace the parent of our own sex and take his or her place in the affections of the parent
of the opposite sex. This desire really involves a number of different but related wishes
and fears. Freud referred to the whole complex of feelings by the word oedipal, na-
ming the complex after the Greek tragic hero Oedipus, who unwittingly killed his father
and married his mother. Freud`s theories are either directly or indirectly concerned with
the nature of the unconscious mind. Freud didn`t invent the notion of the unconscious;
other before him had suggested that even the supposedly sane human mind was
conscious and rational only at times, and even then at possibly only at times, and even
then at possibly only one level. But Freud went further, suggesting that the powers
motivating men and women are mainly and normally unconscious. It is important to
point out that among those who relied on Freud`s models were a number of critics who
were poets and novelists as well. Probably because of Freud`s characterization mind
as clamorous if not ill, psychoanalytic criticism written before 1950 tended to psy-
choanalyze the individual author. Poems were read as fantasies that allowed authors to
indulge repressed wishes, to protect themselves from deep-seated anxieties, or both. In
the view of the critics attempting to arrive at more psychological insights into an author
than biographical materials can provide, a work of literature is a fantasy or a dream-
or at least so analogy to daydream or dream that Freudian analysis can help explain the
nature of the mind that produced it. The author`s purpose in writing is to gratify secretly
some forbidden wish. In particular an infantile wish or desire that has been repressed
into the unconscious mind. To discover what the wish is, the psychoanalytic critic
employs many of the terms and procedures developed by Freud to analyze dreams.
REFERENCES
1. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. Wilfred L. Guerin, Earle Labor, Lee Morgan, Jeanne
C. Reesman, John R. Willingham. 2005.
2. An Introduction to Literary Criticism. Richard Dutton. 1984.
3. Modern Criticism and Theory. David Lodge. 2000.


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PSYCHOANALYTIC READING OF MATERNAL
ISSUES IN MADAME BOVARY
Meryem elik
Postgraduate student
Qafqaz University
meryemchelik@yahoo.com.tr
ABSTRACT
Madame Bovary is one of the most important French novels of the 19th century. It is vastly regarded
as Gustave Flaubert's most important work and masterpiece even thought it was his first novel. Madame
Bovary is story of a woman named Emma imprisoned in an unsatisfactory marriage, trying to escape from
her monotonous life with adulterous affairs in search of romanticism. However, Emmas struggles turns
into her own disaster in the end. Since its publication, novel has been read and criticized from different
point of views. When you search, it is possible to find various types of critical essays about Madame
Bovary. Here in this article, the most important thing in a womans life period pregnancy and motherhood
will be dealt with in aspect of Flauberts famous heroine Emma Bovary. Looking at maternal issues from
representations in novel will give a way to understand psychological situation of character during pregnancy.
One of the most famous feminist psychoanalyst Karen Horneys Masculinity complex term and her
pioneer Alfred Adlers Masculine protest term will be applied to read psychoanalytically the maternal
issues in Madame Bovary.
Key words: Madame Bovary, Psychoanalysis, Maternal, Motherhood, Pregnancy, Male-baby desire,
Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Masculinity complex, Masculine protest.

Madame Bovary is famous also controversial French novel by Gustave Flaubert.
Story takes place in 19
th
century France and deals with Emma Bovary who trapped in
unsatisfactory marriage, trying to escape her situation through adulterous affairs in search
of romance and passion. In this article, representations of maternal issues in Madame
Bovary are analyzed through Flauberts adulterous heroine Emma Bovary. At the end
of Part 1, the last line of Chapter 9 is When they left Tostes in the month of March,
Madame Bovary was pregnant. (p,58) After this sentence Emmas pregnancy is not
mentioned again until birth. As story is about a woman, one might think Emmas preg-
nancy would be a major event in the book. However Flaubert does not describe situation
as much detailed as he does the dress Emma wore at the ball or wedding scene. (p,25)
Here we get the impression of this is an unwanted pregnancy for Emma. After several
chapters there comes birth scene. Here this time we encounter Emma Bovarys male-
baby desire:
She hoped for a son; he would be strong and dark; she would call him: George;
and this idea of having a male child was like an expected revenge for all her impotence
in the past. A man, at least, is free; he may travel over passions and over countries, over-
come obstacles, taste of the most far-away pleasures. But a woman is always hampered.
(p,76)
In 1910 Alfred Adler, founder of individual psychology, introduced the concept
Masculine Protest.(Nelson, 490) Affected by Adler, first feminist psychoanalyst Ka-
ren Horney wrote a paper on The Flight from Womanhood: The Masculinity Complex
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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in Women, as viewed by Men and Women (1926). According to Adler in many societies,
both men and women place an inferior value on being a woman. Boys are frequently
taught early that being masculine means being courageous, strong, and dominant. The
essence of success for boys is to win, to be powerful, and to be on top. In contrast, girls
often learn to be passive and to accept an inferior position in society. In women it gives
expression to a rejection of their feminine condition.(Adler,1956) Horney did not deny
that women often envy men and are uncomfortable with their feminine role. (Horney,
1967) Rejection of the feminine role is also the consequence of the mothers preference
for son. (Adler, 1926) Emma thinks a man is free but she is not so wishes for baby
boy. When Charles says; "It is a girl!" Emma turns her head away and faints. Emma
Bovarys son desire can be understood in terms of her masculine protest; as she sees
women as constantly held by society she wishes for a son through whom she can fulfil
her own desires. She attempts to resist a role she finds limiting. In Feminine Psychology
Horney also states that as living in a male dominant society woman has the feeling of
being discriminated against so she envy man and try to discard her female role. (Horney,
1967) In 19
th
century France women could not have freedoms as they have today. Under
the terms of Napoleonic Code Civil, women were regarded as perpetual minors; fathers
and husbands were time-honored guardians of women. (Levasseur,1989) Emma was
victim of suffocating patriarchy that demanded she be no more than wife and mother.
While the men are self-defined; women are defined by their husbands, fathers and sons.
Even the title Madame Bovary show us she is defined by her husbands last name:
Bovary. She is Madame Bovary in the eyes of society. Although the story is about
main character Emma, book does not introduce us Emma firstly. Firstly we learn the
history of Emmas future husband Charles Bovary, after reading the man who will be
the keeper of Emma, we meet our main character. As not have the first words, Emma
Bovary could not have the last ones as book finishes with another male character.
Emma Bovary lacks maternal instincts and also she does not believe she has time
for such trivial things as children. She leaves her daughter Berthe to be raised by the
house help. She sometimes visits her at nurses house but when child is at home she
treats her as a burden. The presence of little Berthe does little to cheer her, for Berthe
is a girl; Emma wanted a boy. Perhaps if Berthe has been born a boy, Emmas romantic
illusions might have carried on a bit longer. As Janette Johnson stated in her research,
Emma Bovary rejected motherhood and never felt the sacred calling that patriarchy
demanded of her. (Johnson, 1983) Although Emma resents motherhood, she pretends
to have the maternal instinct of a good mother to protect her image in society that
surrounds her. She worries about her appearance and what people will think of her. She
wants the outside world including her husband to think she is a good mother. (Brooks
and Watson, 30)
REFERENCES
2. Flaubert, Gustave. (2005) Madame Bovary. Trans. Eleanor Marx Aveling and Paul de Man. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 2005. Print.
3. Nelson, Marven O. (1991) Another look at masculine protest Individual Psychology: Journal of
Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice, Vol 47(4), Dec 1991, 490-497.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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4. Adler, Alfred. (1956). The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. H. L. Ansbacher and R. R. Ans-
bacher (Eds.). New York: Harper Torchbooks.
5. Adler, Alfred (1926) The neurotic constitution; Outlines of a comparative individualistic psychology
and psychotherapy Trans. Bernard Glueck and John E. Lind, New York: Dodd, Mead.
6. Horney, Karen. (1926) The Flight from Womanhood: The Masculinity Complex in Women as Viewed
by Men and by Women International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 7: 324-39. Reprinted in Feminine
Psychology, 54-70.
7. Horney, Karen. (1967) Feminine Psychology ed. Harold Kelman. New York: W. W. Norton
8. Levasseur, G. (1989) Legal analysis of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Napolon et llaboration
des codes rpressifs) Mlanges en homme Jean Imbert, p. 371
9. Johnson, Janette Suzanne. (1983) Mother Love and Mothers in Love: The Novel of Adultery. Champaign:
Chicago University Press.
10. Brooks, Marilyn and Nicola Watson. (2001) Madame Bovary: Becoming a Heroine. The Nineteenth-
Century Novel: Identities. Ed. Walder-Dennis. Routledge: Open University Press, 29-47.

MODERN APPROACHES TO THE HUNNIC EMPIRE
IN THE WESTERN LITERATURE
Natiq Adilov
Qafqaz University
nadilov@qu.edu.az
ABSTRACT
Although Asia and Europe are geographically separated, they have a lot in common. The Huns,
nomadic people in Asia established their empire in Asia BC and then they moved to Europe in the fourth
century and they had their own Empire there. Attila, the king of the Huns between 434 and 453 was the
leading figure of its time and nearly invaded all of the Europe. Although many centuries have passed he
and the Huns are still in the minds of people and this situation affects the people in all spheres including
literature. Beginning from nearly tenth century a lot of legends and manuscripts were written about Attila.
Many of these legends were transmitted from generation to generation orally and then they were written.
Such kinds of legends were generally in German and Hungarian.
In our modern century, especially in the last ten years, a lot of novels have been written both in English
and other languages and some of them have been translated into English. After analyzing these novels it
has been revealed that foreign writers respect Attila and in the face of him to all Huns. In these novels
generally Huns are not presented as barbarians but brave fighters.
Key words: The Huns, Attila, legends, novels, barbarians, historical novels.

The Huns were a group of nomadic people who, appearing from east of the Volga
river migrated into Europe AD 370 and established the vast Hunnic Empire there. (1)
However, before Europe, the original Hunnic Empire was established in 220 BC in Asia
and the founding Emperor was Touman. That Empire was strengthened under the reign
of Moutin, the son of Touman. (2;10). It is a historic fact that the Chinese built the
Great Wall to protect themselves from the attack of the Huns. Under leadership of Bala-
mir some groups of Huns moved to the Eastern Anatolia. This movement is also called
Great Migration of nations in the history. After the death of Balamir, his son (in some
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sources he is considered to be the grandson of Balamir-N.A) Uldin went over the Car-
pathian mountains and founded the European Hunnic Empire in the place of present
day Hungary. (3) During the reign of Attila (434-453) the Hunnic Empire was in its
strongest time and emperor Attila invaded a lot of places in Europe and attacked several
times to Roma and Constantinople. Peter Heather and Bryan Ward-Perkins agree that
it was Huns who were largely to blame in the fall off Roman Empire. (4; Acknowled
gement). After his sudden death in 453 the Empire lost its former power.
Though 15 centuries have passed since the death of Attila, he and the Empire he
led for a while are always remembered by writers (poets, playwright), scientists and
other people in all pockets of the world, especially in Europe. The Huns and their Empire
are not only the subject of history books but also in literary books. Since the medieval
times a lot of legends, sagas, poems, novels have been written about the Huns. Memories
of the Hunnic conquests were transmitted orally among Germanic peoples and are an
important component in the Old Norse Volsunga Saga and Hervarar saga and in the
Middle High German Nibelungenlied. These stories all portray Migration Period events
from millennium earlier. (5;ix) No doubt Das Nibelungenlied is one of the greatest and
heartbreaking literary works of Middle Ages. It is widely recognized that The Lord of
Rings draws many of its special effects from store house of medieval saga and especially
from medieval Nibelungenlied. (5;x) In this book the name of Attila was shown as
Etsel, the second husband of Krimhild.
In Volsunga saga, Attila (Atli in Norse) defeats the Frankish king Sigebert and Bur-
gundian king Gunthram but is later assassinated by Queen Fredugund, the sister of the
latter, the wife of the former. In this chronicle he is described as a noble and great king.(6)
Afore mentioned literary works are not the only books or documents that speak
about Attila and the Hunnic Empire. Many nations still in Europe claim that they are
successors of Huns. For instance, the Nomanalia of Bulgar Khans which is old, short
manuscript, written in old church Slavic, may indicate that Bulgars have ascended from
Attila. This manuscript contains the names of some early Bulgar rulers and their clans.
(7; 32) There are many similarities between Hunnic and Bulgar cultures and some ar-
cheological facts prove these similarities.
It would be worth mentioning Magyar (Hungarians) legends which may have
contained some elements of historical truths. These legends say that Magyars joined the
people who were descendants of Attila. The city Buda comes from the name of Bleda,
the brother of Attila. (1)
The Hunnic Empire and its famous and powerful king Attila were not only mentioned
in afore said legends and manuscripts but in modern time so many historical novels have
been dedicated to the Huns and Attila. Attila could achieve to include his name in the
list of the most distinguishing leaders of the world. When we analyze the subjects of
the historical novels it becomes clear that modern writers (especially in the USA and
Great Britain) are inclined to choose Ancient Roma, Greek and the Huns as a topic for
their novels.
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According to Encyclopedia Britannica, a historical novel is a novel that has as its
setting a usually significant period of history and that attempts to convey the spirit,
manners, and social conditions of a past age with realistic detail and fidelity (which is
in some cases only apparent fidelity) to historical fact. The work may deal with actual
historical personages...or it may contain a mixture of fictional and historical characters.
1

From what is said, it becomes obvious that when writers write historical novels they
refer to historical notes of different historians. Unfortunately, a variety of opinions, some
of which are negative, have been written about the Huns and their leader Attila as well.
Jordanes, a Goth writing in Italy in 551, a century after the collapse of the Hunnic Em-
pire, describes the Huns as a "savage race, which dwelt at first in the swamps, a stunted,
foul and puny tribe, scarcely human, and having no language save one which bore but
slight resemblance to human speech."
2
But of course not all historians and researchers
had negative opinion about Huns and Attila. For example, Otto Maenchen-Helfen, who
spent great majority of his time investigating Huns were of positive opinions about
Huns. As an answer to claims by Thomson who tried to make Huns seem barbaric by
stating that they used primitive bone tipped arrowheads Otto Maenchen-Helfen wrote:
Had the Huns been unable to forge their swords and cast their arrow-heads, they never
could have crossed the Don. The idea that the Hun horsemen fought their way to the
walls of Constantinople and to the Marne with bartered and captured swords is absurd
3
.
The examples from different historians reveal the fact that the opinions and submission
of facts vary. Peter Heathrow, Bryan Ward-Perkins, PeterJ.Heather, E.A. Thomson,
Micheal Bobcock, Wess Roberts are among those who wrote historical materials about
the Huns and Attila. Basing on these facts and books writers of different countries
produced different novels about Attila.
While analyzing the dates of novels we see that this subject was not in the center
of attention for a short of period but still a lot of writers address this subject. It must
also be emphasized that different countries citizens wrote and have written on this topic.
Hungarian writer and journalist Geza Gardoniy wrote his famous novel slave of the
Huns in 1901. Later, we can see that Canadian writer and journalist Thomas B. Costain
wrote his novel about Attila which is called The darkness and the dawn in 1959. The
figures show that in the last ten years several writers turned their attentions again to that
subject. The following novels were written in that period: Attila: barbarians love story
by Peter Hargitai (2003), Attila: The Scourge of God by Ross Laidlow (2004), The
Scourge of God by William Dietrich (2006), The Death of Attila by Cecelia Holland
(2008), The Sword of Attila: A Novel of the Last Years of Rome by Micheal Curtis
Ford (2008). (8) Special attention must be given to William Napier who wrote trilogy
about Attila-Attila (2005), Attila, the gathering of storm (2007) and Attila-Judge-
ment (2008). In these novels, generally Attila and the Huns are introduced as positive
characters and as well as historical heroes, imaginative characters are spoken about. In
William Napiers trilogy, Attilas life is thrown light beginning with his hostage in
Roman Empire until his death. After his novels had been published The Times wrote: If
you think you dont like historical fiction, you havent read William Napier
4
. Another
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161
point that attracts attention is that generally all authors used the same sources for their
novels. Instead of showing Attila and his people as barbarians, they referred to historical
facts and created very positive brave heroes.
Besides in the English language, there are samples of the novels written about Attila
in different languages too. German novelist and historian wrote his famous novel Attila,
Konig der Hunnen in 1998.
All these facts about the ancient legends, manuscripts and modern novels betray
the fact that the Huns were and are respected for their brevity and courage and Europe
and other parts of the world are still under impact of the Huns and Attila, the dreadful
enemy for the ancient Empires.
END NOTE
1. www, brittanica.com.retreived 27.03.2012
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huns 27.03.2012
3. Maenchen-Helfen The World of the Huns. University of California Press. 1973. p 12
4. The Times. 10 February 2008.
REFERENCES
1. Kevin Alan Brook, The Jews of Khazaria, Rowman & Littlefield, 2009,
2. Attila-the gathering of the storm. William Napier. Orion Books. London 2007.
3. Nibelungenlied-song of the Nibelungs. Translated from the Middle High German by Burton Rafell.
Yale University Press. 2006
4. R. G. Finch (ed. and trans.), The Saga of the Volsungs(London: Nelson, 1965)
5. . .. . 1988 .
6. www.historicalnovels.info/Ancient
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huns.
8. az.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avropa_Hun_mperiyas.


REVOLUTION THEME IN A TALE OF TWO CITIES
Aytekin Aliyeva
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
aytekin_eliyeva@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
A Tale of Two Cities is a novel with the fictionalized description of the events leading up to the birth
of the new French Republic. Charles Dickenss novel has helped to shape generations of readers unders-
tanding of one of the most important events in modern history. It is not just a history but a good fiction that
can be as influential as history itself. This novel distinctly reveals violence of authority and gives perfect
representation of the million wasted lives by stating that while tyranny will inevitably lead to revolution,
revolution will lead just as inevitably to tyranny and it is obviously seen that power shades actual intentions
gradually by its magical enchantment.
Key words: French Revolution, Class Distinctions, Mob Mentality, England.
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A Tale of Two Cities created the image of a stable England by using revolutionary
France as a setting to highlight the contrasts between the two countries, although Dickens
seemed to believe in the eighteen-fifties that England was heading towards an uprising
on the scale of the French Revolution. Dickens decided to write about the French Re-
volution as a sort of comparative study, because the violence that broke out in the French
Revolution was something that terrified countries across Europe. So, revolution broke
out in France and France isnt so far from England. In fact, conditions in France arent
that different from conditions in England. He wanted to send a message that the English
royalty should have been scared.
Dickens warns his readers and this warning is addressed not to the British lower
classes, but to the aristocracy. He repeatedly uses the metaphor of sowing and reaping
by stating if the aristocracy continues to plant the seeds of a revolution through behaving
unjustly, they can be certain of harvesting that revolution in time and because of this
reason he gives long comparison of two countries at the beginning of the book.
Much of the action of A Tale of Two Cities takes place in Paris during the French
Revolution, which began in 1789. In A Tale of Two Cities, Dickens shows how the
tyranny of the French aristocracy-high taxes, unjust laws, and a complete indifference
toward the well-being of the poor-fed a rage among the commoners that eventually
erupted in revolution.
Dickens's outlook on revolutionary violence differed significantly from others. As
Irene Collins points out Dickens dislikes the violence of the revolutionaries, both in
its popular form (the mob) and in its institutionalized form (the terror). Unlike others,
he can no longer see justice in the violence. Dickens suggests that the French revo-
lutionaries begin to abuse their power just as much as the nobility did. While the French
commoners reasons for revolting were entirely understandable, and the French Revo-
lution was widely praised for its stated ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity,
Dickens takes a more pessimistic view by showing how the revolutionaries use oppression
and violence to satisfy their own selfish and bloodthirsty desires.
In A Tale of Two Cities we see deep distinction between the rich and the poor. While
one needs four servants to make his hot chocolate every morning others are on their
hands and knees in the street to lick up drops of spilled wine, are left with nothing but
onions to eat and are forced to starve. Every time the nobles refer to the life of the
peasants it is only to destroy or humiliate the poor. With his depiction of a broken wine
cask outside Defarges wine shop, and with his portrayal of the passing peasants trying
to drink the spilling wine, Dickens creates a symbol for the desperate quality of the
peoples hunger. This hunger is both the literal hunger for food-the French peasants
were starving in their poverty-and the metaphorical hunger for political freedoms.
Dickens deeply sympathizes with the plight of the French peasantry and emphasizes
their need for liberation. Although Dickens condemns this oppression, however, he
also blames the peasants strategies in overcoming it. The peasants could not get appre-
ciation of reader by fighting cruelty with cruelty. They only intensify the violence that
they themselves have suffered. Dickens makes his position clear while giving descriptions
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of the mobs with deep aversion. Though Dickens sees the French Revolution as a great
symbol of transformation and resurrection, he emphasizes that its violent ways were
completely antithetical and immoral.
The French Revolution began as a critique of the aristocracy; as Dickens demons-
trates, however, the "classless" formation of the new French Republic becomes another
form of class violence. Someones always in power. And the powerless always suffer.
As the poor of France take to the streets, they fire a bloody and violent revolution. Blood
runs through the streets of Paris, entire families depend on new and unjust laws, and
no one can be sure of their future in the first years of the New Republic. Throughout
the novel, Dickens approaches his historical subject with some ambivalence. While he
supports the revolution, he often points to the evil of the revolutionaries themselves.
Righteous, justice-seeking people turn out to be bloody murderers. In other words, war
tends to confound most peoples expectations. Once blood starts spilling in the streets,
telling the difference between right and wrong becomes extremely difficult. A Tale of
Two Cities explores the dark sides of revolution, such as how "freedom" can easily
change its color and become another title for fanaticism.
Dickenss novel explores the complicated relationship that emerges between the
political and the social consequences of revolution. As French citizens take to the streets,
demanding justice for themselves and their families, they also construct a justice system
that becomes anything but fair and impartial. Throughout the novel, Dickens sharply
criticizes mob mentality, which he condemns for committing the very cruelty and
oppression from which the revolutionaries hope to free themselves. In A Tale of Two
Cities Dickens suggests that whoever is in power, nobles or commoners will use their
power in cruel ways and forget the reasons that brought them to this position. He is not
taking side, nor tries reader to be in sympathy with one of them. He just believes that the
only way to break the cycle of tyranny is through the application of justice and mercy.
REFERENCES
1. Collins, Irene. "Charles Dickens and the French Revolution." Literature and History 1.1 (1990): 40-57.
2. Collins, Philip, ed. Dickens: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1971.
3. http://www.shmoop.com/tale-of-two-cities/http://www.litcharts.com/lit/ataleoftwocities/themes


STUDY OF LITERARY TECHNIQUES OF STREAM
OF CONSCIOUSNESS ON JAMES JOYCE
AND VIRGINIA WOOLF S WORKS
Sevda Salayeva
Postgraduate Student
Azerbaijan University
ABSTRACT
Stream of consciousness is a narrative mode that helps the author to portray the inner world of his/her
characters through their thoughts, feelings and memories. This technique is characterized by flow of thoughts,
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images with coherent structure. It was first introduced by William James , American psychologist and
philosopher in the 19th century.
As a literary technique, stream of consciousness was first employed by modernists writers such as
Dorothy Richardson (Pilgrimage), Marcel Proust(In search of Lost Time), James Joyce (Ulysses), Virginia
Woolf (Mrs Dalloway) and William Faulkner (The Sound and the Fury).
In British Literature Virginia Woolf and James Joyce used stream of consciousness technique as a
way of getting inside the head of their characters. No one has ever entered the characters inner world as
James Joyce did. Perhaps, thats why he is considered one of the most difficult writers.
Key words: consciousness, British, literature, inner world.

ur yalnz insana xasdr. nsan heyvandan frqlndirn, onu insan edn onun
urudur. ur insan beyni v onu hat edn mhit arasnda bir nv laqlndirici ro-
lunu oynayr. ur insana dnyan drk etmk imkan verdiyi kimi hminin ona z
hrktlrin mqsdynl kild nzart etmk imkan yaradr.ur v onun faliy-
yti haqqnda qdim dnya v orta sr filosoflar ox danmlar. lbtt ur haqqnda
daha ox danmaq, onu hm bioloji hm d psixoloji chtdn thlil etmk olar. Lakin
toxunduumuz problem bir qdr frqli, urun daha dorusu ursuzluun bir formas
olduu n biz d el ondan yni ur axnndan shbt aacaq.
Bs ndir ur axn ndir? mumiyytl bu termin haqqnda bzi faktlara aydnlq
gtirk v sonra ur axnn bir dbi texnika olaraq thlil etmy chd edk.
Bizim fikirlrimizin axn ay kimidir. Btn asan, sad yollarda axn stnlk
tkil edir. Amma mane ortaya xdqda geri qaytmalar, irli atlmalar ba verir, cr-
yan dayanr, burulan yaranr, v hr eyi yolunu dyimy mcbur edir.
Bir qayda olaraq qrb dnc trzind ur axn daxili monoloqla eynildirilir.
Lakin qeyd etmk lazmdr ki, bir ox chtdn ruhi hyatn bu iki tzahr formas ara-
snda hqiqtn bir sra ortaq chtlrin olmasna baxmayarq mahiyyt etabar il ur
axn urun tamail nzartindn xm, bir nv z- zn cryan edn daxili mo-
noloqdur.
ur axn terminini ilk vvl irli srn Amerikal psixoloq William James
olmudur. O 1892-ci ild yazd Psixologiyann prinsiplri srind insan psixika-
snda ur axn prosesindn bhs edir v bu konsepsiyann sasn qoyur. XI blm
ur axnna hsr olunana bu srd William James qeyd edir ki, insan ur axn
daycsdr, insan beynind eyni anda mxtlif fikirlr cryan edir v bu fikirlr insan
beynind mtmadi olaraq birindn digrin keir, fikirlr bir-birini rdd edir, bir-birini
tsdiq edir, bir-biri il assosasiyaya girir, mxtlif nisbtlrd bir-biri il ularlar.
William James, American philosopher
and psychologist, The principles of psychology
William Jamesi ur axn il mul olmaa n vadar etmidi? Szsz ki, mhur
filosofun uzun mddt ur v onun faliyyti barsind apard tdqiqatlar.
ox kemdn bu termin dbi tnqidd d istifad olunmaa balad. dbiyyatda
ur axn Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Woolf v James Joyce trfindn irli srln
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dbi texnikadr. ur axn rabitsiz v btv struktura malik olmayan fikirlrin, kil-
lrin toplusudur. ur axn bir-biri il ulam fikirlrin, hisslrin v xatirlrin insan
beynind davaml hrktidir. dbiyyatda is bu bel hisslrin qarnn bdii obrazn
beynind tzahrdr. Sjet xtti bir zaman v mkan daxilind v ya onlardan knarda
cryan edn hadislri v qhrmann fikirlrini ifad edir. ur axn texnikasndan
istifad edn yazlar sas diqqti bir v ya bir ne obrazn beynind gedn fikri v
hissi proseslr ynldirlr. Bu prosesin sl xarakterik xsusiyytlri beyind ba vern-
lri tdqiq etmkl ortaya xarla bilr.
ur axn texnikas il yazlm bir mtn bzn rabitsiz cmllr v duru iar-
lrinin buraxlmas il xarakteriz oluna bilr v bu cht d bdii srin qavranmasn
bir qdr qlizldirir. Bdii dbiyyatda ur axnn baqa szl daxili monoloq da
adlandrrlar. Bu onunla baldr ki, ur axnn bdii srd iki formada grmk olar.
Biri obrazn daxili nitqi vasitsiyl, digri is onun hrktlri vasitsiyl. Mhz bu
baxmdan ona daxili monloq da deyirlr. Lakin ur axnnn daxili monoloqdan frqi
vardr: birincisi, psixoloji aspektdn yanadqda ur axn mvzu il baldr. Halbuki
daxili nitq onu ifadetm formasdr. Bel ki, Marcel Proutsun tirilmi zaman axta-
rnda roman ur axn, xsusil hiss, tssratlar v xatirlr haqqndadr. Amma
burada daxili monoloqdan bir df d olsun istifad olunmayb.
kinci trfdn, yni dbi chtdn yanadqda ur axn daxili monoloqun bir
trzidir. Lakin daxili monoloq he zaman rabitsiz cmllr v buraxlm duru iar-
lri il xarakteriz oluna bilmz, daxili monoloqda emosiyalarn v tssratlarn ol-
masi da vacib deyil. Amma bunlarn hr biri ur axn n xarakterikdir.
Modernist nsrin nmayndlrinin v onun sonrak davamlarnn sas alti olan
ur axn ilk olaraq Dorothy Richardsonun Ziyart (Pilgrimage) srind (1915- 35)
istifad olunmu sonralar is James Joyceun Ulysses (1922), Virginia Woolfun
Mrs Dalloway v William Faulknerin Ss v qzb (The sound and the fury) (1928)
srlrind daha da inkiaf etdirilidi.
XX srin vvllrind psixoloji roman janr inkiaf etmy baladqda bir ox ya-
zlar ur axn texnikasndan istifad edrk srlr yaratmaa baladlar. ngilis dilli
dbiyyatda bu texnikadan istifad edrk yazan yazlar James Joyce, Virginia Woolf
v William Faulknerdir. James Joyce iki srini Finnegance Wake v Ulysses srl-
rini ur axn texnikasndan istifad edrk yazmdr. Ulysses Homerin qhrman
Odysseyin Latn variantdr. Ulysses sri ninki mllifin v ngilis dbiyyatnn
htta dnya dbiyyatnn n tin srlrindn hesab olunur. James Joyce z sri
haqqnda danarkn bel demidi: Mn el bir sr yaratdm ki, professorlar, dbi
tnqidilr hl yz bundan sonra da bu sr zrind ba sndrsnlar. Bu da mnim
srimin lmzliyini gstrsin. James Joycedan vvl bdii yaradclqla mul olan
he bir yaz insan dnclrinin drinliyin bu qdr varmamdr. Joyce bu sri
on skkiz blm ayrmdr. Bu blmlr srd epizodlar adlanr. mumilikd sr
bir qdr adrc v xaotikdir. srin nc blm btvlkd ur axn texnikas
zrind qurulmudur. Bel ki, srin qhrmanlarndan biri Stephen qayalar arasnda
uzanarakn eyni anda beynind xaotik olaraq gah hanssa flsfi konsepsiyalar thlil
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edir, gah Parisdki tlb hyatn xatrlayr, gah da anasn lm barsind dnr.
Btn ur axn texnikas zrind qurulmu srlrd olduu kimi bu srd d za-
man tarazlnn pozulmas z ksini tapmdr. Gah irli atlmalar, gah geri kilmlr
eyni anda birindn digrin el keir ki, ox vaxt oxuculara bzi mqamlarn qaranlq
qalmasna sbb olur v mumilikd nsri tinldirir. Anlalmamzlq yaradan digr
bir cht is James Joyceun tez-tez xarici szlrdn v ya portmanteau szlrdn istifa-
d etmsidir. Digr qriblik eyni zamanda obrazlardadr. srin altnc epizodu da b-
tvlkd ur axn texnikasnda yazlb. Bel ki, bu epizodda dfn mrasimi tsvir
olunub v mllif srin qhrmanlarndan biri Bloomun lm v hyat haqqnda fi-
kirlrini ur axn texnikasndan mhartl istifad edrk oxucuya atdrr. ki tzad
arasnda frqi v oxarl myyn edn fikirlr oxucuya Bloomun daxili monoloqu
klind tqdim olunur.
ki sz birldirb yeni sz almaq. Ms: smog-smoke v fog
Digr bir qriblik is on ikinci blmd obrazlarn adszldr. Bu blm nql
edn sadc Dublinli adlandrlr. Hadislr barda cryan edir v buradak digr xs
is sadc vtnda adlandrlr.
Bzi tnqidilr qeyd edir ki, James Joyce bununla oxucular daha da adrmaq,
bir az daha ox qlizlik yaratmaq mqsdil bel bir texnikaya mracit edib. Lakin
bu da James Joyce nsrinin znmxsus xsusiyytlrindn biridir.
srd James Joyce Bibliya fsanlrindn, rland mifologiyasndan bol-bol istifad
etmidir. srin on skkizinci blmnd James Joyce ardcl skkiz cmld duru
iarlrindn istifad etmmidir. Bel cmllr ur axn n xarakterikdir. Bel olan
halda cmllr arasnda laq tamail itir v bu da nsri arladran sas xsusiyyt-
lrdn bridir. James Joyce ur axn texnikasnn bu chtindn d mhartl yararlan-
mdr.
Eyni texnikadan istifad olunaraq yazlm digr bir sr Virginia Woolf'un Mrs
Dalloway sridir. Bu srin qhrman Xanm Dalloway'dir. srd olan digr bir
obraz is Septimusdur. O ruhi xstdir. Birinci dnya mharibsinin ahidi olmu bu
xsin qulana qrib sslr glir. Bu iki obrazn slind bir-biri il he bir ball
yoxdu. Mrs Dalloway intihara hazrlar. srdki hadislr yalnz bir gn rzind ba
verir. Mrs Dalloway intihar etmir,nki Virginia Woolf Septimus obrazn yaradr ki,
onun srinin ba qhrman sa qalsn. srin sonunda onlardan birincisi hyat, ikin-
cisi is lm seir.
ox maraqldr ki, hm Virginia Woolf, hm d Amerika yazs William Faulkner
ur axnndan istifad etmk n ruhi xst obraz semilr. vvld qeyd etmidik
ki, ur axn assosasiyas olmayan fikirlrin axndr. Hr birimizin beynind ur axn
vardr. Lakin nitqimizd biz onlar tnzimlyib normal fikirlr formasnda ifad ed
bilirik. Lakin bu hal ruhi xstlr v yeni danmaa balayan krplr n xarakterik
deyil. V mnim fikrimc hr iki yaznn ruhi xst obraz semsi mhz bununla
baldr. Digr trfdn is Faulknerin znn qeyd etdiyin gr o tamam frqli bir
thkiy sulu yaratmaq n bunu semidir.
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ngilis dbiyyatnda ur axn texnikas zrind qurulan digr bir sr el Virginia
Woolf 'un Mayak (To the Lighthouse) sridir. Mayak srind Virginia Woolf z
obrazlarnn beynin daxil olur v v onlarn fikirlrini ur axn texnikas il ks et-
dirir. ur axn n xaraterik olan bir cht bu srd d z ksini tapb: sas yer
obrazn fikirlrin v hisslrin verilib. Bdii srlr n xaraterik olan mobillik v
dialoq znginliyi bu srd ikinci plandadr. Virginia Woolf srlri n xarakterik
olan bir cht bu srd d z ksini tapb: o z qhrmanlarn onlarn fikirlri, xatirlri,
bir-birin olan mnasibti v reaksiyas vasitsil tqdim edir v bu yolla inkiaf etdirir.
srin balancdak shnd stol arxasnda oturmu Mrs Ramsay'nin dnclri va-
sitsil mllif shnni biz tqdim edir. Xanma gr otaq irkin, insanlar dncsiz-
dirlr. Amma ondan savay stol trafnda oturanlarn he birini otan irkli olmas ma-
raqlandrmr. Onun z ri haqqnda dnclri d burada z ksini tapr. O bilmir
ki, z rini sevirmi yaxud n vaxtsa sevibmi. Mllif Mrs Ramsay haqqnda is digr
bir obrazn vasitsi il oxucuya mlumat atdrr. srin digr bir hisssind Lily vasitsi
il biz Mrs Ramsay haqqnda yrnirik.
Bellikl, n qdr tin, anlaqsz, kimi tnqidlr mruz qalsa da hm James
Joyce, hm d Virginia Woolf ngilis dbiyyatn ox byk yazlar srasnda hr
zaman qeyd olunur. Hr iki mllif ur axn texnikasndan istifad edrk ninki n-
gilis dbiyyatnn htta dnya dbiyyatn lmz srlrini yaratmlar. El James
Joyceun zn dediyi kimi bu srlr hl ox thlil olunacaq.
REFERENCES
1. Anderson, Deland (1990). Through Days of Easter: Time and Narrative in The Sound and the Fury.
Literature and Theology
2. Eagleton, Therry Literary Theory, Blackwell Publishing 2008, (pp,28,164)
3. Faulkner, William The Sound and the fury Vintage International 1984
4. Friedman, Melvin. Stream of Consciousness: A Study in Literary Method, 1955. (p 32-38)
5. Guerin, Wilfred et al A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature, Oxford University Press 2005
(pp,104,180,192,291,300-301,372)
6. Humphrey, Robert. Stream of Consciousness in the Modern Novel, 1954. (p p,122-124)
7. http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91md/
8. http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/ulysses/

SYMBOLISM IN JAMES JOYCE'S "ARABY"
Narmin Veledova
Qafqaz University, Undergraduate Student
ABSTRACT
Joyce, James Augustine, was one of the most radical innovators of twentieth century writing, who
dedicated himself to exuberant exploration of the total resources of language . He was an Irish novelist and
poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early twentieth
century.
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Dubliners is a series of short, interrelated stories which deal with the lives of ordinary people, whose
actions are invested with a symbolic profundity. Joyce explores what would become central themes in his
work: youth, adolescence, adulthood and maturity, and how identify is affected by these different stages in life.
Araby is the third of the fifteen stories in Dubliners. Araby is a short story centering on an Irish
adolescent emerging from boyhood fantasies into the harsh realities of everyday life in his country. Joyce
based this coming-of-age tale, which he wrote in 1905, on his own experiences while growing up in Dublin
in the late nineteenth century.
Key words: James Joyce, works, Dubliners, Araby , symbols.

Giri
Ceyms Avqustin Aloizius Coys rland yazs v airidir, iyirminci srin n nfzlu
yazlarndan biri hesab olunur. Coysun ilk nr olunmu Chamber Music adl kitab
otuz alt poemadan ibartdir. Chamber Music muxtlif slublarda yazlm sevgi
haqqnda eirlrdn ibartdir . Ceyms Coysun seviln ilrindn bri d Dublinliler
olmudur. Bu, qisa hekaylrdn ibart kitabdr. Sntkarn bir gnc olaraq portreti
Coysun ilk romandr ve oz tecrubesine dayanaraq tertib etmisdir. Surgunlr sri
Coysun yegan shny qoyulmu sridir. Coys Uliss romanna gre daha ox m-
hurdur . Ceyms Coysun sonuncu sri Finneqans Veyk olmudur, bu sr on yeddi
hissdn v drd kitabdan ibartdir. Coys hminin tnqidi oerklr v nsr srlrinin
de mllifidir.
Coys Dublind orta sviyyli bir aild anadan olub, onun atas Con hvskar aktyor
v mhur tenor olub, onun anas Meri is istedadl pianist olub. Coys Klongoves v
Belvedere kolleclrind sonra is Dublin Universitetind oxumudur. Burada o daha
ox flsf v dil zr ozn tkminldirmidi. Thsilini baa vurduqdan sonra o rlan-
diyan trk edib, lakin anasnn xstliyin gr bir ildn sonra Parisdn qaytmal olub.
Anasnn vfatndan sonra glck hyat yolda Nora il Paris qaydb v hyatlarna
burada davam etdirmilr. Ceyms Avropann Triest, Paris ve Surix hrlrind daimi
olaraq yaamdr. Baxmayaraqk, onun hyatnn yetkin dvrlri xaricd keib, Dub-
lin qar olan istyi, sevgisi ox byk olub. Bunu srlrnd d qeyd edib.

Dublinlilr
Dublinlilr Ceyms Coys trfindn yazlm on be qsa hekaydn ibart kitabdr,
ilk df 1914 c ild nr olunmudur. Onlar sasn iyirminci srin vvllrind rlan-
diya v Dublinin hyatndan bhs edir. Hekaylr rlandiyann milliytilik zirvsind
olan vaxt yazlmdr. Tarix v mdniyyt ksimsi zaman rlandiya muxtlif ide-
yalarn tsiri altna dmd. Coysun ideyalarnn sas mzi grn olmudur Dub-
linlilrdki xarakterlrin bir oxu sonra Uliss srinde kiik rollar klind toplanr.
Toplu kild gtrsk hekaylr ya az olan ba qhrmanlar trfindn deyilir, bu-
nunla bel, hekaylr oxunduqca yal insanlarn hyatndan v qaylarndan danlr.
Bu uaqlq, yeniyetmlik v yetikinlik Ceyms Coysun trfli blgs il laqlidir.
Arabi
Arabi Dublinlilr romannda on be mstqil hekaydn ncsdr.
Hekaynin danan ilk olaraq hans kd yaadn tsvir edir. Olan bu ev
kmmidn vvl burada yaayan indi is l olan bir kahindn danr. O, burada
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xalas v days il yaayrd. Olan eyni zamanda bu kd dostu il oynad oyunlar
xatrlayr. Dotunun ad Manqan olub. Olan Manqann bacsnn qaban ksmk n
klglrd gizlnirdi.
O, Manqann bacsna vurulmudu. O, qz haqqnda hr an dnrd v qorxurduki,
onun h zaman qzla danmaa csarti atmaz.
Bir gn shr qz olana yaxnlaaraq onun Arabiy gedib getmycyini soruur,
bu Dublind bir bazardr. Qz mktbi il laqdar ora gd bilmycyini deyir.
Olan byk mmnuniyytl gedcyini v ona bir hdiyye d alacan deyir.
O, daysndan icaz alr v ancaq o gnn glmsini sbirsizlikl gzlyir. Nhayt
o gn glir v o daysna axam bazara getmk istdiyini deyir v xai edirki, days ev
vaxtnda glsin, ona bazara getmk n v xrclmk n biraz pul versin. Hmin
axsam amma days gecikir onun getmli olduunu unudur. Days artq gec olduunu
getmmyini deyir amma olan getmk istyind israrl olur v daysndan qatar n
biraz pul istyir.
O, atanda bazar artq balanrd , ancaq bir iki yer aq idi. Onun baxdqlarna is
pulu atmrd. qlar yava yava snr v olan mdini itirrk geri dnr.
Simvollar
Simvollar mcrrd fikirlri v konsepsiyalar tmsil etmk n istifad olunan
obyeklr,xarakterlr ,fiqurlar v yaxud rnglrdir.
Pncrlr
Dublinlilr d pncrlr ba verck hadislri v ya toqqumalar ardcl srtd
gstrir. Misal olaraq, Baclarda rvayt edn hr gec pncrdn baxr, hminin
Arabi d rvayt edn xs z otann pncrsindn Manqann bacsna tamasa
edir. Pncrlr burada daxili v xarici almin mrkzi nqtsidir.
Toranlq v Gec vaxt
Coysun Dublinlilrhekaylr toplusu demk olarki,qaranlq shnlrdn ibartdir.
Gn i v yaxud n mnzrlrin he biri bu hekaylri iqlandrmr. vzind boz
tonlar v qara onlarn zlmt tonlarn gstrir. Xarakterlr Dublinin qaranlq vaxtlarnda
canlandrlr v onlar hyatlar il bal hadislri sonuncu saatlarda, qaranlq vaxtlarda
yaayrlar.. Bu tnd fonlar Dublinlilrd yar hyat canlandrr. Biz bu qaranl
Arabi hekaysind grmk.
Manqann bacs
Manqann bacis onun diqqtini dadan qz olub v onun alndan he xmayib.
Manqann bacs onun arzusu olmudu lakin hekay boyu o qzn ad verilmyib. Niy?
nki, o bilirdiki onun arzusu xyali bir eydir.
Arabi
Arabi sz srd ox mhm yer tutur, el bu adndan da grnr. Arabi
rblr n ox qdim bir addr. Arabi Dublind olan rqi tirlr satlan bir yerdir.
Olann ora getmk istyi d gcl olub v bel nticy glirikki, Arabi olan n
yeni dnya arzusu imis.
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Dediyimiz kimi, Ceyms Coys iyirminci srin n nfuzlu yazlarndan biri hesab
olunur. Onun srlrind istifad etdiyi simvollardan hminin, Ceyms Coysun yarad-
clndan muasir yazlar istifad etmkddirlr.
DBYYAT
1. Norton Anthology of English literature
2. Encyclopedia of World Biography.
3. www.jamesjoyce.ie

THE ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH CASTLES NAMES
Salmanli Aysel
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
ABSTRACT
Stone Age people lived in caves and made defenses to keep out wild animals. The first towns and
cities had walls to keep out invaders. Kings and nobles fortified their large homes to protect themselves.
The first castles were built by the Normans in England. The great age of castles began almost 1,000
years ago and lasted for nearly 500 years. The names were not originated from one language but also from
different sources.
We know that the English peoples root comes from the Celts and Anglo-Saxons. Before the last few
hundred years, the English language had no fast system of spelling rules. For that reason, spelling variations
are commonly found in early Anglo-Saxon surnames. Over the years, many variations of the name Castle
were recorded, including Castle, Castell, Castles, Castel, Castello and others. It was found first time in
Sussex where they held a family seat from very ancient times.
Key words: Castle, Origin, Normans.

The origin of the English castles names
Is the Etymology of a Word Its True Definition? Where Do Words Come From?
An etymology tells us where a word came from and what it used to mean. Though,
people sometimes try to make this argument. The word etymology is derived from the
Greek word etymon, which means "the true sense of a word." But in fact the original
meaning of a word is often different from its contemporary definition. The meanings
of many words have changed over time, and older senses of a word may grow uncommon
or disappear entirely from everyday use. New words have entered (and continue to
enter) the English language in many different ways. Here are some of the most com-
mon ways. One of them is borrowing. The majority of the words used in modern English
have been borrowed from other languages. Although most of our vocabulary comes
from Latin and Greek (often by way of other European languages), English has borrowed
words from more than 300 different languages around the world.
Where do the castles names come? And what is the meaning of the castle?
This word is coming from early medieval English topographical origin, and is
derived from the Anglo-Norman French "castel", castle, fortified building or set of
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buildings, especially the residence of a feudal lord. The name could also have denoted
a servant who lived and worked at such a place. Topographical surnames were among
the earliest created, since both natural and man-made features in the landscape provided
easily recognisable distinguishing names. The name development since 1154 includes
the following: Henry de Castell (1260, Cambridgeshire), John del Castel (1307, York-
shire), and William ate Castele (1317, Kent). The saga of the name Castle follows a line
reaching back through history to the days of the Anglo-Saxon tribes in Britain. It was
a name for someone who worked as a person who worked in a castle. The original bearer
of the surname Castle may have held the post of governor or constable of the castle.
However, the surname might also be derived from residence near a castle, or from
services or rent owed to a castle. The surname Castle is derived from the Old Norman
French word castel, which means castle.
During the period of the Fall of the Roman Empire and the Rise of the Anglo Saxons
there were built many burhs in England. 'What is the Burhs? Burhs' or 'Burghs' is a
meaning of which meant "fortress" or castle. The meaning gradually changed from
"fortress," to "fortified town," to simply "town". The word 'Burhs' later changed to
Burgh, Bury then Borough which are evident in many modern British place names.
Any such place name is an immediate indication that signifies that a Burh was once
built in the area. What was the difference between the Burhs and Castles? Burhs were
developed as a community effort where as a castle was a private enterprise. A castle
was privately owned under Royal license.
Many place names are derived from the person or group of people who first settled
in the area. The earliest of these place names usually end in ing which is derived from
the Old English ingas and originally meant 'dependants or relatives' of a certain man.
British place names contain elements that can be traced back to the languages spoken
by at least five quite distinct groups of people. The Welsh, the Scots, and the Irish are
well aware that they have often been invaded by the English (amongst others). And a
brief excursion into English history will reveal that the country has been invaded by the
Celts, the Romans, the Anglo-Saxons, the Scandinavians, and the French. All of these
groups contributed words which make up the place names we have today.
The Celts
The Celts were one of the many tribes living in Europe in the years before Christ.
The Celts from Northern France and the Netherlands settled in England. They were
known as the Brythons (Britons). Later, Celts from Southern France settled in Ireland.
They spoke Goidelic (Gaelic).
The Celts left behind names that are found most abundantly in the North and West.
They also gave names to many rivers. Celtic names are often found in isolated spots
which suggest that more remote groups remained Celtic-speaking long after other groups
had accepted that language of the Anglo-Saxons.
One of the castles take its name from the celts. That castle is Balmoral castle. The
name Balmoral from the Gaelic, meaning is Majestic Residence.
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The Windsor
One of the most famous castles in England is a Windsor. Windsor began as a Saxon
village. The name Windsor is believed to be a corruption of the Saxon words 'windlass
Oran' meaning a bank with a windlass. After the Saxons founded the settlement it grew
into a town because of its position by a river. The original settlement was at Old Windsor
but William built a castle on an escarpment at Clewer. Windsor Castle, which was
strengthened and improved by Henry II and Henry III, would have a large staff of de-
fenders and servants and provided a market for the townspeoples goods.
Here comes the other castle. The Buckingham Palace is a palace and London residen-
ce of the British sovereign. It is situated within the borough of Westminister. The palace
takes its name from the house built (c. 1705) for John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham.
It was bought in 1762 by George III for his wife, Queen Charlotte, and became known
as the queens house.
The Camelot castle
The Legends and stories about Camelot create an enduring impression of a wonderful,
mystical castle and land where Knights in shining armour lived to an honourable Code
of Chivalry. Did Camelot really exist? There is no historical evidence that King Arthur
existed. The Arthurian legends were based on the books written by the clerics of the
Medieval era or the Middles Ages. But there is some evidence that King Arthur might
have been based on a real person.
Where did the name Camelot originate? There is some speculation that Camelot
was derived from the Latin word 'Camelodunum'. The oldest known literature about
King Arthur makes no reference to Camelot by name. Camelot is first mentioned ex-
plicitly in the romance called Lancelot written by the French poet Chretien de Troyes
between 1170 and 1185. The patroness of Chretien de Troyes was the Countess Marie
de Champagne who was the daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine who married King Henry
II of England. The name Camelot is mentioned as follows:"Upon a certain Ascension
Day King Arthur had come from Caerleon, and had held a very magnificent court at
Camelot as was fitting on such a day. But the legends of Camelot are legion - there are
no definitive answers!
After learning this information we understand that the English castles names
originated from not only one language, but also different sources. For that reason, the
English castles names have various origins.
REFERENCES
1. http://primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/celts.htm
2. http://primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/Castles.html
3. http://www.guide-to-castles-of-europe.com/english-castles.html
4. http://primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/castles/normancastles.htm
5. http://primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/castles/motteandbailey.htm
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camelot
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APPROACHES TO SHEAKESPEARE S OTHELLO
Sevda Huseynova
Qafqaz University
ABSTRACT
Othello is the tragedy of a noble hero brought down by a fatal flaw -- jealousy -- in his character.
Shakespeare's other great tragedies -- Hamlet, King Lear and Macbeth -- deal with issues that affect the
well-being of entire nations, whereas Othello is a domestic tragedy with timeless themes such as love, hate,
jealousy, intrigue, revenge, trust, suspicion, self-interest, racism, judgment and reason. Here we have
humanity in all its dazzling diversity.
Key words: Otello, tragedy, love, jealousy, humanity.

There is hardly a person in this world that doesnt know anything or at least never
heard the name of Shakespeare. This figure is famous not only because of his talent and
masterpieces in literature, but for his enigmatic life as well. Only some general facts
are known about him and his life, but the certain part of his life is still covered with
mystery.
John Shakespeare and Mary Arden had a child in April of 1564 in Stratford-upon-
Avon. It is not possible to find the record of his birth, but the baptism was written in
church and thus his birth date is considered to be the 23d of April. His father was
alderman in the same town. The sources do not provide enough information about the
youth of Shakespeare, it is known that he attended the Stratford Grammar School and
then could not proceed to Oxford or Cambridge. In the year 1582 he married the girl,
whose name was Anne Hathaway. They had a daughter in a year and later on twins. By
the year 1589 people talked about Shakespeare as about an actor, a poet and a playwright.
Later he joined The Lord Chamberlains Men-this was a really famous acting troupe
in London. In 1599 this troupe lost lease of the theatre called The Theatre; they had
enough money to build their own theater - The Globe. It was opened in July 1599,
the motto of it was: Totus mundus agit historionem meaning a whole world of
players (J. Bate, 85).By the year 1603 James the first came to throne and the troupe
was renamed into Kings Men. In their patent was mentioned that they are free to
use and exercise the art and faculty of playing Comedies, Tragedies, Histories, Interludes,
Morals, Pastorals, stage plays as well for recreation of our loving subjects as for
our solace and pleasure. (S. Wells, 335). Thus the entertaining programs for the king
started and then lasted for another ten years, afterwards the theatre burned. The theatre
was reconstructed and Shakespeare contributed to this reconstruction, but he never
returned to the stage again, he went on writing his works and at the age of 52, on the
same day he was born, he died.
Shakespeare is the author of many masterpieces; one of them is his play Othello.
If to take the period between 1603 and 1604 Othello is the most remarkable tragedy
written by Shakespeare. In Othello we find the combination of most vital human emotions
and feelings hate and love. The story is serious and ironical. We can not judge about
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any point of view because there is no narrator in a play, the play tells the audience about
an honest and noble man who can be influenced so that he is ready to kill the woman
he loves. This tragedy is well known all over the world and there are even set phrases
about the main hero and his jealousy.
The main plot of the tragedy comes from Giraldi Clinthios Gli Hecatommithi that
was a tale about love and betrayal. But the characters and themes still differ a lot.
Shakespeare pays more attention to human nature and psychology. The important
difference lies for example in the motivations that Iago had, in the version of Cithio
Iago just wanted to revenge on Desdemona for her refusal, in the Shakespeares play
the situation is more complicated.
The play of Shakespeare is as well connected with the important matter in Europe
at that time, the Muslim religion and culture and their relations with West. The play
was written a century later after the Muslims were moved from Spain, and the readers
and audience could feel the hostility towards Othello because of his origin, religion
beliefs and culture. The conflict between Venice and Turks presents the same hostility
between West and East. The Venetians are trying to protect Christendom from the
coming influence of Muslim Turks, the irony is in the fact that Othello is sent to manage
this mission.
Some researches state that Othello is a good example of Aristotelian drama: there
are not many characters in the play, for Shakespeare this was actually the smallest set
of characters, some certain distractions from the main plot line and concentration on
several themes, including for example jealousy in this case. This play of Shakespeare
proves to be of a great interest for its readers from the very moment it appeared.

REFERENCES
1. G. B. Harrison, Shakespeares Tragedies (ROUTLEDGE and KEGAN PAUL LTD, Broadway
House,68-74 Carter Lane, London, E.C.4)
2. G. Taylor, Reinventing Shakespeare (1989); 98-265
3. J. Bate, The Genius of Shakespeare (1997); 2-87
4. Prof. Dr. Sh. Khalilli and S. Magill, Shakespeares English Historic Plays (Qafqaz University Press,
N: 41, Baku, 2009)
5. S. Greenblatt, Will in the World (2004), 13-19
6. S. Wells, ed., Current Approaches to Shakespeare: Language, Text, Theatre, and Ideology (1988);
333-335
7. Vilyam ekspirin seilmi srlri, Sabir Mustafayev (ndr nriyyat, Bak, 2004)
8. www.enotes.com
9. www.wikipedia.org



175





CONFERENCE MATERIALS





E DUC AT I ON

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MODERN APPROACHES IN ENGLISH
LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Shirley A. Stanley
Qafqaz University, Baku, 27 April, 2012
I would like to thank all of you for coming together today to discuss one of the most
important activities necessary in an institution of higher learning RESEARCH.
Oftentimes, I am hesitant to spend conference time thanking individuals on such
an occasion as this because there is always the risk of omitting the name of some one
person who has been essential for the creation of my presentation. On this occasion,
however, I would be negligent if I did not publicly thank at least a few people. If your
name is not on this list, please know that you are still important to this work. I have
shortened the public listing only due to time and space constraints.
First, I want to thank the Rektor, Dr. Ahmet Sanic, and CAG Education Systems
for allowing me the privilege of participating in the work of this great university named
Qafqaz University. Next, it is essential to thank Cehun Mikayilov, a mathematician on
the Qafqaz Faulty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of World
Economy. Without this man, it would have been impossible to prepare my presentation
quickly and skillfully for you today. He has proven to be a mathematician, statistician,
and scholar of the highest order. Kaitlin Ward, my colleague and friend has generously
taught me much in the short time I have known her. She is herself a superb educator
who really cares about her students. Yagut Bakhshaliyeva is a native Azerbaijani
renaissance woman. This woman has talent in so many different areas, that it will be
impossible for Qafqaz to utilize all of her many skills and insights. It will be impossible
simply because of the large number of things this woman knows and can do. Without
Yagut, I would not have survived those first weeks at Qafqaz University.
Of course, I want to thank the Faculty of Pedagogy of the Department of English
Language and Literature, who specifically invited me to participate in this conference.
Research is essential.
In order to give this subject due respect, I must state plainly, Without research,
there is no university.
Without research, there is no university!
Without research, there may be a school or there may be a building in which teachers
give instruction to students, but without research, this entity is not a university.
Why is it important for you as teachers to conduct research?
1. Without research, you cannot know what fields must be taught.
2. Without research, you cannot know which things within a given field need to be
taught.
3. Without research, you cannot know who to teach.
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4. Without research, you cannot know how to teach.
5. Without research, you cannot know if your teaching was successful.
If you are teaching using the exact same methods and educational strategies you
used when you graduated and obtained your initial degree, you are not teaching well.
If you are teaching using the exact same methods and educational strategies you
used last term, you are not teaching well.
If you are teaching by blindly following a canned curriculum or course exactly
as presented by another person or company, you are not teaching well.
What things are necessary in order to do research?
1. Curiosity, or an inquiring mind
2. An open mind
3. Knowledge of effective techniques for the different types of research.
4. Knowledge of statistics
5. Willingness to expend time and energy in personal learning
When should you be doing research?
You should be doing research at all times you are not sleeping.
Informally, you do research constantly. You might research to select the best market
to buy good vegetables at a fair price. You might research the best method of transpor-
tation for commuting to Qafqaz University. This is continually occurring informal
research that most human beings do constantly as part of their everyday lives.
Formal research should be just as ubiquitous as the informal research you do in
order to make decisions in your everyday life.
Formal research allows you to live your teaching life as skillfully as you live your
human life.
I spend a minimum of two hours of preparation time for every single hour of class
time where I am actively engaged in working with students. A portion of this preparation
time is always devoted to devising research methods and strategies for use in my
classroom as well as for analyzing the results of that research which has been conducted
already.
This is because I change my teaching methods based upon the results of my continual
research.
I will share with you a few tidbits from a bit of research I did with my students the
first week of this term. I did this research so that I could effectively teach best. In other
words, this research was not conducted for the purposes of presenting at this conference.
Instead, it was conducted because I am a teacher and I needed to research my students
in order to tailor specific teaching strategies to the students I have. Otherwise, I would
be devising teaching methods and strategies based upon some mythical, usual or
average student. If that mythical student was not like MY student, then those same
old same old or standard teaching methodologies would be ineffective.
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One size shirt will not fit every person attending this conference. One way of
teaching will not fit every student and every situation.
Simply being present in a class with students and teaching in some way does not
equal teaching effectively in much the same way as copying or memorizing does not
equal student learning.
As part of my first week of the new term, I prepared and executed a survey. All of
my students were asked to complete the survey. The survey was written utilizing methods
research has indicated would be most likely to be effective. Next, the surveys were
distributed in class. That class period was spent discussing vocabulary words used in
the survey and the meanings of the questions themselves were discussed. The students
were given the opportunity to ask questions if they did not understand anything at all
on the survey. Only AFTER all this had been done did the students begin their completion
of the survey.
The survey responses were tabulated, and then placed into the form of pie graphs.
While this is useful even at this step, there is further analysis to be made in order
to gain the most useful information for planning for students.
In interpreting the results of the survey, many things must be taken into account. For
example, did the students really understand the question? Did the student understand
the meaning of the possible responses? Did the students know how to mark the survey
in order to indicate the students real opinions? It must be realized that humans of all
ages tend to over-represent in certain areas of inquiry and under-represent in other areas
of inquiry. (How do we know this? We know this from research.)
This is why learning effective techniques for conducting research is essential. If
you do not know the difference between a p value for example and an n value then
it is difficult for you to be an effective researcher. If you do not understand fully the
difference between data and information then it is impossible for you to conduct
effective research.
How can you gain these necessary skills? Take courses in research design and inter-
pretation. Study statistics. Have the good fortune to have a statistician as a friend. There
are innumerable things can be done to improve your ability to conduct effective, useful
research.
Effective research improves the students ability to learn, the teachers ability to
instruct skillfully, and raises the status of your profession. Research does this for your
profession by adding to the collective knowledge available to everyone in your field
as they pursue work in teaching. The more the group knows, the better each individual
can practice.
The world is ever changing and complex. Research is the only way to know reality.
If one does not function in the context of reality, then one is just expending effort without
making a positive change or improvement.
The following represents a simplified and abbreviated rendering of the results of
this survey. While I did not have time to specifically include the entire survey or the
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actual wording you may still get the idea of how research is useful in the everyday
teacher/student relationship.
Week One Survey
Shirley A Stanleys Communication Level 4 students Qafqaz University
How many hours a day do you watch television programs in English?

How many hours a day do you listen to radio programs in English

How many?

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How many times a week do you practice English outside of class?

How many times a week outside of class do you actively seek people
with whom to speak English?

I follow English directions or recipes that are written in English

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INTRODUCING AUTHENTIC LITERATURE
TO AN EFL CLASSROOMS
Aynur Bashirova
Undergraduate student
Ganja StateUniversity
The supervisor is Mehdi Rahimov
ABSTRACT
This paper is a review of literature on how literature can be integrated as a language teaching material
in EFL/ESL classes. First, it tracks down the place of literature in language classes from the early Grammar
Translation Method (GTM) to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) era. The paper then discusses
the reasons for the demise and resurrection of literature as an input for language classes. After that the
reasons for and against the use of literature in EFL/ESL classes are enumerated and discussed. Ill draw
upon recent ideas on language teaching practice and theories. Finally in a practical move, this paper reviews
the past and current approaches to teaching literature in language teaching classes. Literature for language
teaching and learning purposes are deliberated and carefully reflected upon. Literature, in spite of some
weak points it might have as any language teaching material might possess, provides a motivating drive
for language learning and teaching due to its spectacular features not readily found in any other texts. Finally,
in order to practically establish these merits, some of the main methodological approaches to teaching
literature are put forward. Relevant practical classroom techniques can be discerned from these models.
Key Words: EFL, Teaching , GTM ,CLT.
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Introducing Authentic Literature to an EFL Classrooms
It cannot be denied that in universities the language-literature divide in modern
foreign language departments is well-known and longstanding nevertheless, the sepa-
ration of language from literature in practice involves no rigid dichotomy because no
teacher of literature ignores linguistic problems and no language teacher really wants
to leave his students speaking an impoverished version of the language. Researchers
have argued that literature is valuable authentic and motivating material, which is con-
ducive to students linguistic development, personal involvement, and cultural enrichment.
To maximize the benefits of literature teaching in language classrooms, selection of
literary text is a crucial issue. Criteria for literature selection generally involve two
aspects: students and the text itself. Regarding the students, the literary text selected
should cater for the students tastes, interests and hobbies, and should take into consi-
deration their linguistic proficiency, cultural background, and literary background.
Given the above criteria, selection of literary texts should partly depend on the target
students needs and preferences. However, in many literature teaching in language
classrooms, students attitudes toward literature are often neglected or not given due
attention. Instead, the literary texts selected are usually determined by curriculum
authorities, materials writers, or classroom practitioners. But these professionals pre-
ferences of literature might not be similar to students, and their assumptions of which
literary text will be motivating and appropriate for students might not always be correct.
Since students are the main beneficiary of literature teaching, and investigations or
surveys of students attitudes toward literature are also less conducted in research, it is
worthwhile to investigate students attitudes toward literature and their preferences over
different literary genres. Nevertheless, the main purpose of these studies was to examine
the effects of that particular literary genre on EFL students development of language
skills. Therefore, students positive attitude toward the literary texts taught might be in-
terpreted as their acknowledgement of literary texts as useful instructional materials,
but probably not as their true appreciation of literature for literatures own sake.
Literature is considered as a promising tool for language learning purposes. There
are various advantages for the use of literature in EFL/ESL classes. The merits of lite-
rature in EFL/ESL include: Authenticity, Motivation,Cultural/Intercultural Awareness
and Globalization,Intensive/Extensive Reading Practice, Sociolinguistic/Pragmatic
Knowledge, Grammar and Vocabulary Knowledge, Language Skills, Emotional Intel-
ligence, Critical Thinking.
Literary text selection is based on the following criteria. First, the texts should in-
clude works of different genres. Second, the texts should include works of familiar,
established writers, or works with classic status It is because such texts have more face
validity and are more easily recognized by EFL students as literature. Moreover, since
this experiment was to enable students to experience literature, I consider it essential
to include some classic literature, especially those which the students may have known
the titles but are probably unfamiliar with the contents. Third, the texts should have a
connection with students here and now learning context. It would be motivating for
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students to study the literature which is currently being discussed in their society, par-
ticularly when that literature has been interpreted through other media, such as movies
or musicals. In preparing, I explored the possibility of computer-assisted literature
teaching (CALT). Nowadays, technology has made teaching and learning easier and
more efficient. Nevertheless, most of the technological applications are concerned with
language teaching and learning (e.g. the widespread applications and discussions of com-
puter-assisted language learning), and there have been few technological applications
regarding literature teaching and learning. Since there are also countless literature re-
sources online, teachers should be encouraged to use them to make their literature class
more interesting. It is expected that having students experience literature in different
modes of delivery may add variety and pleasure to literature classes. Moreover, literature
in music, pictures, or films might motivate students to read literature in print. Compared
with the substantial amount of research on students attitude toward general foreign
language study, research on students attitude toward literature is quite slim. Students
Perceptions of Literature investigates university students attitudes toward the study
of literature in a foreign language as well as the factors affecting their opinions about
literature in general. Moreover, two factors were found to be significantly related to their
attitudes toward literature study, namely, the amount of leisure reading done in the foreign
language, and the preferred learning styles, such as being given opportunities to express
their personal opinions, to look for the underlying meaning of the text, and to read about
people and experiences different from their own. In other words, students attitude toward
literature may be influenced not only by their own reading habits but also by the teachers
instructional methods. It is possible that students have different perceptions of literature
for pleasure (i.e. reading literature for its own sake) and literature for instrumental
use (e.g. reading literature to sharpen language skills).
REFERENCES:
1. Brumfit, C.J.(1981). Reading skills and the study of literature in a foreign language. System 9.3, 243248.
2. www.onestopenglish.com
3. Baird, A. (1976). The study and teaching of literature.ELT Journal XXX, 281286

QUALIFIED EDUCATION AND ITS GLORIOUS FUTURE
Aygun Guliyeva
Undergraduate student
Ganja State University
Supervisor M. Rahimov
kulieva_87@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
My current article is about the productive teaching method of grammar. Here I offer different methods
of teaching so that to improve the teaching quality and to provide our education system with new methods
that belong to my own experience. Education is the future of nation by Heydar Aliyev Education is
regarded as the base system and the inseparable part of the government. Of course, while speaking of the
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target matter, our national leader took into consideration a deeply rooted and a qualified education system.
As a future young teacher, the burden of a good education lies in our shoulders, I'd say.
It is a real fact that if any of the students of foreign language faculty is asked What do you want to
become? -among the 100% of the given answers you'll hardly be able to hear any opinion like I want to
be a teacher. So, there is a serious obstacle in the methodology of teaching process. As the grammar is
regarded as the backbone of the language, I found it necessary to touch upon the teaching of this aspect.
Most students, especially those who want to access language learning run away from the ridged grammar
rules as far as possible. The theme of my dissertation work is modality. Thats why I'll draw your atention
to this side of grammar.
Key words: Education, modality, methods.

In the center of all processes stands the problem of human being -an individual,
a person with certain psychological character, with his complicated qualities. In all these
complications there appears an urgent need to express one's feelings in foreign language.
Fairly speaking, I improved my English in this way. Every time when I listened to my
heart, every time when I heard its constant beatings there was a great need to utter it in
English. So, I had to look up dictionary for any unknown word that I didnt know. But,
of course, the chain of words is not sufficient for expressing deeper emotions. This is
here that modality comes to answer our calls. Modality is the life itself, I would say.
To teach modality just on the basis of strict, ridged grammar rules will lose its beauty,
its significance. If we carry on like this, students will pay no attention either to the
teacher or to the lesson she teaches.
For example, while speaking of the modal verb can and its function denoting phy-
sical or mental ability, if you cite such an example as I can speak English then wait
nothing from your teaching method. As John Locke said: It is difficult to instruct
children because of their natural inattention; the true mode, of course, is to first make
our modes interesting to them.
I offer my own method: Try to start the lesson with construction once upon a
time as if you are going to narrate a tale of something mysterious or with such
gestures, intonations and emotions as though you speak of your personal life (students
are curious about their teacher's personal life-especially when she is young and pretty).
They will glaze at what you are talking about. Even the most chatter-box girls will be
eager about what you are going to say later. Speak about love matters, marriage relation-
ship and include the grammar lesson that you are going to teach in this frame. In case
of choosing examples appropriate to any grammar rule give such sentences that reflect
the moral commotions of your students. For example: You could put all the hearts
together in the world and that still wouldnt describe how much I love you instead of I
could speak English when I was a child while teaching the use of modal verbs could,
would, or may you never feel what I then felt, may your eyes never shed such stormy,
heart-wrung tears as poured from mine instead of may I use your phone?.
Stimulate your students. Ask them to write compositions on the matters they are
mostly interested in, as Friendship between Men and Women. It will help them to
enrich the bulk of vocabulary. In my monthly pedagogical experiment I gave them such
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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instruction. Results admired everyone. Even one of the students had drawn a beautiful
picture under her writing. I hung it from the board of glory.
Praise them, but no often. Ask some questions those who are morally far away from
the lesson as if you are interested in them and whether they have girl-friends or not (in
most cases it belongs to boys). They will awake from their sleep. Ask them to write
their opinions about their friends in English. But don't forget: they have to use current
grammar rule or speech pattern. Because we have our definite aim-to involve them and
teach by this method.
Speak about your achievements. Be sincere as much as possible. They will appreciate
you and ask questions that they are interested in. run away of using any word that will
insult them. Dont be rude.
At the end of my article I'd like to stress that a responsible teacher is a real treasure
of the future development of the state system. Thats all what I noticed in my monthly
pedagogical experiment.
REFERENCES
1. V.L. Kaushanskaya A grammar of the English language, Baki, 2004
2. Http: arts.uwaterloo.ca/~oops/quotes.php.


THE ROLE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
Sadigli Aysel
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
sadiqli.aysel@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
September 20th, 1994 after 3,5 years of arduous negotiations, Contract of the Century was signed to
develop Azerbaijan's Caspian oil reserves.
At that time there were a number of barriers one of which was knowledge of English for implementation
of the Contract. Workers in oil fields were not able to communicate, report or evaluate in English. Even
those who knew English had no idea of applying it in industrial operations. Where was the solution? Employ
all the workers from abroad? The project was believed to open new opportunities and ensure thousands
of occupations.
Key words: English, education, oil, gas.

A group of scientists proposed to teach the workers the English language. For the
first time, thanks to Agreement of total $7.4 billion investment, workers started to learn
English. But there was no time for teaching them Alphabet by means of the following
clich:
A is for Apple, B is for Book, C is for Cat.
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The new approach was introduced, carrying out all the lessons not at the desk but
in oil fields. The industry urgently needed technology, education and specialists. The
scientific exchange started where visitors from Baku were sent for learning new methods
of well deepening and exploitation.
The new Alphabet was:
A for Assessment,
B for Barrel,
C for Capacity.
The birthplace of the international oil industry, Azerbaijan by realization of the
Contract of the Century gained a brilliant result in conducting right oil policy. This
Contract gave opportunity to thousands of workers to integrate in World oil industry
by learning English as an international language. Language barrier was very important
for cooperation and experience exchange.
When we begin to learn a foreign language, we usually use a book whose first
chapters are filled with: "Hello, how are you? My name is Jane." Of course, that would
seem easier to learn, but there was no time to wait for years until the workers manage
the challenge of mastering another tongue.
One of the modern approaches of teaching was Heinrich Schliemann's method.
The famous 19th-century German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890),
who pursued a life-long dream of excavating the remains of Homeric Troy, no doubt
was a genius for language. Within two years, he taught himself fluent Dutch, English,
French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, and later learnt seven more languages, including
both modern and ancient Greek.
How could we, who generally consider ourselves lucky if we manage to learn only
one or two foreign languages in entire lifetime, not be curious about the method he used?
"In order to acquire quickly the Greek vocabulary," Schliemann wrote, "I procured a
modern Greek translation of 'Paul et Virginie' [a French novel; Schliemann already
knew French], and read it through, comparing every word with its equivalent in the
French original. When I had finished this task I knew at least one half the Greek words
the book contained; and after repeating the operation I knew them all, or nearly so,
without having lost a single minute by being obliged to use a dictionary. I never lost
my precious time in studying grammar rules."
He doesn't say how he learned to pronounce ancient Greek, but since nobody speaks
it any more, this probably didn't really matter to him too much. Oil workers were taught
English by this way. They knew the process and terminology. The only thing workers had
to do was studying reports, manuals in two languages by comparing every single word.
The other modern approach is between learning music and learning languages.
Musicians are known to have a special talent for picking up new languages. There are
many famous classical musicians who speak several languages with relative ease. Nor-
mally, we attribute this ability to the musician's superior listening skills, and this is no
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doubt part of it: the more we train ourselves to listen carefully, the better we will be able
to pronounce foreign words.
Obviously, mastering a foreign language has much to do with our natural talents.
German Grand Master of Chess, Robert Hbner in his article described his visit to
Hungary, but unfortunately, he didn't speak the language. He bought a good book, boar-
ded the train, and when he arrived in Budapest after an eight-hour journey, he could
speak Hungarian more than well enough to get by. Presumably, Herr Hbner had a
photographic memory and an extremely high IQ.
Make a commitment to your goal, and follow through on it with enthusiasm, even
obsession: that's the surest ticket to learning a foreign language in record time!
Just as it's important to have the "feel" of a piece of music in order to play it well,
you must also have the "sense" of a language.
REFERENCES
1. Mir-Babayev, M.F., Brief chronology of the history of Azerbaijans oil business. Baku, Sabah,
2004, 200 s. ISBN 978-5-86106-083-7
2. Mir-Babayev, M.F., "The Contribution of Azerbaijan to the World's Oil Industry", "Reservoir"
(Canada), Issue 3, March, 2011, pp. 3031.
3. http://www.language-learning-tips.com/17_Schliemanns_method.htm
4. http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/24_folder/24_articles/24_aioc.html
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_industry_in_Azerbaijan#.22Contract_of_the_Century.22_and_
following_years.


MODERN APPROACHES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Echon Mendoza Alina
Undergraduate Student
Odlar Yurdu University
echonmendozalina@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
My report is about 4 main problems in our modern education system, problems that every student,
every university, every teacher has to deal with. But if well be brave enough to face them and analyze
realities of education problems we can get rid of them. The first problem that had been touched in my report
is disinterest in the subject studied by students. There are some tips for teachers to make their lessons more
interesting. The second problem that I want to emphasize is the incompetence of teachers and hesitation
of teachers to develop their knowledge in a modern ways and denial of new books and methods. I described
some new methods and literature that students would be more interested to learn. The third problem that
I point out in my report is absence of modern equipment in most of local universities, which leads to
students disinterest in learning. The forth problem is absence of student assessment methods which could
divide students according to their knowledge level. Besides these four, there are many other significant
problems touched and described in my report.
Key words: teaching methods, problems, literature, students, solution.
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Learning foreign language is not an easy task. The primary goal of teachers (that
is alive people, not any self-study methods) is to simplify the learning process and help
students to overcome any obstacles on the road of mastering the new skills. I would
like to draw your attention to the 4 main difficulties teachers usually experience, and
which modern educational system still can't deal with.
The first problem is disinterest in the subject studied by students. There may be
two reasons correspond for this.
1. Inability of teacher to present material under study the right way.
2. Wrong choice of profession (teacher or translator) or wrong choice of target language
by students & lack of motivation.
If the student is doubting about English as target language, the teacher should ex-
plain that: over 410 mln people speak English as a first language, with over 1 mlrd (2007)
speaking it as an additional language.
1
It is the official language of the United Nations
and aviation. Its the most widely used language in science and on the Internet. If two
non-native speakers want to communicate, its likely theyll do it in English. English
is the international language that gives many opportunities.
About doubts choosing profession: actually teacher cant predetermine the choice
of each student, mostly the choice is dictated by parents (according to their family tra-
ditions or social status) or society (social trends), but teacher can direct study in path
of interest of student.
About inability of teacher to present material under study on a right way:
There are about 10 well known methods and approaches of teaching English language.
What is a teaching method?
Teaching method is a way of teaching a language which is based on systematic
principles and procedures, i.e., which is an application of views on how a language is
best taught and learned.
2

Methods of language teaching include:
1. Grammar-translation approach
2. Direct approach or the natural method
3. Reading approach
4. Audio-lingual method
5. Suggestopedia
6. Total Physical Response (TPR)
7. Communicative language teaching (CLT)
8. Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP)
9. Task-based method
10. The silent way
3

But along this methods teacher should use alternative methods considering the
physiological characteristics and the need of each student.
As in my opinion:
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1. Karaoke-is one of the greatest non-traditional ways of learning English as a spoken
language.
2. Second is crossword, puzzles, quizzes, Wheel of fortune - this kind of interactive
games does not bore students and develops their thinking skills, learning new words
broaden vocabulary
3. Conversations or conversation clubs on a different interesting actual topic, so students
can stay up to date Also on this conversation clubs students can discuss poetry,
written by them or written by their favorite authors. It will also expand their vocabulary.
4. Movies with subtitles-so students can hear daily conversations and get used to them.
5. Reading interesting novels, fiction, English literature classics and further discussion
expands vocabulary of students. Reading literature is also important for students'
moral development.
6. Using audio materials .Learning and repeating them under teachers control.
As we see teachers main goal should be the expanding of students vocabulary
because:
The importance of vocabulary
2000 words is recognized as the absolute minimum a language learner needs the
survival level
knowing 2000 words means that about 80% of a text will be understood( or 1 in
5 words will be unknown)
knowing 10 000 words means that 93% of a text will be understood this is the
ideal target for a language learner.
4

The second major problem is the incompetence of teachers and hesitation of teachers
to develop their knowledge in a modern ways and denial of new books and methods.
Despite the boring titles, often forced upon high school students, classics of British
literature have well-paced plots and interesting stories.
Surely every high school student has had to read at one time or another one of the
interminably long and dry books that English teachers love to call "classics" and make a
class read agonizingly slowly over a period of months. Something like, oh, Charles
Dickens' Great Expectations comes to mind. There's nothing wrong with the book, except
that it is too long and too dry and too often read in English classes. It is not any more
impressive the second time it is required than the first, either. Perhaps the problem is
that teachers spend too much time psychoanalyzing the main characters.
At any rate, there do exist classics that have well-paced plots and interesting stories
to tell, however few and far between. The primary feature of such interesting books
seems to be that they introduce relatively surprising plot twists that serve to carry the
momentum of reading. Second, they have interesting characters that the reader learns
to truly care about as they go through the events of the book. Third, they realistically
and accurately depict an era of history, by being set either in the era of the author, which
is still historical to a modern reader, or further back in history than the author. Highlighted
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here are three classics that possess each of these features. A Tale of Two Cities, by
Charles Dickens In case it seemed that way by the criticism of Great Expectations, for
the record there is nothing wrong with Dickens himself. In fact, he wrote one of the best
classics of all time, A Tale of Two Cities, which is a heart-wrenchingly accurate story
set during the French Revolution about two men who look almost identical, and the
heroic sacrifice of one of them. The two cities are London and Paris, and the two men
are Charles Darnay, a French nobleman, and Sydney Carton, an English lawyer. While
the opening statement, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times..." is one of
the more famous quotes from English literature, the ending is just as memorable. How-
ever, it is generally only known by those who have read the book. No spoilers here.
Wade through Dickens' rambling text and uncover a gem of a story.
The Scarlet Pimpernel by Baroness Orczy
If you are interested in the French Revolution and think A Tale of Two Cities is
accurate, take a look at The Scarlet Pimpernel. Not only is the setting accurate, but
Orczy wrote about people who actually existed. The Scarlet Pimpernel itself is the code
name for an English aristocrat who is smuggling refugees out of Paris during the Re-
volution. The book is crafted as a mystery, so that even the reader is not told the identity
of this man until at least halfway through the book, because he is extremely clever at
hiding his identity and pretending to be much less clever than he really is. Throw in some
romance, betrayal, and disguises, and get a really captivating story. Orczy originally
wrote the story as a play, which became very popular. She also went on to write a series
of sequels about the Scarlet Pimpernel and his family, but only the original book is
very commonly read.
The Woman in White by Wilkie Collins
This book is an early form of the modern detective novel. Walter Hartwright meets
and rescues the "woman in white" of the title on the way to a new job working for Mr.
Fairlie. When he arrives, he is extremely surprised to meet Mr. Fairlie's beautiful niece
Laura, because she closely resembles the woman in white. Add insanity, deceit, an
unwanted betrothal, and multiple shifting points of view to produce a very interesting
plot that unwinds slowly, with several surprising twists.
There are others, as well, but these three are a good place to start. Further reading
might include some of the Scarlet Pimpernel sequels, or perhaps some French or German
literature. The third problem in our local universities is absence of modern equipment.
As fact students cant show their slides, movies or audio files. As a result students may
lose their interest of doing some interesting projects at home and be less enthusiastic.
Or, for example, phonetic lessons are impossible without laboratory lessons with head
phones. As a solution of this problem I will suggest students to write petitions to dean
or administration of universities.
The forth problem of our educational system in teaching foreign language is
inability of teachers to choose the right materials and literature for students with different
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knowledge levels. Our university systems syllabus and books seems same for every
student. But in some universities there is test based system that allocates students to
classes according to their knowledge.
Despite of all problems and defects that our education system has students desire
to learn language is determinative.
END NOTE
1. Wikipedia
2. Anthony Edward M. Approach, Method and Technique. ELT Journal, Oxford University Press.1963.
3. Diane Larsen-Freeman. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press,
USA; 2 edition (May 11, 2000)
4. Anthony Edward M. Approach, Method and Technique. ELT Journal, Oxford University Press.1963.
REFERENCES
1. Charles Dickens. A Tale of Two Cities. Signet classic, 1997
2. Willkie Collins .The Woman in White. Arcturus Publishing Limited, (June 11, 2011)
3. Baroness Emmuska Orczy. The Scarlet Pimpernel. Simon & Brown, (November 29, 2011)
4. Diane Larsen-Freeman. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press,
USA; 2 edition (May 11, 2000)
5. Anthony Edward M. Approach, Method and Technique. ELT Journal, Oxford University Press.1963.

USING POEMS TO DEVELOP PRODUCTIVE SKILLS
Elchin Hamidov
Undergraduate Student
Shaki branch of The Azerbaijan Teachers Institute
ABSTRACT
Poems are, after all, authentic texts. This is a great motivator. Poems are often rich in cultural references,
and they present a wide range of learning opportunities. Teach English through poetry, not to teach the
poetry itself, so you don't need to be a literature expert. Communicative speaking activities: As a way in
to a poem, I might play some background music to create the atmosphere, show some pictures to introduce
the topic, and then get students to think about their personal knowledge or experience which relates to this
topic. Working on pronunciation: The teacher reads the poem to them or play a recording, and they identify
the stresses and pauses. We take a chunk at a time, and one half of the class claps out the rhythm while the
other half beats time, and then they swap over. I recite while they mumble rhythmically, and then as their
confidence grows they could chant in a whisper, a shout, or show a range of emotion.
Writing activities: A poem can spark off some wonderful creative writing. Students can write a letter to
a character in the poem, write about what happened before the beginning or after the ending of the poem
and so on.
Key words: Poems, productive skill, education.

Poems are, after all, authentic texts. This is a great motivator. Poems are often rich
in cultural references, and they present a wide range of learning opportunities. For me,
the aim is to teach English through poetry, not to teach the poetry itself, so you don't
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need to be a literature expert. Most of the tried and tested activities used regularly by
language teachers can be adapted easily to bring poetry into the classroom.
Communicative speaking activities
Before doing any productive work, the teacher must give the students plenty of
pre-reading activities so that they are adequately prepared.
As a way in to a poem, I might play some background music to create the atmosphere,
show some pictures to introduce the topic, and then get students to think about their
personal knowledge or experience which relates to this topic.
They then talk about the poem, first with a partner and then in small groups, perhaps
coming together as a class at the end to share ideas. The teacher monitors and feeds in
ideas and vocabulary if necessary, gives brief feedback on language used and notes any
language problems to be dealt with at a later date.
The teacher prepares worksheets for pre-reading speaking activities which might
involve a quiz, a questionnaire, sentence stems to be completed and discussed, state-
ments to be ranked and discussed, and so on.
Students might predict endings to verses, the whole poem, or events occurring after
the end of the poem.
Afterwards, the students could talk about their personal response to the poem,
discuss the characters and theme, or debate the moral issues.
Role plays work well, interviewing a partner, or even dramatizing the poem and
making a video. Students could compare poems on related topics, with different groups
working on different poems and then regrouping to pool their ideas.
Working on pronunciation
It can be fun to get students to rehearse and perform a poem. The teacher reads the
poem to them or play a recording, and they identify the stresses and pauses.
We take a chunk (usually a line, sometimes two) at a time, and one half of the class
claps out the rhythm while the other half beats time, and then they swap over.
I recite while they mumble rhythmically, and then as their confidence grows they
could chant in a whisper, a shout, or show a range of emotion. For me, this tends to
work best when it is improvised. I keep it snappy - it's a high energy activity, and you
have to know and trust each other!
I sometimes do intensive phoneme work centred on the rhyming patterns in the poem:
Some poems are crying out to be exploited in this way. I elicit possible rhymes before
revealing the poet's choice, and discuss which suggestions have exactly the same sound
and which don't, leading to a minimal pair activity.
Writing activities
A poem can spark off some wonderful creative writing. Students can add more lines
or stanzas individually or in pairs or groups.
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They can write a letter to a character in the poem, write about what happened before
the beginning or after the ending of the poem and so on.
Students could use the poem as a starting point and model for some parallel writing:
Each group might contribute a verse to a collective poem (or rap).
Genre transfer presents a lot of opportunities for writing practice; letters, diary
entries, radio plays, newspaper articles, agony aunt columns all based on the original
text from a poem.
My students have found reformulation exercises very stimulating, where they switch
between formal and informal language.
Longer poems can be summarized in fifty words.
It is also fun to get students to transform content words to synonyms or antonyms
and then discuss the subtleties of vocabulary.
REFERENCES
1. Austin, JL, 1962. How To Do Things With Words Harvard University Press
2. Maley, A and Duff, A, 1982 (2nd Edition). Drama Techniques in Language Learning CUP
3. McRae, J, 1985. Using Drama in the Classroom. Pergamon Press
4. Phillips, S. Drama With Children Oxford University Press
5. Soyinka, W, 1984. Six Plays: (inc) The Trails of Brother Jero, Methuen
6. White, R.V. 1988, The ELT Curriculum: Design, Innovation and Management. Oxford: Blackwell
7. Wessels, Charlyn, 1987. Drama (Resource Books for Teachers) Oxford University Press.

THE INCREASE OF INTERPERSONAL REGARD
AND UNDERSTANDING
Elnara Sevdimova
Undergraduate student
Shaki Branch of The Azerbaijan Teachers Institute
ABSTRACT
There are four communication skills described by Schmuck and chmuck(2001), that people can use
to make the process of sending and receiving messages more effective and thereby reduce the gap in
communication .Two of these skills assist the sender; two assist the receiver. Paraphrase- Paraphrasing is
a skill for checking whether or not you understand the ideas being communicated to you. Paraphrasing is
more than word swapping or merely saying back what another person says. Describes Behavior- In using
behavior description, one person reports specific observable behaviors of another person without evaluating
them or making inferences about the other's motives. Describe Feelings- Although people often take pains
to make sure that others understand their ideas, only rarely do they describe how they are feeling. Instead,
they act on their feelings, sending messages that others draw inferences from. Check Impressions- Checking
impressions is a skill that complements describing your own feeling and involves checking your sense of
what is going on inside the other person. You transform the other's expression of feelings (the blush, the
silence, the tone of voice)into a tentative description of feelings and check it out for accuracy.
Key words: communication, skill, teacher, accuracy.
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There are four communication skills described by Schmuck and Schmuck (2001),
that people can use to make the process of sending and receiving messages more effective
and thereby reduce the gap in communication .
1. Paraphrase. Paraphrasing is a skill for checking whether or not you understand the
ideas being communicated to you. Any means of revealing your understanding of
a message constitutes a paraphrase. Paraphrasing is more than word swapping or
merely saying back what another person says. It answers the question, "What exactly
does the sender's statement mean to me?" and asks the sender to verify the correctness
of the receiver's interpretation. The sender's statement may convey specific infor-
mation, an example, or a more general idea
2. Describe Behavior. In using behavior description, one person reports specific ob-
servable behaviors of another person without evaluating them or making inferences
about the other's motives. If you tell me that I am rude (a trait) or that I do not care
about your opinion (my motivations) when I am not trying to be rude and do care
about your opinion, I may not understand what you are trying to communicate. How
ever, if you point out that I have interrupted you several times in the last ten minutes,
I would receive a clearer picture of how my actions were affecting you. Sometimes
it is helpful to preface a behavior description with, "I noticed that ..." or "I hear you
say..."to remind yourself that you are trying to describe specific actions.
3. Describe Feelings. Although people often take pains to make sure that others un-
derstand their ideas, only rarely do they describe how they are feeling .Instead, they
act on their feelings, sending messages that others draw inferences from. If you
think that others are failing to take your feelings into account, it is helpful to put
those feelings into words. Instead of blushing and saying nothing, try "I feel em-
barrassed" or "I feel pleased." Instead of "Shut up!" try "I hurt too much to hear any
more" or "I'm angry with you.
4. Check Impressions. Checking impressions is a skill that complements describing
your own feeling and involves checking your sense of what is going on inside the
other person. You transform the other's expression of feelings (the blush, the silence,
the tone of voice)into a tentative description of feelings and check it out for accuracy.
An impression check describes what you think the other's feelings may be and does
not express disapproval or approval. It merely conveys, "This is how I understand
your feelings. Am I accurate?" Examples include the following: "I get the impression
you are angry with me. Are you?" "Am I right that you feel disappointed that no
body commented on your suggestions?"
Often an impression check can be coupled easily with a behavior description, as in
these examples:
"Ellen, you've said nothing so far and seem upset with the class. "Jim, you've made
that proposal a couple of times. Are you feeling put down because we haven't accepted it?"
Teachers can learn and model these skills in their classrooms. They can also teach
them directly to students, just as they teach many other skills.
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REFERENCES
1. Richard . Arends. Learning to teach. USA New York -2004
2. Joanna Baker How to teach large classes with few resources. London- 2005
3. Adrienne Herrell and Michael Jordan. Fifty strategies for teaching English language learners.
Second edition. USA. California SU.-2004
4. Ulduz Murshudova. Ingilis dili drslrind interaktiv metodlardan istifad qaydalar. Bak-2007


THE NEED FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING IN EDUCATION
Esra Arslan
Undergraduate student, Qafqaz University
esraarslan12@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
In this century technology develops very rapidly. Our life style, perspectives and ideas are changing.
Everything is going positively because we can access whatever we want very easily, quickly and clearly.
Nowadays computer and internet are part of our life we use them everywhere, especially in education. In
recent times computer becomes more important teachers use computer more than before, although some
lecturers refuse using visual aids like slide show, pictures realia, songs. As a result lessons become more
interesting and useful, todays generation is accepted as technology generation. Because of the innovations
that took place in technology, positively influenced education. As a result a big deal of investment put in
to education as well as in to electronic learning. E-learning attracts students, because they dont want to
go abroad and spend millions of dollars to accommodation,travel, renting adopting new society and education.
1

The computer-assisted learning environment emerged after 1980s. The education moved to the Internet
with the development of Internet network installed among computers in 1994s. Internet-sup-ported edu-
cation has developed rapidly. Since 2000s the technology has encountered in all aspects of our lives and
changed its name as e-learning. E-Learning has developed the positive aspects of computer-supported
education and with the assistance of technology much negativity has been eliminated. E-learning is a great
chance for students to get education without having trouble with finance and society. It focuses just on
getting education.
Key words: technology, education, electronic learning (e-learning).

Electironic learning (E-Learning)
Electronic learning is a new system that contains all forms of supported learning
and teaching. This system facilitates education by the helping of information and com-
munication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve specific media to imple-
ment the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-
of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances
continue in regard to devices and curriculum.
E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and
knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-
based learning, virtual education opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is
delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-
ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text,
image, animation, streaming video and audio.
2

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E-learning is very useful in this century. Learners in front of the computer they can
follow every conference or lessons without time problem, information problem and
economical problem because of e-learning. So e- learning has two sessions, these are
synchronous learning and asynchronous learning.
Synchronous learning is students and teachers communicate with each other through
e-chats. Chat, officially give the educator and the continuation of the course before the
realization of the remote or through conversation. Generally, real-time e-learning edu-
cators Internet broadcast, simultaneously with the presentation of images and performed
with the use of smart board. Students voice or written answers to questions.
3

Asynchronous learning is learner self-governing and determines its own pace. E-
learning, teachers and students require to be online at the same time. This kind of e-
learning is called asynchronous e-learning. The materials are organized according to
classes, learning methods, such as, the problem and is included in the simulation. Each
student, during the course directly interact with the computer. Ideally, this kind of
meaningful interaction between students and their learning orientations requires lessons.
The lessons usually include assessments and tests.
4

Asynchronous Learning Synchronous Learning
Fax Telephone
E-mail Screen Sharing
Knowledge Base Chat
Forum Desktop Conferencing
Computer Based Training Online seminar
Quick Reference Guide
So learners have a lot of reason for a prefering e-learning. For ex: The most important
reason for prefer e-learning is, student doesnt have time and place problem. Anytime,
anywhere (campus,school, home, at work) we can connect our lecturer or classmates.
So we can access the information through of electronic devices and internet connection.
Another reason is this learning style is student centered. In traditional face to face
teaching method generally teacher centered in classroom and sometimes its boring for
students also in this style student must came to class and student must participate in
lesson because teacher doesnt repeat his lesson but in e-learning system is student cen-
tered. Student doesnt need to participate in classroom, and doesnt need to learn to his
or her lesson by the teacher also we can whenever we want connect our lecturer and if
we dont understand lesson we can repeat one more time till we get a lesson or subject.
Also another important point is, the cheapest way for a learning. Specially nowadays
e-learning is more common in MBA programs. Learners both they can work in their
country and they can follow master program in another country. E- learning is suitable.
In the same time students can to compose online debate session in this way students
can share their information with their friends whom from Africa, America, Japanese
China, Turkey, Azerbaijan.like these everybody is in same session and we can share
our idea with them in chat rooms. Only we need computer and internet connection. Also
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another reason is, we can access the information very fast. We touch only one button
and we connect one place to another place to fast. For these reason, we choose e-learning.
This is the great chance for us.
5

END NOTE
1. www.eogrenme.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6 accessed on 10.10.2011
2. www.howstuffworks.com/elearning1.htm accessed on 15.10.2011
3. sneg.turkcer.org.tr/eogrenme-nedir.pdf accessed on 20.11.12
4. www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/Asynchronou-
sandSynchronousELea/163445 accessed on 20.11.12
5. http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/why-e-learning-is-so-effective/
REFERENCES
1. www.eogrenme.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6
2. www.howstuffworks.com/elearning1.htm
3. sneg.turkcer.org.tr/eogrenme-nedir.pdf
4. www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/Asynchronous
andSynchronousELea/163445
5. http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/why-e-learning-is-so-effective/

INVESTIGATING THE USE OF LANGUAGE LEARNING
STRATEGIES AMONG IRANIAN EFL STUDENTS
Hamidreza Bolhari
Postgraduate Student
Islamic Azad University - South Tehran Branch
hrbolhari@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Since Language learning strategies, defined by Chamot (2005) as procedures that facilitate language
learning tasks, have a crucial role in students language learning, the present study dealt with this issue
in a two dimensional way: First, the existence of using different types of learning strategies among EFL
students was investigated; therefore, it showed that which kinds of learning strategies are overlooked and
which are favored. Second, the students opinions and feelings of each kind of strategy were discovered.
The results of first dimension were quantitatively conducted by a standard questionnaire and the other
dimension were qualitatively managed by carrying out interviews. The result of this study would be be-
neficial for students to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses in using learning strategies, and also
professors could have a thorough understanding of students current status and needs in case of language
learning strategies; and as a result, they could adopt some changes in their methodology to bold the effect of
these strategies to learners, and moreover teach and encourage students to use those overlooked learning
strategies.
Keywords: Strategy, Learning strategy, Language learning strategy.

Over the last few decades, a gradual shift has taken place, from the emphesis on
language teachers to students themselves. The reason is to make students less dependent
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to teachers and make them autonomous in learning. This change in second language
learning is very dominant. Therefore, language learning strategies which language
learners independently use in order to acquire a new language become more integral
in the process of second or foreign language learning. Therefore, This research is con-
cerned with language learning strategies which are strategies students use to learn a new
language better. Also in this article we will find out more about language learning strate-
gies. We will find out Where they are come from, how many types they have and so on.
It is an old saying which says: Instead of giving fish, teach how to fish;
therefore, in second language teaching this criteria should be take into account but
making students independent is a very difficult task in this regard, especially in some
cultures which students are strongly dependent to their teachers and they do not apt to
do things on their own decisions.
Language learning strategies are those ones which could help students to become
autonomous, but we should investigate how students should deal with these strategies,
where they can learn these strategies, and which strategies are more useful and more
popular than others.
Methodology
1. Participants. 100 students were as our participants, all of them were from 5 different
inistitutes. They were between the ages of 20 to 30. They were all randomly chosen,
and to make their level of proficiency constant I take their previous semsters
average score into account. Their average scrores were between 70 to 90 out of 100.
2. Design. This descriptive research is conducted in five different inistitutes and it
involves students of these inistitutes in case of LLS. In order to reach the appropriate
results for our research questions, two way of gathering data were used (Qualitative
and Quantitative).
3. Instruments. For the quantitative purpose I used the standard LLS Questionnaire.
And for qualitative in order to elicit more information from the participants, I
asked 4 open-ended questions.
4. Procedure. The questionnaires were administered to those 100 students and they
were asked to fill out the questionnaire precisely and also answer to those 4 open-
ended questions. While students were filling out the questionnaire, they were pro-
vided with complementery information about what each strategy is. Finally, data
were gathered and interpreted.
Conclusion
To sum it up It is good to mention again that in cognitive strategies, Repetition,
Note Taking and Classifying were used mostly by our participants. While Concept
mapping, Imagery and Translation have recieved less attention.
Also in metacognitive strategies, strategies like Self-evaluation, Self-management
and Selective attention have recieved more attention by srudents, in contrast, Self-
reinforcement, Delayed production and Advance organizers were not used much by
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participants. Social strategies are not in good condition either. But overall view of statistics
shows that our participants are average strategy users. They neither use them alot nor
use them a little.
REFERENCES
1. Brown (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching.
2. Nunan (2001). Second language learning and teaching.
3. Susan Bull and Yingxin Ma (2001). Raising awareness of language learning strategies in situations
of limited resources.
4. J. Michael OMalley, Anna Uhl Chamot (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition.
Michael Lessard-Clouston (1997). Language learning strategies: An Overview for L2 teachers.


APPLICATION OF GAMES INTO THE TEACHING PROCESS
OF ENGLISH AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Leyla Alili
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
Leyla.alili@yahoo.com
ABSTACT
People acquire new knowledge and complex skills from game play, suggesting gaming could help
address one of the nations most pressing needs strengthening our system of education and preparing
workers for 21st century jobs. The success of complex video games demonstrates games can teach higher-
order thinking skills such as strategic thinking, interpretative analysis, problem solving, plan formulation
and execution, and adaptation to rapid change. Games and simulations can also serve as powerful hands-
on tools for teaching practical and technical skills. In addition, todays students who have grown-up with
digital technology and video games are especially poised to take advantage of the features of educational
games. The creation, commercialization and adoption of games for learning is a multidisciplinary innovation
challenge-involving scientific discovery and technical advancement, creative design and development, a
friendly investment climate, changes in pedagogy, and new roles for teachers and students. Schools of
education should engage the learning games community to develop new and revamp old pedagogy to take
advantage of these new educational tools.
Key words: education, games, teaching, technology

Students are not merely technology savvy, they are approaching their lives differently
as they integrate digital technologies-such as computers, the Internet, instant messaging,
cell phones, and e-mail-seamlessly throughout their daily activities. Time spent using
digital media by children aged 1317 has now surpassed the time they spend watching
television.
The digital natives use digital tools in support of their schoolwork. For example,
students aged 617 who go on-line, report that educational activities such as homework
and research are among their top five daily uses of the Internet. One in five children
who use the Internet at home report that they go on-line every day for educational
purposes. Just 6-17 go on-line to play individual or multiplayer games at least once a week.
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These individuals spend a significant amount of time playing digital games. On average,
kids aged 8-18 spend about 50 minutes per day playing video games. (Connected to the
Future: A Report on Childrens Internet Use, Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
March 2003.)
There are 3 types of game: board, card and video games. A board game is a game
played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a
"board" premarked surface, usually specific to that game). Frequent subject matters for
educational board games are geographical, and the board is a map of the region taught.
An educational card game is any game using playing cards, either traditional or game-
specific. Generally these dula expand concepts, such as the food chain, set matching,
etc. Flash card games are used to teach math, animal, and dinosaur species.
Some card games improve memory. To aid in educating students and adults about
the finer details of different political systems, numerous companies have developed
simulations that immerse the player into different political systems by forcing them to
make realistic political decisions. These games vary from running an actual election
campaign to games that allow the player to make the day-to-day decisions of running
a country, as seen in Democracy. These types of games are targeted at students, educators
and adults alike.While the digital natives have embraced new technologies, including
video gaming, they are largely disconnected in their classrooms. Most student educational
use of the Internet occurs outside of the school day, outside of the school building, and
outside the direction of their teachers. For example, among students aged 12-17 who go
on-line from more than one location, 83 percent say they go on-line mostly from
home, and only 11 percent say they go on-line mostly from school.16 Students are
frustrated and increasingly dissatisfied by the digital disconnect they experience at
school. They cannot conceive of doing schoolwork without Internet access and they
are not given many opportunities in school to take advantage of the Internet. In addition,
interactive games are the medium of attention for youth, who spend large numbers of
hours playing these games.. Yet, most instruction is still tell and test, in which students
take in information passively from reading and lectures, reciting it back in the form of
work sheets, reports, and tests. Commercial games are vivid and action oriented, com-
pared to teachers in classrooms using chalkboards. Given these contrasts, educational
games might improve students attitudes about learning even difficult subjects, including
those who are not attracted to studying mathematics and science.
Many game features, combined and designed effectively into educational gaming,
could teach many things in an engaging and motivating manner. Games could be used
for the expansion of cognitive abilities, as well as a platform for developing new or
practicing existing skills in the context of real world goals, rules, and situations. Games
could also be used to teach old subjects in new ways. For example, in the civilization-
building games, players may explore subjects such as math, how computers work, and
geography within the rules structure of the game. Through games and simulations,
learners can exercise practical skills-such as operating sophisticated aircraft, building
a bridge, tinkering with chemical reactions in living cells, experimenting with marketing
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techniques, performing surgery, or controlling scientific equipment-in a safe, low
consequence-for-failure environment. This allows learners to move up the learning
curve, without risking life, limb, or damage to expensive equipment in the early part
of training and practice. If learners fail in the tasks they are learning, little harm is done,
and they can try repeatedly to gain mastery of the required knowledge and skills.
Chemikul is an online science/ chemistry-based game that will send you on an atomic
mind-bender of confusion-as well as provide endless hours of enjoyment! With super-slick
ambient graphics and simple acoustics, its a learning experience that anyone can enjoy.
The goal is to create molecules using all of the atoms floating in the game screen.
Arithmetic Challenge is the questions appear for a short period of time in this
quick-reactions, interactive arithmetic math game .
Magic Library is a fun game to help children and players of all ages to improve
your typing and keyboard skills, by testing your familiarity and memory of where each
letter is on your computer keyboard, and also developing your fast-reactions skills. You
are challenged to learn your keyboard letter keys by heart, and gain fast typing skills
while enjoying a fun online activity at the same time.
Different types of games and simulations may teach different knowledge and skills
more effectively. In addition, different game and simulation environments, structures,
and sequences are likely to be needed for different learning tasks and learning groups.
Games have numerous features that work together to create compelling play and
experiences, and high levels of time-on-task. Studies have shown that incorporating
challenges into learning has motivational benefits. Many of todays commercial video
and computer games demonstrate this feature through players high levels of time on-
task. The nature of challenges, competition, and why they motivate should be explored.
This includes better understanding of the motivational and engagement aspects of games
at the neurobiological, cognitive, and socio-cultural levels.
REFERENCES:
1. What Would a State of the Art Instructional Video Game Look Like?,J.P.Gee, Innovate, September 2005
2. Education and Training for the Information Technology Workforce Report to Congress from the
Secretary of Commerce, U.S. Department of Commerce, June 2003.
3. Connected to the Future: A Report on Childrens Internet Use, Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
March 2003.
4. Video games 'stimulate learning , BBC News, March 18, 2002
5. Dostl, J. Educational software and computer games - tools of modern education, Journal of Tech-
nology and Information Education. 2009, Palack University


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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER AND STUDENT
INCREASES EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE
LEARNING PROCESS
Matanat Rustamova
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
mtrustemova@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
What is educational psychology? Educational psychology is very important period in the learning
process. The changes require learning and teaching skills that were less important in earlier time. But the
new skills are quite learnable. Educational psychology can help to learners in this way. Every joy of teaching
has a possible frustration related to educational psychology. If you are a teacher, you may wish to make a
positive difference in students lives, but you may also have trouble reaching individuals. A student seems
not to learn much, or to be unmotivated, or unfriendly, or whatever. And some teaching problems can be
subtle: when you call attention to the wonderful immensity or an area of knowledge, you might accidentally
discourage a student by implying that the student can never learn enough. The complexity of designing
and implementing instruction can sometimes seem overwhelming, instead of satisfying. But if you believe
yourself and your students knowledge, everything will be good for you. A teachers job -in fact a teachers
privilege-is to help particular young people to realize their potential. As a teacher, you will be able to
do this by laying groundwork for lifelong learning. You will not teach any one student forever, of course,
but you will often with them long enough to convey message: that there is much in life to learn -more in
fact than any one teacher or school can provide in a lifetime. The knowledge may be about science, math, or
learning to read; the skills may be sports, music, or art-anything. Whatever you teach, its immensity can
be a curiosity, wonder and excitement. It can be a reason to be optimistic about life in general and about
your students in particular. Learning, when properly understood, is never-ending, even thought it often
focuses on short-term, immediate concerns. As a teacher, you will have an advantage not shared by every
member of society, namely the excuse not only to teach valuable knowledge and skills, but to point students
beyond what they will be able to learn from you. As an old limerick put it.The world is full of such a plenty
of things, Im sure we should all be as happy as kings. In the learning processes, it is very important student
and teacher relationship, because its improving high level of learning. However in this process, it is very
important thing that, teachers must know what and how they teach, or which way better for student to study
in the learning process. All things considered, then, times have changed for teachers. But teaching remains
an attractive, satisfying, and worthwhile profession. The resent trends mean simply that you need to prepare
for teaching differently than you might have in the past, and perhaps differently than own school teachers
did a generation ago.
Key words: educational psychology, implementing instruction, student and teacher relationship,
learning process, short-term, accountability in education, lifelong learning.

Niy gr mllim olmal? Hr eydn vvl mllimlik pesi- imtiyazl pedir
v gnc insanlara kmk etmk ,onlarn istedadlarn z xarmaa xidmt edir. Mllim
gnc insanlarn inkiafna, onlarn yrnmk sevinclrin ahid olur. Gnclri hyata
hazrlayir. Thsild mllim v tlb mnasibti ox vacibdir. Bir mllim kimi, qar-
mzdak insan,kasb, varl,ortabab imkana sahib ola bilr v mmkndr ki, hr birinin
myyn problemlri d olsun,amma btn bunlara baxmayaraq hr eydn vvl on-
larn hr biri tlbdir. Danlmaz faktdr ki, onlarn iind, glcyin liderlri,savadl
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
203
xslri vardr. Mhz buna gr d, mllim hr eydn vvl qarsndak tlb il
mnasibtini dostca qormaldr ki,tdrisinin kefiyyti yksk olsun. Aradrmalarm
nticsind bel qnayt gldim ki, mllimin verdiyi drslrin kefiyyti onun drs
demk metodundan v qarsndak tlbnin onu nec qavramasndan asldr. Mhz
buna gr, mnim fikrimc mllimin drs demk metodu yer ayrlr:
1. Xyali yrtmk
2. Qiyabi yrtmk
3. yani yrtmk
Xyali yrtmk. Buna misal olaraq dnizi gtrk. Xyali yrtmk mrnd he
vaxt dnizi grmyn insana, dnizin n olduunu baa salmaa bnziyir. Hmin insan
dniz haqqnda eitdiklrini sadc xyalnda canlandra bilr.
Qiyabi yrtmk. Dniz grmyn v onu xyal edn bir insana dnizi gstrmy
bnzyir. Yni artq hr zaman xyalnda bir eyi canlandran insan, real olaraq onu
gzl grr v n olduunu yrnir.
yani yrnmk. Hr zaman xyalnda canlandrd bir mvhumu, artq hr hanssa
vasityl sonradan grmy mvffq olur v onu real olaraq yaayr. Mhz bu yani
yrnmkdir.gr bu terminlrin baqa cr aqlamasn versk, bel syly bilrik.
Hr zaman gznd dnizi canlandran v sonra onu grn insan arasndak frq o qdr
d byk deyil,amma dnizi grnl, dnizd boulmaq thlksi qarsnda qalan insan
arasndak frq aq-aydn mlum olur.
Elm d buna bnziyir. Bir insan hl balaca olarkn ona sylniln elm yrnmk
gzldir,insan kamilldirir fikri il sonradan thsil alan v sonda elmdn bhrlnn
insan arasndak aq-aydn frq d buna bnzyir.
Mhz bir tlby elm yrtmk v ona bu yolda hqiqi dost olmaq, tlbnin in-
kiafn grmk bir mllim n cox vacib v sevindirici haldr. Tlbnin sil elm
yiyelnmsi n ona bu yolda kmk etmk v onu elmdki hr eyl yani tan etmk
lazmdr. Bundan baqa,elmi zngin xziny bnztmk olar. Nzr alsaq ki, hal-
hazrda elm sahsind bir ox dyiknliklr v yeniliklr mvcuddur,mhz bu da ist-
niln gnc elmdn mhartl faydalanmaq imkan yaradr. Masir zamanda, elm sa-
hsind texnologiyann geni yer tutmas danlmaz faktdr. Buna misal olaraq, thsil
sisteminin texnologiya zr proqramlamasdr. Amma texnologiya z il birg bzi
problemlr d gtirir, sinif otaqlarn v mktblri texniki vasitlr il thciz etmk
olduqca ox vsait tlb etmkl yana, bundan baqa dyrli mnb olan kitablardan
tlblri qismn mhrum edir. Mhz bu faktrlarn da, thsil pisxologiyasna byk
tsiri var. Thsil tsir ed bilck ikinci faktr da, xarici dilin srtl thsil sistemin
daxil olmasdr. Baqa szl sylsk, dili tdris edn mllim qarsndak tlbnin
dil sviyysini mtlq bilmlidir ki, tdrisin kefiyyti aa dmsin. Bu yolda
mllimlr kmk etmk n masir thsil proqramlarnn rolu bykdr. n yeni
thsil proqramlar mllimlrin z pekarlqlarn artrmasyla yana, tlblrd d
zn inam yaradr. Mhz btn bunlar da, mllim-tlb kollektivini thsil hyatnda
daha da yaxnladrr.
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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Gnmzd, tlblrin z glcylrini gzl kild qormaq istmlri, onlarn
daha ox rqabt aparmalarna v zn inkiafa gyirib xarr. Bu yolda valideyin-
lrl yana, mllimlrin d dstklri hmin tlblr n ox faydal ola bilr. Tlim
pisxologiyas mhz bu zaman mllimlrin kmyin atr. Misal olaraq, tlim pisxo-
logiyasndak bu fikirlri gstrmk olar:
1. Tlblrin mxtlif olmalar, onlar arasndak rqabtin sviyysini qaldrr.
2. Tlimin inkiaf v masir dnya standartlar il ayaqlamaq n sinif otaqlarn
texnologiya il thciz etmyin vacibliyi.
3. Thsild qarya qoyulan hdflr, tlim sviyysini qaldrr v salam rqabti
artrr.
4. Mllimlr arasnda pekarln artmasna gtirib xarr.
Tlim pisxologiyasna aid fikirlr hl kemidn bri aktualdr. Buna misal olaraq
Platonun fikirlrini gstrmk mmkndr:
Platon nllim yksk qiymt verirdi. O deyirdi: Atam mni gydn yer endir-
midir, mllim is mni yerdn gylr qaldrmdr. Platon trbiynin ictimai
sistemini hazrlam, onun dvltin ixtiyarnda olmasn zruri saymdr. Onun
fikrinc, mllim thsild yol gstrndir, amma tdrisin inkiaf mllimdn daha
ox tlbnin elmi hans sviyyd qavramasndan asldr.
Nizami Gncvi d tlim v trbiyy barsind ox dyrli fikirlr sylmidir.
Nizami insan yer znn n qdrtli, all varl hesab etmidir. O, insan xsiyytinin
formalamasna tsir edn obyektiv v subyekiv amillr geni yer vermidir. O, zhmt
kmyi, elm yrnmyi, mkl ucalma zruri sayrd. Nizami Gncviy gr tli-
min kmyi il insanlar tbitin v insann mnvi alminin sirlrini yrn bilr.
Tlim pisxologiyas mllimlr z ilrind ox byk dstk olmaqla yana, on-
larn pekarln artrr v tlblr drs gediatnda nec yanaman yollarn yrdir.
Daha dqiq desk, tlim pisxologiyas thsil sistemind mllim-tlb mnasibtini
nizamlayr v tlimin sviyysini qaldrr. Mhz buna gr d, tlim pisxologiyas elmd,
thsild vz olunmaz prosesdir.
REFERENCES
1. Harris,D.& Herrington, C.(2006). Acountability, standards, and the growing achievement gap: Lesson
from the past half-century. American Journal of Education, 122(2),163-208.
2. Harvard Educational Review.(2005). Interview: United States Secretary of Education Margaret
Spellings. Harvard Educational Review,75(4), 364-382.
3. Neil,M. (2003). The dangers of testing. Educational Leadership, 60(5), 43-46
4. Stringer, E.(2004). Action research in education. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson Education.
5. Federal Registry.(2005 Juny 21). Assistance To States for the Education of Children with Disabilities.
United States Government Printing Office :Author.
6. Volante ,L. (2004). Teaching to the test:What every educator and policy-maker should know. Canadian
Journal of Educational Administration and Policy,Issue #35. Online at www.umanitoba.ca/publicat-
ions/cjeap/articles/volante.html.
7. www.ets.org/praxis.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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8. www.portal.unesco.org./www.education/on.
9. www.edchange.org/<www.cec.sped.org


USING SITUATION COMEDIES AS A TOOL FOR ELT
Merve Turan
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
Merve_turan_34@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
This article will inform you about why situation comedies are used as a tool in the ELT classes. Some
students can learn and understand the lesson by watching. Sitcoms are short and have many features.
Thats why teachers prefer to use it in their lessons. Sitcoms help students to improve their listening
skills and vocabulary knowledge easily and make the lesson entertaining.
Key words: comedy, Sitcoms, ELT, language.

Katherine Bilsb says, English teachers have been using videos in the classroom
for decades and, more recently DVDs and online video clips from Youtube or Myspace.
Sitcoms are an excellent classroom resource for a number of reasons. An episode ge-
nerally lasts 30 minutes so we dont have to worry about students getting bored or
losing the plot as sometimes happens when we watch a feature film. Sitcoms are often
repetitive too. Students who watch more than one episode become familiar with the
characters and their catchphrases. As students begin to predict how a character might
behave in a particular circumstance they will become more motivated and enjoy a sense
of achievement.
Situation comedy or shortly sitcom, generally known that is a kind of radio or te-
levision comedy series that characters sharing the same common environment in every
episode such as; an apartment building or workplace and accompanied with jokes as a
part of the dialogue. Its interesting that nowadays situation comedy is used as an im-
portant tool to teach the students the language, especially new vocabularies almost every
ELT classes. So why do the teachers use the sitcoms? What are the features of it?
Firstly sitcoms are funny that make everyone laughed. It really provides the positive
atmosphere in the class and students become motivated about it. If the learners being
motivated their interest to lesson will increase and they can learn and understand the
language without being bored.
Sitcoms provide us with authentic English. English teaching videos are designed
for the classroom and purvey authentic materials and different varieties of the English
language; for example with typical slangs, locutions and sayings. With this, students
make contacts with humorous utterances and expressions. Also they can learn pronun-
ciation of the words and improve their listening ability by watching sitcoms. These
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features build up the students understanding for the English language in natural and
authentic way. It is said that a large part of communication is nonverbal. Thats why
seeing the facial expressions and gestures of the characters help students understand the
meaning of the words and acquire it easily.
Anywhere in the world there are many sitcoms. This exposure to different varieties
of English introduces to learners that there isnt one standardized version of the language.
However, English language has different accent and pronunciation versions such as;
American English, British English, Australian English. This varieties may cause misun-
derstanding by students.
Sitcoms are full of cultural references. Depending on the situation these references
portray the city that we live and show the differences and similarities between other
countries such as; culture, lifestyle, religion and etc.
Also there are many different topics and situations in the sitcoms that teachers can
work with the students on their vocabulary by watching a short part of the scene.
Teachers can pick some unknown vocabularies from that scene and they can discuss
the meaning of the word. This is also help students to acquire the new vocabularies and
use it in a sentence. Most of the students are shy about speaking target language. Acting
a scene from the sitcom in the class can increase their self-confident and it helps students
to communicate with other people in daily life.
REFERENCE
1. Katherine Bilsb ,14 September Conference for ELT New York 2011 2.www.teachingenglish.org/
article/sitcoms


ORGANIZING LESSONS TO IMPROVE LANGUAGE SKILLS
Parvana Hajiyeva
Undergraduate student
Shaki branch of The Azerbaijan Teachers Institute
ABSRACT
Some linguists divide language learning into the four language skills of listening, reading, speaking
and writing. When students read and listen to English, they only have to recognize and understand the
language that they read or listen to. So we call these the two receptive skills. Speaking and writing also
have some similar features. When students speak or write, they have to produce language. So we call these
the productive skills.
The linguistics plan a reading skills lesson in three parts:
pre, while and post reading.
The purpose of pre - reading activities is to help students to think about the activity and motivate
them to read the text, or listen to the story or conversation.
The purpose of while - reading task is to give students a real reason to read. The teacher can set
different types of tasks in order to help students to read either for the general idea or for specific information.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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In the post phase of the lesson, it is useful to do activities which require students to react to what
they have read by using the information they have found out.
Key words: Lesson, language, reading, listening, speaking, skills.

Some linguists divide language learning into the four language skills of listening,
reading, speaking and writing. Reading and listening have some similar features. When
students read and listen to English, they only have to recognize and understand the lan-
guage that they read or listen to. So we call these the two receptive skills. Speaking
and writing also have some similar features. When students speak or write, they have
to produce language. So we call these the productive skills.
Reading also has some features which are similar to writing. When students read
or write, they have time to think about the meaning of the language. They can read the
text again, they can rewrite and correct. What they have written. They have time to
think about what they have read or written.
When students listen or speak, they have less time: they have to react quickly. In
real-life situations, you usually only hear something once. Sometimes you can ask so-
meone to repeat it-but you cannot do that if you are listening to a station announcement
or to the television or radio. When someone asks you a question, you have to understand
what they said, think of a reply and say it in English in a short space of time.
These different features of reading, listening, speaking and writing mean that we
need to plan our lessons to give students different kinds of learning activities to practice
each language skill.
Speaking and writing can be taught and practiced either as part of a PPP lesson or
as a separate lesson. So first, lets look at a slightly different lesson framework for
teaching reading and listening.
We plan a reading skills lesson in three parts:
1. pre reading
2. while reading
3. post reading
Before we read in our own language, we usually already know something about the
text we are reading, The information we choose to read is not often completely new
or uninteresting to us. This is a skill called prediction.
In the pre phase, students prepare for the main reading activity. The purpose of
pre - reading activities is to help students to think about the activity and motivate them
to read the text, or listen to the story or conversation. The activities aim to help students
use the skill of prediction:
Then, while we read we usually do this in two ways. We may want to find out the
general idea or topic of something we are reading, or we may want some very specific
information. To find a general idea, we read everything from start to end, so that we
can identify the main idea. This sub skill is called reading for the main idea (s). If we
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want very specific information from what we are reading, then we try to select the
particular information we want: we do not worry about other information or ideas that
we do not need. This sub skills is called reading for specific information.
In the while phase, the teacher gives the students a task to do while they are reading.
The purpose of the task is to give students a real reason to read. The teacher can set
different types of tasks in order to help students to read either for the general idea or
for specific information.
Finally, in real life, we usually take action after we have read something or listened
to something. We reply, we tell a friend about it, we make a note of it, we write to
someone about it, or we act upon it (we catch the right train or bus!).
In the post phase of the lesson, it is useful to do activities which require students
to react to what they have read by using the information they have found out. This allows
you to check whether your students have understood what they have read or what they
have listened to, and to practice reading and listening in real-life situations.
REFERENCES
1. Richard . Arends. Learning to teach. USA New York -2004
2. Joanna Baker How to teach large classes with few resources. London- 2005
3. Adrienne Herrell and Michael Jordan. Fifty strategies for teaching English language learners.
Second edition. USA. California SU.-2004
4. Ulduz Murshudova. Ingilis dili drslrind interaktiv metodlardan istifad qaydalar. Bak-2007

TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN THROUGH STORIES
Sevda Kelbiyeva
Undergraduate student
Qafqaz University
k.sevda@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Nowadays more and more English teachers use stories cautiously and relevantly selected from childrens
literature. Benjamin Franklin said: Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.
This paper is about benefits of using stories in teaching a foreign language. Illustrations, meaningful content
of stories and their association, familiarity with the real world help a teacher stimulate interest, attention,
curiosity in children and engage, involve them in learning a foreign language. Its fun and enjoyable for
children to read, listen to stories and to use different activities, through which they practice and learn to use
the target language, during the lesson. Stories also help to develop and improve reading, listening, speaking
and writing skills. Through stories different social skills, imaginative creativity can also be developed.
Stories supply children with examples of reliable language use.
Key words: stories, story books, a target language, skills.

Since English is an international language of communication, science, information
technology, business, radio, diplomacy and so on, it is important to teach English to
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
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children as early as possible. Many teaching techniques can be used to realize this aim.
And one of them is using story books. Stories can help children in learning both their
mother tongue and different foreign languages. Of course, in countries of which native
language isnt English using story books is important and useful because it enlarges
childrens experience in English.
First of all through stories children get information about different people, new
countries and various cultural values. They can read abbreviated parts of famous authors
works in a simplified way in story books. So it can broaden their horizon. Learning
English through stories can lay the foundations for secondary school in terms of learning
basic language functions and structures, vocabulary and language learning skills.
Stories can help develop positive attitudes towards the foreign language, culture and
language learning.
1
Stories increase childrens interest in the target language and culture.
Besides children enjoy reading especially if the book is illustrated. Stories with
illustrations attract not only a childs attention but also an adults , make them be inte-
rested, curious in reading and learning a foreign language. So stories increase motivation
in children, but stories should fit a childs age and developmental level, be appropriate,
interesting, meaningful and not to be very complicated, otherwise the child can be de-
motivated and lose his interest in learning a target language. Illustrations also help them
understand the content of a story.
Bruner has noted, we live our lives and shape our identities through stories. Basing
on this view Carol Read writes that stories and drama help children to make sense of
their own behavior and others, and to develop aspects of emotional, such as empathy.
2

A story is a part of literature. Reading literature develops tolerance and creativity
in children. Northrop Frye writes: Its clear that the end of literary teaching isnt simply
the admiration of literature; its something more like the transfer of imaginative energy
from literature to the students. (1: 193) Stories are a useful tool in linking fantasy and
the imagination with the childs real world. They provide a way of enabling children
to make sense of their everyday life and forge links between home and school.
3

Widdowson identifies two levels of linguistic knowledge: the level of usage and
the level of use. In his opinion the level of usage demands knowledge of linguistic rules
and the latter demands knowing how to use the very rules in communication. And lite-
rature is useful in developing knowledge both in a usage level and in a use level. (1: 191)
Listening to stories is useful as well as reading. It improves their listening compre-
hension and pronunciation. Children enjoy listening to stories over and over again.
This frequent repetition allows certain language items to be acquired while others are
being overtly reinforced. Many stories contain natural repetition of key vocabulary and
structures. This helps children remember every detail, so they can gradually learn to
anticipate what is about to happen next in the story. Repetition also encourages parti-
cipation in the narrative.
4
Repetition of different words and grammatical structures in
stories enlarges a childs vocabulary and strengthens his knowledge of grammar, at the
same time makes them memorable. This in its turn helps to develop a childs self-esteem
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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and courage. A child begins to hold intercourse in a foreign language with others easily
without shyness. So stories improve not only reading skills, but also a childs speaking
and his communication both with the teacher and with his peers. The more they read,
the more their thinking in a target language will be encouraged. Stories allow the
teacher to introduce or revise new vocabulary and sentence structures by exposing the
children to language in varied, memorable and familiar contexts, which will enrich their
thinking and gradually enter their own speech. Children who read daily over long
periods of time is better on measure of vocabulary, comprehension and decoding ability
than did children in the control groups who were not read to by an adult.
5

Through stories and activities social skills such as cooperation, collaboration,
listening and turn taking can be developed too.
Activities used during reading stories also play an important role in childrens
motivation. Especially diversity of activities helps the teacher keep children motivated
and makes the lesson unpredictable. Good language activities have no age limits, an
idea which works with five-year-olds will, with some minor adaptations in content and
presentation, probably work equally well with much older learners.
6

Pre-story activities usually play an important role as they help to introduce the topic
to learners, to identify what the learners know about it, help to encourage topical
thinking and to be more active and interested in participating in the lesson.
While reading a story it is important to go back and ask a child questions in order
to check his understanding and give him a chance to predict the story. Asking such kind
of questions improves both speaking and thinking in a target language.
After activities such as: information gaps, questionnaires and surveys, guessing
games, matching, sequencing, retelling the story, writing a letter, role play, etc. provide
children with the practice of using the target language.
END NOTE
1. universityofibnkhaldunbogar-indonesia.blogspot.com
2. carolread.com
3. universityofibnkhaldunbogar-indonesia.blogspot.com
4. universityofibnkhaldunbogar-indonesia.blogspot.com
5. universityofibnkhaldunbogar-indonesia.blogspot.com
6. universityofibnkhaldunbogar-indonesia.blogspot.com
REFERENCES
1. C. J. Brumfit and R. A. Carter. 2000. Literature and Language Teaching. Oxford University Press.
2. David E. Freeman and Yvonne S. Freeman. 2000. Teaching Reading in Multilingual Classrooms.
3. Sandra Silberstein. 1994. Techniques and Resources in Teaching Reading.
4. www. carolread.com : 16/02/2012
5. www. teachingenglish.org.uk : 16/02/2012
6. www. universityofibnkhaldunbogar-indonesia.blogspot.com : 16/02/2012
7. www. encuentrojournal.org : 16/02/2012
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
211
COMMON PROBLEMS HINDERING AZERI LEARNERS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Khazar Novruzov
Postgraduate Student
Qafqaz University
novruzovkhazar@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
A teacher can employ a lot of ways in teaching process. The extent to which the instruction is successful
depends significantly on the way or methodology employed and the teachers alertness to the potential
problems that are likely to arise during instruction. The scope of the teachers pedagogical creativity
encompasses consideration of both the factors. Language teaching seems to have been switching its focus
from one method to a supposedly more effective one during the last century so that students are more profi-
cient in the target language. As time passes new problems in learning English are uncovered and new
solutions are suggested. Azeri learners of English have common problems mainly due to the grammatical
differences between Azerbaijani and English. I think the role of metalinguistic awareness on the part of
learners and teachers is dependable in overcoming such problems. On the basis of my observations first as a
learner and then a teacher of English, I can definitely tell that students with more metalinguistic awareness
are more successful in learning a second language.
Key words: method, metalingiuistic awareness, problem, teacher creativity.

There are many methods of teaching in education in general. Teaching methods
can be defined as the types of principles and ways used for instruction. Class participation,
demonstration, explaining, recitation, and memorization are good examples. When a
teacher is deciding on a method, he or she needs to be flexible and willing to adjust the
style according to the students. Student success in the classroom depends largely on
effective teaching methods. As for language teaching, being a main part of pedagogy,
it employs three main concepts: approach, method and technique. Approach embodies
theories about the nature of language and language teaching. Method is an overall plan
for presenting teaching process, that is, a teaching plan. Technique represents a procedure
or tactic to obtain an immediate objective. New words, some grammatical rule are good
examples of such objectives. The way a student learns a new item is a technique. A
method employs a lot of techniques for teaching language items. During the twentieth
century many methods were used in language teaching. For example, Grammar-trans-
lation method, Silent way, Situational learning etc. Still, new problems turn out to be
present in language teaching, which means the various methods created as yet are not
sufficient. Over time most of them proved very difficult to apply and with almost no
empirical value. In the 1990s the term post methods era was sometimes used.
Absent from the traditional view of methods are learner-centeredness and teacher
creativity. Practicality is a key issue in language teaching. A methodology that can readily
be turned into teaching materials and textbooks and whose use requires no special
training is valuable in terms of making successful language learners (Richards and
Rodgers.2001).
A good way to start developing a language teaching process is to look at ourselves
and to explore to what extent our second language teaching has been influenced by our
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own language learning and language teaching experiences. Some background events
that can be expected to influence our way of teaching are likely to include: a) our infor-
mal language learning (first, second language) b) the way we were taught languages
at school and how we responded to such teaching c)other formal or informal second
language learning experiences as an adult (Stern H.1991)
The aim of my paper is to enlarge teacher creativity. A person teaching English to
native speakers of Azerbaijani should be alert to hindrances resulting from the grammatical
differences between the two languages. The hindrances are usual for almost any learner
of English whose first language is Azerbaijani. As a learner and a teacher of English
whose native language is Azerbaijani I observe such hindrances very often. I would
like to enumerate some of them below:
1. Prepositional phrases used as attributive adjectives. For example:
a. The books on the green table are all about African countries.
b. I didnt like the buildings around Baku
c. The shop at the corner of the street sells clothes from Germany.
Because of the interference of Azerbaijani, elementary level learners tend to incor-
rectly build the sentences like the following often with the omission of articles:
a. On the green table the books are all about African countries.
b. I didnt like around Baku the buildings.
c. At corner of the street shop sells from Germany clothes.
2. Articles. Azerbaijani has no article so at first, learners take this part of speech as
strange and a burden to learn. Moreover, most of times it requires no direct translation,
this ,in turn, makes matters complicated for learners(if they dont know another
language with articles, like German). I will try to illuminate the problem in the
following examples:
My teacher has got a new computer. The computer is very heavy.
The dog is a faithful animal.
It is difficult to explain why we use a and the instead of it in the first example. And,
why the second sentence uses first the, then a requires skill and patience for explanation.
3. There is/There are expressions. To build a sentence with the expressions a new
learner has structural problems. The following sentence has a reversed structure in
Azebaijani translation:
English sentence ; There are(1) two pens in my pocket(2).
Its Azerbaijani translation; Cibimd(2) iki qlm var(1).
4. The place of prepositions in expressions or sentences. They come before related
words, I mean, in pre-position but their equivalents in Azerbaijani come in post-
position such as:
English sentence; I saw a lot of animals in Australia.
Azerbaijani translation; Avstraliyada oxlu heyvan grdm.
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
213
The preposition in in the English sentence comes in front of the related word
Australia. By contrast, in the Azerbaijani one its equivalent da comes after the related
word Avstraliya. Putting the preposition to the correct place in an English sentence
is a great feat.
5. Word order. It is obvious that the general structure of sentence elements in English
is like this: SUBJECT + PREDICATE+OBJECT + ADVERBIAL. In Azerbaijani
the order is very different: SUBBJECT+OBJECT+ADVERBIAL+PREDICATE.
Thus a learner should avoid the danger of interference.
6. Countability and uncountability of English nouns. The relationship between whether
a noun is countable or uncountable and article use in expressions.
The points in 5 and 6 are easy to understand that is why I didnt give example sen-
tences. So far, I have discussed the hindrances or problems usually faced by elementary
learners of English, whose first language is Azerbaijani. For upper levels also, there
are such adaptation problems. For example:
7. Functions of modal verbs, especially the secondary ones. Students often get confused
about different functions of modal verbs. One example from my learning experience:
I saw a presentation like the following table in Longman English Grammar
(Alexander.2003).
Secondary function of modals is expressing degrees of certainty.
You might could may should ought to must will be right.
very uncertain


almost certain
You are right. certain
Then I made it clear for myself why modal verbs are sometimes used unusually.
It turned out, for instance, that John should be at home now is another way of telling
Probably, John is at home now.
8. English has a vast store of words, a lot of synonyms. This fact sometimes discourages
students and makes them impatient in learning. A teacher has got to give explanations
for this fact by for example, talking a little about styles in language.
There are a lot of other problems worth considering. Azerbaijani and English are
quite different languages. The difference is both convenient and inconvenient for learning
English. Conveniently English possesses much fewer grammatical suffixes or prefixes
than Azerbaijani, and this saves us from memorizing a lot of grammatical burden for
speaking English normally. The problems I have dealt with in this article are signs of
the inconvenient facet.
As for the solutions to the problems, I think the development of students metalinguis-
tic abilities is necessary because in order to explain the problems to students a teacher
benefit from metalanguage. Metalanguage generally means the use of language to
describe and discuss itself. This is the property of human language which is also called
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reflexivity (Yule.1996).Students with more metalinguistic awareness succeed more in
learning English. This helps learners generalize where necessary, know how and when
to use grammatical rules in building English sentences etc. For example: a learner should
be able to generalize words as nouns, verbs, adjectives etc. to put them in correct order
in sentences. It can be a source of curiosity about the target language: one day a student
of mine asked about the formation of English participles. He knows about the form of
Azerbaijani participles and this makes him interested in the English counterpart. For
teachers it is a convenience. Imagine a teacher explains the use of present simple in time
and conditional clauses. He can write a lot of sample sentences on the board to explain it,
but instead, he can rely on the students metalinguistic abilities and tell that in time and
conditional clauses present simple is used with reference to the future. The latter is a
shortcut in the teaching process. Metalanguage use can be identified as an element of
the supposedly unsuccessful Grammar-Translation method. But if it is discussed for the
sake of facilitating teaching, not for its own sake, it is beneficial.
As the last point of my paper, there can be shortcomings in my observations and
suggestionss because I do not possess a sound knowledge of pedagogy or human psy-
chology. I am still learning English as a foreign language and whatever I suggest for
facilitation in teaching is ultimately based on my own experiences as a teacher and a
learner.That is why I think them reliable and valuable.
REFERENCES
1. Richards Jack C and Rodgers Theodore S.(2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Cook Vivian. (2001). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. London
3. Stern H, H. (1991). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press
4. Talbov Y,R. Aayev , A. sayev ,N. Eminov A. S.(1993).Pedaqogika.Bak.
5. A Textbook of Translation. Peter NEWMARK,1998, Prentice-Hall International, New York
6. Alexander Louis George. (2003). Longman English Grammar. Longman.
7. The Study of Language. George Yule, 1996, Cambridge University Press, New York
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teaching_method
10. www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs

TEACHING ENGLISH TO ARABIC- SPEAKING STUDENTS:
CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC CONSIDERATIONS
Yegane Memmedova
Undergraduate Student
Qafqaz University
yunik_farida@mail.ru
ABSTRACT
Given the rapidly increasing number of Arabic-speaking students in U.S. public schools, English as
a second language (ESL) and bilingual teachers need to be cognizant of sociolinguistic, historical and
cultural considerations affecting the educational needs of these students and their families. This paper
April 27, 2012 Qafqaz University, Baku, Azerbaijan
215
provides relevant information which will assist teachers to develop sensitivity and understanding of this
unique language-minority population. I hope that this material will help the teachers determine how to
structure the curriculum better, pinpoint transfer pitfalls between English and Arabic, enhance students
social integration and accelerate their acquisition of English.
Key words: English Arabic, culture, linguistic, human relations.

One of the regions of the world most affected by political unrest and turmoil is the
Middle East. The increasing population of Arabic- speaking students in the American
schools has become a reality that merits attention. The purpose of this paper is to share
cultural and linguistic information with bilingual and ESL teachers to enable them to
promote intercultural understanding and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second
language. Arabs live within the borders of over twenty nations throughout the Middle
East, North Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. Nevertheless, to avoid offending many
Arabs, [ teachers ] would be prudent to use the singular Arab nation instead of the
plural Arab nations in [ their ] conversations with the Arabs in acknowledgement
of their shared language , religion and culture. Although 90 percent of the more than
160 million Arabic- speakers in the region are Muslim, there are also many Arab Jews
and Chiristians. Minorities are identified by either religion or language. Some examples
of non- Arabs are Kurds, Druze, Copts, Assyrians and Berbers.
There is great pride and prestige associated with the Arabic language. Arabic is
the language one of the worlds great civilizations, and one to which the West has been
profoundly indebted for over a millennium in fields as diverse as mathematics, chemistry,
geography and philosophy. Not only is it the language of the Holy Koran, but it is a
language which enjoys wide usage in the creation of great literature and poetry, as well
as having influenced Spanish greatly through 700 years of presence in Spain. One
example of the love and respect for the written word was the care and attention given
to libraries during Arab period in Spain. In one of Cordobas 70 libraries, for example,
400,000 books were collected.
Geographic proximity allows for the common bond of language to remain strong
despite variations in the spoken language among people of varying regions and natio-
nalities. Children commonly grow up with sense of bilingualism in that they aware of
these regional dialectical differences and how the standart written forms differ from their
spoken dialects. This experience with Arabic can be helpful as students are introduced
to English.
Arabic is different from English is many ways. Problems ranging from phonological
to morphological and structural difficulties that face Arabic speaking students while
learning English have been well- documented. There are unique aspects of the Arabic
language which pose special transfer problems with English which have pedagogical
implications for ESL teaching and curriculum design.
1

When teaching English to Arabic- speakers some linguistic considerations should
be kept in mind: First , the writing system goes from right to left . The way the letters
are written depends upon their position in Arabic words. The orthographies of both
languages are different and tend to pose difficulty in pronunciation and spelling. Some
Modern Approaches in English Language and Literature 2
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sounds in English do not exist in Arabic: an example is the substitution of the b for
a p ( beople ) compination . Arabic does not have two distinctive bilabial plo-
sives, only the voiced /b/ and hypercorrected spelling that represents both b and p
as p. There are no written vowels. Diacritics are used instead to indicate vowels.
Second, recognizing syntactinc differences between English and Arabic can guide
ESL teachers and help them deal with transfer problems effectively. ESL teachers should
train their students to make linguistic adjustments when learning English. For example
they should make it clear that word order (e.g. Dead sea vs. sea dead), language typology
(Ali goes to school vs. goes Ali to school), structural patterns (thats the teacher whom I
met vs. Thats the the teacher whom I met him) are different in both languages.
Most importantly, the sociolinguistic aspects of Arabic differ from those of English.
Some these features usually transfer to English inappropriate manner. For example, the
depth of questioning about family affairs, health and other private matters are culturally
incompatible. Jokes are also culture bound; what is humorous to an Arab might be
outrageous to an American and vice versa.
Finally, written discourse of Arab ESL learners is dependent on the Arabic logic
and cultural thought patterns. The rhetoric of a tightly organized, logical presentation
of ideas is as foreign to Arab students as English itself. On other hand, English rhetoric
is often construed as cold and highly impersonal rather than embellished as is the elite
style of literary Arabic
2
.
END NOTE
1. Al Batal, M. (1988). Towards cultural proficiency in Arabic. Foreign Language Annals. 21(5),
443- 453 .
2. Yorkey, R . (1977). Practical techniques for teaching Arabic speaking students . In J. Alatis & R .
Crymes ( Eds ) . The human factors in ESL ; A series of six lectures ( pp. 57-85 ) .
REFERENCES
1. Abraham, S., & Abraham, N. (Eds). (1983). Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab- American
communities .
3. Butt, G. (1987). The Arab world. London: BBC Books .
4. Al Batal, M. (1988). Towards cultural proficiency in Arabic. Foreign Language Annals .
5. Suleiman, M. F. (1987). A Cross-phonological analysis between Arabic and English. The segmental
phonemes.
6. Yorkey, R. (1977). Practical techniques for teaching Arabic-speaking students. In J. Alatis & R.
Crymes (Eds). The human factors in ESL; A series of six lectures.