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Pineapple

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation).
Pineapple

A pineapple, on its parent plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): onocots
(unranked): !ommelinids
"rder: Poales
Family: #romeliaceae
$ubfamily: #romelioideae
%enus: Ananas
$pecies: A. comosus
Binomial name
Ananas comosus
(&.) err.
Synonyms
Ananas sativus

Pineapple 'uice
(he pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant )ith edible multiple fruit consisting of
coalesced berries,*+, and the most economically significant plant in the #romeliaceae family.*-,
Pineapples may be culti.ated from a cro)n cutting of the fruit,*/, possibly flo)ering in -01-2
months and fruiting in the follo)ing si3 months.*/, *2, Pineapple does not ripen significantly post4
har.est.*5,
Pineapples are consumed fresh, cooked, 6uiced, and preser.ed, and are found in a )ide array of
cuisines. 7n addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple8s lea.es are used to produce
the te3tile fiber pi9a4 employed as a component of )all paper and furnishings, amongst other uses.
*:,
Contents
+ ;tymology
- #otany
/ Pollination
2 !ulinary uses
5 <utrition
: =istory
> !ulti.ation
>.+ ;thical and en.ironmental concerns
>.- !ulti.ars
? (raditional medicine and preliminary research
@ Pests and diseases
+0 $torage and transport
++ arketing
+- Asage in culture
+/ $ee also
+2 Beferences
+5 Further reading
+: ;3ternal links
Etymology

Pineapple and its cross section
(he )ord CpineappleC in ;nglish )as first recorded in +/@?, )hen it )as originally used to describe
the reproducti.e organs of conifer trees (no) termed pine cones). (he term Cpine coneC for the
reproducti.e organ of conifer trees )as first recorded in +:@2. When ;uropean e3plorers disco.ered
this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them CpineapplesC (first so referenced in +::2 due to
resemblance to )hat is no) kno)n as the pine cone).*>, *?,
7n the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the
(upi )ord nanas, meaning Ce3cellent fruitC,*@, as recorded by AndrD (he.et in +555, and comosus,
CtuftedC, refers to the stem of the fruit. "ther members of the Ananas genus are often called CpineC,
as )ell, in other languages. 7n $panish, pineapples are called pia (Cpine coneC), or anan (anans)
(e3ample, the pia colada drink).
Botany

A pineapple flo)er in 7riomote, 'apan
(he pineapple is a herbaceous perennial )hich gro)s to +.0 to +.5 meters (/./ to 2.@ ft) tall,
although sometimes it can be taller. 7n appearance, the plant itself has a short, stocky stem )ith
tough, )a3y lea.es. When creating its fruit, it usually produces up to -00 flo)ers, although some
large4fruited culti.ars can e3ceed this. "nce it flo)ers, the indi.idual fruits of the flo)ers 6oin
together to create )hat is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side
shoots (called 8suckers8 by commercial gro)ers) are produced in the leaf a3ils of the main stem.
(hese may be remo.ed for propagation, or left to produce additional fruits on the original plant.*/,
!ommercially, suckers that appear around the base are culti.ated. 7t has /0 or more long, narro),
fleshy, trough4shaped lea.es )ith sharp spines along the margins that are /0 to +00 centimeters (+.0
to /./ ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. 7n the first year of gro)th, the a3is lengthens and thickens,
bearing numerous lea.es in close spirals. After +- to -0 months, the stem gro)s into a spike4like
inflorescence up to +5 cm (: in) long )ith o.er +00 spirally arranged, trimerous flo)ers, each
subtended by a bract. Flo)er colors .ary, depending on .ariety, from la.ender, through light purple
to red.
(he o.aries de.elop into berries )hich coalesce into a large, compact, multiple accessory fruit. (he
fruit of a pineapple is arranged in t)o interlocking helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the
other, each being a Fibonacci number.*+0,
Pineapple carries out !A photosynthesis, fi3ing carbon dio3ide at night and storing it as the acid
malate and then releasing it during the day, aiding photosynthesis.
Pollination

Pineapple in the starting stage
Pollination is reEuired for seed formation, but the presence of seeds negati.ely affects the Euality of
the fruit. 7n =a)aii, )here pineapple is culti.ated on an agricultural scale, importation of
hummingbirds is prohibited for this reason.*++, !ertain bat4pollinated )ild pineapples open their
flo)ers only at night.
Culinary uses
Pineapple, ra)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz
Energy -0@ k' (50 kcal)
Car!o"y#rates +/.+- g
$ugars @.?5 g
Fietary fiber +.2 g
$at 0.+- g
Protein 0.52 g
%itamins
(hiamine (#+)
(>G)
0.0>@ mg
Bibofla.in (#-)
(/G)
0.0/- mg
<iacin (#/)
(/G)
0.5 mg
Pantothenic acid (#5)
(2G)
0.-+/ mg
Hitamin #:
(@G)
0.++- mg
Folate (#@)
(5G)
+? Ig
!holine
(+G)
5.5 mg
Hitamin !
(5?G)
2>.? mg
&race metals
!alcium
(+G)
+/ mg
7ron
(-G)
0.-@ mg
agnesium
(/G)
+- mg
anganese
(22G)
0.@-> mg
Phosphorus
(+G)
? mg
Potassium
(-G)
+0@ mg
$odium
(0G)
+ mg
Jinc
(+G)
0.+- mg
&ink to A$FA Fatabase entry
Anits
Ig K micrograms L mg K milligrams
7A K 7nternational units
Percentages are roughly appro3imated using A$ recommendations for adults.
$ource: A$FA <utrient Fatabase
(he flesh and 6uice of the pineapple are used in cuisines around the )orld. 7n many tropical
countries, pineapple is prepared, and sold on roadsides as a snack. 7t is sold )hole, or in hal.es )ith
a stick inserted. Whole, cored slices )ith a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in
the West. !hunks of pineapple are used in desserts such as fruit salad, as )ell as in some sa.ory
dishes, including piMMa toppings and a grilled ring on a hamburger.*+-, *+/, !rushed pineapple is
used in yogurt, 6am, s)eets, and ice cream. (he 6uice of the pineapple is ser.ed as a be.erage, and is
also as a main ingredient in such cocktails as the Pi9a colada.
Nutrition
Ba) pineapple is an e3cellent source of manganese (>:G Faily Halue (FH) in a one A$ cup
ser.ing) and .itamin ! (+/+G FH per cup ser.ing).*+2, ainly from its stem, pineapple contains a
proteolytic enMyme, bromelain, )hich breaks do)n protein. 7f ha.ing sufficient bromelain content,
ra) pineapple 6uice may be used as a meat marinade and tenderiMer. Pineapple enMymes can
interfere )ith the preparation of some foods, such as 6elly or other gelatin4based desserts, but )ould
be destroyed during cooking and canning. (he Euantity of bromelain in the fruit is probably not
significant, being mostly in the inedible stalk. Furthermore, an ingested enMyme like bromelain is
unlikely to sur.i.e intact the proteolytic processes of digestion.
'istory

!harles 77 presented )ith the first pineapple gro)n in ;ngland (+:>5 painting by =endrik
Fanckerts)
(he plant is indigenous to $outh America and is said to originate from the area bet)een $outhern
#raMil and ParaguayN ho)e.er, it is important to note that little is kno)n about the origin of the
domesticated pineapple (Pickersgill, +@>:). .$. #ertoni (+@+@)*+5, considered the ParanO1
Paraguay Bi.er drainages to be the place of origin of A. comosus.*+:, (he nati.es of southern
#raMil and Paraguay spread the pineapple throughout $outh America, and it e.entually reached the
!aribbean, !entral America and e3ico, )here it )as culti.ated by the ayas and the AMtecs.
!olumbus encountered the pineapple in +2@/ on the &ee)ard island of %uadeloupe. =e called it
pia de Indes, meaning Cpine of the 7ndians,C*+>, and brought it back )ith him to ;urope*+?, thus
making the pineapple the first bromeliad to lea.e the <e) World.*+@, (he $panish introduced it
into the Philippines, =a)aii (introduced in the early +@th century, first commercial plantation +??:),
Jimbab)e and %uam. any say the fruit )as first introduced in =a)aii )hen a $panish ship
brought it there in the +500s.*-0, (he fruit )as culti.ated successfully in ;uropean hothouses, and
pineapple pits, beginning in +>-0.
'ohn Kid)ell is credited )ith the introduction of the pineapple industry in =a)aii. &arge4scale
pineapple culti.ation by A.$. companies began in the early +@00s on =a)aii. Among the most
famous and influential pineapple industrialists )as 'ames Fole )ho mo.ed to =a)aii in +?@@*-+,
and started a pineapple plantation in +@00.*--, (he companies Fole and Fel onte began gro)ing
pineapple on the island of "ahu in +@0+ and +@+>, respecti.ely. Fole8s pineapple company began
)ith the acEuisition of :0 acres (-2 ha) of land in +@0+, and, as pre.iously mentioned, has gro)n
into a ma6or company today. aui Pineapple !ompany began pineapple culti.ation on the island of
aui in +@0@.*-/, 7n -00:, Fel onte announced its )ithdra)al from pineapple culti.ation in
=a)aii, lea.ing only Fole and aui Pineapple !ompany in =a)aii as the A$A8s largest gro)ers of
pineapples. aui Pineapple !ompany markets its aui %old brand of pineapple and Fole markets
its =a)aii %old brand of pineapple.
7n the A$A in +@?:, the Pineapple Besearch 7nstitute )as dissol.ed and its assets )ere di.ided
bet)een Fel onte and aui &and and Pineapple. Fel onte took .ariety >/1++2, )hich it dubbed
F4-, to its plantations in !osta Bica, found it to be )ell4suited to gro)ing there, and launched it
publicly in +@@:. (Fel onte also began marketing >/150, dubbed !"4-, as Fel onte %old). 7n
+@@>, Fel onte began marketing its %old ;3tra $)eet pineapple,