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C) ZIEGLER-NICHOLLS METHOD :This technique also called Ultimate Cycling Method is based on
adjusting a closed loop until steady oscillations occur. Controller settings are then based on the
conditions that generate the cycling. This method is based on frequency response analysis.
Unlike the process reaction curve method which uses data from the open-loop response of a system,
the Ziegler-Nichols tuning technique is a closed-loop procedure. It goes through the following steps:
i)Bring the system to the desired operational level
ii)Reduce any integral and derivative actions to their minimum effect
iii)Using proportional control only and with the feedback loop closed,introduce a set point change
and vary proportional gain until the system oscillates continuously.The frequency of continuous
oscillation is the cross over frequency

.Let Mbe the amplitude ratio of the systems response at

the cross over frequency.
iv)Compute the following two quantities :
Ultimate gain

Ultimate period of sustained cycling =


v)Using the values of


, Ziegler & Nichols recommended the following settings for feedback







The settings above reveal the rationale of the Ziegler-Nichols methodology.
i)For proportional control alone,use a gain margin equal to 2
ii)For PI control use a lower proportional gain because the pressure of the integral control mode
introduces additional phase lag in all frequencies with destabilizing effects on the system.Therefore

maintains approximately the same gain margin.

iii)The presence of the derivative control mode introduces phase lead with strong stabilizing effects
in the closed-loop response.Consequently the proportional gain

for a PID controller can be

increased without threatening the stability of the system.

The pneumatic valve is the most commonly used final control element.It is a system that exhibits
inherent second order dynamics.
Consider a typical pneumatic valve shown in Fig. The position of the stem(or equivalently of the plug
at the end of the stem)will determine the size of the opening for flow and consequently the quantity
of the flow(flow rate).The position of the stem is determined by the balance of all forces acting on
it.These forces are
Fig.1.33pneumatic valve
pA=Force exerted by the compressed air at the top of the diaphragm;pressure p is the signal that
opens or closes the valve & A is the area of the diaphragm.
Kx=Force exerted by the spring attached to the stem & the diaphragm K is the Hookes constant for
the spring & x is the displacement,it acts upward.
C*dx/dt=Frictional force exerted upward & resulting from the close contact of the stem with valve
packing;C is the friction coefficient between stem & packing.
Applying Newtons law,we get
pA - Kx C*dx/dt = (M/


/dt OR (M/


+C/K* dx/dt+x = A/K*p



, 2=C/R & Kp = A/K

We get

+, 2*dx/dt+x=KpP
The last equation indicates that the stem positionx follows inherent second-order dynamics.The
transfer function is
G(s) = X(s)/P(s) = A/K/(M/

G(s) = Kp/


One of the most useful factors to determine the size of a control valve in the flow coefficient or Cv
factor(or Kv factor).Practically all control valve manufactures supply Cv factors for their valves.These
factors form the basis for all calculations.The flow coefficient indicates the amount of flow the
control valve can handle under a given pressure drop across the control valve.
Cv factor : The flow coefficient (Cv)is defined as the flow rate of water in gallons per minute at 60F
through a valve at maximum opening with a pressure drop of 1 psi measured in the inlet & outlet
pipes directly adjacent to the valve body.
Kv factor :Whenever the flow coefficient is mentioned in metric units,it is denoted by the symbol Kv
which is defined as the flow rate of water in

/hour at about 30C flowing through the fully

opened control valve at a pressure drop of 1kg/

across the control.

The following relationship between Cv & Kv can generally be used.
Cv = 1.17Kv ; Kv = 0.86Cv
The flow coefficient is determined by the manufacturer for various types & sizes of valves by actual
experiments with water.The flow coefficient for 100% valve opening is termed as Cv (or Kv) of the
particular valve size & the variation of Cv (or Kv) at different valve openings is given in the form of a
graph,which is termed as valve characteristic.
12.b) VALVE POSITIONER : The main purpose of having a valve positioner is to gurantee that the
valve does move to the position where the controller wants it to be.By adding positioner one can
correct for many variations including changes in packing friction due to dirt,corrosion,or lack of
lubrication;variations in the dynamic forces of the process sloppy linkages or non linearities in the
valve actuator .The effective dead band of a valve/actuater combination can be as much as 5% with
the addition of a positioner it can be reduced to less than 0.5%.It is job positioner to protect the
controlled variable from being upset by any of the variations.In addition the positioner can be used
for split-ranging the control signal between more than one valve,for increasing the actuator speed
for modifying the valve characteristics by cams or electronic function generators.But these reason
do not necessitate the use of positioners as they can be achieved by other means without using
positioner also.
The valve positioner is a high-gain plain proportional controller which measures the valve stem
position compares that measurement to its set point & if there is a difference corrects the error.The
open-loop gain of positioners ranges from 10 to 200 (proportional band of 10% to 0.5% )& their
periods of oscillation range from 0.3 10 10 seconds(frequency response of 3 to 0.1 Hz).In other
words the positioner is a very sensitively tuned proportional only controller.

12.d) I/P CONVERTER : The current to pressure converter or simply I/P converter is a very important
element in process control.Often when we want to use the low-level electric current signal to do
work it is much easier to let the work to be done by a pneumatic signal.The I/P converter gives us a
linear way of translating the 4-20mA current into a 0.2 to 1kg/

signal (3 to 15 psi signal).There

are many designs for these converters,but the basic principle almost always involves the use of a
flapper/nozzle system.Fig. illustrates a simple way to construct such a converter.Notice that the
current through a coil produces a force that will tend to pull the flapper down & close off the gap.A
high current produces a high pressure so that the device is direct acting.Adjustment of the springs &
perhaps the position relative to the pivot to which they are attached allows the unit to be calibrated
so that 4mA corresponds to 0.2kg/

(or 3psi)& 20mA corresponds to 1kg/

(or 15 psi).