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WhatistheAgeofEnlightenment,andhowdoesitconnectwith

thefoundingideasofAmerica?

Enlightenment:
BasicIdea
Enlightenmentwasatimewhenpeoplebegintothinkabouthowmuchcontrol
peoplecouldhaveovergovernment,andwhattheirnaturalrightswere,likethe
righttolive,freedom,liberty,andproperty.

Dealbetweengovernmentandpeople:
Republicanism
Peoplehadrighttochoosetheirownleader.
ConsentoftheGoverned
Ideathatifgovernmentfailed,thepeoplehadtherighttorevolt
governmenthastoholduptheirendofthesocialcontract
Socialcontract
Peoplegiveupsomefreedomliketorobandkillpeopleinexchangeforthe
governmentsprotectionovertheirliberty,property,andrighttolive
therelationshipwasanagreement

ApplyingtotheConstitution:
Whenwritingtheconstitution,peopleembracedEnlightenmentideaslikerighttovote.

Menwhosuppliedmanyoftheseideas:
BarondeMontesquieu
ideasthatcontributedtoideasoffoundingfathersofUS
thoughtabouthowgovernmentsshouldfunction,andhowtheyshouldrule
ideasonliberty
Peoplenotjusthavingfreedomtospeakanddowhatwant,butkeeping
safe
ideaofcheckandbalance
allthreesectionsofgovernment(king,parliament,andcourt)haveequal
power,nolossofliberty,eachabletolimittheothers
JamesMadisonuseidea:
eachpersoningovernment(Congress,makelawPresident,applylaw
Court,interpretlaw)haveownjob
cancheckandbalancetolimitpower
JohnLocke
ThomasJeffersonusedideas
allpeoplearehumanandsharenature
Naturalright
righttolife,libertyandproperty
humansbornwithrights,cannotbetakenawayorgiven
Government:
shouldbeinchargeofkeepingpeoplesnaturalright,protecting,andgiving
service
without:
noonetoprotectpeoplesrights,stateofnature,nowaytoprotect
rights
Socialcontract
citizensandgovernmentagree:peoplegiveupsomefreedomand
governmentprotectrights
ThomasHobbes
ideathatsocialcontractwasatwowaystreet
peoplegiveupsomefreedom,governmentgivesprotection
peoplelivedinastateofnature
concernedwithprotection
Hobbesbelievedinmonarchy
thoughtpowershouldrestinoneplace
onlythekinghaspower
JeanJacquesRousseau
Thoughtgovernmentspurposewastoprotectpeoplesrights
governmentfollowsgeneralrule
dothethingsthatarebestforthesocietyasawhole
Ifpeopledisagree,theyfollowthemajorityrule
TypesofDemocracy
Representativedemocracy
peoplevoteonotherpeopletorepresenttheminthegovernment
DirectDemocracy
allcitizensareallowedtohelpmakelawsandrunthegovernment
Jeanwanteddirectdemocracy
Voltaire
admiredtheconstitutionalmonarchyanddivisionofpowerinBritain
Thoughtthatlawwasablessingtocitizens
Ifpeoplethoughtthatworldwasperfect,wouldntchallengeallevils
needawareness
Foughtagainstoppressionofthepeople
wantedeveryonetohaverighttospeakwhatwhatwantedto
evenifdisagreed,stillcantlimitperson
toleranceofreligion
thought:
nosinglereligionisright,eachholdonlypartoftruth
naturalreligionisthatcoretruth
CesareBeccaria
believedaccusedpeopleshouldhavefairtreatment
upsetbytheharshtreatmentoftheaccusedandtheunfairjudges


Howitaffectsustoday:
TheseideaswereusedtoformtheConstitutionandBillofRights,whichgivesusthe
rightswehavetoday.
Amendment1:
freedomofreligion,speech,andrighttogoagainstgovernment
Amendment4:
authoritycannotsearchorseizepersonalbelongingsorhouse
bornwithrightsofliberty,property,andlife
Amendment5:
ifcommittedacrime,personneedswitnesses,andpropertycannotbe
takenawayfrom
needfairchance
Amendment6:
needquicktrial,withunbiasedjuryandattorney
Amendment7:
havetousedsameformofcourt
cannotgoagainstgovernmentinthisway
Amendment8:
Cannotbeforcedtopayahugepayment
Cannotbegivenextremepunishments
righttolifeandproperty
ArticleThree,Section2oftheConstitution,declarestrialbyjury
ArticleFourensuresofPowerbythePeoplegovernmentandguaranteesthe
governmentwillprotectthestates

Jeansworkcausedmanytothinkaboutthetypeofgovernmenttheywanted.This
includedtheFoundingFathersofourNation.BecauseofJeansideas,theycreateda
democracythatguaranteedavoiceinthegovernment.
AbrahamLincolnsquote,agovernmentofthepeople,bythepeople,forthepeople.
wasinspiredbyJeansideas.
lawsaboutfairtreatment,aquickandspeedytrial,andpunishmentbasedontheseverity
ofthecrimestillaffectofcriminallawstoday