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DesignedbyAlexisNaiknimbalkar,CSUQualityInitiatives,

permissionrequiredforduplicationoutsideoftheCSUsystem(anaik@calstate.edu)
ProcessFlow:

HenryFordcreditedwithstartingoriginal
movement
KiichiroToyodaandTaiichiOhno:1930s
developedtheToyotaProductionSystem.
PopularizedbyJimWomack,authorofLean
Thinking,TheMachinethatChangedtheWorld
andLeanSolutions
Leanprincipleshelptoexaminebusinessprocesses
andfocusonminimizingunnecessarycosts,reducing
wasteandimprovinginefficientprocedures.
Benefits:
Identifiesproblemareasandbottlenecks
Increasesbusinessefficienciesmakesurestaff
timeisspentonvalueaddedactivities.
Savemoneyreduceoverheadinpaperwork
Simplifyprocesses
Conformtorules&regulationsandcodesof
conductstandardizingprocessesusingLean
Leanconsistsofproventoolsandtechniquesthat
focusonminimizingwastefulactivityandadding
valuetotheendproducttomeetcustomerneeds.
The8areasofwastecanbeusedtounderstandthe
inefficiencies:
Waiting Inventory Under
Correction/
Rework
Overproduction Motion
Material
Movement/
Transportation
Extra
Processing
AmappingmethodcalledValueStreammappingis
typicallyusedtocapturethecurrentstateprocess,
includingboththevalueaddedandnonvalueadded
steps.Valuestreammappingprovidesanoverall
viewofbusinessprocessesastheyarenow,mapping
thematerialandinformationflowsandcanbeused
tocreatethefuturestateprocessafterthe
leaninghastakenplace.
Nonvalueadded:Activitiesoractionstakenthataddnoreal
valuetotheproductorservice,makingtheactivityoractiona
formofwaste.
Valueadded:Activitiesoractionstakenthataddrealvalueto
theproductorservice.
IncidentalWork:Activitiesneededtostayinbusinesslegally.
InternalCustomer:Receiveroftheproductorserviceinside
theorganization,oftentheindividualdownstreamprocess.
ExternalCustomer:Receiveroftheproductorserviceoutside
theorganization.

KaizenPhilosophy:Japaneseforimprovementorchange
forthebetter.Frequentsmallimprovements,thecycleis:
Standardizeanoperation
Measurethestandardizedoperation
Gaugemeasurementsagainstrequirements
Innovatetomeetrequirementsandincreaseproductivity
Standardizethenew,improvedoperations
LeanMetrics:
1. ProcessTime(P/T)actualtouchtimeofoneworkitem;exclude
interruptions
2. DelayTime(D/T)timeworkitemisdelayedornottouched
3. LeadTime(L/T)starttimetofinishtime;L/T=P/T+D/T
4. %CompleteandAccurate(%C/A)%ofworkenteringaprocessthatis
completeandaccurate.
History:
WhyUseLean?
IntroductiontoLeanPrinciples
WhatisLean?
LeanTerminology/Metrics:
Understanding8AreasofWaste:
WAITING:
Systemdowntimeorresponsetime
Approvalsfromothers
Informationfromcustomers
Meetingsstartinglate
Latereports,paychecks,orprojects
INVENTORY:Toomuchofanythingandanyformofbatch
processing
Excessiveofficesupplies
Fullinboxes(electronicorpaper)
Computerfilesneverused
UNDERUTILIZATIONOFPEOPLE
Limitingemployeeauthorityandresponsibilityfortasks
Inadequatebusinesstoolsavailable
Delayingimplementationofcomputersystemcomponents
Restrictingornotofferingtrainingontechnicalresources
CORRECTION/REWORK:Correctionofanyerror
Orderentryerrors
Grammarandpunctuation
Inaccuratereportsordata
Lackofstandardizedwork
Incompletecommunications
OVERPRODUCTION:Producingmoresoonerorfasterthanis
requiredforthenextprocess
Printinghardcopiesofforms
Purchasingitemsjustincasetheyareneeded
Processingpaperworkbeforethenextpersonintheprocessis
ready
Preparingreportsthatarenotusedorread
MOTION:Unnecessaryphysicalmovement
Copymachinetoofarawayfromusers
Diggingthroughstacksofpaper
Reachingforcommonlyusedtools
Misplacingequipment/items
Usingtoomanylayersforelectronicfolders
MATERIALMOVEMENT/TRANSPORTATION(transporting,sorting,
orarrangingitemsunnecessarily)
Filingpapersthatwillneverbeusedagain
Stockpilingsuppliesfarfromtheirpointofuse
Buryingextrasuppliesindrawersorstorerooms
Requiringmultipleapprovals
HandDelivery
Latereports, paychecks,orprojects
EXTRAPROCESSING:Extramentalorphysicalnonvalueadded
steps
Producingrepetitivedocumentsfromscratch
Poorfilingsystem
Lackofvisualcontrols
Toomanyapprovalsrequiredforaction
Unclearreports/memospublished
Reviewingadocumentmultipletimestodetermineaction
Meetingswithoutagendasforaction
Upstream
Lookatprocessthrough
thecustomers
perspectiveandidentify
wasteintheprocess.
Task TaskB TaskC
DownstreamFlow

DesignedbyAlexisNaiknimbalkar,CSUQualityInitiatives,
permissionrequiredforduplicationoutsideoftheCSUsystem(anaik@calstate.edu)
WAITING
1. Arethereexcessivesignaturesorapprovalsrequired?
2. Istheretoomuchdependencyonotherstocompletea
task?
3. Aretheredelaysinreceivinginformation?
4. Aretherecomputerprogramversionproblemscausing
delays?
5. Systemdowntimeorresponsetimecausingdelays?
6. Aretherecrossdepartmentalresourcecommitment
issues?
INVENTORY
1. Arefiles(orwork)awaitingexcessivesignaturesor
approvals?
2. Arefilesawaitingtaskcompletionbyother?
3. Aretheredelaysinreceivinginformation?
4. Arewepurchasingexcessivesuppliesofanykind?
5. Dowehaveanyobsoletefiles(electronicorhardcopy)in
thearea?
6. Dowehaveobsoleteequipmentinthearea?
7. Istherebatchprocessingoftransactionsorreports?
UNDERUTILIZATIONOFPEOPLE
1. Areweinpositionsweweretrainedtodo?
2. Canweassistotherareaswhenworkisslowinanarea?
3. Canwebetrainedtodomorewithintheorganization?
4. Arethebusinesstoolsadequateforthejob?
5. Areyourestrictingornotofferingtrainingontechnical
resources?
6. Areyoudelayingimplementationofcomputer
componentsorsoftware?
CORRECTION/REWORK
1. Dowehaveanydataentryerrors?
2. Dowehavepricing,quoting,billing,orcodingerrors?
3. Doweforwardpartialdocumentation?
4. Doweeverlosefilesorrecords?
5. Doweeverencounterincorrectinformationona
document?
6. Istherealackofstandardizedwork?
MOTION
1. Areyousearchingforcomputerfilesonyourdesktopor
usingtoomanylayersforelectronicfolders?
2. Areyousearchingforworkdocuments(files)incabinets
and/ordrawers?
3. Areyouconstantlyreviewingthesamemanualsfor
information?
4. Areyouhandcarryingpaperworktoanotherprocessor
departmentregularly?
5. Areyoumisplacingequipment/items?
6. Areyoureachingforcommonlyusedtools?
MATERIALMOVEMENT/TRANSPORTATION
1. Areyoudeliveringdocumentsthatarenotrequired?
2. Areyoudoingexcessivefilingofworkdocumentsorfiling
documentsthatwillneverbeusedagain?
3. Areyourequiringmultipleapprovals?
4. Areyouhanddeliveringitemsthatcanbesentin
interofficemail?
WASTEWALK
Auditquestionstodeterminepainpointsin
anareatobeLeaned
OVERPRODUCTION
1. Aremakingextracopies,morethanneeded?
2. Areweprinting,faxing,emailingmorethanwhatis
needed?
3. Areweenteringrepetitiveinformationonmultiplework
documentsorforms?
4. Areweorderingmoretestsorservicesthanwhatis
requiredbythecustomer?
5. Arewepurchasingitemsjustincasetheyareneeded?
6. Arewepreparingreportsthatarenotusedorread?
7. Arewehavingmeetingswithoutthenecessary
informationforaction?
EXTRAPROCESSING
1. Areweproducingrepetitivedocumentsfromscratch?
2. Dowehaveapoorfilingsystem?
3. Istherealackofvisualcontrols?
4. Arewetoomanyapprovalsrequiredforaction?
5. Areweenteringrepetitiveinformation?
6. Arewedoingmoreworkthanisrequiredforthat
process?
SORTWhenindoubt,sortitout!
Askquestionsaboutuse
SetCriteriaforsorting
Placeitemsinholdinguntilallhavehadachance
toreviewitemsbeingdiscarded
SETINORDERAplaceforeverythingand
everythinginitsplace!
Identifylocationforitems
Relocateditems
Usevisualcontrolslabels
Logicaldesignflow

SHINEInspectionthroughcleaning!
Clean
Organizeloosecords
Replacedamageditems
Placesmallitemsontraysforeasycleaning

STANDARDIZEEverythinginastateof
readiness!
Rulestomaintainandcontrolsystem(checklist,audits,
andvisualcontrols)
Minimumandmaximumlimits
Quickreferencechecklist

SUSTAINTraining,reinforcementand
measurement!
Communicateimportance
Trainonrules
Sharesuccessinmeetings
Effectivevisualcontrols
5SORGANIZATIONSYSTEM
TooltoorganizespacesandintroduceLeanconcepts
Descriptionofconducting5S
improvement:
Sort,SetinOrder,Shine,Standardize,Sustain
Excess/unneededequipment,tools,furnitureinarea
___Unneeded/outdateditemsonwalls
___Itemsarepresentinaisleways,corners,etc.
___Excess/unneededinventory,supplies,materialinarea
___Correctplacesforitemsarenotclearlymarkedorlabeled
___Itemsarenotmarkedorlabeledwithreturnaddresses
___Aisleways,workplace,equipmentlocationsarenotmarked
___Itemsarenotputawayimmediatelyafteruse
___Heightandquantitylimitsarenotclearlymarked
___Floors,walls,stairs,andsurfacesaredirty
___Equipmentisdirty
___Appropriatecleaningmaterialsarenotavailableinarea
___Lines,labels,signs,etc.aredirtyandhardtosee
___Othercleaningproblemsarepresent

___Standardstomaintainsortandsetinorderdonotexist
___Checklistforallcleaningandmaintenancejobsdonotexist
___Standardsarenotvisibleintheareaandknowtoareastakeholders
___Quantitiesandlimitscannoteasilybeseen
___Itemsneededtodojobfunctioncannotbelocatedin30seconds
___Workersinareahavenotbeentrainedin5S
___Daily5Swasnotdonethisweek
___Personalbelongingscannotbeeasilystored
___5Schecklist/standardsarenotavailableoruptodate
___Scheduled5Sauditshavenotbeencompletedthisweek
Auditquestionsfor5Sarea.
Ratings:Noproblems0,1problem1,2problems2,
3problems3,and4ormoreproblems4.
Goalistohavealowtotalnumber.Correctproblemsimmediately.