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by a Curve

✒

✏

✑

14.3

Introduction

One of the important applications of integration is to ﬁnd the area bounded by a curve. Often

such an area can have a physical signiﬁcance like the work done by a motor, or the distance

travelled by a vehicle. In this Block we explain how such an area is calculated.

✬

✫

✩

✪

Prerequisites

Before starting this Block you should . . .

x understand integration as the reverse of

diﬀerentiation

y be able to use a table of integrals

z be able to evaluate deﬁnite integrals

{ be able to sketch graphs of common

functions including polynomials, simple

rational functions, exponential and

trigonometric functions

Learning Outcomes

After completing this Block you should be able

to . . .

ﬁnd the area bounded by a curve and the

x-axis

ﬁnd the area between two curves

Learning Style

To achieve what is expected of you . . .

allocate suﬃcient study time

brieﬂy revise the prerequisite material

attempt every guided exercise and most

of the other exercises

1. Calculating the Area under a Curve

Let us denote the area under y = f(x) between a ﬁxed point a and a variable point x by A(x):

a x

area is A(x)

x

y = f(x)

y

It is clearly a function of x since as the upper limit changes so does the area. How does the area

change if we change the upper limit by a very small amount δx? See the ﬁgure below.

a x

x

y = f(x)

y

area is A( x+δx)

x + δx

f(x) A( x)

To a good approximation the change in the area A(x + δx) −A(x) is:

A(x + δx) −A(x) ≈ f(x)δx

an approximation which gets better and better as δx gets smaller and smaller, and so:

f(x) ≈

A(x + δx) −A(x)

δx

Clearly, in the limit as δx →0 we have

f(x) = lim

δx→0

A(x + δx) −A(x)

δx

But this limit on the right-hand side is the derivative of A(x) with respect to x so

f(x) =

dA

dx

Thus A(x) is an indeﬁnite integral of f(x) and we can therefore write:

A(x) =

_

f(x)dx

Now the area under the curve from a to b is clearly A(b)−A(a). But remembering our shorthand

notation for this diﬀerence, introduced in the last block we have, ﬁnally

A(b) −A(a) ≡ [A(x)]

b

a

=

_

b

a

f(x)dx

We conclude that the area under the curve y = f(x) from a to b is given by the deﬁnite integral

of f(x) from a to b.

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

2

2. The Area Bounded by a Curve Lying Above the x-axis

Consider the graph of the function y = f(x) shown in the ﬁgure below. Suppose we are interested

in calculating the area underneath the graph and above the x-axis, between the points where

x = a and x = b. When such an area lies entirely above the x-axis, as is clearly the case here,

this area is given by the deﬁnite integral

_

b

a

f(x) dx.

a

b

y

x

area required

y = f(x)

Key Point

The area under the curve y = f(x), between x = a and x = b is given by

_

b

a

f(x) dx

when the curve lies entirely above the x-axis between a and b.

Example Calculate the area bounded y = x

−1

and the x-axis, between x = 1 and x = 4.

Solution

Below is a graph of y = x

−1

. The area required is shaded; it lies entirely above the x-axis.

y =

1

x

y

x

1 2 3 4 5

O

1

2

area required

area =

_

4

1

1

x

dx = [ln |x|]

4

1

= ln 4 −ln 1 = ln 4 = 1.386 (3dp)

3 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

Now do this exercise

Find the area bounded by the curve y = sin x and the x-axis between x = 0 and x = π.

(The required area is shown in the ﬁgure. Note that it lies entirely above the x-axis.

y =sinx

y

x

π

O

area required

Answer

Now do this exercise

Find the area under f(x) = e

2x

from x = 1 to x = 3 given that the exponential function

e

2x

is always positive.

(Note: Because e

2x

is positive, the area will lie above the x-axis.) Answer

Example The ﬁgure shows the graphs of y = sin x and y = cos x for 0 ≤ x ≤

1

2

π. The

two graphs intersect at the point where x =

1

4

π. Find the shaded area.

y =sinx

y =cosx

y

x

π

2

area required

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

4

Solution

To ﬁnd the shaded area we could calculate the area under the graph of y = sin x for x between

0 and

1

4

π, and subtract this from the area under the graph of y = cos x between the same limits.

Alternatively the two processes can be combined into one and we can write

shaded area =

_

π/4

0

(cos x −sin x)dx

= [sin x + cos x]

π/4

0

=

_

sin

1

4

π + cos

1

4

π

_

−(sin 0 + cos 0)

If you are aware of the standard triangles you will know that

sin

1

4

π = cos

1

4

π =

1

√

2

in which case the value of integral is

2

√

2

−1 = 0.414. Alternatively you can use your calculator

to obtain this result directly.

More exercises for you to try

In each question the required area lies entirely above the horizontal axis, although you

should verify this fact for yourself independently.

1. Find the area under the curve y = 7x

2

and above the x axis between x = 2 and x = 5.

2. Find the area bounded by the curve y = x

3

and the x-axis between x = 0 and x = 2.

3. Find the area bounded by the curve y = 3t

2

and the t-axis between t = −3 and t = 3.

4. Find the area under y = x

−2

between x = 1 and x = 10.

Answer

3. The Area Bounded by a Curve, Parts of Which Lie Below the

x-axis

The ﬁgure below shows a graph of y = −x

2

+ 1.

y =−x

2

+1

x

y

-2 -1 1 2 3

area required

5 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

The shaded area is bounded by the x-axis and the curve, but lies entirely below the x-axis. Let

us evaluate the integral

_

2

1

(−x

2

+ 1)dx.

_

2

1

(−x

2

+ 1)dx =

_

−

x

3

3

+ x

_

2

1

=

_

−

2

3

3

+ 2

_

−

_

−

1

3

3

+ 1

_

= −

7

3

+ 1 = −

4

3

The evaluation of the area yields a negative quantity. There is no such thing as a negative area.

The area is actually

4

3

, and the negative sign is an indication that the area lies below the x-axis.

If an area contains parts both above and below the horizontal axis, care must be taken when

trying to calculate this area. It is necessary to determine which parts of the graph lie above the

horizontal axis and which lie below. Separate integrals need to be calculated for each ‘piece’ of

the graph. This idea is illustrated in the next example.

Example Find the total area enclosed by the curve y = x

3

− 5x

2

+ 4x and the x-axis

between x = 0 and x = 3.

Solution

We need to determine which parts of the graph, if any, lie above and which lie below the x-axis.

To do this it is helpful to consider where the graph cuts the x-axis. So we consider the function

x

3

−5x

2

+ 4x and look for its zeros

x

3

−5x

2

+ 4x = x(x

2

−5x + 4)

= x(x −1)(x −4)

So the graph cuts the x-axis when x = 0, x = 1 and x = 4. Also, when x is large and positive,

y is large and positive since the term involving x

3

dominates. When x is large and negative, y

is large and negative for the same reason. With this information we can sketch a graph showing

the required area. If you have access to a graphics calculator or computer package this is a

trivial matter. The graph is shown below.

From the graph we see that the required area lies partly above the x-axis (when 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and

partly below (when 1 ≤ x ≤ 3). So we evaluate the integral in two parts: Firstly:

_

1

0

(x

3

−5x

2

+ 4x)dx =

_

x

4

4

−

5x

3

3

+

4x

2

2

_

1

0

=

_

1

4

−

5

3

+ 2

_

−(0) =

7

12

This is the part of the required area which lies above the x-axis.

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

6

Solution

y =x

3

−5x

2

+4x

y

x

1 2 3 4

area required

Secondly:

_

3

1

(x

3

−5x

2

+ 4x)dx =

_

x

4

4

−

5x

3

3

+

4x

2

2

_

3

1

=

_

81

4

−

135

3

+ 18

_

−

_

1

4

−

5

3

+ 2

_

= −

22

3

This represents the part of the required area which lies below the x-axis. The actual area is

22

3

.

Combining the results of the two separate calculations we can ﬁnd the total area bounded by

the curve:

area =

7

12

+

22

3

=

95

12

Now do this exercise

a) Sketch the graph of y = sin 2x for 0 ≤ x ≤ π.

b) Find the total area bounded by the curve and the x-axis between x =

1

3

π and x =

3

4

π.

Sketch the graph and indicate the required area noting where the graph crosses the x-axis.

Perform the integration in two parts to obtain the required area. Answer

7 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

More exercises for you to try

1. Find the total area enclosed between the x-axis and the curve y = x

3

between x = −1

and x = 1.

2. Find the area under y = cos 2t from t = 0 to t = 0.5.

3. Find the area enclosed by y = 4−x

2

and the x axis from a) x = 0 to x = 2, b) x = −2

to x = 1, c) x = 1 to x = 3.

4. Calculate the area enclosed by the curve y = x

3

and the line y = x.

5. Find the area bounded by y = e

x

, the y-axis and the line x = 2.

6. Find the area enclosed between y = x(x −1)(x −2) and the x axis.

Answer

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

8

4. Computer Exercise or Activity

For this exercise it will be necessary for you to access the

computer package DERIVE.

DERIVE can be used to obtain deﬁnite integrals. Also, by

using the graphics facilities in DERIVE you will be able to ﬁnd

precisely where curves cross the x-axis and hence be able to

determine the area in terms of deﬁnite integrals. Use DERIVE

to check the correctness of your own solutions to the exercises

in this block.

9 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

End of Block 14.3

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

10

_

π

0

sin xdx = [−cos x]

π

0

= 2.

Back to the theory

11 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

area =

_

3

1

e

2x

dx =

_

1

2

e

2x

¸

3

1

= 198

Back to the theory

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

12

1. 273, 2. 4, 3. 54, 4. 0.9.

Back to the theory

13 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

_

π/2

π/3

sin 2xdx =

1

4

and

_

3π/4

π/2

sin 2xdx = −

1

2

. The required area is

1

4

+

1

2

=

3

4

.

Back to the theory

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

14

1. 0.5 2. 0.4207 3. a)

16

3

, b) 9, c) 4. 0.5 5. e

2

−1. 6.

1

2

Back to the theory

15 Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1

14.3: Integration

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