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Research Method: Quantitative and qualitative research

Table of Content
Exclusive Summary ................................................................................................................... 3
Research Methodology .............................................................................................................. 3
Scientific Research Design ........................................................................................................ 5
Qualitative Research .............................................................................................................. 5
Theory ................................................................................................................................ 5
Example ............................................................................................................................. 5
Quantitative Research ................................................................................................................ 5
Theory ................................................................................................................................ 5
Example ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Difference between quantitative and qualitative research ......................................................... 5
Definition ............................................................................................................................... 6
Theoretical use ....................................................................................................................... 6
Research process .................................................................................................................... 6
Sample selection .................................................................................................................... 6
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Questionnaire design .............................................................................................................. 6
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 6
Recommendation ....................................................................................................................... 6
References .................................................................................................................................. 7


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Exclusive Summary
In this study, the general view of methodologies in doing researches has been introduced with
main focus on science researches. Moreover, the definition, characteristic and procedure are
presented for not only qualitative research but also quantitative research. Moreover,
comparison is made as well as recommendation is suggested
Research Methodology
Research is the process of phenomenon - observation in order to develop new knowledge.
Thus, in order to do research effectively, the author must understand the old knowledge; form
a process to observe the phenomenon; make comparison and propose new knowledge, and
demonstrate the application of the new knowledge in different fields (Bryman, 2006;
Silverman, 2010; Bell, 2010). The data in the study are numbers, names, groups, etc. The
information is a combination of data in order to describe an event or phenomenon and
knowledge is the understanding of a person or community of the information. Currently,
there are two types of scientific research. They are academic research and applied research.
Academic research is carried out with the purpose of developing theories, and the outcome
are new theories, models or arguments; Applied research is performed with the purpose of
applying theory into practice, and the outcome are effective solutions based on theoretical
basis.
In order to achieve the study purposes in the scientific researches, the author must clearly
specify “What is the research questions?” (Thabane et al., 2009). It is advised to avoid the
questions such as: What is the current state of the research problem? What are the causes of
the problems? What are the solutions to improve or solve these existing problems? These are
questions for managers, not the questions for scientific researchers. Normally when managers
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need to solve a certain problem, they will base on these factors: experience, existing
understanding, intuition and knowledge. The knowledge is referred to as the scientific
research. The research questions are question types which express the research information
and knowledge that the researchers need to find in the research, which is the something that is
not yet known. Research questions usually focus on new factors and new relationships.
According to Polit and Beck (2010), differences between management questions and research
questions are:
 Research questions aim at new information and knowledge (while management
questions aim at problem solving); research questions focus on variables and their
relationship (while questions focus on the decisions of managers)
 Research questions are often based on theory (while management questions are
based on practical background information) and research questions usually
produce results with a high level of trust based on the data (while management
questions can only yield outcomes based on the practical operation).
 The biggest difference is that the research questions find the right and essential
"gaps" in specialized knowledge and the research problem is of theoretical and
practical significance. Many people are interested in the issue, but no one has
studied it yet. For example, in the research of motivations for competitive array
positioning of small business establishments, research questions are: why do some
businesses choose to locate their businesses close to their competitors? What are
benefits and costs of competitive array positioning?
Wiersma and Jurs (2005) indicated that identifying research questions takes researchers a lot
of time to think about the research problem; at the same time discussion with the professional
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researchers or managers in the field of research is needed. It can also be started with a fairly
general question, and then it can be specified into many deeper, sharper and more interesting
questions.
Scientific Research Design
Qualitative Research
Theory
Example
Quantitative Research
Theory
Example
Difference between quantitative and qualitative research
In scientific research, qualitative and quantitative methods play a very significant role in the
research topic. These two methods will help researchers collect data correctly and quickly.
However, the two methods are opposite to each other in terms of methods of operation.
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Definition
Theoretical use
Research process
Sample selection
Questionnaire design
Conclusion
Research designing in science is of immense significance. A logical scientific research could
become a good research with effective research method only when there is a completed study
design (either qualitative or quantitative) (Adcock, 2001; Neuman, 2007). By looking at the
research model (study design), the readers can visualize the entire study of the author and the
great logic in the study (showing previous studies with "space" point for the author to do
research on). Research design, by nature, is describing the research method. In a research
topic, it is possible to use both qualitative research and quantitative research (Kumar, 2010).
Qualitative research is used to describe and clarify the theoretical basis for quantitative
research. Many authors make mistakes by regarding the statistical data tables in the study
(especially for the field of social sciences and economics) as a quantitative approach. This is
completely wrong, because quantitative research in this area has to use mathematical models
to demonstrate or test the arguments asserted in research.
Recommendation
In most of the scientific research of department level or school level nowadays, there is
hardly any specific study design. After reading the topics, it does not clearly understand what
kind of research methods that the papers are using, qualitative or qualitative research
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methods. Therefore, the subject demonstrates no logical flow from the theory to the reality
and the solutions as well; theory and practice are completely unconnected. To avoid this
problem, it is important that the author, before embarking on the development of the paper,
should define a research framework for the subject right from the beginning of the research
methods (Bryman, 2006). Research framework (or study design) is a components of the steps
that the subject will perform one by one, and how to properly perform these steps (if the
method of opinion survey is used, there must be a description of survey methods, survey
content, the scale of sampling in order to test the reliability of the survey), so that new
research topic can reflect true nature of scientific research.
References

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