Given the fact that “the principle of collective defense is at the very heart of NATO`s

founding treaty that binds its members together, committing them to protect each other and
setting a spirit of solidarity within the Alliance
1
”(Article V states that “The Parties agree that
an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered
an attack against them all.”
2
), NATO`s unwavering commitment to collective security is very
well represented in many summits, strategic concepts, defense reviews and official papers,
mainly since 1990.

In the past 20 years, NATO has had 14 Summits. In every one of them, the Collective
Security principle was present, sometimes the main subject of the meetings, or through the
official papers and declarations:
1. 10–11 Jan. 1994 Brussels Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government at
NATO HQ, Belgium

“Alliance Heads of State and Government launch Partnership for Peace: The concept of
Combined Joint Task Forces is endorsed, as well as other measures to support the
development of a European Security and Defence Identity. NATO Heads of State and
Government reaffirm NATO's readiness to carry out air strikes to prevent the
strangulation of Sarajevo and other UN-declared safe areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina.”
3


The Collective Security principle is represented through the launch of the Partnership for
Peace and The concept of Combined Joint Task Forces supporting the development of a
European Security and Defence Identity, also through the commitment to carry out air
strikes that led to a two-week NATO bombing campaign, Operation Deliberate Force,
which began in August 1995 against the Army of the Republika Srpska, after the
Srebrenica massacre. NATO air strikes that year helped bring the Yugoslav wars to an
end, resulting in the Dayton Agreement in November 1995. As part of this agreement,
NATO deployed an UN-mandated peacekeeping force, under Operation Joint Endeavor,
named IFOR. Almost 60,000 NATO troops were joined by forces from non-NATO
nations in this peacekeeping mission. This transitioned into the smaller SFOR, which
started with 32,000 troops initially and ran from December 1996 until December 2004,

1
Source: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_59378.htm
2
Article 5 of the Washington Treaty
3
Source: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_24425.htm
when operations where then passed onto European Union Force Althea. Following the
lead of its member nations, NATO began to award a service medal, the NATO Medal, for
these operations.

Partnership for Peace: Framework Document Issued by the Heads of State and
Government participating in the Meeting of the North Atlantic Council

The Collective Security principle is stated in the Press Release Annex to M-1(1994) 002
Issued on 11 Jan. 1994 through NATO`s strategic concept of cooperation for protection
and promotion within common actions on Article 2., Article 7. and Article 8. :

“2. This Partnership is established as an expression of a joint conviction that stability and
security in the Euro-Atlantic area can be achieved only through cooperation and common
action. Protection and promotion of fundamental freedoms and human rights, and
safeguarding of freedom, justice, and peace through democracy are shared values
fundamental to the Partnership. In joining the Partnership, the member States of the North
Atlantic Alliance and the other States subscribing to this Document recall that they are
committed to the preservation of democratic societies, their freedom from coercion and
intimidation, and the maintenance of the principles of international law.”

“7. In keeping with their commitment to the objectives of this Partnership for Peace, the
members of the North Atlantic Alliance will: develop with the other subscribing states a
planning and review process to provide a basis for identifying and evaluating forces and
capabilities that might be made available by them for multinational training, exercises,
and operations in conjunction with Alliance forces;”

“8. NATO will consult with any active participant in the Partnership if that Partner
perceives a direct threat to its territorial integrity, political independence, or security.”

2. Official Papers updated through three Summits - Summit Meeting of Heads of State
and Government - Washington D.C., USA (23 Apr. 1999 - 25 Apr. 1999), Madrid,
Spain Summit (8 Jul. 1997 - 9 Jul. 1997) and NATO-Russia Summit - Paris, France
(27 May. 1997)- have the Collective Security as a common principle:
Development of the European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) within NATO
4
:

“The Alliance has also been giving increasing recognition to the need to strengthen the
European component within NATO through the development of the European Security
and Defence Identity (ESDI). The 1994 Brussels Summit confirmed that the emergence
of ESDI would strengthen the European pillar of the Alliance while reinforcing the
transatlantic link and enabling the European allies to take greater responsibility for their
common security and defence. The Madrid Summit of July 1997 reaffirmed the Allies’
full support for the development of ESDI.”

Partnership for Peace - an Enhanced and more Operational Partnership
5
:

“Partnership for Peace - a process which brings NATO Allies and Partners together in a
vast programme of joint defence and security-related activities - will be given a fresh
boost at the Washington Summit.
The PfP process was launched by NATO in January 1994 with the aim of furthering
stability and security throughout Europe and it now constitutes a permanent feature of the
European security architecture.
Since PfP was introduced, the Allies and Partners have come together in a practical
military and defence-related programme that now numbers more than 2,000 events.
Ranging from large, military exercises down to small workshops grouping a handful of
people, the programme touches virtually all areas of NATO’s activity.”

The Combined Joint Task Forces Concept
6
:
“The concept of Combined Joint Task Forces (CJTF) provides flexible and efficient
means to enable the Alliance to generate forces at short notice, providing rapidly
deployable, multi-national, multiservice task forces with appropriate command and
control arrangements.
A CJTF is a deployable multinational, multiservice task force generated and tailored
primarily, but not exclusively, for military operations not involving the defence of the
Alliance territory, such as humanitarian relief and peacekeeping.”

4
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/1999/9904-wsh/pres-eng/05esdi.pdf
5
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/1999/9904-wsh/pres-eng/08pfp.pdf
6
Source : http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/1999/9904-wsh/pres-eng/16cjtf.pdf

3. Summit Meeting of NATO and Russia at the level of Heads of State and
Government Rome, Italy, 28 May 2002
“The Rome Declaration builds on the 1997 "Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and
Security", which remains the basic text governing relations between NATO and Russia. The
members of the NATO-Russia Council, acting in their national capacities and in a manner
consistent with their respective collective commitments and obligations, will take joint decisions
and will bear equal responsibility, individually and jointly, for their implementation. Each member
may raise in the NATO-Russia Council issues related to the implementation of joint decisions.”
7


4. 21-22 Nov 2002 Prague Summit NATO Heads of State and Government - NATO
Heads of State and Government have formally invited seven countries to Accession
Talks with NATO: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and
Slovenia.
Prague Summit Declaration
Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic
Council in Prague on 21 November 2002:
“We are steadfast in our commitment to the transatlantic link; to NATO’s fundamental security
tasks including collective defence; to our shared democratic values; and to the United Nations
Charter.
[..]Today's decisions will provide for balanced and effective capabilities within the Alliance so
that NATO can better carry out the full range of its missions and respond collectively to those
challenges, including the threat posed by terrorism and by the proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction and their means of delivery.”
8

5. 28 and 29 June 2004 Istanbul Summit NATO Heads of State and Government-
Agenda: Projecting stability through partnerships

7
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/2002/0205-rome/rome-eng.pdf
8
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2002/p02-127e.htm
“For NATO, projecting stability means building partnerships, to maximise the collective
ability to defend the peace by working together.
In Istanbul, the Alliance will be seeking to strengthen its relationships with an ever-
growing list of partners, from the Balkans, to the Caucasus, Central Asia and with the
Mediterranean countries and the wider region: NATO – Russia, NATO - Ukraine, Euro-
Atlantic Partnership and Partnership for Peace Mediterranean Dialogue NATO – EU”
9

"At Istanbul, we will enhance our Partnerships to deliver more. We will concentrate more on defence
reform to help some of our partners continue with their democratic transitions. We will also focus on
increasing our co-operation with the Caucasus and Central Asia – areas that once seemed very far
away, but that we now know are essential to our security right here." - NATO Secretary General, Jaap
de Hoop Scheffer.

Official Document “A more Ambitious and Expanded Framework
for the Mediterranean Dialogue”
10
:

NATO elevates Mediterranean Dialogue to a genuine partnership, launches Istanbul
Cooperation Initiative: “The enhanced Mediterranean Dialogue will contribute to regional security
and stability, by promoting greater practical cooperation, enhancing the Dialogue’s political
dimension, assisting in defence reform, cooperation in the field of border security, achieving
interoperability and contributing to the fight against terrorism, while complementing other
international efforts.”
11


6. 22 Feb. 2005 Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government NATO HQ,
Brussels

NATO leaders express unity on Iraq, reaffirm values Meeting at NATO on 22 February, all
26 Allies agreed to contribute to NATO’s assistance to Iraq, strengthen political dialogue in the
Alliance and expand its operation in Afghanistan. Reaffirming the transatlantic link “What binds us
are the values,” said NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer at a press conference with US

9
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/2004/06-istanbul/partners.htm
10
http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2004/istanbul/2004-istanbul-e.pdf
11
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/2004/06-istanbul/docu-meddial.htm
President George W. Bush, “We will have differences of opinion, … but there is a lot more that we
agree upon, and that is the bottom line and the basis for this great Alliance.”
12

Alliance ready to deepen partnership with Ukraine Meeting with President Viktor
Yushchenko at NATO on 22 February, NATO leaders expressed support for Ukraine’s reform
agenda and agreed to strengthen cooperation with the country. At the special NATO-Ukraine
Summit, President Yuschenko outlined to NATO Heads of State and Government his plans and
priorities for the reform process in Ukraine. “NATO is ready to work with you,” NATO Secretary
General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer said at a joint press conference with President Yuschenko. The
Secretary General said that NATO stands ready to “sharpen and refocus” the existing cooperation,
carried out in the framework of the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan, to support the President’s
priorities.
13

7. 27-28 Nov 2006 Riga Summit NATO Heads of State and Government
Riga Summit Declaration

Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North
Atlantic Council in Riga on 29 November 2006:
“1. The principle of the indivisibility of Allied security is fundamental, and our solidarity
gives us the strength to meet new challenges together. In today’s evolving security
environment, we confront complex, sometimes inter-related threats such as terrorism,
increasingly global in scale and lethal in results, and the proliferation of Weapons of Mass
Destruction and their means of delivery, as well as challenges from instability due to failed or
failing states. This puts a premium on the vital role NATO plays as the essential forum for
security consultation between North American and European Allies. It highlights the
importance of common action against those threats, including in UN-mandated crisis
response operations. It also underscores the importance of continuing transformation of
NATO’s capabilities and relationships, which includes our operations and missions, strong
investment in enhanced capabilities, and closer engagement with our partners, other nations
and organisations.
22. Continuing defence transformation is essential to ensure that the Alliance remains able to
perform its full range of missions, including collective defence and crisis response operations.
26. We are committed to continuing to provide, individually and collectively, the resources
that are necessary to allow our Alliance to perform the tasks that we demand from it.

12
Source: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-8DFC7125-72E3BA00/natolive/news_21616.htm
13
Source: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-091AAAF2-2633C22C/natolive/news_21612.htm
42. We reaffirm our commitment to the CFE Treaty as a cornerstone of European security
and to the early entry into force of the Adapted Treaty, which would permit accession by new
States Parties.
45. As underscored in NATO’s Strategic Concept, Alliance security interests can also be
affected by the disruption of the flow of vital resources. We support a coordinated,
international effort to assess risks to energy infrastructures and to promote energy
infrastructure security. ”
14


8. 2-4 April 2008 Bucharest, Romania, Summit meetings of Heads of State and Government
Official Documents:

 “Operation Active Endeavour (OAE) is a maritime surveillance operation led by
NATO’s naval forces to detect, deter and protect against terrorist activity in the
Mediterranean. It is based on Article 5, the collective defence provision of the
Washington Treaty, which was invoked in response to the terrorist attacks on the US
on 11 September 2001. The operation marked its sixth anniversary near the end of
2007 and continues successfully, with the support of Allies and partner countries.
 The membership action plan (map) is a programme designed to help aspiring Partner
countries meet NATO standards and prepare for possible future membership.
Membership of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme is a requirement to be able
to participate in the MAP. Discussion of defence, military and resource issues focuses
on the ability of the country to contribute to collective defence and to the Alliance’s
new missions.
 The Allies, individually, and the Alliance, collectively contribute to the international
community’s global fight against terrorism in the areas developed below.
 Significant progress has been made on the Cooperative Airspace Initiative (CAI),
which aims to foster cooperation between NRC nations on airspace surveillance and
air traffic management in order to enhance transparency, predictability and collective
capabilities to fight against terrorist air threats.
 The Berlin-Plus arrangements (March 2003) provide the basis for NATO-EU
cooperation in crisis management by allowing EU access to NATO’s collective assets
and capabilities for EU-led operations, including command arrangements and
assistance in operational planning. In effect, they allow the Alliance to support EU-led

14
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2006/p06-150e.htm
operations in which NATO as a whole is not engaged. The arrangements also foresee
cooperation on capability development.
 As confirmed by the Comprehensive Political Guidance agreed by heads of state and
government at the Riga Summit in November 2006, NATO retains the ability to
conduct the full range of its missions, from low to high intensity, from peacekeeping
to collective defence.
 NATO provides a permanent forum for consultations, a forum which can transform
discussions into collective decisions, and decisions into effective action.”
15

9. 3-4 April 2009 Summit meetings of Heads of State and Government Strasbourg,
France / Kehl, Germany
“At their Summit meeting in Strasbourg NATO leaders re-affirmed the principle of
indivisibility of Allied security, the commitment to transatlantic solidarity and the common
goal of a Europe that is whole and free.”
16


Declaration on Alliance Security Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating
in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Strasbourg / Kehl on 4 April 2009 Press
Release (2009) 043 Issued on 04 Apr. 2009 :

“We aim to strengthen our cooperation with other international actors, including the United
Nations, European Union, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and African
Union, in order to improve our ability to deliver a comprehensive approach to meeting these
new challenges, combining civilian and military capabilities more effectively.”

10. 19 – 20 Nov. 2010 Summit meetings of Heads of State and Government Lisbon,
Portugal
Lisbon Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the
meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Lisbon
Press Release (2010) 155 Issued on 20 Nov. 2010:
“1. Based on solidarity, Alliance cohesion and the indivisibility of our security, NATO
remains the transatlantic framework for strong collective defence and the essential forum for
security consultations and decisions among Allies. NATO’s fundamental and enduring

15
Source: http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/2008/0804-bucharest/presskit.pdf

16
Source: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_52845.htm
purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military
means. The Alliance must and will continue fulfilling effectively, and always in accordance
with international law, three essential core tasks – collective defence, crisis management, and
cooperative security – all of which contribute to safeguarding Alliance members.

4. As expressed in the Declaration by the Heads of State and Government of the nations
contributing to the UN-mandated, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)
in Afghanistan, our ISAF mission in Afghanistan remains the Alliance’s key priority, and we
welcome the important progress that has been made. Afghanistan’s security and stability are
directly linked with our own security. In meeting with President Karzai, all our 21 partners in
ISAF, the United Nations, the European Union, the World Bank and Japan, we reaffirm our
long-term commitment to Afghanistan, as set out in our strategic vision agreed at the
Bucharest Summit and reaffirmed at the Strasbourg/Kehl Summit.”

During the Summit, NATO leaders adopted a new Strategic Concept that will serve as the
Alliance’s roadmap for the next ten years, reconfirming the commitment to defend one
another against attack as the cornerstone of Euro-Atlantic security:
“Collective defence. NATO members will always assist each other against attack, in
accordance with Article 5 of the Washington Treaty. That commitment remains firm and
binding. NATO will deter and defend against any threat of aggression, and against emerging
security challenges where they threaten the fundamental security of individual Allies or the
Alliance as a whole.”
17


Allies agreed that promotion of Euro-Atlantic security is best assured through a wide
network of partner relationships with countries and organizations around the globe, such as
the United Nations and the European Union, and that they will be open to consultation with
any partner country on security issues of common concern: “We will ensure that NATO has
the full range of capabilities necessary to deter and defend against any threat to the safety and
security of our populations. Therefore, we will: • maintain an appropriate mix of nuclear and
conventional forces; • maintain the ability to sustain concurrent major joint operations and
several smaller operations for collective defence and crisis response, including at strategic
distance;”
18


17
The 2010 Strategic Concept “Active Engagement, Modern Defence”
18
Idem
11. 20– 21 May. 2012 Summit meetings of Heads of State and Government Chicago,
USA
Chicago Summit Declaration Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in
the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Chicago on 20 May 2012
Press Release (2012) 062 Issued on 20 May. 2012:

“2. Our nations are united in their commitment to the Washington Treaty and to the purposes
and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Based on solidarity, Alliance cohesion
and the indivisibility of our security, NATO remains the transatlantic framework for strong
collective defence and the essential forum for security consultations and decisions among
Allies. Our 2010 Strategic Concept continues to guide us in fulfilling effectively, and always
in accordance with international law, our three essential core tasks – collective defence, crisis
management, and cooperative security – all of which contribute to safeguarding Alliance
members.
56. This peacetime mission and other Alliance air policing arrangements demonstrate the
Alliance’s continued and visible commitment to collective defence and solidarity.
58. At our Summit in Lisbon we decided to develop a NATO Ballistic Missile Defence
(BMD) capability to pursue our core task of collective defence. The aim of this capability is
to provide full coverage and protection for all NATO European populations, territory and
forces against the increasing threats posed by the proliferation of ballistic missiles, based on
the principles of indivisibility of Allied security and NATO solidarity, equitable sharing of
risks and burdens, as well as reasonable challenge, taking into account the level of threat,
affordability and technical feasibility and in accordance with the latest common threat
assessments agreed by the Alliance.”

12. NATO’s policy guidelines on counter-terrorism Aware, Capable and Engaged for a
Safer Future (21 May 2012, Chicago, USA)
“3.Through the Alliance Strategic Concept, Allies reaffirmed that the Alliance must
“deter and defend against emerging security challenges where they threaten the
fundamental security of individual Allies or the Alliance as a whole”. Allies have,
therefore, decided to review NATO’s approach to counter-terrorism and to enhance both
the political and the military aspects of NATO’s contribution to national and international
efforts.
5. The aim of these policy guidelines is to: Provide strategic and risk-informed direction
to the counter-terrorism activities ongoing across the Alliance as part of NATO’s core
tasks of collective defence, crisis management and cooperative security.
12. To enhance Allies’ security, NATO will continue to engage with partner countries
and other international actors in countering terrorism. The Alliance will strengthen its
outreach to and cooperation with partner countries as well as international and regional
organizations, in particular the UN, EU and OSCE, in accordance with the
Comprehensive Approach Action Plan, to promote common understanding of the terrorist
threat and to leverage the full potential of each stake-holder engaged in the global counter
terrorism effort.”
19


19
NATO’s policy guidelines on counter-terrorism Aware, Capable and Engaged for a Safer Future