Colonial History to 1776
Columbian Exchange
Where: New World, Europe and Africa
What: Columbuss disco!ery in 1"#$ be%an an e&plosion of trade amon% Europe,
the New World and Africa' (hat trade is )nown as the *Columbian E&chan%e'+ Slaves
were brou%ht to the new world from Africa, su%ar, rice, horses, cows, pi%s, and disease
-smallpox. were brou%ht to the New World from Europe, and gold, silver, corn,
potatoes and disease -syphilis. were carried from the New World bac) to Europe'
/i%: 0isease -smallpo&. decimated 1ndian %roups' (he horse re!olutioni2ed
3lains 1ndian culture' (his international commerce is the be%innin% of what we would
now call *%lobali2ation'+ Note the racial and ethnic di!ersity that is automatically
included in the *e&chan%e'+
Iroquois Confederation- Late 15!s
Who: 4i!e Nati!e American Nations -Cayu%a, 5nonda%a, 5neida, 6ohaw), /eneca.
Where: 1n the 6ohaw) 7alley which is now New 8or)
What: (he Confederation was a powerful force to oppose European
encroachment' 4ierce tribes fou%ht other Nati!e Americans, and then be%an fi%htin% the
4rench, En%lish and 0utch for control of the fur trade' (hey fou%ht for sur!i!al' 0urin%
the American 9e!olution, the Confederacy split up with most supportin% the :ritish'
/i%: 3ro!ided the lar%est or%ani2ed resistance to the incomin% Europeans in the
colonial period, yet was at its pea) ;ust before the Europeans arri!ed'
"amesto#n 1$%
Who: (he 7ir%inia Company, <ohn /mith
Where: <amestown, 7ir%inia
What: (he 7ir%inia Company sent youn% men, with no future in o!erpopulated
En%land' (hey were lured by the 7ir%inia Company with promises of land and wealth==
much as people were lured to California durin% the >old 9ush' :ut there was no %old in
7ir%inia, and these ?prospectors? didn@t )now how to farm, didn@t )now how to hunt, and,
possibly feelin% betrayed by the 7ir%inia Company@s promises, and lac)in% any land of
their own, were not )nown for their spirit of cooperation amon% themsel!es or with the
local 1ndians of the 3owhatan confederacy' (hey suffered %reatly for se!eral years until
tobacco became a!ailable as a cash crop' While they did not disco!er %old, tobacco
became an adeAuate substitute'
/i%: <amestown was the first permanent En%lish settlement in the new world'
&rench coloni'ation in Canada 1$(
Who: /amuel de Champlain -4ather of New 4rance.
Where:Buebec, Canada
What: (he 4rench settled in Buebec the year after the foundin% of <amestown'
/i%: (he 4rench wor)ed better with the 1ndians than the En%lish or the /panish,
tradin% and intermarryin% with the 1ndians' Buebec be%ins the 4rench empire and the
1CD years=lon% contest with the En%lish for control of North America'
Spanish settlement of Santa &e 1$)
What: While /t' Au%ustine, 4lorida was the first permanent settlement, note that the
/panish founded /anta 4e in about 16D#'
/i%: (he En%lish, 4rench, and /panish all started important settlements about the same
time -16D7=D#.' Eltimately all three would fi%ht for control of the North American
*l+mouth Settlement ,1$-.
Who: /eparatist pil%rims fleein% from Holland
Where: 3lymouth :ay
What: (he /eparatists fled Europe for cultural and reli%ious freedom in America'
(hey a%reed to the 6ayflower Compact before landin%, pled%in% to obey *all ;ust and
eAual laws'+
/i%: (hey weren@t si%nificant economically or numerically' Howe!er, they
were !ery important morally and spiritually' (he 6ayflower Compact was crude but laid
the foundations for democratic %o!ernment' (he 3lymouth colony was mer%ed with
6assachusetts in 16#1 when 6assachusetts became a royal colony'
*uritans ,1$/. vs0 Separatists ,1$-.
WhoFwhere: 3uritans=:oston, /eparatists=3lymouth
What: 3uritans wanted to reform the Church of En%land' /eparatists -e&treme
3uritans. wanted to separate from the Church of En%land' :oth were Cal!inistic, strict,
and religiousl+ intolerant'
/i%: (heir reli%ious de!otion principally shaped the be%innin% of En%lish
settlements and reli%ious influence in New En%land'
*uritans earl+ settlement and religious intolerance #ithin the colon+
Who: 3uritans -not /eparatists but those who wanted to *purify+ the Church of
Where: 6assachusetts -:oston.
When: 16GD
What: (hey belie!ed in the doctrine of a callin% to do >ods wor) on earth' (hey
had serious commitment to wor) yet they also en;oyed simple pleasures' (hey
established a bible commonwealth with no tolerance for reli%ious dissent -Williams,
Hutchinson were banished for heresy.' (he colony was economically successful but
reli%iously intolerant'
/i%: Church members had ri%hts -!ote. as *freemen'+ (hey were intolerant of
others who did not share their beliefs'
1nne 2radstreet ,1$1--1$%-.
What: :radstreet -161$=167$. is an important fi%ure in the history of American
literature' :radstreet@s wor) points to the stru%%les of a 3uritan wife a%ainst the hardships
of New En%land colonial life, and in some way is a testament to the pli%ht of the women
of the a%e'
/i%: /he is considered by many to be the first American poet, and she is a
3utch settlement of 4e# 1msterdam ,4e# 5or6. 1$-7
Who: (he 0utch West 1ndia Company
Where: New 8or) -New Amsterdam.
What: Company town: de!eloped for economic benefits of fur trade' Hater
became aristocratic in its habits and attitudes, ha!in% no toleration for reli%ious toleration,
free speech, or democracy'
/i%: 1ts bustlin% seaports brou%ht many immi%rants and %reat trade'
William Penn’s Settlement of Pennsylvania 1681
Who: William 3enn
Where: 3ennsyl!ania
What: Iin% Charles 11 awarded 3enn a tract of land in 16J1 to repay a debt owed
to 3enns father'
/i%: 3enn, representin% persecuted Bua)ers, ad!ertised 3ennsyl!ania as a
colony )nown for freedom and reli%ious toleration' -E!en thou%h 3enn was a Bua)er, he
en;oyed the Iin%s support'.
Where: :ritish Empire -En%land to 17D7: :ritain thereafter.
What: <ustified :ritish control o!er the colonies' (his theory proposed that
wealth was power and that a countrys economic wealth could be measured by the
amount of %old or sil!er in its treasury' A fa!orable balance of trade must be created by
e&portin% more e&pensi!e %oods to colonies and importin% less e&pensi!e raw materials
from colonies' (he mother country produced finished %oods, colonies supplied mar)ets
for finished %oods and raw materials' >old and sil!er would flow to the mother country
as a result -finished %oods are more !aluable than raw materials'. (rade within the
empire should not permit outsiders -0utch, 4rench, /panish. to profit, lest %old and sil!er
be shifted to them'
/i%: 6ercantilism was the foundation for the economic relationship between
the colonies and En%land up to the 9e!olution'
8ercantilism in practice
What: Na!i%ation and (rade Acts brou%ht mercantilism to life' (he 4avigation
Acts from 16CD to 166G reAuired that all %oods flowin% to and from the colonies could be
transported only in :ritish ships' (he captain of the ship must be En%lish, and the crew
must be K En%lish' Certain commodities must be shipped to En%land first before %oin%
to Europe from the colonies or to the colonies from Europe' 7arious :rade Acts
included the hat and iron acts, which prohibited final colonial manufacture of hats and
iron %oods' (ariffs were imposed to protect :ritish su%ar planters, such as the 6olasses
Act of 17GG which imposed a duty of 6 pence per %allon on imported forei%n molasses
-thus fa!orin% :ritish molasses.' (he 6 pence was not meant to be paid and was,
therefore, not really a ta&' -When the Act was amended in 176" to lower the rate to G
pence per %allon, which was meant to be paid, the issue of ta&ation without representation
arose and led in time to the 9e!olution'.
/i%: (he colonies did not ob;ect to Na!i%ation and (rade Acts in part due to
*salutary ne%lect+ -wea) enforcement of the acts., and the colonies smu%%led around the
acts anyway'
Salutar+ neglect
What: E!en thou%h En%land belie!ed in a system of 6ercantilism, /ir 9obert
Walpole espoused a !iew of ?salutary ne%lect'+ (his is a system whereby the actual
enforcement of e&ternal trade relations was la&' He belie!ed that this enhanced freedom
for the colonists would stimulate commerce and be, in the end, beneficial to all'
/i%: (he colonies were allowed to trade freely in spite of trade acts' When
after 176G the :ritish be%an serious enforcement of the trade acts, thus abandonin%
salutary ne%lect, the colonists were resentful, belie!in% that their freedom was bein%
:he ;alf <a+ Covenant of 1$$-
Who: (roubled ministers of the 3uritan church'
Where: New En%land
What: An a%reement in response to the decline in *con!ersions'+ :aptism in
the church was e&tended to children of parents who were not able to e&perience the
*e!an%elical e&perience+ as did the first settlers from En%land did' /ince full church
membership was reAuired for !otin%, this was an important issue'
/i%: 1ronically, it actually wea)ened the distinction between the elect and its
members, therefore dilutin% the spiritual Lpurity of the first settlers'
3ominion of 4e# England 1$($-1$()
Who: Edmund Andros, >o!ernor of the 0ominion
Where: New En%land
What: (he 0ominion of New En%land was a short=li!ed administrati!e union of
En%lish colonies that was decreed by Iin% <ames 11' (he 0ominion of New En%land was
%o!erned by Edmund Andros' (he dominion was created in an attempt to bolster the
colonial defense in the e!ent of war with the Nati!e American and the 4rench' 1t was
also desi%ned to promote ur%ently needed efficiency in the administration of the
Na!i%ation Acts'
/i%: (he 0ominion of New En%land was disli)ed by the colonists because the
dominion was enforcin% the Na!i%ation Acts which prohibited the colonist from tradin%
with whom they wanted and forced them to rely on En%land' (his an%er e!entually leads
to the o!erthrow of Edmond Andros and the end of the 0ominion of New En%land
-which was lin)ed to the >lorious 9e!olution occurrin% in En%landMthe Iin% was bein%
o!erthrown in both En%land and New En%land.'
Indentured Servitude ,including increase in slaver+ after 1$%5.
When: 17
and 1J
Who: 3oor En%lish
Where: Colonies in America
What: A ma;ority of En%lish mi%rants came to America as L1ndentures and, in
e&chan%e for a paid passa%e, wor)ed as ser!ants for "=7 years'
/i%: 1ndentured ser!ants were used as Americas main labor force before 167C'
(hey were used to maintain the %rowin% tobacco industry and to brin% profit to their
masters' (he ser!ants %rowin% discontent and threatenin% beha!ior, a dramatic decrease
in new indentures after prosperity to En%land returned in the 167Ds, and the e!er
increasin% wealth of masters led to a %reat increase in the African sla!e trade and the rise
in the sla!e population from the 16JDs on'
1gricultural developments in colonies 1$1- on
Where: 6ainly /outhern and 6iddle Colonies
What: 7ir%inia and the south: tobacco, rice, indi%o, su%ar
6iddle colonies: rye, oats, barley, wheat, beef and por)
/i%: (he production of tobacco and food crops by hand methods created an
insatiable demand for labor in the colonies forcin% ser!ants and sla!es to be brou%ht in,
raisin% the population dramatically and ma)in% the economy flourish'
4orthern 8erchants and Southern *lanters
What: (he Northern colonies e&celled in tradin% with both fellow colonies and
o!erseas countries' (heir e&pertise in both sailin% and tradin% contributed to their lon%
lastin% success' Esin% their ad!anta%e of fertile soil, /outhern Colonies practiced a
completely different economy' 3roducin% crops in demand li)e tobacco and rice, these
colonies were able to establish a profitable a%ricultural economy'
/i%: :oth the Northern and /outhern colonies established their economies
early on, but with !ery different Aualities, the North with merchant trade and /outh with
plantation wor)' :ecause of these differences it was !ery easy for the two to rely on each
other' Howe!er, e!entually these differences would cause a rift between the two entities'
=irginia and 8assachusetts as >o+al Colonies
What: 7ir%inia and 6assachusetts became royal colonies
Why: 7ir%inia was poorly mana%ed and the 1ndian war eroded the colonys credibility
in Hondon' 6assachusetts %ot swept up in the %o!ernmental reor%ani2ation related to the
>lorious 9e!olution that brou%ht William and 6ary to the throne'
When: 16$" -7ir%inia. N 16#1 -6assachusetts.
/i%: 0emonstrates the power of the Iin% o!er pre!iously corporate colonies
Colonial societ+? role of cities
What: Colonial cities functioned as the center for entertainment, education,
reli%ion, politics and courts, commerce -retail shops, blac)smiths., and farm support'
/i%: Colonial cities were the center of an essentially a%rarian society'
Emergence of Slaver+ @ 1$$s on
Who: Africans, Colonists
Where: /outhern Colonies
What: /la!ery started for economic reasons' 9isin% wa%es in En%land -167Ds.
reduced the amount of people willin% to become indentured ser!ants to wor) in the new
world' As cheap labor was needed for the tobacco and rice plantations, the need for
sla!es increased'
/i%: :rou%ht Africans to the colonies and spar)ed the /outhern economy'
Colonial Societ+? >ole of <omen 1$%-1$)-
Who: Women in Colonial Era
Where: Colonial America
What: Women were encoura%ed to marry early and ha!e many children' Child
rearin% became their full time ;ob' As married women, they were essential to the
maintenance of the family unit, with the husband tendin% the fields and the wife
performin% all household tas)s, includin% the manufacture of candles, soap, and clothin%'
/i%: (hin) of the married colonial women as fully one=half of an inte%rated
economic unit' (hus her role was absolutely !ital'
8arried <omen *ropert+ >ights in Colonial 1merica
Who: 6arried Women in Colonial America
What: /in%le women in the colonies did ha!e property ri%hts' 6arried women in
the south often lost their husbands early and had the ri%ht to own property to support her
family as a widow' Women in the north also had ri%hts but most of them %a!e them up
upon %ettin% married out of the %o!ernments fear that they would ha!e conflictin%
interest with their husbands' 6arried women in particular were economically and
le%ally subordinate to their husbands'
/i%: 6arried women in particular suffered discrimination relatin% to property
ri%hts, e!en thou%h laws were less restricti!e in the south'
>esistance to Colonial 1uthorit+? 2acon!s >ebellion 1$%$
Who: Nathaniel :acon and sin%le youn% freemen
Where: Chesapea)e 9e%ion, 7ir%inia
What: 5ne thousand youn% men were forced into the bac) country in search of
land where they were attac)ed by Nati!e Americans' :ecause the %o!ernor would not
retaliate, :acons rebels went on a rampa%e of plunderin% and pilferin%' (hey destroyed
Nati!e American settlements and chased >o!ernor William :er)eley out of <amestown'
(he rebellion was crushed'
/i%: :acon had i%nited the smolderin% resentments of poor, former indentured
ser!ants' (hese tensions between them and the %entry caused the plantation owners to
loo) elsewhere -African sla!e trade. for wor)ers'
>esistance to Spanish Colonial 1uthorit+? :he *ueblo >evolt of 1$(
Who: 3ueblo people and Catholic 6issionaries
Where: New 6e&ico: /anta 4e to (aos
What: 9oman Catholic missionaries efforts to con!ert the nati!e 1ndians and
suppress their reli%ious customs pro!o)ed the uprisin%, also call 3opes 9ebellion'
/i%: (he 3ueblo 1ndians cut off all ties to the 9oman Catholic missionaries,
thus pushin% them further west' 1t too) the /panish nearly half a century to fully reclaim
New 6e&ico from 3ueblo control'
>esistance to Colonial 1uthorit+? :he Stono >ebellion 1%/)
Who: /outh Carolina sla!es
What: (he /tono 9ebellion was the lar%est sla!e uprisin% in the colonial period'
4ifty /outh Carolina sla!es marched towards /panish 4lorida hopin% for freedom, but %ot
stopped by the militia in the process' -6any whites and sla!es were )illed'.
/i%: :ecause of the rebellion, a harsher sla!e code was put into action' (hey
were no lon%er able to assemble in %roups, earn their own money, and learn how to read'
Leisler!s >ebellion 1$()-)1
Who: /ir Edmund Andros, <acob Heisler, New En%land and Chesapea)e
Where: New 8or)
What: After the downfall of the hi%hly unpopular Iin% <ames 11 by the >lorious
9e!olution, <acob Heisler led a rebellion and sei2ed control of lower New 8or) from
0ominion of New En%land >o!ernor Andros' His rebellion was smashed by the forces
of the new Iin% William' He was han%ed'
/i%: (he rebellion represents the problem the En%lish had in maintainin% a far=
flun% empire'
Scots-Irish in the colonial bac6countr+-1(
Who: (he /cot=1rish were hardy, independent, anti=authoritarian settlers in the
colonial bac)country -western parts. of 3ennsyl!ania, the Carolinas, 7ir%inia, >eor%ia
-alon% the Appalachians.' (hey detested the An%lican Church and the Iin% of En%land
due to reli%ious and economic persecution' While independent, they %enerally supported
the patriot cause a%ainst the Iin%'
/i%: (hey represented a si%nificant part of the bac)country population in colonial
:riangular :rade in the colonial period 1%
What: 5n the initial passa%e, %oods were carried from Europe or the American
colonies to Africa: on the infamous *middle passa%e,+ sla!es were carried to the new
world -Caribbean, for e&ample.: on the third passa%e, su%ar and other plantation products
were carried bac) to Europe or to the American colonies'
/i%: (he trian%ular trade stimulated the %lobal economy and %reatly promoted
sla!ery' -(he international sla!e trade was abolished by E'/' law in 1JDJ'.
>eligious diversit+ in the colonies ,b+ region? 4e# England, 8id-1tlantic, and
What: (here was %reat reli%ious di!ersity in the colonies: 3uritans or
Con%re%ationalists dominated in New En%land, !arious denominations could be found in
the 6iddle colonies -6ethodists, :aptists, 3resbyterians, Bua)ers, Catholics., and
An%licans -Church of En%land. dominated in the /outh'
/i%: 6ore so than other countries, the American colonies were a land of reli%ious
di!ersity and -e&ceptin% <ews. reli%ious toleration'
:he Breat 1#a6ening of the 1%/!s-1%7!s
Who: <onathan Edwards -pastor N theolo%ian. and other pastors, >eor%e
Where: /tarted in Northampton, 6assachusetts, spread to the rest of New En%land
What: Enli)e the preachin% styles of older cler%y, Edwardss new
uncon!entional preachin% style emphasi2ed a direct, emoti!e, spirituality that was
seriously i%nored by older cler%y' 3owerful e!an%elical preachin% con!icted sinners and
brou%ht them to con!ersion and a new understandin% of faith'
/i%: 1t was the first mass mo!ement and reli%ious uphea!al within the colonies
which reduced the influence of the established church and stren%thened the power of
ordinary people'
What: 0eism accepts the e&istence of a >od on the e!idence of reason and nature
only, with re;ection of supernatural re!elation -distin%uished from theism.' >od created
the world but does not immediately inter!ene in the life of an indi!idual' <efferson was a
/i%: While some, includin% <efferson, were not *Christian,+ most people in
colonial America %enerally accepted the e&istence of >od'
"ohn *eter Cenger ,1%/7-1%/5.
Who: <ohn 3eter Oen%er
Where: New 8or) Colony
What: A le%al case==a newspaper printer -Oen%er. was char%ed with seditious
libel when he critici2ed the corrupt %o!ernment' Andrew Hamilton defended him and
Oen%er was found not %uilty'
/i%: 4reedom of the press, helped establish the doctrine that true statements
about public officials could not be prosecuted as seditious libel'
4e# 5or6 Conspirac+ :rials ,1%71.
What: /la!es and poor whites in New 8or) City set se!eral fires in protest to bad
economic conditions' 5!er 1CD were arrested, many were han%ed or burned'
/i%: 1n !iew of recent sla!e rebellions in /outh Carolina and the Caribbean,
whites feared a sla!e rebellion in New 8or)' (he conspiracy trials reflected that fear'
&rench and Indian <arASeven 5ears! <ar ,1%57-1%$/.
Who: :ritain and 4rance -in America., :ritain, 4rance, /pain, 3russia, 9ussia,
and Austria -in Europe and other continents.
Where: 5hio 7alley and Canada
What: (he 4rench and :ritish wanted the same piece of landMnotably the 5hio
9i!er 7alley' War with 4rance was declared, not only in the Americas, but also on other
continents' (he :ritish attac)ed 4rance in the Buebec=6ontreal re%ion of Canada' (he
:ritish too) the city of Buebec' (hen, in 176D, 6ontreal also fell to the :ritish'
/i%: With the fall of Buebec and 6ontreal came 4rances permanent remo!al
from the North American continent' (he war cost the :ritish too much money, and the
:ritish loo)ed to the colonies to support the financial burdens of empire, which in turn
led to the issue of *ta&ation without representation,+ and ultimately, to the American
:reat+ of *aris 1%$/
What: (he (reaty of 3aris of 176G ended the 4rench and 1ndian War and made :ritain
the dominant European power in eastern North America' 4rance relinAuished its claims to
New 4rance and all 4rench territory east of the 6ississippi 9i!er to :ritain' /pain %a!e
4lorida to :ritain, and as compensation, too) o!er 4rench Houisiana west of the
6ississippi, thus solidifyin% its claim to all of western North America'
/i%: :ritain had be%un as a relati!ely insi%nificant country in 16DD, but by 176G it
had become an influential European nation and a ma;or colonial power'
Imperial >eorgani'ation of 1%$/-$7
What: :ritain ti%htened its control on the American colonies, mostly moti!ated
by debt caused by the 4rench and 1ndian War' 1nclude here the authori2ation to send
1D,DDD troops to the colonies, the 3roclamation of 176G -closes trans=Appalachia to
settlement., the Currency Act of 176" -no more paper money., and the /u%ar Act of 176"
-chan%es 6olasses Act of LGG from trade act to re!enue act.'
/i%: :ritains ti%htenin% control e!entually leads to Americas fi%ht for
independence, moti!ated by the infrin%ement of colonial ri%hts'
*roclamation Line of 1%$/
Who: Iin% >eor%e 111
Where: Alon% the crest of the Appalachian 6ountains
What: (he Iin% prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians as a
reaction to 3ontiacs 9ebellion' (he purpose was to wor) out the *1ndian problem+ fairly
and pre!ent another bloody eruption such as 3ontiacs'
/i%: Americans char%ed west despite the proclamation, as they saw the west as
their birthri%ht' (his si%nified the Americans defiance, and the early be%innin%s of
separation from :ritain'
Stamp 1ct ,1%$5.
What: (he /e!en 8ears War had left :ritain with a lar%e debt' 1n order to pay it
off, 3arliament passed the /tamp Act' /tamps were reAuired on bills of sale for about
fifty trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and le%al documents, includin%
playin% cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of ladin% -documents that list
%oods to be shipped., and marria%e licenses' Colonists used 1. !iolence -/ons of Hiberty.
to pre!ent collection, $. nonimportation a%reement, G. /tamp Act Con%ress, assertin% no
ta&ation without representation and that the colonies could not be represented in
3arliament Pnote re!olutionary conseAuence of /tamp Act Con%ress resol!esQ'
/i%: (he /tamp Act was a direct blow to the colonists ri%hts, brin%in% cries of
?no ta&ation without representation'+ (he /tamp Act Con%ress of 176C was formed
because of it' (he colonists e!entually forced a nullification of the ta&' (his was an early
be%innin% of a separation from :ritain'
3eclarator+ 1ct 1%$$
What: 3arliament repealed the /tamp Act but passed the 0eclaratory Act, statin%
that it had the ri%ht to bind the colonies *in all cases whatsoe!er+ -that is, includin%
/i%: :etween the /tamp Act resol!es and the 0eclaratory Act, a showdown
was bound to occur Premember that this is a Auestion of so!erei%nty, i'e', who is in
control of the land and the peopleQ'
Virtual Representation in 1760’s
Who: 3rime 6inister >eor%e >ren!ille
Where: :ritain
What: (his theory states that the members of 3arliament represent all :ritish
people, e!en those li!in% in America who do not !ote for members of 3arliament'
/i%: >ren!ille claimed this theory in response to the colonists outra%e at bein%
ta&ed by the /tamp and Buarterin% Acts of 176C' (he Americans said that 3arliament
should not be allowed to ta& them because there were no American representati!es' (his
e!entually led to the Americans re;ectin% 3arliaments influence and power'
:o#nshend 1cts 1%$%
Who: Charles (ownshend, Chancellor of the E&cheAuer
What: 1mposed duties on %lass, lead, paper, paints, and tea imported into the
colonies' (ownshend thou%ht that an indirect ta& -tariff. on the colonists would not cause
problems' Howe!er, the colonies still fou%ht bac) with no ta&ation in any form without
representation -the colonists did not accept the distinction between direct -/tamp Act.
and indirect -tariff. ta&ation' A tariff for protection, not meant to be paid, was not a ta&
in the colonial mind' A tariff for re!enue, meant to be paid, was a ta&' -(hus the /u%ar
Act of 176", which lowered the prohibiti!e tariff of 17GG on forei%n molasses from 6
pence per %allon to a re!enue producin% tariff of three pence per %allon on forei%n
molasses, si%naled a shift in purpose on the part of 3arliament and the be%innin% of the
ta&ation dispute between the colonies and 3arliament'.
/i%: While the duties were repealed in 177D -e&cept on tea., the (ownshend
Acts stimulated the ta&ation discussion that in the end would result in the :oston (ea
3arty, the Coerci!e Acts, and 9e!olution'
2oston :ea *art+ 1%%/
Who: /ons of Hiberty
Where: :oston Harbor
What: An%ered by :ritish ta&ation, most notably on East 1ndia Company tea, the
/ons of Hiberty decided to snea) aboard a :ritish ship bearin% tea and dump the car%o
/i%: (his action lead to the :ritish 3arliament closin% the Harbor and passin%
the 1ntolerable Acts, one of the causes of the war'
Committees of Correspondence of 1%%--%7
Who: /amuel Adams
What: /amuel Adams or%ani2ed the first committee in :oston in 177$'
Committees soon spread to other towns and then to all of the colonies'
/i%: (he Committees fueled opposition of :ritish policy, )ept up
communications amon% the colonies, and e!ol!ed into the 4irst Continental Con%ress
-called to respond to the 1ntolerable Acts.'
Duebec 1ct 1%%7
What: Act by 3arliament establishin% %o!ernance of Buebec and e&tendin% the
boundary of Buebec all the way down to the 5hio 9i!er' (he act was aimed at insurin%
the loyalty of the Buebec colonists -respectin% the 9oman Catholic Church. and
pro!idin% for the ci!il administration of Buebec'
/i%: (he American colonists saw the Act as an attempt to stop their westward
e&pansion because it incorporated lar%e parts of the 5hio Country into Buebec' 6any
were alarmed by the spread of the Catholic faith' -Combine the Buebec Act and the
Coerci!e Acts into the *1ntolerable Acts'+.
Coercive 1cts ,1-7 belo#.
1 8assachusetts Bovernment 1ct 1%%7
Where: 6assachusetts
What: (he Act did away with elections for the >o!ernors council -ma)in%
council appointed by the Iin%. and restricted any meetin% of the leadership of the colony
to reAuirin% official sanction'
/i%: (his act wor)ed to se!erely restrict the colonists %o!ernance of the
6assachusetts :ay Colony and spread an%er a%ainst the crown'
- 1dministration of "ustice 1ct 1%%7
Where: 6assachusetts
What: A :ritish officer or official accused of a capital -someone is )illed. crime
can be tried in either a :ritish court or a court in another colony' (his an%ered the
citi2ens of 6assachusetts :ay because witnesses of the situations would not appear
in trial, and thus the defendant would most li)ely be declared not %uilty' (his
seemed to the colonists to be a denial of ;ustice and the le%ali2ation of what could be
called murder'
/ 2oston *ort 1ct 1%%7
What: A response to the :oston (ea 3arty, it outlawed the use of the 3ort of
:oston until such time as payment was made to the Iin%@s treasury -for customs duty
lost. and to the East 1ndia Company for dama%es suffered'
/i%: Closure of the port of :oston was an economic disaster for 6assachusetts'
7 Duartering 1ct 1%%7
Where: 1G American Colonies
What: (his act went further than pre!ious acts by reAuirin% the colonies to
pro!ide food and housin% to :ritish troops in occupied buildin%s, includin% pri!ate
homes' -3re!ious Auarterin% reAuired that soldiers be housed in public inns, ta!erns, or
unoccupied buildin%s'.
/i%: (he :ritish %o!ernment made yet another intrusion on American li!es'
/oldiers could now ha!e a place to stay e!en where they werent in!ited, and the
colonists had to pay for it' (his an%ered the Americans further and was one of the
reasons for the American 9e!olution'
(he American 9e!olution 1776=17JG
E*hilosoph+ of the 1merican >evolutionF G1? "ohn Loc6e
Who: <ohn Hoc)e
Where: En%land -philosophies spread throu%h the colonies.
What: Hoc)es theories on natural ri%hts were part of colonial ar%uments'
*Natural ri%hts+ is part of a political theory that states when indi!iduals enter into society
they ha!e basic ri%hts that no %o!ernment can ta)e away'
/i%: Hoc)es philosophy -see his (reatise on Ci!il >o!ernment, 16#D. was the
foundation for the American 9e!olution' (hat is, when %o!ernment becomes destructi!e
of certain ends -life, liberty, property., the people ha!e the ri%ht to abolish it'
E*hilosoph+ of the 1merican >evolutionF G-? *opular Sovereignt+
Who: Hobbes, Hoc)e, 9ousseau
What: A doctrine -that is closely associated with the social contract. that the state
is created by and sub;ect to the will of the 3eople, who are the source of all political
power' Contrast this with monarchy, where the people may ha!e no formal !oice in
%o!ernmental affairs
/i%: 5nce Americans, as a whole, accepted the ideas of 3opular /o!erei%nty,
they started moldin% the foundations for a democratic political system -which was, of
course, republican in formMrepublican meanin% that the people !ote for representati!es
who then ma)e political decision.'
E*hilosoph+ of the 1merican >evolutionF G/? Small, Limited Bovernment
What: Himited %o!ernment is a system of %o!ernment that is bound to
specifically defined principles of action by a written constitution0
/i%: (he concept of limited %o!ernment flows naturally from the assumption of
popular so!erei%nty: 1f the people are so!erei%n, then any powers held by %o!ernment are
?%i!en on loan+ and cannot detract from the people@s innate so!erei%nty' (herefore such
powers are inherently limited'
Congresses ,&irst and Second. and Congress under the 1rticles of Confederation
Who: 4irst Continental Con%ress: /eptember C=5ctober $6, 177"
/econd Continental Con%ress 177C to 17J1
Con%ress under the Articles of Confederation 17J1=JJ
Where: 3hiladelphia
What: (he &irst Continental Con%ress met to de!elop a common colonial
response to the Coerci!e Acts recently passed by 3arliament' An ad!isory council rather
than an empowered le%islature, the Con%ress -as it came to be called. included dele%ates
from twel!e of the American colonies, >eor%ia did not participate' Con%ress ad!ised
each colony to form a militia, or%ani2ed an association to enforce strict economic
sanctions a%ainst :ritain, and recommended that 6assachusetts, the focus of the
Coerci!e Acts, form an independent %o!ernment' After issuin% addresses to the )in% and
to the :ritish and American people, the dele%ates a%reed to meet a%ain in 6ay 177C if
their %rie!ances had not been resol!ed' :y the time the Second Continental Con%ress
con!ened in 3hiladelphia in 6ay 177C, fi%htin% had ta)en place at He&in%ton and
Concord' Con%ress Auic)ly assumed responsibility for coordinatin% the rebellion, startin%
with the raisin% of a Continental army' A year later the Second Continental Con%ress
too) the final step toward separation by officially adoptin% the 0eclaration of
1ndependence on <uly ", 1776' (he Second Continental Con%ress fou%ht the War until
superseded by the Con%ress created when the Articles of Confederation were ratified in
17J1' (he Congress under the 1rticles -17J1=17JJ. perpetuated the wartime balance
of power, )eepin% the central %o!ernment politically and financially dependent on the
states' 8et Con%ress under the Articles did mana%e to prosecute the war successfully and
could point to a number of other important achie!ements, includin% the Hand 5rdinance
of 17JC, the Northwest 5rdinance of 17J7, and the complicated handlin% of land disputes
amon% the states'
/i%: (he !arious con%resses reflect the hesitant yet practical mo!ement
towards a unified nation' While the states retained so!erei%nty -until ratification of the
Constitution in 17JJ., the con%resses did a %reat deal of important wor), includin%
mo!in% the colonies from :ritish colonies to an independent nation called the Enited
/tates of America' (hus the con%resses contributed mi%htily to the formation of a
strictly American identity'
1bigail 1dams 1%77-1(1(
Who: Wife of 3resident <ohn Adams' 1n 1776, ri%ht before the 0eclaration of
1ndependence, she wrote to her husband, *in the new code of laws which 1 suppose it will
be necessary for you to ma)e, 1 desire you would remember the ladies'+
/i%: /he saw the implications of re!olutionary ideas for chan%in% the status of
women' Hin) to 9epublican 6otherhood and impro!ed educational opportunities
for women'
Declaration of Independence!uly "# 1776
What: (he /econd Continental Con%ress appro!ed an official document
declarin% independence from >reat :ritain, includin% ;ustification for the rupture'
/i%: Ar%uably the most si%nificant document in E'/' history, the declaration
placed the colonies in open rebellion a%ainst the mother country, with the conseAuence
bein% that armed conflict would determine the final outcome' War would decide the
Auestion: Who is so!erei%nR
Sarato$a %cto&er 1777
Who: Horatio >ates and :enedict Arnold -E'/'., <ohn :ur%oyne -:ritish.
Where: /arato%a, New 8or)
What: >eneral :ur%oyne surrendered a lar%e :ritish army at /arato%a, New
8or), on 5ctober 17, 1777' (his was one of the most si%nificant battles in E'/' history
because it stopped the :ritish in!asion from Canada, lifted sa%%in% American morale, and
led to the treaties of military alliance and friendshipFcommerce with 4rance in 177J
/i%: (he battle con!inced the 4rench that the Americans were capable of
winnin%, which led to the treaties between the 4rench and the E'/' a few months later'
Revolutionary War diplomacy' t(e )ranco*merican *lliance of 1778
What: 4rance, thirstin% for re!en%e a%ainst the :ritish, pro!ided Americans with
supplies, and then officially became allied with the colonies in 177J' :oth sides a%reed
to not end the war without the others consent Pa pled%e bro)en by the Enited /tates and
not to 4rances dismay -4rance could not deli!er >ibraltar to /pain and the separate
peace between the Enited /tates and :ritain that ended the war also ended a problem for
the 4rench.Q' (he treaty was made possible as a result of the American !ictory at
/arato%a the pre!ious 5ctober -1777.'
/i%: Without 4rench help the colonies and then the Enited /tates may not ha!e
been able to win the war' 4urther, the treaty became a stic)in% point between 4rance and
the E'/' in the 17#Ds, when 4rance wanted E'/' assistance in the Caribbean in fi%htin%
the :ritish' -(he treaty was cancelled in 1JDD by the Con!ention of 1JDD'.
Lo+alists during the >evolutionar+ <ar
Who: Colonials loyal to the )in%
What: Hoyalists were colonials who were still loyal to the :ritish )in%' (hose
who were in America under :ritish rule, such as officers and officials, were also labeled
Hoyalists' (he Hoyalists were called *(ories,+ opposin% the 3atriots, or *Whi%s'+ (ories
were defined by patriots as *a thin% whose head is in En%land and its body in America,
and its nec) ou%ht to be stretched'+ When the war was under way, loyalists were
persecuted and dri!en from the E'/' /ome Hoyalists fou%ht a%ainst the colonies'
/i%': (he colonies and then the E'/' mistreated Hoyalists, a thorny issue with
the :ritish after the war' -(he E'/' could not restore Hoyalists properties and the :ritish
would not e!acuate posts in the west, as a%reed to in the (reaty of 3aris of 17JG'.
+reaty of Paris 178,
Who: :en;amin 4ran)lin, <ohn Adams, <ohn <ay representin% the E'/'
What: (his treaty ended the 9e!olutionary War between the E'/' and :ritain'
Also, the boundaries were set, from the 6ississippi on the west, to the >reat Ha)es on the
north, and to /panish 4lorida on the /outh' -9ecall that the (reaty set the southern
border at the G1
parallel, while /pain independently claimed that <est 4lorida went up
to G$S$JT== an issue finally resol!ed in E'/' fa!or with the 3inc)ney (reaty of 17#C'.
America a%reed to stop persecution of Hoyalists, and Con%ress was to recommend to the
state le%islatures that the confiscated Hoyalist property to be restored' 0ebts to :ritish
creditors should also be paid' :ritain pled%ed to %et out of western forts' -E'/' treatment
of the loyalists and :ritish withdrawal from the forts became sources of friction'.
/i%: :ritain reco%ni2ed the independence and so!erei%nty of the Enited /tates
after almost ei%ht years of bein% at war' (he E'/' entered the world sta%e as a new
nation with the (reaty'
(he Articles of Confederation and
Constitution=6a)in% 1776=17JJ
Constitution ma6ing in the states 1%%$ on
What: After the 0eclaration of 1ndependence, the Continental Con%ress as)ed the
states to prepare new constitutions' Ele!en of the states did so, and most of these
documents included a bill of ri%hts, specifically %uaranteein% lon%=pri2ed liberties a%ainst
le%islati!e encroachment' As written documents, they were intended to be fundamental
law, abo!e or superior to laws that mi%ht be subseAuently written by a le%islature'
/i%: Constitution ma)in% in the states prepared the *foundin% fathers+ for the
;ob they e!entually did in 3hiladelphia in the summer of 17J7 when they drafted the E'/'
Constitution' (he reason the Constitution is so %ood is that the people who drafted it
were e&perienced at the state le!el -and they had immediate )nowled%e of the
wea)nesses of the Articles of Confederation.'
*rticles of -onfederation .arc( 1# 1781# to !une /1# 1788
What: (he Articles was the first written constitution of the Enited /tates'
4earin% central %o!ernment at a time of war a%ainst what was percei!ed to be a despotic
central %o!ernment -:ritain., the /econd Continental Con%ress proposed a loose
confederation of so!erei%n states that would not ha!e the power to declare war, impose
ta&es, and re%ulate commerce' (here was no pro!ision for an e&ecuti!e or ;udicial
-WA9('C56 U no E or <'. 1n spite of these wea)nesses, the con%ress under the Articles
brou%ht the 9e!olutionary War to a successful conclusion, %ot the states to relinAuish
western land claims to the national %o!ernment, passed the Hand 5rdinance of 17JC, and
passed the Northwest 5rdinance of 17J7'
/i%: (he Articles pro!ided a frame of %o!ernment under which so!erei%n states
could operate durin% a most difficult period in the history of the Enited /tates' 1n
pro!idin% e&perience to members of con%ress and the states in the wea)nesses of a loose
confederation, the Articles ser!ed the added purpose of helpin% national leaders to
understand what a %ood constitution should include -which helps to e&plain why the
present Constitution is so %ood.'
0and %rdinance of 1781
What: Haw passed by Con%ress that allowed for sales of land in the Northwest
(erritory to pay off the national debt' (o a!oid land disputes, land was to be sur!eyed
into G6 sAuare mile townships, with the si&teenth section -one sAuare mile. reser!ed for
public education'
/i%: (his law laid the foundation of American land policy and was a %reat
achie!ement of the %o!ernment under the Articles of Confederation'
4orth#est Hrdinance of 1%(%
Where: Applied to the 5ld Northwest
What: (he 5rdinance prohibited sla!ery in the Northwest (erritory -which
became the future states 5hio, 1ndiana, 1llinois, 6ichi%an, Wisconsin, and part of
6innesota.' When an area had C,DDD people, it could become a territory' When it had
6D,DDD, it could become a state on an eAual footin% with older states' As many as fi!e
states could be car!ed out of the (erritory'
/i%: (he principles in the Northwest 5rdinance were later used for the rest of
the American territories' (his law was a %reat achie!ement of the %o!ernment under the
Sha+s >ebellion 1%($-1%(%
Who: 0aniel /hays and his supporters -poor farmers and !eterans.
Where: western 6assachusetts
What: /hays and the poor men that rose with him wanted cheap paper money,
li%hter ta&es, and a suspension of property ta)eo!ers' (o pre!ent foreclosures, they
pre!ented courts from meetin%' A rebellion was de!elopin%'
/i%: (his rebellion, smashed by 6assachusetts militia, made !ery clear that
there were ma;or problems with the Articles of Confederation' /pecifically, there was no
pro!ision in the Articles for the E'/' to come to the aid of 6assachusetts' (his problem
is sol!ed and reflected in Article 17 of the Constitution, written ;ust a few months after
the end of the /hays 9ebellion' Article 17 pro!ides that the E'/' will protect the states
a%ainst domestic !iolence'
:he Breat Compromise? 1%(%? the I0S0 Constitution9#riting of
Who: (he 3hiladelphia Con!ention -mandated to re!ise the Articles, the
con!ention went on to write the Constitution.
What: (he Constitutional Con!ention decided that states would be represented
in two separate bodies in the con%ress' 1n the /enate, each state would be %i!en two
representati!es no matter how bi% or small, and in the House, the number of
representati!es would depend on the population of the state' 1t was a%reed that e!ery ta&
bill or re!enue measure must start in the House'
/i%: (his compromise settled an ar%ument between lar%e and small states'
+(e ,21 compromise 1787' t(e 34S4 -onstitution56ritin$ of
What: /outhern states wanted sla!es to count as people so they could ha!e
%reater representation in the House, but the Northern states ar%ued that sla!es were
property, not people' (he GFC compromise stated that when countin% total population in a
state, sla!es would be counted as GFC of a person' (his increased the power of /outhern
sla!eholdin% states in the House of 9epresentati!es'
/i%: /ol!ed the problem of representation for the present, but put off the
o!erall problem of sla!ery to be sol!ed later'
78lectoral -olle$e9 1787
What: Each state is %i!en the number of electoral !otes for howe!er many
senators and representati!es the state has in con%ress' Electors are chosen by the state
-and each state chose to ha!e the people !ote for electors. and those electors !ote for
president and !ice president' (his became )nown as the *electoral colle%e'+ (he ori%inal
intent of ha!in% electors and not the people choose the president was to %uard a%ainst
mob e&cesses' (he electors represented an intermediate body that would moderate
popular passions and be more deliberati!e' -9ecall that the people chose only members
of the House in the ori%inal Constitution'.
/i%: (he Electoral Colle%e is still used today in presidential elections' Also,
note that the people do not !ote directly for presidentMstates ha!e enacted laws to let the
people !ote for electors, then the electors !ote for presF!ice pres'
&ederalists v0 1nti-&ederalists 1%(%-((
Who and what: 4ederalists supported a stron%er federal %o!ernment and ar%ued in fa!or
of ratification of the Constitution' Anti=4ederalists belie!ed that the Constitution was
drawn up by aristocratic elements and anti=democratic' (hey belie!ed it was wron% to
ta)e away so!erei%nty from the states and that indi!idual ri%hts were bein% ;eopardi2ed
because there was no bill of ri%hts' Anti=4ederalists tried to discoura%e states from
ratifyin% the Constitution, while 4ederalists promoted the Constitution'
/i%: (he 4ederalists won the ar%ument after a%reein% to a :ill of 9i%hts -as
amendments to the Constitution.' Also, in this 4ederalist=Anti=4ederalist ar%ument of the
day -17J7=JJ., one can see the be%innin%s of what became the split between the
<effersonians and the Hamiltonians, with the former supportin% small, limited
%o!ernment and the later supportin% stron% and ener%etic %o!ernment'
+(e )ederalist Papers 178788 :also ;no6n as +(e )ederalist<
Who: Ale&ander Hamilton, <ohn <ay, <ames 6adison
Where: New 8or)
What: 0eeply upset that New 8or) would not ratify the Constitution, Hamilton,
6adison, and <ay wrote a series of JC articles in New 8or) newspapers that supported
ratification of the Constitution'
/i%: (hese editorials helped with the ratification of the Constitution in New
8or) and then later in 7ir%inia, two !ery important states for the !ery e&istence of the
Enited /tates' (hese papers became the most penetratin% and authoritati!e commentary
written on the Constitution'
=ill of Ri$(ts 17>1
Who: <ames 6adison
What: Written by <ames 6adison, the :ill of 9i%hts is more formally )nown as
the first ten amendments to the Constitution' (hese amendments protect the freedoms of
the American people from encroachment by Con%ress -and, at present, by the states.'
E&amples of these are: freedom of reli%ion, assembly, press, petition, speech, trial by
;ury, due process -protects life, liberty, property.'
/i%: /tate constitutions freAuently included a bill of ri%hts' 5pponents of the
Constitution wanted a bill of ri%hts included before they would support ratification' (he
:ill of 9i%hts, ratified in 17#1, is part of the Constitution that created a stron%er central
%o!ernment while protectin% indi!idual ri%hts'
Early National History 17J#=1J$"
;amilton!s :hree >eports 1%)-)1
What: Hamiltons plan submitted to Con%ress in order to brin% about healthy
chan%e in a debt=ridden and somewhat dis;ointed nation' His plan included ar%uments for
public credit -fundin% and assumption.Mthis is 9eport on 3ublic Credit V1, a national
ban)Mthis is 9eport on 3ublic Credit V$, and the encoura%ement of manufacturin% and
internal impro!ementsMthis is 9eport on 6anufacturin%'
/i%: (his plan would bind the country to%ether throu%h a nation=wide public
scheme, instead of the states wallowin% in their own economic ruin, Hamilton su%%ested
the new federal %o!ernment ta)e control and pass le%islation that would fa!or all
relati!ely wealthy Americans throu%hout the nation' He did not ha!e a solely ri%ht=side
!ision: His plan for promotin% manufacturin% and internal impro!ements, while not
appro!ed by Con%ress, when lin)ed to his public credit and ban) reports, which #ere
appro!ed by Con%ress, would ha!e created an inte%rated national economy fa!orin% all
sections of the nation, includin% the south and west'
>eport on *ublic Credit G1
Who: Ale&ander Hamilton, /ecretary of (reasury
What: (his first part of the plan was aimed at public credit' /plit into two parts,
*fundin% at par+ and assumption, it restored the !alue of the dollar and relie!ed state
debts, respecti!ely' With *fundin% at par,+ the %o!ernment was to pay all national debts
at face !alue with accumulated interest by le!yin% ta&es on items such as whis)ey -see
Whis)ey 9ebellion. and imposin% a tariff for re!enue purposes' With assumption, the
national %o!ernment would *assume+ the debts of the states' 4undin% fa!ored
speculators and the wealthy who held national %o!ernment notes' Assumption fa!ored
states that had not paid off their debts'
/i%: (his plan ser!ed the purpose of restorin% public credit and bindin% both
the wealthy and the states to a financially stable and !iable national %o!ernment'
>eport on *ublic Credit G-
Who: Ale&ander Hamilton, /ecretary of (reasury
What: (he second part of the plan was Hamiltons recommendation to establish a
national ban) to help standardi2e ban)in%' Con%ress a%reed and created the 1
with a twenty year charter'
/i%: (ied the states closer to%ether in economic e&chan%e, %a!e the !ital power
of money to the federal %o!ernment, and pulled the E'/' out of a confusin% era of debt'
:an) and anti=ban) forces rallied to form first two political parties -4ederalists and
<effersonian 0emocrats.'
>eport on 8anufacturing ,report G/.
Who: Ale&ander Hamilton, /ecretary of (reasury
What: (he third part of the plan is a plea to Con%ress to encoura%e
manufacturin% in America throu%h bounties -payments to encoura%e manufacturin%. and
temporary protecti!e tariffs' :ased on his obser!ation of Europe, he also called for roads
and canals' Hamilton listed the supposed benefits of industry, which, amon% other
thin%s, included the self=reliance of the nation -important for military purposes., the
benefit of all the social classes, and cooperation with the already=sprawlin% a%riculture'
(his was a spectacular !ision that Hamilton had for an inte%rated national economy that
would bind all re%ions of the country to%ether
/i%: (his part of Hamiltons plan was the only part to fail in Con%ress' 1ts
ideas were to be brou%ht to life, thou%h, by the mid=1JDDs'
!efferson v4 ?amilton and emer$ence of political parties 17>0s
Who: (homas <efferson, Ale&ander Hamilton
What: Hamiltons financial successes created some political liabilities, which lead
to a full=blown political ri!alry with <efferson' (he parties that de!eloped durin% this time
were the <effersonian 9epublicans and Hamiltonian 4ederalists'
/i%nificance: (he two=party system has e&isted in the Enited /tates e!er since' -3lace
the early <effersonians in the strict construction camp and the 4ederalists in the loose
construction campMthis is a ma;or point of departure for the two parties'.
>epublican motherhood 1%%$ on
What: With the American 9e!olution accomplished and the 9epublic underway,
women were assumed to ha!e the role of instillin% ci!ic !irtue into their sons by proper
education' (he idea of ci!ic !irtue is to subordinate indi!idual selfish interests to the
public %ood' Women would be the special )eepers of the American conscience and as
educated wi!es and mothers they would culti!ate in their sons the ci!ic !irtues demanded
by the new 9epublic' With %o!ernment in the hands of the people, the people -especially
sons, because only males could !ote or hold political office. had to be well educated, and
*9epublican motherhood+ was the answer'
/i%: Ele!ates the role of the woman in American society after the 9e!olution'
-Note that 9epublican motherhood does not apply to poor, wor)in% class women or to
sla!e mothers' (hus 9epublican 6otherhood can be cast in terms of class, %ender, and
Was(in$ton’s @eutrality Proclamation 17>,
Who: 3resident Washin%ton
What: When war bro)e out between 4rance and :ritain, Washin%ton proclaimed
the %o!ernments official neutrality and warned Americans to be impartial towards both
armed camps'
/i%: (his was Americas first formal declaration of aloofness from 5ld World
Auarrels -called *isolationism.' (he problem was the E'/' was still married to the 4rench
in the 4ranco=American alliance of 177J which obli%ated the E'/' to defend 4rench
possessions in the Caribbean -the alliance was cancelled in 1JDD with the Con!ention of
Eli <hitne+ ,1%)/ Cotton Bin and 1%)( Interchangeable parts.
What: 1n 17#G, Whitney in!ented the Cotton >in that remo!ed the seeds from
cotton' 3re!iously, the seeds were remo!ed by hand, which too) much more time' (he
>in allowed plantation owners to remo!e seeds from cotton more efficiently -CD to 1.,
creatin% a demand for e!en more sla!e labor' 1n 17#J, he also de!eloped the process of
interchan%eable parts for mechanical items -primarily mus)ets.'
/i%: (he in!ention of the Cotton >in promoted cotton culture and sla!ery
throu%hout the south' (he in!ention of interchan%eable parts pa!ed the way for mass
production' Note how Whitney contributed to both the economic %rowth and separation
of the north and the south'
<his6e+ >ebellion 1%)7
Where: Western 3ennsyl!ania farmers and 3resident Washin%ton
What: A ta& of # cents per %allon was imposed by Con%ress -initiated by Hamilton.
on whis)ey in 17#1, in order to pay national debts' 5utra%ed farmers, who would
ferment and distill their %rain into whis)ey to %et it to the mar)et, rioted in 17#"' (he
6ilitia Act of 17#$ was in!o)ed, and the militia was called out'
/i%: (he smashin% of the rebellion demonstrated the power of the new Constitution
!ersus the Articles of Confederation'
"a+!s :reat+ 1%)5 ,signed 1%)7J ratified 1%)5.
Who: Americans, :ritish, <ohn <ay
What: (he Enited /tates and :ritain were ar%uin% o!er frontier forts still held by
the :ritish in the Northwest, na!i%ation laws, and the sei2ure of American ships' (he
American statesman <ohn <ay was sent o!er to ne%otiate' He compromised with a treaty'
(he senate ratified the treaty in 17#C'
/i%: 1t a!erted war, :ritain finally e!acuated the posts, and while :ritain
a%reed to compensate for E'/' ship losses, :ritain did not a%ree to stop sei2in% the ships'
(he <ay (reaty was critici2ed in the E'/' but it was an alternati!e to war and did prompt
the /panish to ne%otiate the 3inc)ney (reaty'
Pinc;ney’s +reaty 17>1
Who: /pain, E'/'
What: /pain %ranted the Americans free na!i%ation of the 6ississippi and a lar%e
disputed territory north of 4lorida -from G1S to G$S$J@==see the *Area disputed by /pain
and E'/'+ on map on pa%e 17C.
/i%: 4ree na!i%ation of the 6ississippi was essential for the economic life of
the west' (he E'/' could not afford to ha!e /pain bloc) access to the >ulf of 6e&ico by
denyin% shippin% pri!ile%es at the mouth of the 6ississippi' 3inc)neys (reaty was
serendipity -unanticipated %ood thin%. for the E'/' after the humiliatin% <ay (reaty'
/pain feared an An%lo=American rapprochement -renewal of friendly relations. and dealt
)indly with the Americans'
:reat+ of Breenville 1%)5
What: Hittle (urtle, chief of the 6iamis defeated the E'/' Army in 17#D and
17#1, but lost in 17#" at the :attle of 4allen (imbers to American >eneral 6ad Anthony
Wayne' (he :ritish refused to shelter the fleein% 1ndians' (he 1ndians si%ned the (reaty
of >reen!ille' (he E'/' %ained tracts of the 5ld Northwest -basically 1ndiana and 5hio.,
the 1ndians recei!ed W$D,DDD lump sum and W#,DDD a year, as well as the ri%ht to hunt the
lands they had ceded and the reco%nition of their so!erei%n status'
/i%: 0emonstrates the continuin% problem with the 1ndians and how the
1ndians %enerally lost, both militarily and politically'
K5C 1ffair 1%)(
Who: 4rench 4orei%n 6inister (alleyrand, a%ents X, 8, O
Where: 4rance
What: (he 4rench had been furious o!er <ay@s (reaty, condemnin% it as the first
step toward an alliance with :ritain' (hey further protested that the pact was a fla%rant
!iolation of the 4ranco=American (reaty of 177J' 1n response, 4rench warships be%an to
sei2e defenseless American merchant !essels, about GDD by mid=17#7' 3resident Adams
sent three men to 4rance to settle these disputes' (he en!oys e!entually reached 3aris in
17#7, hopin% to meet (alleyrand' 1nstead, they were secretly met by three %o=betweens,
otherwise )nown as X, 8, and O' (he 4rench spo)esmen demanded a bribe of W$CD,DDD,
for the pri!ile%e of merely spea)in% with (alleyrand'
/i%: As the result of the X8O Affair, anti=4rench sentiments rose, and an
undeclared na!al war between the E/ and 4rance was i%nited with both sides sei2in%
Indeclared #ar #ith &rance ,Duasi-<ar. 1%)(-1(
What: 1nsulted by the X8O Affair, the three American en!oys returned home'
3ro=war sentiment %radually descended upon the E/' War preparations were made' (he
Na!y 0epartment was created, the G=ship Na!y was e&panded, the E/ 6arine Corps was
officially formed' War was confined to the sea, notably to the West 1ndies' 1n $ 1F$ years
of undeclared hostilities, the new na!y captured o!er JD=armed 4rench !essels' 5nly a
sli%ht push mi%ht ha!e plun%ed both nations into a full=fled%ed war' (his uproar mo!ed
3resident <ohn Adams to suspend all trade with the 4rench, and American ship captains
were authori2ed to attac) and capture armed 4rench !essels' Con%ress created the
0epartment of the Na!y, and war seemed ine!itable' 1n 1JDD, the 4rench %o!ernment,
now under Napoleon, si%ned a new treaty, the Con!ention of 1JDD -which *annulled the
marria%e+ of 177J., and peace was restored'
/i%: (he E/ Na!y was e&panded' War with 4rance could ha!e resulted in loss
of li!es to either side' /uspension of 4rench trade could ha!e harmed the economy' 1t
was also %ood that the war was still undeclared' 1f America had wa%ed war on 4rance in
1JDD, Napoleon would ha!e not sold Houisiana to <efferson on any terms whatsoe!er in
1JDG' (herefore, the Houisiana 3urchase mi%ht not ha!e occurred'
1lien L Sedition 1cts 1%)(
Who: (he 4ederalists and the Adams administration
What: 6anipulatin% the anti=4rench sentiments, the pro=:ritish 4ederalists, in
17#J, mana%ed to pass laws desi%ned to silence or minimi2e their <effersonian foes' (he
first of these laws was aimed at the supposedly pro=<efferson ?aliens'? 6ost Europeans
immi%rants, lac)in% wealth, were scorned by the aristocratic 4ederalist 3arty' :ut they
were welcomed as !oters by the less prosperous and more democratic <effersonians' (he
4ederalist Con%ress thus raised the residence reAuirements for aliens who desired to
become citi2ens from C years to 1"' (he /edition Act, on the other hand, restricted the
freedom of speech and freedom of the press as %uaranteed in the Constitution by the :ill
of 9i%hts -1
Amendment.' (his law pro!ided that anyone who impeded the policies of
the %o!ernment or falsely defamed its officials, includin% the president, would be liable
to a hea!y fine N imprisonment'
/i%: (he Alien Act infrin%ed the traditional American policy of open=door
hospitality and speedy assimilation' (he /edition Act, meanwhile, infrin%ed in the ri%hts
%uaranteed to all American citi2ens in the 1
Amendment and prompted the 7ir%inia and
Ientuc)y 9esolutions'
=irginia L Mentuc6+ >esolutions 1%)(-1%))
Who: <ames 6adison -for 7ir%inia. and (homas <efferson -for Ientuc)y.
What: 9epublican leaders were con!inced that the Alien and /edition Acts were
unconstitutional, but the process of decidin% on the constitutionality of federal laws was
as yet undefined' <efferson and 6adison decided that the states should ha!e that power,
and they drew up a series of resolutions, which were presented to the Ientuc)y and
7ir%inia le%islatures' (hey proposed that the state bodies should ha!e the power to
?nullify? federal laws within those states' (hese resolutions were adopted, but only in
these states, and so the issue died'
/i%: (he theoretical ar%ument in these resolutions, that the E'/' was a compact
amon% so!erei%n states, was used later as part of the nullification contro!ersy of the
1JGD@s and ultimately in the secession crisis of 1J6D=1J61'
Slave revolts in ?aiti and t(e 34S4 and fears arisin$ t(erefrom
What: :e%innin% in 17#$ and continuin% to 1JD", sla!es were rebellin% in Haiti
-/t' 0omin%ue or /anta 0omin%o.' (hat rebellion, led by (oussaint H5u!erture, was
successful' Not successful but terrifyin% were sla!e re!olts in the E'/' ->abriel 3rosser,
7ir%inia, 1JDD, 0enmar) 7esey, /outh Carolina, 1J$$, Nat (urner, 7ir%inia, 1JG1.'
/i%: (hese re!olts caused %reat an&iety and fear
amon% whites and plantation owners, who responded with increasin%ly harsh restrictions
on the ability of sla!es to communicate, learn, and tra!el' 4ree blac)s were restricted
too, and e!en whites could be held accountable if they challen%ed the sla!e system
-because that mi%ht %i!e sla!es encoura%ement to resist.' While the plantation economy
pro!ided many benefits for many owners, the scepter of sla!e rebellion was a continuin%
and hauntin% fear amon% southerners'
8lection of 1800 :t(e ARevolution of 1800A<
What: (homas <efferson and Aaron :urr both ran as <effersonian 9epublicans
a%ainst <ohn Adams and Charles 3inc)ney for the 4ederalists in the election of 1JDD'
(he candidate winnin% the second=hi%hest number of electoral !otes would become !ice=
president' <efferson and :urr recei!ed the hi%hest and same number of electoral !otes, so
the selection went to the House of 9epresentati!es' After a lon% deadloc), Ale&ander
Hamilton threw his support to <efferson, and :urr had to accept !ice=presidency' -(he
amendment in 1JD" reAuired that electors !ote once for president and once for !ice=
president, thus sol!in% this problem'. <efferson called his election a *re!olution+ in that
he would halt and re!erse the %rowth of %o!ernment power and the decay of ci!ic !irtue
that occurred under the 4ederalists' :ut this was no popular *re!olution+ because
<efferson barely won the election'
/i%: (he election pitted two parties who were bitterly opposed to each other'
(he election was peaceful, the transition of power was peaceful' (hus the E'/'
established the fact that a democratic nation, e!en with bitterly di!ided political loyalties,
could effect a peaceful transition of power' (his was the only *re!olution+ that occurred
in 1JDD'
Significance of "efferson!s presidenc+
What: <efferson was president from 1JD1 to 1JD#'
He called his election a re!olution, but he did not dismantle the :an) of the Enited /tates
or otherwise attac) Hamiltons financial structure' He did lower the debt, but that is
hardly a re!olution' His purchase of Houisiana was !ery important, e!en thou%h he did
not thin) he was constitutionally empowered to buy it' He fou%ht a war with the Na!y
a%ainst (ripoli, e!en thou%h he did not want to fi%ht a war' -He supported limited
%o!ernment and desired only a small na!y'. He represented a%rarian interests a%ainst the
monied and merchant class of the North, and yet he was a 7ir%inia planter *aristocrat'+
/i%: <effersons presidency time and a%ain
reflected the realities of the times and not his strict constructionist a%rarian ideals'
Louisiana *urchase 1(/
Who: <efferson and 4rance -Napoleon 1.
Where: (he hu%e territory of Houisiana, stretchin% from the Canadian border to
the >ulf of 6e&ico and from the 6ississippi 9i!er to the 9oc)y 6ountains'
What: 1n the early years of the Enited /tates, Houisiana was of concern chiefly
because it bordered the 6ississippi 9i!er, which was !ital to E'/' trade' 1n 176$ 4rance
had ceded Houisiana to /pain, which was too wea) to offer a serious threat to American
Commerce' 1n 1JDD, howe!er, rumors spread that /pain was about to cede Houisiana
bac) to 4rance' <efferson was alarmed' 9elations between the Enited /tates and 4rance
were still unfriendly, and 4rance had the power to cut off American shippin% at
Houisiana@s capital, New 5rleans, at the mouth of the 6ississippi' (here was, said
<efferson, ?one sin%le spot? on the %lobe, ?the possessor of which is our natural and
habitual enemy' 1t is New 5rleans throu%h which the produce of three ei%hths of our
territory must pass to mar)et'? 1n 1JDG, (alleyrand made Hi!in%ston a startlin% offer'
Napoleon 1 was willin% to sell the entire territory for W1C million' At the end of <une,
news of the treaty reached the Enited /tates' <efferson was !ery ea%er to acAuire the
entire territory, but, !iewin% it from his strict=construction point of !iew, he did not thin)
the purchase was constitutional' His remedy for the purchase was a constitutional
amendment -which was ne!er proposed.'
/i%: (he Houisiana 3urchase has been called <effersons *chief achie!ement+
durin% his administration' 1t allowed for much e&pansion and e&ploration into the West' 1t
also showed that <efferson was strict in principle but loose in practice' 5b!iously, the
purchase also finally resol!ed the important issue of control of New 5rleans and the
mouth of the 6ississippi'
Le#is and Clar6 Expedition 1(7-$
Who: 6eriwether Hewis and William Clar)'
Where: (he West, up the 6issouri 9i!er and o!er the 9oc)ies to the 5re%on
coast, and return home
What: <efferson had dreamed of e&ploration of the West from the time he was
secretary of state under Washin%ton' As a scientist he wanted to )now about the land and
its inhabitants' He reali2ed the importance of such e&ploration for the future e&pansion of
the Enited /tates' 1n <anuary 1JDG, one=half a year before the Houisiana 3urchase, he
proposed his idea to Con%ress' 1n order to conceal its e&pansionist aims from En%land,
4rance, and /pain, he su%%ested that the ;ourney be presented as a ?literary pursuit'?
Con%ress %a!e appro!al' <efferson instructed them to obser!e and note down the physical
features, topo%raphy, soil, climate, and wildlife of the land and the lan%ua%e and customs
of its inhabitants'
/i%:1n 1JD6 Hewis and Clar) returned with their !aluable ;ournals' (hey had successfully
breached the mountain barrier of the West, built a fort on the 3acific 5cean at the mouth
of the Columbia 9i!er, and mapped and e&plored much of the American Northwest'
6oreo!er, they had secured the friendship of a number of Nati!e American peoples and
%i!en the Enited /tates a claim to the 5re%on country' (hey made important scientific
disco!eries, maps, and )nowled%e of the nati!es in the re%ions' (his e&pedition, alon%
with the Houisiana 3urchase, helped promote nationalism -commitment to the E'/'. and
the future idea of *manifest destiny'+
8arbur+ vs0 8adison ,1(/.
Who: <ohn Adams, William 6arbury, and <ames 6adison
What: After a bitter election, in his final days as president, Adams
attempted to fill the courts with members of his party, the 4ederalist 3arty' <ust before
lea!in% office, 3resident Adams appointed a 6aryland ban)er and politician, William
6arbury, to one of the new posts' (he /enate confirmed 6arbury@s appointment,
3resident Adams si%ned the commission, and /ecretary of /tate <ohn 6arshall affi&ed
the >reat /eal on the commission' :ut in the rush of business durin% the final days of the
Adams administration, 6arshall failed to actually deli!er the commission to 6arbury
-and at least three other appointees.' <efferson became president on 6arch ", 1JD1, and
the new secretary of state was <ames 6adison' When 6arbury and three others
as)ed6adison for their commissions, the secretary of state, actin% under orders from
3resident <efferson, refused to deli!er the commissions' 6arbury sued' (he case was
heard by Chief <ustice <ohn 6arshall and the /upreme Court' While the Court did not
address the specifics of the case, the Court struc) down as unconstitutional a portion of
the <udiciary Act of 17J# -which %a!e the /upreme Court ;urisdiction the Court declared
it did notha!e.'
/i%: (he /upreme Court of the Enited /tates established its authority to re!iew
and in!alidate %o!ernment actions that conflict with the Constitution of the Enited /tates'
(he case is monumentally si%nificant because it was the first time that the /upreme Court
declared an act of Con%ress to be unconstitutional' (he principle in!ol!ed here is
*;udicial re!iew'+
1aron 2urr
Who: 0urin% <ohn Adams@s term as 3resident, national parties became clearly
defined' :urr loosely associated himself with the <effersonian=9epublicans, thou%h he
had moderate 4ederalist allies, such as /en' <onathan 0ayton of New <ersey' :urr Auic)ly
became a )ey player in New 8or) politics, more powerful in time than Hamilton, lar%ely
because of the (ammany /ociety, later to become the infamous (ammany Hall, which
:urr con!erted from a social club into a political machine' As <effersons !ice president,
:urr was not trusted by his own party' :urr@s refusal to yield the !ictory in the election
of 1JDD to <efferson, as he had promised, cost him the trust of his own party and that of
<efferson: for the rest of the administration, :urr remained an outsider' He )illed
Hamilton in a duel in 1JD"' He later or%ani2ed a conspiracy to separate a part of the
western E'/' and establish a country, for which he was tried but not con!icted for
/i%: He played a !ery dominant role in politics, especially in New 8or)'
<ar #ith :ripoli 1(1-1(5
What: (ripoli was attac)in% E'/' ships and demandin% tribute to en%a%e in
commerce in the 6editerranean' <efferson went to war with the 3asha of (ripoli and won
the war'
/i%: <efferson, the noninter!entionist, pacifist, small na!y, and political foe of
4ederalist shippers, ne!ertheless sent the youn% E'/' Na!y into combat in this war' (his
was the first war that the E'/' fou%ht after the 9e!olution -not includin% the undeclared
na!al war with 4rance.'
4eutral >ights 1($ on#ard
Who: E'/' merchant shippers, :ritain, 4rance
Where: primarily the Atlantic 5ceanY
What: :ritain issued 5rders in Council and 4rance reciprocated with
0ecrees, prohibitin% E'/' merchant ships from tradin% with the other country' (hou%h
the E'/' was neutral, American trade was cau%ht in between these two warrin% countries'
/i%: (he actions of :ritain and 4rance in defyin% neutral ri%hts caused the
E'/' to respond with the Embar%o of 1JD7, Non=1ntercourse with :ritain and 4rance
in 1JD#, 6acons :ill V $ in 1J1D, and later the War of 1J1$ a%ainst :ritain'
!efferson’s neutrality durin$ t(e @apoleonic Wars
When: 1JD7=1J1D
What: As the war pro%ressed, Napoleon issued the :erlin and 6ilan decrees
which enacted a bloc)ade of >reat :ritain, and >reat :ritain issued 5rders in Council,
which ordered a bloc)ade of Europe' Althou%h the two bloc)ades were not entirely
successful, and some bloc)ade=runners were able to snea) throu%h, 1CDD American ships
were sei2ed, and their sailors were impressed into the :ritish na!y' After the Chesapea)e
affair in 1JD7, <efferson secured passa%e of the Embar%o Act, prohibitin% the merchants
of the Enited /tates to trade with forei%n nations' (he act was intended to pre!ent an
American entrance into the war by )eepin% the ships and %oods in American harbors'
Howe!er, it was ne&t to impossible to enforce, and merchants loo)in% for the lucrati!e
trade smu%%led many tons of %oods in and out of the ports and into Canada' (he act was
repealed in 1JD# durin% <efferson@s lame duc) period, and replaced by the Non=
1ntercourse Act which allowed American ships to trade with any nations e&cept the
belli%erent nations in Europe' 5nce a%ain, the act failed to )eep American ships out of
the European harbors' (he Non=1ntercourse Act was replaced in 1J1D with 6acons :ill
V$ -6adison is now president., openin% trade with all with the understandin% that if
either :ritain or 4rance repealed the orders or decrees, the E'/' would impose an
embar%o on the other'
/i%: (he E'/' was tryin% to stay out of war throu%h economic sanctions, which
in the end failed'
I0S0S0 Chesapea6e and ;080S0 Leopard 1(%
Who: American fri%ate, Chesapeake, :ritish fri%ate, Leopard
Where: (en miles off the coast of 7ir%inia
What: (he Heopard attempted to force the impressment of four men on the
Chesapea)e' When the Chesapea)e refused, it was fired upon, )illin% three Americans
and woundin% ei%hteen'
/i%: (his incident %reatly an%ered the American public' As a result, <efferson
was pressed for war, but he enacted the embar%o instead'
Who: (he Enited /tates and >reat :ritain
Where: Neutral ships on the seas -mostly American ships.
What: (he :ritish Na!y declared the ri%ht to search any neutral !essel on the
seas for deserters' What they really did was they conscripted men between the a%es of 1J=
CC years old to ser!e as sailors in the 9oyal Na!y' (he :ritish were )idnappin%
American men and forcin% them to ser!e in their na!y'
/i%: (he Enited /tates needed to pro!e to :ritain that the E'/' was
independent, not sub;ect to the Crown any lon%er' (he E'/' had to protect the safety
and freedom of the American people, especially sailors' (his led to the War of 1J1$'
Embargo 1(%
Who: <effersons presidency
Where: affected New En%land the most
What: Con%ress passed the Embar%o Act in 1JD7, completely forbiddin%
the e&port of %oods from the Enited /tates' <efferson too) this drastic measure in hopes
of obtainin% respect for neutral tradin% ri%hts throu%h lettin% :ritain and 4rance suffer
from lac) of American trade'
/i%: (he embar%o %reatly harmed E'/' commerce, causin% much resentment'
New En%land and mid=Atlantic merchants routinely !iolated the embar%o' Also, the
failure of the embar%o resulted in e!entual war with :ritain'
4on-Intercourse 1ct and 8acon!s 2ill G- 1()-1(1
What: (he Non=1ntercourse Act of 1JD# was similar to <effersons
embar%o, but it solely tar%eted :ritain and 4rance' 1n 1J1D, Con%ress replaced it with
6acons :ill No' $, which opened up trade with :ritain and 4rance on one condition: if
either of the two countries repealed its commercial restrictions, the E'/' would restore the
a%ainst the country that failed to do so'
/i%: Napoleon craftily caused 6adison to restore the embar%o on :ritain,
leadin% to the War of 1J1$'
<ar of 1(1- Causes
Who: (he Enited /tates and >reat :ritain
What: (he En%lish instituted maritime bloc)ades of European ports to pre!ent
American shippin% from helpin% the 4rench durin% the war between En%land and 4rance'
(he :ritish also claimed the ri%ht to stop any neutral !essel and search the ship for
*deserters'+ 6any American ships were ta)en, and men were impressed into the :ritish
Na!y' (his can be seen in the Chesapea)e=Heopard affair of 1JD7' Economic sanctions
were tried but were unsuccessful -Embar%o, Non=1ntercourse, 6acons :ill V$.' With the
comin% of the War Haw)s to Con%ress in 1J1D, western fears of and :ritish aid to the
1ndians became an issue that contributed to war fe!er' >reat :ritain wanted to control
the trade routes to )eep the E'/' out of European ports durin% the war with 4rance' (he
Enited /tates had to defend the ri%ht to e&port American %oods without losin% men or
ships' (he E'/' also ob;ected to >reat :ritain supportin% the 1ndians alon% the >reat
/i%: America had to defend its ri%hts, %o!ernment, commerce and
independence' 6adison and the War Haw)s chose war as the !ehicle to do so -<efferson
chose embar%o, which did not wor), 6adison chose war, which defended American
ri%hts and honor.'
:ecumseh and the *rophet earl+ 1(!s
Who: (wo /hawnee brothers, (ecumseh and (ens)watawa -*the 3rophet+.
Where: 1ndian tribes east of the 6ississippi in the 5hio 7alley
What: (ecumseh and the 3rophet or%ani2ed a confederacy of 1ndian tribes to
renew their culture and fi%ht a%ainst the ad!ancin% American frontier' At the
:attle of (ippecanoe -1J11, in present=day 1ndiana., William Henry Harrison
defeated the 3rophets people, hurtin% the mo!ement' (ecumseh died fi%htin% for the
:ritish in the :attle of the (hames in 1J1G'
/i%: (ecumsehs death in 1J1G mar)ed the end of the dream of an 1ndian
confederacy and represented continued e!idence that opposition to the Enited /tates
would result in military and political defeat for Nati!e=Americans'
1merican Successes 1rise from European 3istresses 1%)!s-1(-!s
Who: 1ndians, :ritain, /pain, 4rance, and the Enited /tates
What: While the wars of the 4rench 9e!olution -17#$=1JD1. and the Napoleonic
Wars -1JD$=1J1C. were ra%in%, the E'/' had an opportunity to achie!e successes from
European distresses'
(here were si& main instances when America profited from the distress of Europe'
17#C >reen!ille (reaty' After the battle of 4allen (imbers and bein% abandoned by the
:ritish, the 1ndians %a!e up some of the 5ld Northwest in e&chan%e for W$D,DDD and the
ri%ht to still hunt on those lands'
17#"F#C <ay (reaty with :ritain' (he :ritish promised to e!acuate posts on E'/' soil and
to pay dama%es for the sei2ed American ships' (he E'/' had to pay the debts owed to
merchants on pre=9e!olutionary accounts'
17#C 3inc)ney (reaty with /pain' /pain, fearin% friendship between the E'/' and :ritain
due to the <ay (reaty, %ranted to the E'/' free na!i%ation of the 6ississippi and the ri%ht
of deposit at New 5rleans, while %i!in% up its claim to that part of old :ritish 4lorida
north of the G1Z parallel' -:ritain once said that <est 4lorida went all the way up to
G$S$J@, so /pain claimed up to G$S$J@ but %a!e up that claim in this treaty'.
1JDD Con!ention of 1JDD in which the 4ranco=American Alliance of 177J was cancelled
-in return, the E'/' would pay dama%e claims of American shippers a%ainst the 4rench.'
P(he E'/' would not enter into a permanent entan%lin% military alliance a%ain until 1#"#
and NA(5'Q
1JDG Houisiana 3urchase from 4rance, doublin% the si2e of the E'/' at a small cost of W1C
1J$G 6onroe 0octrine which stated that other nations would no lon%er be allowed to
coloni2e or interfere in the Western Hemisphere'
PHum says CHA06 in >reen 3<s -Con!ention of 1JDD, Houisiana 3urchase, 6onroe
0octrine, >reen!ille, 3inc)ney, <ay.Q
/i%: America %ained much from the distress %oin% on in Europe' 6uch land
was %ained from other countries durin% this period' -1f there is an early national forei%n
policy essay Auestion on the A3 e&am, *Europes distresses [ Americas successes+
represents a %ood thesisFar%ument'.
:reat+ of Bhent Christmas Eve, 1(17
Who: E'/' and :ritain
What: (he E'/' and :ritain a%reed to stop fi%htin%, endin% the War of 1J1$'
9emar)ably, neither side %ained any concessions, attestin% to a !irtual draw between the
two countries'
/i%: (hou%h America didnt %et what it wanted at the start of the War of 1J1$,
it didnt lose anythin% to :ritain either' (he war fostered a sense of nationalism'
1ndeed, the war is called the second war of American independence, announcin% to
the world that the E'/' was not a nation to be ta)en li%htly anymore'
2attle of 4e# Hrleans "anuar+ (, 1(15
Who: Andrew <ac)son led Americans a%ainst J,DDD :ritish troops
Where: New 5rleans, Houisiana
What: (he :ritish troops attac)ed Andrew <ac)sons well=fortified troops,
resultin% in a tremendous American !ictory' (wo thousand :ritish were )illed or
wounded compared with around se!enty for the Americans'
/i%: (hou%h this battle occurred after the War of 1J1$ ended,
the !ictory %reatly boosted American nationalism and honor' 4urther, <ac)son became
a national hero' -Americans li)e to elect presidents who were war heroesF%enerals'.
?artford -onvention Decem&er 11# 181" to !anuary 1# 1811
Who: 4ederalists who were discontented with the War of 1J1$
Where: Hartford, Connecticut
What: Numerous New En%land states, feelin% abused by 6adisons war, sent
representati!es to Hartford, Connecticut to discuss their %rie!ances' (he resultin%
con!ention demanded compensation for lost trade and sou%ht pre!enti!e measures
a%ainst future embar%oes, state admissions, and wars, amon% other thin%s' (he
resolutions of the Hartford Con!ention were o!ershadowed by the !ictory of the :attle of
New 5rleans, causin% the mo!ement to die'
/i%: (he Hartford Con!ention mar)ed the death of the 4ederalist 3arty'
1t is also an e&ample of New En%lands sympathy towards nullification at the time'
While nullification and secession are normally associated with the /outh, the
Hartford Con!ention demonstrates that the /outh did not ha!e a monopoly on
states ri%hts and secessionist thin)in%'
Consequences of the <ar of 1(1-
What: 4ollowin% the War of 1J1$, a new nationalism emer%ed in the Enited
/tates' Henry Clay@s ?American /ystem? was a neofederalist pro%ram of a national ban),
a tariff to promote and protect domestic industry, and con%ressionally financed internal
impro!ements' 3resident 6adison, Henry Clay, <ohn C' Calhoun, and <ohn Buincy
Adams helped fashion this new political a%enda, which promised to meet the needs of all
sections -remember Hums :A9(.' Also, with the be%innin%s of the 6onroe presidency
came the *Era of >ood 4eelin%s+ -referrin% to the era of peace and prosperity in the
be%innin% of 6onroes presidency., which further spar)ed nationalism'
/i%: A new sense of American nationalism emer%ed after the War of 1J1$'
(he War of 1J1$ was nic)named *the /econd War of 1ndependence+ because this le!el
of nationalism had not been seen since the 9e!olutionary War and the E'/' fou%ht :ritain
to a draw' (he Enited /tates became internally much stron%er throu%h Henry Clays
*American /ystem+'
@ationalism :devotion or loyalty to a nation<
A sense of nationalism arose after the War of 1J1$' <udicial nationalism of the 6arshall
Court can be cited' PAll of the followin% !ery important cases are 6arshall court
decisions' Marbury v. Madison -1JDG., McCulloch v. Maryland -1J1#., and Gibbons v.
Ogden -1J$". for liftin% up national authority at state e&pense, Fletcher v. Peck -1J1D.
and Dartmouth College v. Woodard -1JG$. for liftin% up the sanctity of contracts that
cannot be eroded by state actions' 6arshalls decisions, in addition to stren%thenin%
federal authority, protected business interests from encroachment by indi!idual states'
(hus the 6arshall court can be characteri2ed as pro=business also'Q' Economic
nationalism associated with the American /ystem can be cited also: ban)s, roads, canals,
protecti!e tariffs, all contributed to the notion of *nation,+ as opposed to more re%ional or
sectional interests' Cultural nationalism can be seen in the wor)s of the painters of the
Hudson 9i!er /chool -(homas Cole., and Hums :1C writers -:ryant, 1r!in%, Cooper.'
+(e +ariff of 1816
What: E!en with the 4ederalist party %aspin% its last breath, the nationalist
Con%ress of 1J16 passed the first tariff in E'/' history primarily for protectionM$D to $C
percent on many imports'
/i%: Hamilton would ha!e been happyMhere we see the emer%ence of the )ind
of leadership that he en!isioned in his three reports of 17#DF#1' He would ha!e been
deli%hted with the American /ystem, described below' /ource: A3$"1
:he E1merican S+stemF9around 1(-7 N#ith comments on the po#er of 21>:O
Who: Henry Clay
What: Clay proposed a three=part plan to de!elop a profitable home mar)et' 4irst
a stron% ban)in% system was needed that would pro!ide easy and abundant credit' Ne&t
Clay wanted a protecti!e tariff that would allow eastern manufacturin% to flourish'
9e!enues from the flourishin% economy would support the third component, a networ) of
roads and canals that would help transport foodstuffs and raw materials from the /outh
and West to the North and East'
/i%: Here is an emer%in% sense of nationalism' Cries for better transportation
erupted in the nation, especially in the West' 1ndi!idual states too) control of
construction of canals and roads -i'e' the Erie Canal.' Clays American /ystem is
essentially what Hamilton proposed in his three 17#DF#1 reports and what 3resident
6adison articulated in his 7
annual address to Con%ress in 1J1C' All of these can be
summed up in one of Hums words: :A9(\\ PWhat was the heart of the Whi% political
a%enda in the 1J"Ds, when they elected two presidentsRR :A9(\\ What was the
domestic political a%enda -aside from winnin% the war, homesteads, and hi%her
education. of the 9epublicans durin% the Ci!il WarRR :A9(\ /tart :A9( with
Hamilton -17#D=#1., and then run it throu%h 6adison -1J1C., Clay -1J$"., the Whi%s
-1J"Ds. and the 9epublicans -1J6Ds.'Q
EEra of Bood &eelingsF ,1(1%-1(-5.
Who: (he Administrations of 6onroe
What: When <ames 6onroe -sla!eownin% 7ir%inian. went into 4ederalist New
En%land, *the enemys country,+ he recei!ed a heartwarmin% welcome' A :oston
newspaper was so far carried away as to announce that an *Era of >ood 4eelin%s+ had
been ushered in' (his happy phrase has been commonly used since then to describe the
administrations of 6onroe' (he Era of >ood 4eelin%s, unfortunately, was somethin% of a
misnomer' Considerable tranAuility and prosperity did in fact smile upon the early years
of 6onroe, but the period was a troubled one' (he acute issues of the tariff, the ban),
internal impro!ements, and the sale of public lands were bein% hotly contested'
/i%: (he *Era of >ood 4eelin%s+ helped to promote an emer%in% sense of
nationalism' -With the 3anic of 1J1#, one can ar%ue that the Era was short=li!ed'.
1merican Coloni'ation Societ+ 1(1%
Who: African=Americans
What: (he American Coloni2ation /ociety -AC/., founded in 1J17, %rew out of
efforts by a 3resbyterian minister from New <ersey, 9obert 4inley' 1t was typical of many
bene!olent societies of the period' Americans !iewed the society as a solution to what
was thou%ht to be the dual problem of freein% blac)s and the incompatibility of the races'
Althou%h William Hloyd >arrison and other acti!ists ultimately re;ected the %radual
approach of coloni2ationists, the mo!ement maintained its appeal for moderates, amon%
them Abraham Hincoln'
1n 1J$$ the AC/ established Hiberia on the west coast of Africa' 5!er the ne&t
forty years the society settled some twel!e thousand African=Americans in that country'
Althou%h the society e&isted until 1#1$, after 1J6D it functioned primarily as the
?careta)er? of the settlement in Hiberia' -Hiberia is an independent nation today'.
/i%: E!en after the Emancipation 3roclamation, e&treme hostility, pre;udice,
and racism can be seen throu%hout America' No matter what the moti!es of AC/
supporters were, all belie!ed that free blac)s could not be assimilated into American
society and that the solution was resettlement in Africa'
Convention of 1(1(
Who: Enited /tates and :ritain
Where: (he 5re%on area -and the boundary between the E/ and Canada from the
Ha)e of the Woods to the 9oc)ies.
What: (he dispute ori%inated because uncertainty in the (reaty of 3aris of 17JG'
(he Con!ention of 1J1J set the boundary at the "#th parallel' (he a%reement e&tended
the northern boundary westward from the Ha)e of the Woods to the 9oc)y 6ountains'
4urther, both sides a%reed to occupy 5re%on ;ointly for ten years -renewable.'
/i%: (his settled the disputed area at the "#
parallel and temporarily resol!ed the
5re%on issue' -4inal settlement came in 1J"6, shortly after the E'/' entered into war
with 6e&ico'.
*anic of 1(1)
What: (his was the first national financial panic since 3resident Washin%ton too)
office' 1t brou%ht deflation, depression, ban)ruptcies, ban) failures, unemployment, soup
)itchens, and o!ercrowded pesthouses )nown as debtors prisons' 6any factors
contributed to the catastrophe of 1J1#, but loomin% lar%e was o!er=speculation in frontier
lands' (he :an) of the Enited /tates, throu%h its western branches, had become deeply
in!ol!ed in this popular type of outdoor %amblin%'
/i%: Not only was this the first national financial panic since 3resident
Washin%ton too) office, but it was also a rude setbac) to the nationalistic ardor' (he
3anic is considered by many to be the end of the *Era of >ood 4eelin%s'+
.c-ulloc( v4 .aryland ,1(1).
Who: 6aryland and Chief <ustice <ohn 6arshall
Where: :altimore, 6aryland -branch of the $
What: (he state of 6aryland le!ied a ta& on the :an) of the Enited
/tates in opposition to the :an) and to protect the competiti!e position of its own state
ban)s' 6arshalls rulin% declared that no state has the ri%ht to control an a%ency of the
federal %o!ernment' /ince *the power to ta& is the power to destroy,+ such state action
!iolated Con%ress *implied powers+ to establish and operate a national ban)'
/i%n: (his /upreme Court decision stren%thened federal authority and slapped at
state infrin%ements on federal authority under the Constitution' (he :an) e&isted under
the implied powers clause of the Constitution -Article 1, /ection J, Clause 1J.' (his
decision represents Pudicial nationalism, where the Court is the final arbiter of the
Constitution and where state acts contrary to the Constitution are null and !oid' (his
decision also reflects what is supported in (he 4ederalist 3apers and what is )nown as
;udicial re!iew' 1n Marbury v. Madison -1JDG., the Court struc) down part of an act of
Con%ress' Here, the Court struc) down a /tate act as unconstitutional'
1dams-Hnis :reat+ 1(1) ,EStep :reat+ LineF, E:ranscontinental :reat+F.
Who: /pain and the Enited /tates
Where: 4lorida, western boundary of Houisiana 3urchase
What: With the collapse of its empire, /pain )new it could not hold
4lorida anymore' /pain also wanted to settle the Houisiana (erritory border on its north
-E'/' southwestFwestern border.' /pain ceded 4lorida to the E'/', abandoned any claim
to the 5re%on territory, and a%reed to a boundary for the Houisiana (erritory and a
boundary alon% the "$S to the 3acific 5cean' P(he /panish ne%otiated for the easternmost
boundary it could %et -in an effort to )eep the E'/' as far from 6e&ico as possible., in the
end settlin% on the /abine 9i!er, which is the easternmost boundary of (e&as'Q -(he
Enited /tates in e&chan%e a%reed to assume WC million in debts owed to American
/i%: (his %a!e the E'/' the rest of 4lorida and settled an uncertain boundary on the
E'/' southwestern border' -Note: With the /panish abandonin% claims abo!e "$S and
the 9ussians in 1J$" stayin% abo!e C"S"D@, the entire 5re%on (erritory was left to the
E'/' and :ritain to ;ointly occupy under the Con!ention of 1J1J and then finally di!ide
in 1J"6'.
8issouri Compromise 1(-
Who: North -E/., /outh -E/., and Henry Clay
Where: 6issouri, the remainder of the Houisiana (erritory, and 6aine
What: Con%ress a%reed to admit 6issouri as a sla!e state and 6aine as a separate free
state' (his )ept the balance between the North and the /outh at twel!e states each'
-:alance was critical to maintain sla!e power in the /enate.' Althou%h the state of
6issouri was permitted to retain sla!es, all future bonda%e was prohibited in the
remainder of the Houisiana 3urchase territor+ north of the line of G6
GD, which was the
southern boundary of 6issouri'
/i%: (he 6issouri Compromise deferred final discussion of sla!ery' 1n the end, the
Ci!il War finally resol!ed the issue' <efferson called it the *death )nell+ of the Enion'
-0eath )nell is a bell tolled slowly at the time of a funeral'.
8onroe 3octrine 1(-/
What: 3resident 6onroe, in his annual address to Con%ress in 1J$G, announced what
became )nown as the 6onroe 0octrine, which stated that the European powers could no
lon%er loo) to the new world for coloni2ation' He ar%ued that the old worlds political
institutions -monarchy. were so different from the new worlds -republics. that the old
world would no lon%er be welcome in the new' 4urther, he su%%ested that European
nations not interfere in the new world' Noncoloni2ation and noninter!ention were in his
/i%: While this proud and nationalistic statement was scorned at the start by the
powers of the old world, o!er time the 0octrine de!eloped and was used by !arious
presidents, includin% 3ol) and (' 9oose!elt'
A%e of <ac)son, 1J$"="J
+eBas in t(e 18/0s
Where: (e&as, from the /abine 9i!er on the east to the Nueces on the southwest
Who: /pain -1J1#=$1., 6e&ico -1J$1 to 1JG6., and American settlers
What: /pain and then 6e&ico in!ited Americans to settle in their northeastern
pro!ince of (e&as' 1n 1J$G, 6e&ico %ranted to /tephen Austin a tract of land upon which
Americans could settle, with the understandin% that they would become Catholic
6e&icans' (he (e&ans paid little attention to that, and by 1JGC there were GD,DDD
Americans in (e&as -ready to fi%ht when /anta Anna established a dictatorship.' Also,
when 6e&ico prohibited sla!ery in 1JGD, the (e&as sla!eowners did not comply, further
a%%ra!atin% the situation between Americans in (e&as and the 6e&ican %o!ernment'
/i%: (he settlement in the 1J$Ds set the sta%e for the (e&as War of
1ndependence in 1JG6
Lo#ell S+stem91(-s and into the 1(/s
What: 1n pre=industrial America, farm %irls made cloth, candles, soap, butter,
cheese on the farm' Emer%in% industries in the nineteenth century replaced this )ind of
farmFsubsistence labor and pro!ided employment for the %irls and youn% women in
factories' 1n 1J$6 the town of Howell was founded in 6assachusetts' (he *:oston
Associates+ built boardin%houses to accommodate its labor force of twel!e=to=twenty=
fi!e=year=old females' (he twenty=fi!e or so women residin% in each house de!eloped a
sense of sisterhood, wor)in%, eatin%, and spendin% leisure time to%ether' Althou%h they
en;oyed the cultural and economic ad!anta%es a!ailable in Howell, they did not succumb
to the popular notion that Howell was a ?finishin% school for youn% ladies'? (hey had
come, mostly from New En%land farms, to wor), and they e&pected to be paid for their
labor and treated with respect' When a downturn occurred in the te&tile industry
be%innin% in 1J$# and mana%ement sou%ht to cut wa%es, these women reacted' (hey
went out on stri)e in 1JG" and 1JG6 and ran petition campai%ns in the 1J"Ds' (hey
formed the 4actory >irls@ Association and ;oined the widespread ten=hour mo!ement'
/i%: (heirs were amon% the first forms of collecti!e action ta)en by industrial
wor)ers' 1n response, mill owners there and elsewhere turned to immi%rant labor, hirin%
4rench=Canadian and 1rish wor)ers to replace the nati!e=born labor force'
1nti-8asonic *art+ 1(/- and later
What: A political party that first appeared in the 1JG$ presidential campai%n, it
opposed the *influence and secrecy+ of the 6asonic order' (hey were roused up by the
mysterious disappearance of a New 8or)er threatenin% to e&pose the secret rituals of the
6asonic order -he was probably murdered by the 6asonic order.' (he party fed upon the
publics suspicion of secret societies and spread its influence throu%hout the Atlantic and
into the New En%land states' 1t was also anti=<ac)son since <ac)son was 6asonic'
/i%: (his is the first third=party in American politics' PWhile not si%nificant,
third parties can influence elections on occasion' Hoo) at the effect of the Hiberty 3arty
!otes in New 8or) which cost Clay the election of 1J"", or (9s :ull 6oose 3arty !otes
which cost (aft the election of 1#1$Min both cases the 0emocrats won: 3ol) in 1J"",
and Wilson in 1#1$, with both recei!in% less than CD] of the *popular !ote'+Q
Expansion of Suffrage earl+ 1(
What: As states dropped !arious property Aualifications durin% the <ac)sonian
period, more and more adult white males were able to !ote'
/i%: (his is an element of <ac)sonian 0emocracy, politics and campai%ns
became rou%her and tou%her as candidates sou%ht the !ote of the *common man'+
!ac;sonian Democracy
What: <ac)sonian 0emocracy refers to se!eral elements that characteri2e the
period rou%hly from 1J$J to 1J"J -from <ac)son throu%h 3ol).'
1' Expansion of suffrage occurred as states dropped property Aualifications -many more
*common+ men !oted.'
$' "ac6son!s and his follo#ers hated monopol+ and special pri!ile%e -e'%', the $

:E/.' G' Campai%ns were directed at the *common man,+ featurin% political party
con!entions to select candidates, and campaigns that appealed to common people and
not the pri!ile%ed' -1t became best to be born in a lo% cabin no matter where you mi%ht
ha!e been born'. Campai%ns became more democratic'
"' While <efferson appealed to farmers and a%rarian interests, <ac)sonian 0emocracy
appealed to both rural and urban !oters PHums L1&S: laborers, artisans -shoema)ers,
wheelwri%hts, carpenters., farmers, small shop)eepers'Q
C' (he Spoils S+stem, where party loyalists would %et %o!ernment ;obs'
6' <ac)son and many of his followers were anti-4ative 1merican -e'%', 1ndian 9emo!al
Act of 1JGD, leadin% to the (rail of (ears in GJ=G#.
/i%: (he <ac)sonian period is a watershed in American life' 1f you
/(A3HE90 the period, you would be able to fire many 3E3/ not only related to <ac)son
and the <ac)sonians but to many other matters too'
!ac;sonian Policies' 1< t(e =an;# /< t(e Specie -ircular# ,< Indian Removal :18/"
:he 2an6 <ar
Who: (he conflict was between 3resident Andrew <ac)son and the :an)s
president Nicholas :iddle
What: Andrew <ac)son belie!ed that the :an) was an unconstitutional
monopoly' (hus, he started the War on the :an) -1JG$=1JGG.' :iddle held enormous
power o!er the financial affairs of the nation' Webster and Clay in 1JG$ presented to
Con%ress a bill to renew the :an) of the Enited /tates charter that was to e&pire in 1JG6'
Howe!er, they were pushin% for renewal four years early to ma)e it an election issue in
1JG$' 1f <ac)son si%ned, it would alienate a%rarian !oters in the west' 1f !etoed, he
would lose the election by alienatin% the wealthy in the east' He won, and in 1JGG,
<ac)son attac)ed the :an) by depositin% federal re!enues in other ban)s and remo!in%
federal deposits from its !aults, while continuin% to ma)e demands on the :an) of the
Enited /tates' :iddle fou%ht hard but lost in the end'
/i%: <ac)son !etoed the re=charter bill' He was reelected, and thus used his
reelection as a mandate to defeat the ban)' Without some central %uidance, state ban)s
were free to en%a%e in speculati!e acti!ities, which created a disor%ani2ed financial
situation in the nation' (his would contribute to the 3anic of 1JG7'
:he Specie Circular
Another policy of <ac)son in!ol!ed the /pecie Circular, which was a decree that
obli%ated all public lands to be purchased with *hard,+ or metallic, money' (here was
too much speculation in western lands, and reAuirin% that lands be paid with scarce hard
money would slow or stop the speculation'
/i%: (he /pecie Circular helped contribute to the financial panicFcrash in 1JG7'
Indian >emoval
A third policy of <ac)son was to remo!e the remainin% eastern tribes==
chiefly Chero)ees, Cree)s, Choctaws, Chic)asaws, and /eminoles==beyond the
6ississippi' He wanted the lands for white settlers' His policy led to the forced
uprootin% of more than 1DD,DDD 1ndians' 1n 1JGD, Con%ress passed the 1ndian 9emo!al
Act, which relocated 1ndian tribes east of the 6ississippi to 1ndian (erritory in the west'
1n the fall and winter of 1JGJ=G#, durin% 7an:urens presidency, the Army forcibly
remo!ed 1C,DDD Chero)ees from their homes in the east to 1ndian (erritory in the west
-present day 5)lahoma.' (his ;ourney was )nown as the (rail of (ears' About ",DDD
died on the ;ourney'
/i%: :y forced remo!al of the Nati!e Americans, many died' (he 1ndian
remo!al !i!idly demonstrates continuin% abuse of Nati!e Americans by the e!er=
e&pandin% people of the E'/' and its %o!ernment' PNote that Chief :lac)haw) in 1llinois
fou%ht bac), and Abe Hincoln was with the 1llinois militia that helped the E'/' win the
:lac)haw) War of 1JG$' 1n tal)in% so much about the fi!e southeastern tribes, we tend to
for%et the :lac)haw) War of 1JG$'Q
Spoils s+stem 1(-( on
What: <ac)sons spoils system %ranted rewards to political supporters by %i!in%
them public office' :asically, %o!ernmental ;obs went to the winner of an election' (hus
party people could be rewarded with ;obs' /candal and corruption ensued as illiterates,
incompetents, or thie!es could be %i!en hi%h office' 1ts name came from /enator William
6arcys classic remar) in 1JG$, *(o the !ictor belon% the spoils of the enemy'+ <ac)son
thou%ht that %o!ernment ;obs were fairly simple, not reAuirin% speciali2ed e&pertise' (he
spoils system played a ma;or role in the emer%in% two=party order'
/i%: (he spoils system o!erwhelmed newly elected politicians' PHater,
3oliticians would see how shameful the spoils system was when 3resident >arfield was
assassinated by a disaffected office=see)er in 1JJ1' (he Ci!il /er!ice 9eform Act
-3endleton Act. of 1JJG followed'Q
:he Second *art+ S+stem
Who: 0emocrats and Whi%s
What: A permanent two party system was spawned from the 1J"D election'
0emocrats %loried in the liberty of an indi!idual, and the Whi%s %loried in the harmony
of society and !alue of community' 0emocrats fa!ored states ri%hts and federal restraint
in social and economic affairs, while the Whi%s fa!ored a renewed national ban), internal
impro!ements, protecti!e tariffs -:A9(., public school and moral reforms, includin%
prohibition and the abolition of sla!ery'
/i%: :oth parties were *mass=based,+ i'e', they tried to appeal to as many !oters
as possible' (he two=party system, which is not in the constitution but is simply a matter
of tradition in the E'/', became a permanent part of the American political landscape'
8a+sville >oad veto 1(/
What: (he 6ays!ille 9oad :ill authori2ed the use of federal funds to build a
road between 6ays!ille and He&in%ton' <ac)son !etoed this, claimin% it unconstitutional
because it applied only to the state of Ientuc)y' <ac)son had pre!iously pled%ed to
reduce the national debt and this was a perfect opportunity'
/i%: (he !eto dealt a blow to Henry Clays American /ystem since it dealt
with internal impro!ements' (he 6ays!ille 9oad !eto does reflect <ac)sons left=side
Supporters and opponents of federal supremac+? :he <ebster-;a+ne debate 1(/
Who: /enators 0aniel Webster of 6assachusetts and 9obert Hayne of /outh
What: Hayne ar%ued that the federal Constitution was a compact amon% the
so!erei%n states and raised the specter of nullification as an option for states harmed by
federal action' Webster ar%ued that the Constitution was not ;ust an a%reement amon%
the states but the supreme law of the land' He attac)ed the radical states ri%hts position
as bein% destructi!e of the Enited /tates, assertin% that ci!il war could be a conseAuence'
/i%: (he Webster=Hayne debate hi%hli%hts the %rowin% philosophical ar%ument
between federal supremacy and state so!erei%nty' Comin% GD years before the Ci!il War,
the rhetoric is prophetic' Websters second reply to Hayne is a classic that ends with
?Hiberty and Enion, now and fore!er, one and inseparable\?
@ullification -risis518/8,,
(ariff issue, includin% !ari"" o" #bominations$%&'&
(ariffs protected American industry a%ainst competition from European manufactured
%oods, but they also dro!e up prices for all Americans and in!ited retaliatory tariffs on
American a%ricultural e&ports abroad' /outherners reacted an%rily a%ainst the tariff
because they belie!ed the *8an)ee tariff+ discriminated a%ainst them' Calhoun wrote the
*E&position and 3rotest+ which lifted up nullification'
Ordinance o" (ulli"ication )*outh Carolina+$(ovember ',- %&.'
Althou%h the 1JG$ tariff was lower than 1J$J, the people of /outh Carolina met *in
con!ention assembled+ and declared the tariff to be null and !oid within /outh Carolina,
in clear !iolation of the Constitutions supremacy clause'
Force /ill$%&..
Also )now as the *:loody :ill+ it authori2ed the president to use the army and na!y if
necessary, to collect federal tariff duties' A compromise tariff was bro)ered by Clay'
/outh Carolina repealed the ordinance of nullification, but then nullified the force bill'
P(his is the *s+ word here: Who is so!erei%n, the E'/' with its supremacy clause or the
people of the /tate of /outh Carolina Lin con!ention assembled+RQ
/i%: /teppin%=stone to Ci!il War' Nullification pro!ides the le%al ;ustification
for !iolation of the supremacy clause of the Constitution' Nullification is a stron% states
ri%hts concept, not consistent with Article 71 -supremacy clause. of the Constitution'
Chero6ee Indians and the Supreme Court
What: /upreme Court decision, Worcester v4 Ceor$ia G1 E'/' C1C -1JG$., in
which the /upreme Court held that Chero)ee Nati!e Americans were entitled to federal
protection from the actions of state %o!ernments'
/i%: (his is a case of federal supremacy a%ain, where the Court ruled that the
E'/' %o!ernment is the only a%ency to re%ulate 1ndian affairs -not the states.' <ac)son did
nothin% to enforce the decision, and >eor%ia was allowed to continue its abuse of the
3emocrac+ in 1merica b+ 3e:ocqueville ,published in 1(/5.
What: (he 4rench tra!eler and obser!er wrote an analysis of America based on
his ;ourney in 1JG1=G$' He obser!ed that African=Americans and 1ndians are rele%ated to
the lowest ends of the scale, that whites push out the 1ndians, that women fare better in
the E'/' than in Europe, that there is no aristocracy in the E'/', and that fortunes are
made on the basis of merit and opportunity in the E'/'
/i%: 0emocracy in America is one of the most credible and widely read boo)s
on American society in the early nineteenth century' E!en with its elitist, Eurocentric
biases, it is a !ery %ood analysis of the E'/' in the 1JGDs'
*anic of 1(/%
What: (he cause of the 3anic was the mania of %et=rich=Auic) which caused lar%e
amounts of speculation' >amblers in western lands were doin% business off borrowed
capital which e!entually spread to canals, roads, railroads, and sla!es' 4ailed wheat crop,
hi%h %rain prices, failed ban)s, factories closin%, and unemployed people were part of the
/i%: 5ne of the many recurrin% panics or recessions in E'/' History, the panic
cause failed ban)s, factory closure, and unemployment' (he panic helped create the
<ac)sonian 0emocrats demand for an 1ndependent (reasury'
=an 2uren Independent :reasur+ S+stem 1(7
Who: 3resident 7an :uren
What: 3eople thou%ht that the financial fe!er and 3anic of 1JG7 was caused by
ha!in% federal funds in pri!ate ban)s -pri!ate ban)s could then speculate with E'/'
funds.' 7an :uren wanted to separate the %o!ernment from ban)in%' With the
establishment of the independent treasury the %o!ernment loc)ed its money in
independent !aults in !arious cities, free from the control of state ban)s' (he Whi%s %ot
rid of the independent treasury in the early "Ds'
/i%: 9eenacted by the 0emocrats under 3ol) in 1J"6, the independent treasury
system continued until mer%ed with the 4ederal 9eser!e system in 1#1G'
W(i$s :a&out 18,/ to 181/< and t(e *merican System
What: (he Whi%s fa!ored a national ban), protecti!e tariffs, internal
impro!ements such as canals and roads, public schools, and moral reforms such as
prohibition of liAuor and abolition of sla!ery' P:A9( U reformsQ (hey had many
powerful leaders such as Henry Clay, 0aniel Webster, and <ohn Buincy Adams' (hey
elected presidents in 1J"D and 1J"J -Harrison and (aylor.'
/i%: (he Whi%s supported the :A9( system but e!entually bro)e up in 1JC$
o!er sla!ery, most notably the 4u%iti!e /la!e Act of 1JCD' P(he northern Whi%s ;oined
the 9epublican 3arty when it was formed in 1JC"'Q
"ac6sonian 3emocrac+? successes and limitations 1(-(-1(7(
Who: 3resident Andrew <ac)son and the <ac)sonian 0emocrats -includin% 3ol).
/uccesses: supported laborers, artisans, farmers, and shop )eepers -Hums HA4/.'
Citi2ens no lon%er needed property to !ote' Handled the tariff contro!ersy
well' 0urin% 3ol)s administration, secured the northern half of 6e&ico for the E'/',
addin% immensely to the nations wealth, and settled the 5re%on boundary'
Himitations: treated the 1ndians badly, destroyed the second ban) of
the Enited /tates, which contributed to the 3anic of 1JG7, and created the spoils system,
under 3ol), en%a%ed in an imperialistic war of conAuest a%ainst a friendly nation
(ransportation 0e!elopments in the Early Nineteenth
4ational >oad and Cumberland >oad
Who: (he federal %o!ernment and the indi!idual states'
Where: Cumberland, in western 6aryland, to 7andalia, in 1llinois
What: Westerners scored a notable triumph in 1J11 when the federal %o!ernment be%an
to construct the elon%ated National 9oad, or Cumberland 9oad' (he War of 1J1$
interrupted construction, and a states ri%hts shac)le on internal impro!ements hampered
federal %rants' :ut the thorou%hfare was belatedly brou%ht to its destination in 1JC$ by a
combination of aid from the states and the federal %o!ernment'
/i%: (he construction of these roads helped to stimulate the western e&pansion
mo!ement' 4urther, buildin% national roads that lin) !arious re%ions of the nation
to%ether contributed to nationalism' (he transportation system also contributed to the
mar6et revolution0
Erie Canal 1(-5
Who: /tate of New 8or)
Where: (he Hudson 9i!er at Albany, to Ha)e Erie
What: (he Erie Canal, lin)in% the Hudson 9i!er at Albany, New 8or), with Ha)e Erie
was completed in 1J$C and became the first and most successful e&ample of an artificial
waterway in the E'/' A rash of construction followed it until canals lin)ed e!ery ma;or
waterway system east of the 6ississippi 9i!er'
/i%: (his canal that ran east and west tied the new West to the old East and
contributed to the de!elopment of a national economy, one in which farmers could mo!e
from simple subsistence farmin% to cash=crop farmin%' (he transportation system that
emer%ed allowed farm produce to mo!e east and finished products to mo!e west, thus
connectin% farmers with merchants and creatin% a national economy' 9e%ional issues
remained important, but increasin%ly those issues could be lin)ed to national concerns -in
this case, the production, distribution, and sale of %oods and produce.' Hin) all of this to
the mar)et re!olution, where ad!ances in transportation and manufacturin% permitted
inter=re%ional e&chan%es of %oods and produce, thus ma)in% the farmer in the west
dependent on the manufacturer in the east, and !ice !ersa'
What: (he first railroad appeared in the E'/' in 1J$J, and by 1J6D there were
GD,DDD miles of trac), GF"ths in the industriali2in% North' 9ailroads were less e&pensi!e
than canals, could be built anywhere, and did not free2e o!er in winter' 9ailroads too)
o!er from canals by the 1JCDs' -1nternal impro!ements in 1J1C [ canals, by 1J6D [
/i%: 9ailroads became a ma;or industry in the later part of the nineteenth
century' 9ailroads contributed %reatly to the %rowth of a national mar)et economy that
lin)ed all re%ions of the country to%ether -but mostly east and west.'
1mmi%ration and Nati!ism 1J"D=1JCDs
Irish Immigration 1(/-1)
What: (he 1rish potato crop was destroyed in the 1J"Ds, uprootin% many 1rish
who emi%rated to the E'/' With little money to mo!e west they settled in eastern
seaboard cities and became the cheap labor supply in competition with free African=
American laborers' -9esentments rose o!er this'. (hey )ept their own Catholic reli%ion,
which fomented resentment amon% 3rotestants' (hey started their own school systems
and be%an to ta)e o!er local political machines and police forces' While they were at the
bottom of the socio=economic scale, they became a power to be rec)oned with in eastern
/i%: 4rom 1JGD to 1J6D, some two million 1rish came to the E'/' Another two
million came between 1J6D and 1#DD' (hey were a political and economic force that
fueled American urban politics and industry'
Berman Immigration
What: 1n the 1J"Ds and 1JCDs, almost two million >ermans emi%rated to the E'/'
due to crop failures and the failure of the liberal re!olution of 1J"J' (hey brou%ht money
with them and had the ability to spread out to the farmlands of the 6idwest' :etter=
educated than many, they supported public schools -the 0indergarten. and they became
outspo)en defenders of freedom and relentless enemies of sla!ery' (hey were culturally
different from most Americans and resentment directed at them was common'
/i%: (he >ermans brou%ht cultural di!ersity and many contributions to the
E'/' (hey were hard=wor)in%, reform oriented, and freedom=lo!in%'
1merican ,Mno#-4othing. *art+ and 4ativism in the 1(7s and 1(5s
What: A political party or%ani2ed in 1J"# around one issue, hatred of forei%ners'
1t also spread some u%ly anti=1rish, anti=>erman, and anti=Catholic propa%anda' (he
party wanted restrictions on immi%ration and naturali2ation and the deportation of alien
/i%: (he Inow=Nothin% -American. 3arty reflected anti=immi%rant nati!ist
attitudes' -Nati!ism would reappear in E'/' history as a reaction to the flood of
immi%rants who came to the E'/' between the Ci!il War and
World War 1' Nati!ists had a %reat !ictory with the 1mmi%ration Act of 1#$", which
effecti!ely reduced immi%ration to a tric)le'.
9eli%ion, 9eform, and 9enaissance in Antebellum
Cult of 3omesticit+ and <omen!s >ights
What: As the mar)et economy created separate roles for men and women -with
the men at wor) and the women at home., the idea of the *cult of domesticity+ arose,
whereby women at home were meant to teach the youn% how to be %ood and producti!e
citi2ens within her special sphere' 1t was in the home that the woman was e&pected to
display her morally and artistically superior sensiti!ities -accordin% to the *cult of
domesticity,+ she was too emotionally and physically wea) to handle the demands of the
/i%: (he *cult of domesticity+ asserted the physical and emotional wea)nesses
of women while liftin% up their moral and artistic stren%ths' (his )ind of discrimination
was the foundation for )eepin% women politically and economically subordinate to men'
(he reaction to the *cult+ can be seen in the /eneca 4alls con!ention of 1J"J -includin%
the *0eclaration of /entiments+., /o;ourner (ruths *Aint 1 a womanR+ speech, and
6ar%aret 4ullers feminist boo), Women in the Nineteenth Century -1J"C.'
<omen!s rights and the role of #omen in the nineteenth centur+ 1%)-1($
Who: Hucretia 6ott, Eli2abeth Cady /tanton, /usan :' Anthony, Eli2abeth
:lac)well, /o;ourner (ruth, 6ar%aret 4uller
Where: (he womens ri%hts mo!ement was primarily in the northeast, but stron%
in other areas also'
What: Women fou%ht to brea) down the *cult of domesticity+ that bound women
to their homes' (hey were also in!ol!ed in other reform mo!ements of the 1#th century
such as temperance and abolition of sla!ery' 6ost importantly, 6ott and /tanton were at
the /eneca 4alls Con!ention in 1J"J, which produced the *0eclaration of /entiments+
-modeled after the 0eclaration of 1ndependence.' P(he fi%ht o!er abolition eclipsed the
womens ri%hts mo!ement up to the Ci!il War, and when African=American males %ot
the !ote in 1J7D, many women were %enuinely disappointed and disillusioned that they
did not %et the !ote also' While some states, notably western, %ranted the !ote to women
as early as 1J6# -in Wyomin%., women did not %et the !ote at the national le!el until the
amendment in 1#$D'Q
/i%: /tartin% with /eneca 4alls, 1J"J, the womens ri%hts mo!ement remains
one of the most endurin% ci!il ri%hts mo!ements in E'/' history'
Education >eform, 1(--1($
Who: Horace 6ann, Noah Webster, William H' 6c>uffey, Emma Willard
Where: 6assachusetts and then the rest of the E'/' -throu%h Horace 6ann and his
brilliant reforms on the 6assachusetts :oard of Education.
What: Horace 6anns reforms called for more 1. public schools, $. hi%her pay
for teachers, G. lon%er teachin% terms, and an ". e&panded curriculum' /chools were of
poor Auality and open only a few months of the year' 6ann chan%ed that as
superintendent of schools in 6assachusetts' Noah Webster wrote readin% lessons for
children and the dictionary, 6c>uffey published school readin% boo)s -the *9eaders+'.
6ary Hyon and Emma Willard each established a womens seminary, and hi%her
education was %ainin% throu%hout the country'
/i%: /timulated the modern public school system and focus on education' All
of the %oals of the education reformers were achie!ed: better trainin% for and hi%her paid
teachers, e&panded curriculum, a lon%er school year, and better facilities'
Second Breat 1#a6ening
What: E!an%elical Christian re!i!als swept across America, notably in the 1JGDs
and most notably in western New 8or), which became )nown as the *burned=o!er
district'+ Inown as the /econd >reat Awa)enin%, it was a %rowin% reaction to liberalism
and deism' As new con!erts swelled the ran)s of 6ethodists and :aptists churches,
those con!erts were also encoura%ed to crusade a%ainst the wron%s in society, notably
alcohol, sla!ery and womens ri%hts'
/i%: (he /econd >reat Awa)enin% spawned many reform mo!ements and was
one of the most momentous episodes in E'/' reli%ious history'
Second Breat 1#a6ening? Charles B0 &inne+ and his *1< agenda ,1(/!s.
Who: Charles >' 4inney was the %reatest of the re!i!al preachers durin% the
/econd >reat Awa)enin%'
/i%: 1n addition to his preachin%, he supported the 3AW a%enda' 3: prohibition
of alcohol' A: abolition of sla!ery' W: womens ri%hts and women in!ol!ed with
reli%ion' He had a %reat influence on many people'
8ormons ,1(/!s-7!s.
Who: <oseph /mith and 6ormons
Where: New 8or), 5hio, 6issouri, 1llinois
What: <oseph /mith recei!ed %olden plates from an an%el, which became the
:oo) of 6ormon' 3eople opposed 6ormons because they !oted as a unit and they
practiced poly%amy' 1n 1J"", <oseph /mith and his brother were murdered in 1llinois'
6ormons then mo!ed to Etah while bein% led by :ri%ham 8oun%'
/i%: (his is the most si%nificant reli%ion that arose out of the :urned=5!er
district of New 8or) durin% the /econd >reat Awa)enin%' 1t is the dominant reli%ion in
Etah today'
4e# ;armon+
What: 1n 1J$C, 9obert 5wen purchased the community of New Harmony on the
Wabash 9i!er in 1ndiana, hopin% to establish a model -utopian. community where
education and social eAuality would flourish' His *Community of EAuality+ dissol!ed by
1J$7, ra!a%ed by personal conflicts and the inadeAuacies of the community in the areas
of labor and a%riculture'
/i%: (his is one of the many failed utopian e&periments in the early 1#

Hneida Communit+ 1(7(-1((
Where: New 8or)
What: 4ounded by <ohn Humphrey Noyes, who repudiated the old 3uritan
doctrines that >od was !en%eful and that sinful man)ind was doomed to dwell in a !ale
of tears' He belie!ed in free lo!e -*comple& marria%e+., birth control, and *:ible
Communism'? -Comple& marria%e meant that each man was married to e!ery woman in
the society, and !ice !ersa, with the understandin% that se&ual intercourse was
permissible, but no two people could form a traditional union'. 1n 1JJD, 5neida left
communism and became a ;oint=stoc) company speciali2in% in the manufacture of sil!er
tableware' /ociety mar%inali2ed the 5neida Community because of free lo!e -*comple&
marria%e+. and selecti!e breedin%'
/i%: Was once one of the bi%%est utopian communities that arose out of the
/econd >reat Awa)enin%'
2roo6 &arm 1(71-7$
Where: 6assachusetts
What: (ranscendentalists settled on a $DD acre farm and practiced a
communitarian lifestyle' A fire in 1J"6 destroyed their buildin% and the e&periment in
*plain li!in% and hi%h thin)in%+ collapsed in debt'
/i%: :roo) 4arm demonstrates the utopian fer!or that captured the ima%ination
of idealists at mid=nineteenth century'
:ranscendentalists 1(/s-1(5s
Where: Har%ely in 6assachusetts
What: (ranscendentalists denied that all )nowled%e comes to the mind from the
senses -or the :ible. but instead e!ery person has an inner li%ht that illuminates the
hi%hest truths and puts one in touch with >od, or the *5!ersoul'+ E&altation of the
di%nity of the indi!idual was paramount in transcendentalism, and from this came an
array of humanitarian reforms' :est )nown: 1. 9alph Waldo Emerson' Emerson
promoted self=reliance, self=confidence, and freedom, all of which were well in tune with
the ideals bein% de!eloped by the American people' His most notable speech was his
1JG7 *American /cholar'+
-$. Henry 0a!id (horeau, whose 5n the 0uty of Ci!il 0isobedience, influenced >andhi
and 6artin Huther Iin%' G. 6ar%aret 4uller, editor of the transcendentalist pamphlet
0ial, and author of the feminist boo) Women in the Nineteenth Century -1J"C.'
/i%: (ranscendentalism is strictly American and liberates the people from the
%rasp of European influences' (he mo!ement represents the independence, self=reliance,
and idealism of many Americans'
?udson River Sc(ool 18/1on
Who: A %roup of romantic landscape artists' (homas 0ou%hty, Albert :ierstadt,
and (homas Cole were some of the famous artists' /ee A3GG# for Coles 1JG6 *5&bow+
-in the Connecticut 9i!er.'
What: (he %roup focused on romantic styles of landscape paintin%'
/i%: 4or the first time, a number of American artists be%an to de!ote
themsel!es to landscape paintin% instead of portraiture' (he wor)s of these artists
reflected a new concept of wilderness, one in which humans were an insi%nificant
intrusion in a landscape more beautiful than fearsome'
Mnic6erboc6er School 1(-s
Who: William Cullen 2ryant -(hanatopsis., Washin%ton Ir!in% -*He%end of
/leepy Hollow,+ *9ip 7an Win)le,+ both in the /)etch :oo)., and <ames 4enimore
Cooper -Heatherstoc)in% (ales, includin% (he Hast of the 6ohicans. P:1C illuminates the
national literary landscape'Q
/i%: (hese three writers represent the emer%ence of a national literature,
independent from Europe and can be seen as *cultural nationalism+ followin% the War of
*&olition 18,0s1860s
Who: 4rederic) 0ou%lass -spo)e a%ainst sla!ery, loo)ed towards politics and
%o!ernment to support the cause' (heodore 0wi%ht Weld -spo)e a%ainst sla!ery and
wrote the pamphlet, #merican *lavery #s 1t 1s., William Hloyd >arrison -!he Liberator
and the American Anti=/la!ery /ociety., /o;ourner (ruth -abolitionist and womens
Where: 3rimarily in the northeast area, but did spread westward
What: (hrou%h written messa%es, boycotts, and speeches, they fou%ht for the
abolition of sla!ery'
/i%: 4ou%ht for abolition of sla!ery, be%an to Auestion the true meanin% of
eAuality, and caused di!ided opinions which propelled the nation towards the Ci!il war'
:emperance and *rohibition--1(5s
Who: Neal /' 0ow -sponsored 6aine prohibition law. and many women
Where: 3rimarily the northeast
What: (wo a!enues of attac): 1. prohibition -no alcohol sale permitted. by law'
E&ample: 6aine Haw of 1JC1 prohibited the manufacture and sale of into&icatin% liAuor'
$. temperance, meanin% be moderate in drin)in% alcohol' E&ample: American
(emperance /ociety 1J$6: fou%ht to reduce temptation and ur%e to drin)'
/i%: Alcohol ne%ati!ely affected many li!es, and with the temperance
mo!ement, it showed the %rowin% concern for the o!erall Auality of life' Women, loc)ed
into a society that !alued the *cult of domesticity,+ had to rely on men for economic well=
bein%' (hus women led the temperance mo!ement'
Criminals and the insane--1(/!s and 7!s
Who: 0orothea 0i&
Where: 6assachusetts and then elsewhere as the mo!ement spread
What: Criminal punishments were reduced and prisons be%an to reform and
correct criminals' 0i& wrote and spo)e a%ainst the inhumane conditions of insane
asylums until their conditions were impro!ed' Her 1J"G petition to the 6assachusetts
le%islature was the turnin% point in the treatment of the mentally ill'
/i%: (reatment of criminals and mentally ill impro!ed' Criminals were to be
reformed instead of ;ust punished, and mentally ill people would no lon%er be chained in
;ails or poor houses'
(erritorial E&pansion and 6anifest 0estiny
.anifest Destiny 18"0’s1810s
What: (he idea of *manifest destiny+ is that >od ordained the American people
to rule from the Atlantic to the 3acific -and later, in the 1JCDs, the idea was e&panded to
loo) to the south into Central America, Cuba, 6e&ico.'
/i%: 6anifest 0estiny was a latently -hidden or un)nown. racist and manifestly
-!isible or )nown. imperialistic notion that en%endered a sense of national pride and led
the American people to belie!e that de!elopin% the American empire at the e&pense of
others was not only %ood but ordained by >od'
+eBas 18,6"1
What: (e&as fou%ht a war of independence -1JG6. with the 6e&icans but was
refused entry into the E'/' in part because of the sla!ery issue' 1n 1J"C, durin% the last
days of the (yler administration, (e&as was admitted as a sla!e state -anne&ed by ;oint
resolution of Con%ress and si%ned by 3resident (yler.'
/i%: 0emonstrates the difficulties associated with the issue of sla!ery in the
territories or in any new state' Clays straddlin% of the fence on the issue of (e&as may
ha!e cost him the presidency in 1J"" -3ol) won, 1,GGJ,"6" to 1,GDD,D#7.'
Hregon 1(7$
What: (his was a compromise a%reement with :ritain, whereby the border was
set at the "#
parallel' (he E'/' and :ritain under the Compromise of 1J1J
;ointly occupied the 5re%on country' :y the 1J"Ds, Americans settlers perfected
their title by mo!in% to 5re%on, while the :ritish lost interest in the southern part
of the country' Neither side wanted a confrontation o!er 5re%on' 3ol) did not
%et a fi%htMhe %ot a %ood compromise instead' Compromise was necessitated in
part because the E'/' ;ust started a war with 6e&ico'
/i%: 9esol!ed a lon%standin% point of contention between the E'/' and :ritain'
3ro!ided the E'/' with territory that would ultimately become the states of
5re%on, 1daho, Washin%ton and some of 6ontana'
*ol6 and the 8exican <ar 1(7$-1(7(
Who: <ames 3ol), 6e&ico
What: A war started o!er 3ol)s desire for 6e&ican lands west of (e&as, notably
California' When E'/' troops ad!anced to the 9io >rande, in an area claimed by 6e&ico
-between the Nueces and the 9io >rande., the 6e&icans confronted the E'/' and the war
/i%: (he E'/' %ained the northern half of 6e&ico, includin% much of the
American southwest' -/ee (reaty of >uadalupe=Hidal%oF4ebruary 1J"J.
+(e Wilmot Proviso 18"6
Who: 0a!id Wilmot, 0emocratic representati!e from 3ennsyl!ania
What: At the start of the 6e&ican War, Wilmot proposed, as part of a war
appropriations bill, that sla!ery be e&cluded from any territory acAuired from 6e&ico'
(he Wilmot 3ro!iso passed the House twice and failed in the /enate twice'
/i%: Althou%h the 3ro!iso failed, the discussion brou%ht into sharp focus the
differences then e&istin% on the sla!ery Auestion' -Emerson was ri%ht when he said:
*6e&ico will poison us'+.
:reat+ of Buadalupe-;idalgo &ebruar+ -, 1(7(
Who: <ames 3ol), Nicholas 3' (rist, 6e&ican *%o!ernment+
What: (o conclude the 6e&ican War, 3ol) dispatched Nicholas (rist to 6e&ico
City' (he (reaty of >uadalupe=Hidal%o was si%ned by (rist and forwarded to
Washin%ton' (he treaty confirmed the American title to (e&as and yielded the enormous
area stretchin% westward to the 3acific 5cean, includin% California' (he Enited /tates
a%reed to pay W1C million for the land and to assume the claims of its citi2ens a%ainst
6e&ico in the amount of WG,$CD,DDD'
/i%: Added the American southwest to the Enited /tates' Also contributed to
the *burnin%+ discussion of sla!ery in the territories, all of which resulted in the
Compromise of 1JCD -California [ free state, Etah and New 6e&ico territories or%ani2ed
on basis of popular so!erei%nty, stron% fu%iti!e sla!e law, (e&as boundary ad;usted, 0'C'
sla!e trade outlawed.,
(he Crisis of the Enion
8issouri Compromise 1(- ,this is a *E* repeat because it is so important.
Who: North -E/., /outh -E/., and Henry Clay
Where: 6issouri, the remainder of the Houisiana (erritory, and 6aine
What: Con%ress a%reed to admit 6issouri as a sla!e state and 6aine as a separate free
state' (his )ept the balance between the North and the /outh at twel!e states each'
-:alance was critical to maintain sla!e power in the /enate.' Althou%h the state of
6issouri was permitted to retain sla!es, all future bonda%e was prohibited in the
remainder of the Houisiana 3urchase territor+ north of the line of G6
GD, which was the
latitude of the southern boundary of the state of 6issouri'
/i%: (he 6issouri Compromise deferred final discussion of sla!ery' 1n the end, the
Ci!il War finally resol!ed the issue' <efferson called it the *death )nell+ of the Enion'
-0eath )nell is a bell tolled slowly at the time of a funeral'.
<ebster!s Second >epl+ to ;a+ne
What: /enator 0aniel Webster responded to /enator 9obert Hayne@s claims of /outh
Carolina@s ri%ht of nullification in a speech mainly directed at 7ice=3resident <ohn C'
Calhoun' Webster offered a brilliant summary of federalism and established fore!er the
lin) between ?Hiberty and Enion'''?
/i%: (he %rowin% ar%ument between nullificationFstates ri%hts and federal supremacy
came with %reat force in this e&chan%e in the /enate in <anuary 1JGD' (his is one of
the %reatest speeches in E'/' history'
<illiam Llo+d Barrison
Who: A ;ournalist, abolitionist, and social acti!ist, he turned his ener%ies to fi%htin%
sla!ery' He %a!e many public speeches a%ainst sla!ery, and started (he Hiberator, an
anti=sla!ery newspaper' He fa!ored Limmediate and complete emancipation of sla!es'
/i%: He was the source of inspiration for those opposed to sla!ery' He fueled /outhern
hostility because he wanted to free the sla!es immediately and without compensation to
the owners'
:he Liberator
Who: 3ublished by William Hloyd >arrison
What: An anti=sla!ery, pro=immediate emaciation newspaper
When: <anuary 1, 1JG1 be%ins publishin%
/i%: A si%nificant part of the abolitionist mo!ement' (he wee)ly ma%a2ine went from
the 1JGDs to the end of the Ci!il War, in all producin% 1,J$D issues after GC years' (he
main topic of the liberator was peaceful and immediate emancipation of sla!es throu%h
passi!e resistance'
1merican 1nti-Slaver+ Societ+ 1(//
Who: 4ounded by dedicated abolitionists
What: (he American Anti=/la!ery /ociety was a promoter, with its state and
local au&iliaries, of the cause of immediate abolition of sla!ery in the Enited /tates' 1t
fractured in 1J"D o!er the role of women in the or%ani2ation and the or%ani2ations
promotion of womens ri%hts in addition to abolition' (he politici2ed elements
supported the Hiberty 3arty in 1J"D, the 4ree=/oil 3arty in 1J"J, and the 9epublican
3arty from 1JC" on'
/i%: (he /ociety demonstrates how abolition rose to become one of the most
important antebellum reform mo!ements'
Slaver+ in general from 1( to 1($
What: After the %in -17#G., upland cotton could be raised profitably' (he cotton
raised could feed the cotton te&tiles industry in the North and Europe -:ritain, notably.'
(he e&istin% labor supply in the /outh was sla!es, and the demand for sla!es increased as
the cotton culture spread throu%hout the E'/' south and southwest in the early nineteenth
century' /la!es were property with no ci!il or political ri%hts' After the international
sla!e trade was prohibited in 1JDJ, natural reproduction accounted for the increase in
sla!e numbers' A prime field hand sold for about WCDD in 1JGD and W1,JDD in 1J6D'
:ritain and the North depended on /outhern cotton to feed the mills, and hundreds of
thousands of wor)ers would %o unemployed if the supply were to be cut off' 0a!id
Christy wrote Cotton is Iin% in 1JCC, and /enator Hammond -/'C'. said, in 1JCJ, *No
one dare ma)e war on cotton'+ (he /outhern planters were powerful and successful in
the 1JCDs, and they relied upon and defended sla!ery as the labor supply that was at the
root of their wealth'
/ome sla!es li!ed in towns, perhaps rented out by their owners' /ome were
s)illed at some craft -carpentry.' 6any more sla!es li!ed in sla!e Auarters on
plantations' 6any were married and had their families with them on plantations, and yet,
as property, any sla!e was sub;ect to bein% sold *down the ri!er'+ PEncle (oms Cabin
-1JC$. had a powerful impact on this issue'Q While plantation owners had an economic
self=interest in carin% for their sla!e property, abuses were widely reported in the
Northern press and amon% abolitionists' 9ape, murder, and mutilation of sla!es were not
un)nown on plantations' 3ublication of these atrocities enflamed both North and /outh
-for opposite reasons, with the /outhern position bein% that such reports were %ross
/la!es were %enerally submissi!e, and yet there were e&ceptions' (he /tono
rebellion of 17G#, >abriel 3rosser rebellion of 1JDD, 0enmar) 7esey rebellion in 1J$$,
and Nat (urner rebellion in 1JG1 spea) to the desire of sla!es to be free' While all of
those rebellions were suppressed, sla!es had other ways to fi%ht bac): 1. petty theft, $.
ne%li%ence and brea)a%e of eAuipment, and G. wor) slow=downs' Whites had a %reat fear
of sla!e rebellion, accountin% for repressi!e laws limitin% communications and tra!el
amon% the sla!es'
9eli%ion played an important role in the life of sla!es' Combinin% African
reli%ious rites with basic Christian doctrines, sla!es spo)e and san% Auietly amon%
themsel!es of 1srael in E%ypt and liberation from the yo)e of sla!ery' 6ore militant
Christians amon% the sla!es spo)e of the fli%ht to and then into Canaan, where
militaristic confrontation with the Canaanites -sla!eowners. was to be e&pected'
-/la!eowners, not unaware of these de!elopments, increasin%ly limited communication
amon% sla!es as the nineteenth century pro%ressed'.
/i%: /la!ery was ine&tricably intertwined with the social, technolo%ical,
political, le%al, economic, and reli%ious life of the Enited /tates from the 166Ds to the
1J6Ds' (o understand E'/' history, one must understand sla!ery'
Calhoun!s 3efense of Slaver+ as a *ositive Bood ,1(/%.
Who: /en' <ohn C' Calhoun of /' Carolina
What: /peech %i!en in the /enate' Calhoun belie!ed that the relationship
between ensla!ed African people and free whites *forms the most solid and durable
foundation on which to rear free and stable political constitutions'+ He belie!ed that
there should be a subser!ient le!el of people -Africans. that should wor) under the more
mentally capable indi!iduals -whites., and that Africans are eAually benefited by this
relationship as their white counterparts, since they were *rescued+ from the barbarism of
the ;un%le and *clothed with the blessin%s of Christian ci!ili2ation'+ 4urther, he ar%ued
that Northern wor)ers fared worse than sla!es'
/i%: Calhouns ar%ument demonstrates the early reaction to abolitionism as
southerners felt obli%ated to ta)e up the defense of their *peculiar institution'+ As the
Ci!il War neared, attitudes hardened on both sides'
&rederic6 3ouglass 1(1%Q-)5
Who: :rilliant orator and writer, most prominent of the blac) abolitionists' He
wrote (arrative o" the Li"e o" Frederick Douglass, an autobio%raphical account of his
life, includin% his escape to the North' He loo)ed to politics to end sla!ery: he supported
the Hiberty party in 1J"D, the 4ree /oil party in 1J"J, and the 9epublicans in the 1JCDs'
/i%: He was the most si%nificant African=American abolitionist of the period
whose coura%e and eloAuence promoted the abolitionist cause'
*opular Sovereignt+ 1(7s-1(5s
What: (his in!ol!ed the ri%ht of the people in territories to !ote to ha!e sla!ery
or no sla!ery' /tephen 0ou%las -0em', 1llinois. championed popular so!erei%nty'
/i%: 3opular /o!erei%nty was meant to turn the national issue of sla!ery into
smaller, more local issues, but failed to e&tin%uish the fires lit by the abolitionists and
free=soilers -Wilmot 3ro!iso, Compromise of 1JCD, Iansas=Nebras)a Act of 1JC",
:leedin% Iansas of 1JC6, 0red /cott of 1JC7.'
Compromise of 1(5
What: A set of fi!e laws collecti!ely called the Compromise of 1JCD
Concessions to the (orth:
1. California was admitted as a free state'
$. (erritory disputed by (e&as and New 6e&ico was surrendered to New 6e&ico
-(e&as recei!ed W1D million from the federal %o!ernment as compensation'.'
G. /la!e trade was abolished in Washin%ton 0'C'
Concessions to the *outh:
1. (he remainder of the 6e&ican Cession area was to be formed into the
territories of New 6e&ico and Etah, without restriction on sla!ery -open to popular
$. A more strin%ent fu%iti!e sla!e law was implemented, %oin% beyond that of
/i%: (he Compromise of 1JCD was an effort to defuse the sla!ery issue, but the
4u%iti!e /la!e Act e&ploded in the faces of both North and /outh and further di!ided the
&ugitive Slave 1ct ,1(5.
What: *(he :loodhound :ill+ stirred up a storm of opposition in the North'
4leein% sla!es could not testify on their own behalf and were denied a ;ury trial' (he
federal commissioner who handled the fu%iti!es case would be %i!en fi!e dollars if the
runaways were freed and ten dollars if not, which loo)ed li)e a bribe in fa!or of
/i%: 1t prompted the Northerners *personal liberty laws,+ which denied local
;ails to federal officials and otherwise hindered enforcement of the 4u%iti!e /la!e' (he
/outh, on the other hand, %a!e up eAuality in the /enate -CA [ free state. in return for a
stron% fu%iti!e sla!e law, only to see its power diminished by Northern opposition' :oth
North and /outh were alienated by the 4u%iti!e /la!e Act of 1JCD' (he Whi%s bro)e up
o!er it in 1JC$'
Incle :om!s Cabin 1(5-
Who: Harriett :eecher /towe wrote the no!el Encle (oms Cabin'
What: (he no!el sold o!er 7 million copies worldwide' 1t spo)e of the
cruel treatment of sla!es in America as well as stories from the Ender%round 9ailroad'
6any Northerners hated sla!ery after readin% this no!el' Abraham Hincoln
later said this no!el started the Ci!il War -a comment made to /towe durin% the
War: ?/o this is the little lady that started the bi% war'?. 4orei%n countries now
were hesitant to trade with the /outh now that they were aware of the treatment of sla!es
in America'
/i%: (he no!el enflamed the /outh and many prosla!ery boo)s were published
to counter the influence of Encle (oms Cabin' (he boo) is one of the most influential in
E'/' history' -0ont ne%lect the ob!ious fact that the boo) is written by a woman'.
Badsden *urchase 1(5/
What: (he Enited /tates wanted a piece of land for a southern railroad' (he land
ran throu%h 6e&ico' <ames >adsden, a /outh Carolina railroad man, was appointed
minister to 6e&ico' >adsden ne%otiated a treaty -1JCG. by which the Enited /tates
purchased the land for 1D million dollars' (hat land is southern Ari2ona and New
6e&ico today' A southern route would be easier to build, cost less, and would satisfy
/outhern demands for a western railroad
/i%: (he >adsden 3urchase facilitated the buildin% of a southern railroad to the
west coast and was the last territorial acAuisition of the E'/' in the *lower "J'+
Dansas@e&ras;a *ct of 181"
Who: Haw sponsored by /tephen A' 0ou%las
What: (he Act said that instead of usin% the terms of the 6issouri Compromise,
which pro!ided that all territories north of G6SGD@ in the remainder of the
Houisiana 3urchase territory should be free, the area will be split into Iansas
and Nebras)a territories, and popular so!erei%nty shall determine sla!ery or no sla!ery in
the territory -and by inference in future states.'
/i%: (he Act an%ered free=soilers because it opened territory pre!iously
closed to sla!ery -under the 6issouri Compromise. to the potential of sla!ery'
(he 9epublican 3arty emer%ed as a result of this Act' 4urther, the Act led to
*bleedin% Iansas+ in 1JC6 as free=soilers and sla!ers competed to establish
different %o!ernments' :leedin% Iansas foreshadowed the comin% of the Ci!il War'
Repu&lican Party :ori$ins# $oals# and position on slavery< 181" to present
Who: 6any Whi%s, Hiberty party members, Inow=Nothin%s, and 4ree /oil
members became 9epublicans as their respecti!e parties disbanded'
What: After the Iansas=Nebras)a Act in 1JC", the Whi% party was ended, and
meetin%s in the upper 6idwestern states started the formation of a new party opposed to
the spread of sla!ery into the western territories' 5ne meetin%, at 9ipon, Wisconsin, on
6arch $D, 1JC", is widely )nown as the be%innin% of the 9epublican party' At the start,
it was a northern -free state. based party that was dedicated to the pre!ention of the
spread of sla!ery into the territories -in reaction to the Iansas=Nebras)a Act of 1JC".'
(he 3arty did not mean to interfere with sla!ery in /outhern states but insisted that
sla!ery not be allowed to e&pand in the territories -the implication bein% that sla!ery
would become less and less si%nificant as more and more free states were added to the
Enion, a point that was not lost amon% /outhern defenders.'
(he domestic a%enda at the start of the party was :A9( -ban)s, internal
impro!ements railroads, and hi%her tariffs., opposition to the e&tension of sla!ery in the
territories, hi%her education, and homesteads for small farmers'
/i%: (he 9epublican 3arty became a ma;or player in Enited /tates politics,
electin% many presidents, be%innin% with Hincoln in 1J6D' 1n addition to bein% the party
of Hincoln and winnin% the Ci!il War, the 9epublican 3artys a%enda dominated E'/'
politics for se!eral decades -essential pro=business.'
3red Scott decision 1(5%
What: 1n 6arch of 1JC7, the Enited /tates /upreme Court, led by Chief <ustice
9o%er :' (aney, declared that blac)s == sla!es as well as free == were not and could ne!er
become citi2ens of the Enited /tates' (he court also declared the 1J$D 6issouri
Compromise unconstitutional, thus permittin% sla!ery in all of the country@s territories'
(he case before the court was that of 0red /cott !' /andford' 0red /cott, a sla!e who
had li!ed in the free state of 1llinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before mo!in%
bac) to the sla!e state of 6issouri, had appealed to the /upreme Court in hopes of bein%
%ranted his freedom'
(aney == a staunch supporter of sla!ery and intent on protectin% /outherners from
Northern a%%ression == wrote in the Court@s ma;ority opinion that, because /cott was
blac), he was not a citi2en and therefore had no ri%ht to sue' (he framers of the
Constitution, he wrote, belie!ed that blac)s ?had no ri%hts which the white man was
bound to respect, and that the Ne%ro mi%ht ;ustly and lawfully be reduced to sla!ery for
his benefit' He was bou%ht and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and
traffic, whene!er profit could be made by it'?
9eferrin% to the lan%ua%e in the 0eclaration of 1ndependence that includes the
phrase, ?all men are created eAual,? (aney reasoned that ?it is too clear for dispute, that
the ensla!ed African race were not intended to be included, and formed no part of the
people who framed and adopted this declaration' ' ' '?
/i%: (his decision lifted the spirits of the prosla!ery forces and further
enflamed the passions of the abolitionists' (he decision itself, comin% ;ust a few years
before the Ci!il War, contributed to the heated rhetoric that caused both sides to refuse to
compromise and settle the sla!ery issue short of war' P(he 1"th amendment -1J6J.,
conferrin% citi2enship on former sla!es and blac)s, was a response to 0red /cott' (he
amendment says: *All persons born or naturali2ed in the Enited /tates and sub;ect to
the ;urisdiction thereof, are citi2ens of the Enited /tates and of the /tate wherein they
Lecompton Crisis 1(5%
Who: 3rosla!ery 4orces
Where: Iansas
What: 3rosla!ery 4orces in Iansas de!ised a tric)y document )nown as the
Hecompton Constitution' (he people were not allowed to !ote for or a%ainst the
constitution as a whole, but for the constitution either *with sla!ery+ or *with no
sla!ery'+ 1f they !oted a%ainst sla!ery, one of the remainin% pro!isions of the
constitution would protect the owners of sla!es already in Iansas so there would still be
blac) bonda%e in Iansas no matter what'
/i%: 1n a con%ressional debate that at one point bro)e into a fistfi%ht, enou%h
Northern 0emocrats finally defected from their party to re;ect the Hecompton
Constitution' 0emocratic /enator 0ou%las opposed the Hecompton Constitution, which
cost him /outhern democratic support, thus further di!idin% the 0emocratic 3arty and
liftin% up the prospects for the more unified 9epublicans'
Lincoln-3ouglas debates, 1(5(
Who: Hincoln -9epublican. and 0ou%las -0emocrat.
What: (his was a series of se!en debates between Au%ust and 5ctober of 1JCJ,
where Hincoln and 0ou%las opposed one another in a race for a /enate seat' (hese
debates helped 0ou%las win the /enate seat but ruined his chance of winnin% the
presidency' (his contributed to the split of his party after the debate at 4reeport'
Essentially, Hincoln %ot 0ou%las to admit that if the people of a territory decided a%ainst
sla!ery, the sla!ery would not be permittedMa seemin% contradiction of the Constitution
as interpreted in the 0red /cott decision'
/i%: (he 4reeport 0octrine alienated /outherners who found it increasin%ly
difficult to support 0ou%las and led to the fracture of the 0emocratic 3art in 1J6D' (he
Hincoln=0ou%las debate platform thus pro!ed to be one of the preliminary battlefields of
the Ci!il War'
Ming Cotton 1%)/-1($
Where: (he southern states of the Enion'
What: When Eli Whitney introduced his cotton %in in 17#G, the southern cotton
industry rode a wa!e to power' (o supply the %rowin% te&tile industry cotton farmers
needed sla!es to raise the cotton' 5ne half of all American e&ports could be represented
by the cotton industry alone after 1J"D' (he /outh e&ported cotton to the North,
pro!idin% for their te&tile industry, and European te&tile industries as well' About
se!enty=fi!e percent of the :ritish cotton in its te&tile manufacturin% came from the
/i%: (he southern states felt that Europe as well as the North could not sur!i!e
without southern cotton, causin% them to belie!e *cotton is )in%'+ (he /outh belie!ed if
they were forced into a war a%ainst the North, Europe would ha!e to ta)e their side and
assist them in the fi%ht a%ainst the North because they belie!ed Europe would not sur!i!e
without southern cotton'
"ohn 2ro#nRs >aid Hctober 1(5)
Who: <ohn :rown and a %roup of northern abolitionists'
Where: Harpers 4erry, western 7ir%inia'
What: <ohn :rown de!ised a scheme to in!ade the /outh and call blac) sla!es to
rise, hopin% to deli!er them from bonda%e and create a free blac) state' 8et, as few
blac)s were aware of this attempted liberation, his plan failed and when :rown led
se!eral anti=sla!ery followers to capture the federal arsenal at Harpers 4erry, se!eral
innocent bystanders were )illed or wounded' Captured by the E'/' 6arines, :rown was
swiftly e&ecuted' 6any re!ered :rown as a martyr for the abolitionist cause while others
denounced his !iolent and seemin%ly irrational means to liberate the sla!es'
/i%': (he raid fueled the conflict between the North and the /outh and rallied
the anti=sla!ery mo!ement while raisin% Auestions about the correct way to deli!er the
oppressed sla!es -usin% !iolent tactics to liberate was Auestioned.'
:he election of 1($? Lincoln and the >epublican *art+ *latform
What: Elected as candidate for the 9epublican 3arty and e!entually 3resident,
Hincoln@s 9epublican platform seduced many of its Northern followers' Non=e&tension of
sla!ery, a protecti!e tariff, a 3acific railroad, internal impro!ement paid for by federal
means, and free homesteads from the public domain, were only some of the ideas that
e&isted on the platform and had ob!ious to appeal to Northerners and none for
/outherners' ->ood :A9( here in platform'. Note the platform was not abolitionist but
simply anti=e&tension of sla!ery in the territories'
/i%': (he election determined the fate of the Enited /tates as it delicately
balanced the issue of peace or ci!il war' (he North was %i!en the upper hand as it had a
union=minded president to bac) it up' /outh Carolina called for a con!ention to declare
for secession ;ust after Hincolns election' -(he con!ention met and /outh Carolina
seceded in 0ecember, more than two months before Hincolns inau%uration on 6arch ",
Ci!il War 1J61=1J6C
&ort Sumter 1pril 1($1
Who: Enion fort and Confederate artillery
Where: Charleston Harbor
What: 4ort /umter was one of two important federal forts based in the /outh'
How on pro!isions, /umter would ha!e to surrender in time if it was not re=supplied' (he
/outh Carolinians would not tolerate a Enion fort standin% between them and one of their
most !aluable Atlantic seaports' When Hincoln decided to send pro!isions to the fort, the
/outh opened fire on the fort and the attac) resulted in Enion surrender' Hincoln used the
defeat to unite the North' Hincoln, usin% the same words Washin%ton used to call up the
militia in 17#" -Whis)ey 9ebellion., called up 7C,DDD militiamen and declared his
intention to enforce the laws' He ordered the rebels to disperse' (hey did not do so, of
course, and the Ci!il War be%an'
/i%': (he firin% on 4ort /umter and Hincolns call for the militia represent the
start of Americas Ci!il War in April, 1J61' 4our years and one million casualties later,
the Enion pre!ailed'
@ort( vs4 Sout( economy# military# population 1861 E 1861
Who: (he Enion Pall free states and four -fi!e after 1J6G. sla!e statesQ and
ele!en /outhern /la!e /tates
What: (he free=labor and sla!ery=based labor systems of North and /outh both
reflected and hei%htened an economic differentiation between the sections' (he states of
the 6iddle Atlantic and New En%land re%ions de!eloped a commercial mar)et economy
in the first half of the nineteenth century, and %a!e birth to the nation@s first factories' (he
5ld Northwest, the free states west of the Appalachians, had an a%ricultural economy that
e&ported its surplus production to the other E'/' re%ions and to Europe' (he /outh
depended upon lar%e=scale production of e&port crops, primarily cotton and -to a lesser
e&tent. tobacco, raised by sla!es' -/la!es were a )ey component in /outhern wealth,
comprisin% the second most !aluable form of property in the re%ion, after real estate'.
/ome of its cotton was sold to New En%land te&tile mills, thou%h much more of it was
shipped to :ritain' (he dominance of this crop led to the e&pression ?Iin% Cotton'? :ut
shippin%, bro)era%e, insurance, and other financial mediation for the trade were centered
in the North, particularly in New 8or) City'
6ilitarily, the North was much stron%er than the /outh' (he North could
command a lar%er army and had a na!y -the /outh could field smaller armies and had no
na!y.' Howe!er, the /outh had the upper hand in leadership as it had better %enerals at
the start of the war'
(he North also had the upper hand with $D million people while the /outh only
had # million people' (he North had o!er 1DD,DDD factories while the /outh had about
/i%: (hese )ey differences between the North and the /outh were e&tremely
important because they ultimately decided the !ictors of the war and determined the
history of our country' With ad!anta%es in population, firepower, and industry, the North
won the war' -Had it been a Auic) war, these ad!anta%es would not ha!e been
0incoln and t(e =order States Issue 18611861
Who: :order /tates -0elaware, 6aryland, Ientuc)y, 6issouri.
What: (he Hincoln administration re%arded 0elaware, 6aryland, Ientuc)y, and
6issouri -sla!e states loyal to the Enion. as critical because of their %eo%raphical
position' (he :order /tates represented a serious dilemma for 3resident Hincoln' He was
con!inced they were essential to !ictory -Hincoln: *1 hope 1 ha!e >od on my side, but 1
have to ha!e Ientuc)y+.' He could not afford to alienate them with his emancipation
policies, which could ha!e dri!en them into the Confederacy' He had to maintain that the
war was to maintain the Enion and not free the sla!es' He thus incurred the scorn of
abolitionists' -(he Emancipation 3roclamation, effecti!e 1=1=6G, did not free any sla!es
in Enion=held land, only Confederate=held land' (he 1G
Amendment in 1J6C freed all
sla!es'. (hou%h the :order /tates remained in the Enion, there were bitter di!isions
within those states'
/i%: (hese states played a lar%e role in the !ictory of the North and pointed to
one of Hincolns wartime dilemmas'
3nion 6ar $oals
What: (he %oal of the Enion at the start of the Ci!il War was preser!ation of the
Enion' :y the end of the war emancipation had been added as a war %oal'
/i%: E&pansion of war %oals o!er time demonstrates how war effects rapid
chan%e in society' -Had it not been for the war, sla!ery would ha!e continued
indefinitely into the future'.
*frican*merican Soldiers of t(e -ivil War 18611861
Who: African=American /oldiers
Where: Enited /tates
What: Appro&imately 1JD,DDD African Americans comprisin% 16G units ser!ed
in the Enion Army durin% the Ci!il War, and many more African Americans ser!ed in
the Enion Na!y' :oth free African=Americans and runaway sla!es ;oined the fi%ht' 5n
<uly 17, 1J6$, Con%ress passed two acts allowin% the enlistment of African Americans,
but official enrollment occurred only after the /eptember 1J6$ issuance of the
Emancipation 3roclamation' 1n actual numbers, African American soldiers comprised
1D] of the entire Enion Army' 1n o!er CDD en%a%ements, blac) soldiers won $$
Con%ressional 6edals of Honor and more than GJ,DDD were )illed'
0iscrimination in pay and other areas remained widespread' /oldiers of African
descent were to recei!e W1D'DD a month, plus a clothin% allowance of WG'CD, but the Army
held bac) the full amount' 6any re%iments stru%%led for eAual pay, some refusin% any
money until <une 1C, 1J6", when Con%ress %ranted eAual pay for all blac) soldiers'
/i%: (his mar)ed the first time African Americans were allowed to fi%ht as an
or%ani2ed and se%re%ated unit in a war -startin% with the C"
6assachusetts 1nfantry.'
:lac)s were also %ranted the same pay as white soldiers e!en thou%h it came near the end
of the war
-4S4S4 *la&ama ,Confederate raider 1($--$7.
What: (he #labama was the most si%nificant Confederate commerce=raider built
by :ritain' Althou%h flyin% the Confederate fla% it ne!er entered a Confederate port'
:ritain was the chief na!al base of the Confederacy' (he #labama captured o!er si&ty
!essels until a Enion cruiser destroyed it off the coast of 4rance in 1J6"'
/i%: (his shows how powerful the Confederacy was with the help of :ritain'
(he #labama and :ritains role in the Ci!il War was a source of contention between the
Enion and :ritain' -After the Emancipation 3roclamation and inter!ention by Enion
diplomats, :ritain be%an to withdraw o!ert support for the /outh'.
;omestead 1ct 1($-
What: An act passed by Con%ress in 1J6$ which pro!ided for the distribution of
16D acres of public land for a fee of WGD' About half a million families too) ad!anta%e of
the Homestead Act' (his act was not as beneficial as it seemed to be at first because the
16D acres was inadeAuate on the rain=scarce >reat 3lains' /ettlers would rather buy
cheap land from a railroad than settle on free public land far from a railroad or other
/i%: (he Homestead Act was part of the 9epublican 3artys a%enda durin% the
Ci!il War' (he act can be seen as part of westward e&pansion of the American people
-e&cludin% Nati!e=Americans.'
*ntietam Septem&er 17# 186/
Who: >eor%e 6cClellan -E/A. and 9obert E' Hee -C/A.
What: Hee in!aded 6aryland and was confronted by 6cClellan in one of the
bloodiest battles of the Ci!il War' While a draw, Hee withdrew bac) into 7ir%inia and
the North called it a *!ictory'+ Hincoln used the *!ictory+ as the occasion to issue the
preliminary emancipation proclamation'
/i%: 4rance and :ritain, upon seein% the Enions une&pected power at
Antietam, and further prompted by the Emancipation 3roclamation, bac)ed off from any
further o!ert -formal. support for the Confederacy'
8mancipation Proclamation !anuary 1# 186,
Who: Hincoln
What: (his was Hincolns 3roclamation to free the sla!es in all Confederate areas
still in rebellion' (he Ci!il War was turned into a moral crusade as Enion armies
ad!anced into sla!e territory' As the armies ad!anced, sla!es were freed' No sla!es were
to be freed in the :order /tates or Confederate lands then held by the Enion' Hincoln
would not free all sla!es, because that would lose him the support of the :order /tates
that were sla!e and loyal to the Enion'
/i%: (he Ci!il War became a moral crusade to abolish sla!ery, thus
demonstratin% to the world that more was at sta)e than simple preser!ation of the Enion'
(he Emancipation 3roclamation chan%ed the nature of the war because it effecti!ely
remo!ed any chance of a ne%otiated settlement'
?i$(er 8ducation' +(e .orrill *ct of 186/
What: (his was a farsi%hted and statesmanli)e law that pro!ided a %enerous
%rant of the public lands to the states for support of education' (hese *land=%rant
colle%es,+ many of them becomin% state uni!ersities, in turn bound themsel!es to pro!ide
certain ser!ices, such as military trainin% -e'%', (e&as AN6.' 1n increasing number
of #omen #ere participating in higher education'
/i%: After the Ci!il War, a colle%e education seemed to be indispensable' (his
Act furthered the sudden spurt of colle%es and uni!ersities that occurred after the Ci!il
War' P9epublican a%enda durin% Ci!il War: :A9( U Homestead U Education U
preser!e EnionQ
9econstruction 1J6C to 1J77
&reedmen!s 2ureau 8arch /, 1($5
Who: Con%ress, :ureau of 9efu%ees, 4reedmen, and Abandonment Hands
Where: /outh and former plantation areas
What: An a%ency established by Con%ress at the end of the Ci!il War to pro!ide
food, clothin%, shelter, education, and employment for the newly freed sla!es' 0urin% its
brief e&istence, the bureau spent o!er W17 million and started o!er four thousand schools
for blac) children'
/i%: (he 4reedmens :ureau was the national %o!ernments le%itimate but in
the end inadeAuate effort to care for the welfare of millions of *freedmen'+ (he :ureau
did ha!e some success in education for former sla!es'
:hirteenth 1mendment 1($5
What: 4reed all sla!es without compensation' P(his was one of the three *Ci!il
War+ amendments, 1G
[ abolish sla!ery -1J6C., 1"
[ pro!ided citi2enship to African=
Americans -1J6J., 1C
[ %i!e African=American adult males the !ote -1J7D.'.
/i%: Completely abolished sla!ery'
Sharecropping and tenant farming? 1buses b+ lando#ners and merchants
,after the Civil <ar.? :he reconfiguration of Southern 1griculture
Where: /outh
What: White and blac) sharecroppers now tilled the soil for a share of the crop
-e'%', profits from the crop are split CDFCD. or they became tenants in bonda%e to their
landlords -tenants tilled the soil in return for land, housin%, and money for supplies.'
4ormer sla!es used sharecroppin% and tenant farmin% as a system of production'
/harecroppin% was the *predominant capital labor arran%ement'+ /harecroppin% became
a trap forced upon the blac)s that often had freedmen stuc) in its unfair systems for
years' Enfortunately, these systems brou%ht about *intense e&plicit or implicit desire of
white /outherners to )eep blac)s subser!ient to them'+ 1n addition to bein% held to the
land by the landlord, farmers would buy on credit from merchants, usin% future crops as a
*lien'+ 6erchants manipulated the system to )eep sharecroppers and tenants in perpetual
debt' (he systems often were manipulated by whites and cheated the blac)s out of the
little success and profit they had'
/i%: Handowners and merchants )ept poor white and blac) tenant and
sharecropper farmers in perpetual debt, at the bottom of the social, economic, and
political ladder' 4urther, the shift from plantation a%riculture to smaller farms further
di!ided former masters from former sla!es as sla!es mo!ed from the sla!e Auarters to
outlyin% fields' (his represents the reconfi%uration of /outhern a%riculture after the Ci!il
=lac; -odes late 1861 and s(ortly after t(e -ivil War
Who: Newly freed sla!es
Where: /outhern states
What: Haws passed by the le%islatures of the southern states after the Ci!il War
durin% 9econstruction in an attempt to re%ulate the acti!ities of and place restrictions on
the former sla!es and to stabili2e the labor force' (he codes sou%ht to restore as nearly as
possible the pre=emancipation system of race relations' 4or e&ample, throu%h labor
contracts, if freedmen Auit contract ;obs they could be arrested for !a%rancy' (his labor
force was o!erseen by whites who had a desire to maintain a !ery ti%ht control o!er the
blac)s, e!en thou%h they were technically free' Also, blac)s could not or ser!e on ;uries
or !ote'
/i%: (he :lac) Code period immediately after the War became a source of
%reat irritation for northern con%ressmen who wanted to do more for the freedmen -see
9adical 9econstruction below.'
*residential >econstruction? Lincoln ,1($/. and "ohnson ,1($5.
Where: (he states in the Confederacy
What: Hincolns *1D percent+ plan was proclaimed in 1J6G, durin% the Ci!il
War, when Hincoln wanted to restore seceded states to their ri%htful place in the Enion
without bein% punished for what they did' A rebellin% state could be admitted if 1D
percent of the state !oters in the 1J6D election swore an oath of alle%iance to the Enited
/tates' (he /tates would then reestablish a %o!ernment, and Hincoln would reco%ni2e the
/tate as part of the Enion' After Hincoln was assassinated in April 1J6C, 3resident
<ohnson )ept Hincolns plan but added some restrictions that reflected his disli)e for the
planter aristocrats who had been Confederate leaders' <ohnsons plan added
disenfranchisement of confederate leaders unless they were personally pardoned by him
and new state con!entions to repeal ordinances of secession, repudiate confederate war
debts, and ratify the 1G
/i%: Hincolns plan to readmit the /outh was simple in nature and allowed for a
Auic) healin% of the se!ered nation' Hincoln wanted to resol!e the issue as Auic)ly as
possible and thou%ht the *1D percent+ plan was the best way' <ohnson was not Auite as
moderate as Hincoln but did not %o far enou%h for the radicals who were ta)in% control of
-on$ressional :radical< reconstruction' .ilitary Reconstruction 186777
Who: Con%ress and the E'/' 6ilitary
Where: 9econstructed /outh
What: Con%ress di!ided the /outh into fi!e military districts commanded by a
E'/' %eneral' /outhern states had to adopt constitutions that %a!e African=Americans the
!ote and ratify the 1"
amendment -citi2enship for African=Americans.' 1n effect,
6artial Haw was placed on the former Confederate states' (ens of thousands of E'/'
troops were sent into all seceded states -e&cept (ennessee, admitted earlier before
9adical 9econstruction occurred'. <ohnson !etoed the acts but Con%ress o!errode his
!etoes' (he most notable achie!ement of the 9econstruction state %o!ernments came in
the area of public education'
/i%: (he 9adical 9econstruction of the /outh created bitterness on both sides'
(he North was Auic) to ;ud%e the /outh and ma)e them pay for their rebellious beha!ior,
whereas the /outh %rew embittered by the Norths refusal to accept re=admittance' E'/'
troops remained in the /outh until the Compromise of 1J77'
-ivil War *mendments' 1,
:1861<# 1"t( :1868<# and 11t( :1870<
What: (he (hirteenth Amendment %a!e freedom to the sla!es in America and
prohibited any sla!ery within the Enited /tates' (he 4ourteenth Amendment %a!e
African=Americans citi2enship' (he 4ifteenth Amendment %a!e African=American males
the ri%ht to !ote'
/i%: (he Ci!il War Amendments represent a hu%e step forward in eAual
treatment of African=Americans'
Impeachment of "ohnson 1($(
Who: 3resident Andrew <ohnson and the E'/' Con%ress
What: (he House of 9epresentati!es accused the 3resident of *hi%h crimes and
misdemeanors'+ (he /enate conducted the trial, and <ohnson fell one !ote short of bein%
remo!ed from office' -(he issue in!ol!ed <ohnsons refusal to %o alon% with the (enure
of 5ffice Act' He belie!ed that the Act was an unconstitutional encroachment on the
3residents authority to remo!e cabinet officers' (he Act pro!ided that he needed /enate
appro!al to remove a cabinet officer when the Constitution only said that he needed
/enate appro!al to appoint'.
/i%: (he first instance of a president e!er bein% impeached in American
history' 3ublic interest in politics was intense, and the impeachment process pro!ed to be
*the bi%%est show of 1J6J'+
Se#ard and the purchase of 1las6a 1($%
What: <ohnson did ha!e one !ictory==in forei%n policy' 9ussia wanted to sell
Alas)a for !arious reasons, and <ohnsons /ecretary of /tate William /eward ne%otiated
the treaty whereby the E'/' purchased Alas)a for W7'$ million' While assailed by many
as */ewards 4olly,+ the /enate appro!ed the treaty on the basis that some other nation
mi%ht %et it instead and there was the lon%=term possibility of furs, fish, and %old'
-Nobody at the time could ha!e anticipated the much later oil and natural %as fields'.
/i%: Alas)a pro!ed to be a %reat strate%ic addition to the E'/' -1n a %lobal
en!ironment, Alas)a is strate%ically placed on air routes' 4urther, !ast deposits of natural
resources were found and e&ploitedMnotably oil at present'.
+(e -ompromise of 1877 and t(e end of Reconstruction
Who: 0emocrats and 9epublicans, namely presidential candidates 9utherford :'
Hayes -9. and /amuel <' (ilden' -0.'
Where: Con%ress
What: (he election of 1J76 was so close that it was impossible to choose a
3resident' (he electoral returns from Houisiana, /outh Carolina and 4lorida were
disputed, with both parties claimin% !ictory' Con%ress created a commission of 1C
members and alon% party lines the commission awarded all disputed electoral !otes to
Hayes, the 9epublican' (he 0emocrats a%reed to %o alon% if Hayes would pled%e to
sponsor internal impro!ements in the /outh and withdraw the last remainin% federal
troops from the /outh' (his was the compromise, and Hayes too) office' While he
rene%ed on internal impro!ements, he did withdraw the troops
/i%: (here was no one to protect African=Americans in the /outh after the
Compromise of 1J77' (he remo!al of troops from the /outh led to <im Crow and many
other in;ustices toward African=Americans' With the Compromise of 1J77, African=
Americans were no lon%er on the national a%enda and their welfare was left up to the
states' <im Crow was the result -see <im Crow below.'
>edeemers after the Compromise of 1(%%
Who: White 0emocrats who too) control of the /outh after the Compromise of
What: (he Compromise of 1J77 remo!ed the last federal troops from the /outh,
and white 0emocrats -*redeemers+. ruthlessly too) o!er a%ain' :lac)s who attempted to
assert their ri%hts were threatened with unemployment, e!iction, and physical harm'
/i%: (he 9edeemers %ained control of the southern states and administered a
society characteri2ed by sharecroppin%, the crop lien system -borrow money usin% a
future crop as collateral., and <im Crow, doin% %reat harm to blac)s and poor whites'
"im Cro# after the Compromise of 1(%%
Who: /outhern whites ta)in% control of the *ri%hts+ of African=Americans by
enactin% le%islation that se%re%ated blac)s and whites'
What: After the Compromise of 1J77 led to the remo!al of federal troops from
the /outh, southern whites implemented <im Crow, which se!erely restricted the actions
and ri%hts of African=Americans: e&amples include se%re%ated schools and se%re%ated
public facilities -upheld by 3lessy !s' 4er%uson in 1J#6.'
/i%: <im Crow le%islation set the sta%e for unfair treatment and se%re%ation of
blac)s for many decades until 1#C", when <im Crow in education was declared ille%al by
the /upreme Court in :rown !' :oard of Education'
E4e# SouthF ,1(%% on.
Who: Henry >rady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, coined the phrase, *New
What: >rady called for /outherners to industriali2e the /outh'
/i%: While the /outh saw some industriali2ation -<ames 0u)e and his
American (obacco Company, te&tile mills, and :irmin%ham steel are three to remember.,
the /outh remained well behind the North in industrial de!elopment'
3lains 1ndian Wars 1J66=1J#D
Plains Indian Wars
What: 4rom 1J66 to 1J#D -and most notably 1J76., the E'/' Army and the 3lains
1ndians fou%ht for control of the 3lains -lar%ely in Colorado, Wyomin%, and 6ontana.'
While the Army sustained !arious defeats, the superior firepower of the Army
o!erwhelmed the 1ndians -who were forced to li!e on reser!ations.' :y 1J#D the wars
were o!er'
/i%: (he conAuest of the 3lains meant the conAuest of the 1ndians and the
!irtual destruction of their nomadic, :uffalo=huntin% way of life' White people, with
their barbed wire fences, deep=water wells, farms, cattle, railroads, and towns would
displace the 1ndians for an entirely different )ind of life'
<ashita >iver 2attle of 1($(
Who: E'/'A', Cheyenne (ribe
Where: 5)lahoma
What: (he /e!enth Cal!ary, lead by Custer, attac)s a Cheyenne !illa%e near an
5)lahoma ri!er -Washita. which resulted in an American !ictory' (his e!ent ori%inated
primarily from a miscommunication between the Cheyenne and their E'/' a%ent'
/i%: Althou%h it predated the official 1ndian Wars, this battle caused much
friction and an%er between both sides that foreshadowed the impendin% war'
:reat+ of &ort Laramie 1($(
Who: E/ federal %o!ernment and the 3lains 1ndians
Where: 4ort Haramie
What: After /iou& Chief 9ed Cloud successfully beat bac) the army, the E'/'
abandoned the :o2eman (rail -from the North 3latte to the %old fields in 6ontana.'
Ender the terms of the (reaty, the sacred %round of the 3owder 9i!er country would be
respected' (he *>reat /iou& reser!ation+ was promised to the /iou& tribes'
/i%: (his is one of the few 1ndian !ictories, %i!e 9ed Cloud credit here' (he
(reaty bro)e down in 1J7" when %old was disco!ered in the :lac) Hills' (his led to war
in 1J76=77'
Little 2ighorn 1(%$
Who: 1ndians and /e!enth Ca!alry
Where: Hittle :i%horn 9i!er, present day 6ontana
What: Colonial Custers /e!enth Ca!alry went to suppress 1ndians and ta)e them
bac) to the reser!ation, but the Ca!alry were )illed by the 1ndians'
/i%: (his spectacular E'/' military defeat enflamed Americans and ener%i2ed
the Army to fi%ht the 1ndians for the last time' (his led to a series of battles to return the
hostile 1ndians to the reser!ation' :y the end of 1J77, the 3lains 1ndian wars were o!er
-e&cept for Wounded Inee in 1J#D==but that was a battle, not a war.'
Sitting 2ull and Cra'+ ;orse
Who: Cra2y Horse and /ittin% :ull were %reat /iou& leaders'
/i%: (hey led an 1ndian allied force and won the :attle of Hittle :i%horn
a%ainst the E'/' 7
Ca!alry under Colonel Custer' :oth were )illed later by the E'/'
Army -Cra2y Horse 1J77, /ittin% :ull 1J#D.'
I0S0 Seventh Cavalr+
What: (he E'/' /e!enth Ca!alry, almost half immi%rants, wanted to suppress the
1ndians and place them bac) in the reser!ation' /e!eral companies of the 7
were )illed
at the Hittle :i% Horn' -(he 7
Ca!alry appeared earlier at the Washita 9i!er and
appears later at Wounded Inee'.
/i%: (he 7
Ca!alry was an important unit in the 3lains 1ndian wars of the L6Ds
and L7Ds -and at Wounded Inee in #D.'
Chief "oseph of the 4e' *ercS 1(%%
Who: Chief <oseph and the surrender of the Ne2 3erc^ 1ndians
Where: Not the 3lains but the northwest -WA, 59, 10 6(.
What: 4orced off their land, the Ne2 3erc^ fled' (hey led the army on a %reat
chase across the American Northwest in a runnin% battle that lasted se!eral months'
/ome !ictories, such as at the :i% Hole in 6ontana, )ept them %oin% on their fli%ht to
Canada' <ust short of the border, they were finally captured by E'/' forces'
/i%: Alon% with the (rail of (ears -GJ=G#., this is one of the saddest stories in
E'/'=Nati!e American relations' (he Ne2 3erce were a %ood and decent people, forced
off their land by %reedy whites who were protected by the E'/' Army' Chief <oseph,
surrenderin%, uttered the famous: *4rom where the sun now stands, 1 shall fi%ht no more
fore!er'+ His death certificate reported that he died of a *bro)en heart'+
Bhost dance ,1().
What: /iou& 1ndians belie!ed that if they danced the >host 0ance the buffalo
and 1ndians )illed would come bac) and that they would be in!ulnerable to soldiers
bullets' 4earin% a renewed outbrea) of !iolence under the leadership of /ittin% :ull -on
the reser!ation now., /ittin% :ull was )illed' Army fear of the >host 0ance was a
contributin% factor in the massacre at Wounded Inee'
/i%: (he >host 0ance represents an amal%am of 1ndian and Christian reli%ious
beliefs' Also, the >host 0anceF/ittin% :ull incident spea)s to the fear and paranoia of
the E'/' Army'
<ounded Mnee ,3ecember 1().
Who: Enited /tates 7
Ca!alry and /iou& 1ndians under Chief :i% 4oot
Where: Wounded Inee Cree) in /outhwest /outh 0a)ota
What: After the death of /ittin% :ull, a band of /iou& led by :i% 4oot was bein%
escorted to the reser!ation by the reconstituted 7
Cal!ary' (he /iou& were ordered
disarmed, but a warrior pulled a %un and wounded an officer' (he E'/' troops opened
fire, and within minutes almost two hundred men, women, and children were shot' (he
soldiers later claimed that it was difficult to distin%uish the /iou& women from the men'
(he Enited /tates 7
Ca!alry lost twenty=nine soldiers'
/i%': (his battle ended the 1ndian Wars of the 1#
National 3olitics, 1J77=#6: (he >ilded A%e
-orruption durin$ t(e Cilded *$e
What: Corruption within and outside %o!ernment was common durin% this period
and dama%ed the reputation of presidents, most notably >rant -6#=77.' 1n New 8or)
City, :oss (weed and the (ammany 9in% bil)ed the city out of up to W$DD million'
0urin% >rants time, there was the Credit 6obilier scandal, where Enion 3acific
9ailroad officials formed the Credit 6obilier construction company and then o!er=billed
the railroad, poc)etin% profits and bribin% %o!ernmental officials to )eep Auiet' (he
Whis)ey 9in% within the %o!ernment stole e&cise ta&es on whis)ey' 4inally, there was
the /ecretary of War William :elnap who accepted bribes from 1ndian a%ents'
/i%: >rants administration was pla%ued by corruption and he did little about it'
He will always be remembered for this and is labeled one of our worst presidents'
4ativism 1((s
Who: 1mmi%rants and Nati!ists
What: Nati!ism, or *anti=forei%nism,+ %ained support durin% the 1JJDs' Nati!ists
were a%ainst immi%rants comin% to America' 5ne nati!ist a%ency was the American
3rotecti!e Association, created in 1JJ7' (his a%ency had at least a million members, and
the members were encoura%ed to !ote a%ainst 9oman Catholic candidates or other
forei%n candidates for office' 5ne effect of nati!ism was that Con%ress %radually be%an
to pass laws a%ainst immi%ration, includin% the Chinese E&clusion Act of 1JJ$' -An
earlier nati!ist reaction was in the 1J"Ds and 1JCDs, directed a%ainst >ermans and 1rish'
A later nati!ist reaction was in the 1#$Ds, when the 1mmi%ration Act of 1#$" essentially
closed the door to eastern and southern European immi%ration'.
/i%: 7arious nati!ist reactions can be seen in E'/' history, as older An%lo
residents percei!ed immi%rants as threats, either economically, ta)in% away ;obs, or
culturally and politically, erodin% the *American way of life+ as they saw it'
Pendleton *ct of 188,
What: (he Act created the Ci!il /er!ice Commission, which made appointments
to %o!ernment ;obs based on e&aminations instead of the old *spoils+ system' (his was
prompted due to widespread dis%ust with *spoils+ and because a deran%ed office see)er,
Charles >uiteau, assassinated 3resident >arfield' -(his act also made political campai%n
contributions from %o!ernment employees ille%al'.
/i%: Now %o!ernment employees had to be Aualified for their positions, instead
of ;ust %ettin% their ;obs based on who they )new or how much money they %a!e to
politicians' 3oliticians now had to loo) elsewhere for money, and corporations too) up
the slac)' 5!er time, more and more ;obs were added to the ci!il ser!ice, and the spoils
system, started by Andrew <ac)son, was e!entually destroyed'
?elen ?unt !ac;son’s * -entury of Dis(onor ,1((1.
Who: Helen Hunt Jackson and Native Americans (Indians)
What: Helen Hunt Jackson, a Massachusetts writer of children’s literature,
ricked the moral sense of Americans in !""!, when she u#lished # Century o"
Dishonor' (he boo) chronicled the sorry record of %o!ernment ruthlessness and
chicanery in dealin% with the 1ndians' (he boo) was sent to e!ery member of Con%ress'
/i%': :y the 1JJDs the national conscience be%an to stir uneasily o!er the pli%ht
of the 1ndians' # Century o" Dishonor %a!e a historical account of the %o!ernments
in;ustice to Nati!e Americans' 0ebate seesawed' Humanitarians wanted to treat the
1ndians )indly and persuade them thereby to *wal) the white mans road,+ yet hard=liners
insisted on the current policy of forced containment and brutal punishment' Neither side
showed much respect for Nati!e American culture' (he boo) inspired a reform
mo!ement aimed at helpin% 1ndians become full members of American society by
*assimilatin%+ 1ndians' (his led to the 0awes Act in 1JJ7'
Santa Clara Count+ v0 Southern *acific >ailroad 11( I0S0 /)7 ,1(($.
What: /anta Clara County ta&ed the /outhern 3acific 9ailroad' (he court held
that that the county could not do so and went on to su%%est that corporations en;oyed the
same ri%hts under the 1"
Amendment that natural persons en;oyed'
/i%: (his case demonstrates the pro=business decisions of the /upreme Court in
the late nineteenth century'
<abash v0 Illinois ,1(($. Case
What: E'/' /upreme Court in 1JJ6 re!ersed 6unn ! 1llinois -1J76. that
permitted state re%ulation of railroads' (he court declared in!alid an 1llinois law
prohibitin% lon%= and short=haul clauses in transportation contracts as an infrin%ement on
the e&clusi!e powers of Con%ress %ranted by the commerce clause of the Constitution'
/i%: (he result of the case was denial of state power to re%ulate interstate rates
for railroads, and the decision led to creation of the 1nterstate Commerce Commission'
Da6es Plan :Da6es Severalty *ct< 1887
Who: Nati!e Americans
What: (ribal land ownership was eliminated in fa!or of %i!in% 16D acres of land
to each 1ndian o!er $1' (he idea was to *ci!ili2e+ the 1ndians and educate their children
in the *white mans ways'+ Assimilation of 1ndians was the %oal and it did not wor)'
-(his plan was dropped in fa!or of respect for 1ndian culture and tribal identity with
1ndian 9eor%ani2ation Act of 1#G"Mcalled the 1ndians *New 0eal'+.
/i%: (his *liberal+ and *reform+ effort to ci!ili2e 1ndians resulted in continued
destruction of the 1ndian way of life and the 1ndians loss of o!er 1DD million acres of
<omen!s Suffrage in <estern States
,and compared #ith Southeastern states.
What: /tartin% in 1J6# in Wyomin%, western states be%an %i!in% women the !ote
in state elections'
/i%: Western states were more liberal in their treatment of women' Western
states led the way' -/outheastern states la%%ed behind'. (he suffra%e mo!ement
continued at the state le!el, finally endin% with the 1#
Amendment in 1#$D, which
%ranted women the !ote -thus ser!in% to end the battle for womens ri%ht to !ote.'
Environmental impacts of #estern settlement
What: (he 3lains 1ndians way of life -nomadic buffalo huntin%. ended by the
1JJDs' 1n their place could be found miners, lo%%ers, ranchers, farmers, railroads, and
towns' (hese !aried interests ad!ersely impacted the plains en!ironment' 6inin%
contaminated water sources' Ho%%in% and farmin% stripped the natural !e%etation -prairie
or *buffalo+ %rass and trees. that upheld the inte%rity of the soil'
/i%: (he inter%enerational impact of rapacious -%reedy. e&ploitation of the
seemin%ly limitless resources of the West can be seen in:
1' (he *dust bowl+ of the 1#GDs' (hat is, buffalo %rass was remo!ed to
plant crops' 4arm crops did not anchor the soil as did buffalo %rass' 0rou%ht occurred,
which meant that the crops did not %row, lea!in% unplanted topsoil' When the hi%h
winds came in the 1#GDs, %reat clouds of topsoil were blown away, literally, lea!in% the
farmers with a farm that could not be sustained' (he farmers left, becomin% mi%rant farm
laborers -the *5)ies+.' (his sad tale of the mi%rants is told by <ohn /teinbec) in his
bloc)buster no!el, !he Grapes o" Wrath -7i)in% 3ress, 1#G#.'
$' Contaminated water sources' (hrou%hout the west, one can find
contaminated water due to minin% or other to&ic waste disposal' -6ercury poisonin% is a
problem for fish populations'.
G' (he hu%e 5%allala aAuifer under ei%ht 3lains states is losin% water due to
e&cessi!e e&traction of water' (he lon%=term conseAuences to life on the 3lains will be a
concern well into the $1
century' (o pre!ent dust storms, soil erosion, and what today
would be referred to as desertification processes in %eneral, more !ulnerable areas should
be ta)en out of culti!ation and put into ran%eland use for li!estoc)' 9apacious
e&ploitation of the 3lains land continues to hold bac) conser!ation practices'
+urner t(esis 18>,57+(e Si$nificance of t(e )rontier in *merican ?istory9
Who: Historian 4rederic) <ac)son (urner
What: 1n 1J#G, he ar%ued that the frontier had a lastin% impact on the democratic
character of the American people' His idea or%ani2ed the study of E'/' History for a
%eneration' His thesis: (he settlement of the West by white people = ?the e&istence of
an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the ad!ance of American settlement
westward? = was the central story of American history' Here is what he said about the
frontier shapin% the American character: *(he result is that to the frontier the
1merican intellect o#es its stri6ing characteristics' (hat coarseness and stren%th
combined with acuteness and inquisitiveness, that practical, inventive turn of mind,
Auic) to find e&pedients, that masterful grasp of material things, lac)in% in the artistic
but powerful to effect %reat ends, that restless, nervous energ+, that dominant
individualism, wor)in% for %ood and for e!il, and withal that buo+anc+ and
exuberance #hich comes #ith freedom==these are traits of the frontier, or traits called
out elsewhere because of the e&istence of the frontier'+ P:old added'Q
/i%: His thesis was influential until the 0epression and remains a source of
discussion to this day' (here is an An%locentric, imperialistic point of !iew loaded into
his ar%ument' 4urther, he was unable to incorporate the role of %o!ernment into the
discussion of the de!elopment of the West'
What: 1n the late nineteenth century, stoc)holders in a number of companies in
the same business would assi%n their stoc) to trustees in another company and those
trustees would mana%e the affairs of many businesses' (his created a monopoly within
an industry and stifled competition' (he /tandard 5il (rust is the most famous, but there
were many others, includin%, for e&amples, the beef, su%ar, cotton, and linseed oil trusts'
/i%: (rusts were monopolistic and ruthless in suppressin% competition'
Con%ress reacted with !arious )inds of antitrust le%islation, be%innin% with the /herman
Antitrust Act of 1J#D'
*anics and recessions during the Bilded 1ge
What: 1J7G: Collapse of railroad financin% !entures tri%%ered widespread
unemployment and business closures
1JJ": Another financial crisis causes thousands of businesses to fail
1J#G: Another financial crisis leads to worst depression in E'/' History to
date, with unemployment risin% to 1J]'
/i%: Note that there were panics or depressions in e!ery decade of the >ilded
A%e' /e!eral years would elapse before the nation would pull itself out of a *panic+ or
depression' 1n many cases, wor)ers would stri)e, protestin% cuts in pay or other benefits'
(he 1J7G panic led to the >reat 9ailroad /tri)e of 1J77' (he 1J#G panic led to the
3ullman /tri)e of 1J#"' 1n addition to the distress caused by business closures and
unemployment, this was a period of %reat labor a%itation and labor=mana%ement strife'
&armers! problems in 1((s and 1()s,
including rise in agricultural production and impact of that rise
What: As producti!ity rose durin% the >ilded A%e, prices for %oods and farm
products declined' 4armers borrowed for seed and eAuipment and then had to pay bac)
loans with dollars that were worth less -they were %ettin% less for their crops.' 4armers
felt cheated'
/i%: 4armers or%ani2ed and supported !arious )inds of laws to promote their
interests, notably: 1. railroad re%ulations, and $. inflationary measures, includin% the
increase in the money supply by printin% paper money or coinin% sil!er'
ECrime of !%/F
What: Con%ress passed a law in 1J7G that stopped the coina%e of sil!er' (his
would ha!e a deflationary effect and prices for %oods would %o down'
/i%: 4armers were an%ry because this would cause deflation, not inflation'
-4armers wanted inflation'.
S(erman *ntitrust *ct 18>0
What: (he /herman Antitrust Act of 1J#D flatly forbade combinations in
restraint of trade, without any distinction between *%ood+ trusts and *bad+ trusts'
:i%ness, not badness, was the sin'
Why: (he law was made to curb railroads and bi% business from creatin%
monopolies throu%h their control of trusts'
/i%': (his was Con%resss first attempt to limit the trusts' (he law pro!ed
ineffecti!e, lar%ely because it had only baby teeth or no teeth at all, and because it
contained le%al loopholes throu%h which cle!er corporation lawyers would wri%%le' 1t
was une&pectedly effecti!e in one respect' Contrary to its ori%inal intent, it was used to
curb labor unions or labor combinations that were deemed to be restrainin% trade' P(he
Clayton Act of 1#1" e&empted labor unions from the /herman Act' >ompers called the
Clayton Act the *6a%na Carta+ of the American labor mo!ement'Q
Populism :populist2peoples party< :nota&ly t(e election of 18>/<
Who: 6iddle Westerners and /outherners -mostly farmers.
What: (hey demanded an increase in the circulatin% money -free and unlimited
coina%e of sil!er., a %raduated income ta&, %o!ernment ownership of the railroads, a tariff
for re!enue only, the direct election of E'/' senators, the initiati!e and referendum,
immi%ration restriction, and appropriation of alien=held lands'
/i%: 3opulists %arnered o!er 1 million !otes in the 1J#$ presidential election'
3ro%ressi!e politicians subseAuently adopted many of their reforms'
&ree Silver
Who: /upported by 0emocrats and 3opulists, opposed by conser!ati!es and
What: *4ree sil!er+ meant the unlimited coina%e of sil!er' 4ree=sil!erites wanted
to inflate currency' (he supporters of this policy were mainly the farmers in the 3opulist
3arty who needed inflation to help them %et more for their crops and pay off their debts'
/i%: 4ree sil!er was the main plan) in the 3opulist platform of 1J#$' When the
0emocrats adopted it in 1J#6, the 3opulists mer%ed with the 0emocrats and ceased to
e&ist as a !iable political party' -Eastern wor)ers did not li)e inflation as wa%es would
not )eep up with it, the result bein% that the farmers were not powerful enou%h to swin%
an election without eastern wor)er support'.
*less+ v0 &erguson 1()$
What: Homer 3lessy refused to ride in a <im Crow car on a Houisiana train' He
was tried in a criminal court by <ud%e 4er%uson, and the case was appealed to the
/upreme Court' (he court ruled that <im Crow did not !iolate the 1"
Amendment eAual
protection clause because it did not *foster any inferiority of African Americans+ as lon%
as accommodations were *separate but eAual'+ <ustice <ohn 6arshall Harlan was the
only dissentin% !ote on the Court and harshly critici2ed the decision, claimin% our
Constitution to be *colorblind'+
/i%: 3lessy !' 4er%uson -1J#6. le%ali2ed <im Crow laws and discrimination
based on race' /e%re%ation %rew, enforced by law and !iolence, not to be o!erturned
until the :rown !' :oard of Education decision of 1#C"'
Election of 1()$
Who: William 6cIinley -9epublican. !' William <ennin%s :ryan -0emocrat.
What: :ryan %ained the 0emocratic nomination with his famous *Cross of >old+
speech, in which he attac)ed business and ban)in% interests by endorsin% free sil!er and
endin% his speech with *8ou shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of
thorns, you shall not crucify man)ind upon a cross of %old'+ (he 3opulists ;oined with
the 0emocrats' 6cIinley and the conser!ati!e, business=oriented 9epublicans behind
him won the election' (heir platform included the %old standard -*the e&istin% %old
standard must be maintained+. and the protecti!e tariff -*(he ' ' ' uncompromisin%
principle is the protection and de!elopment of American labor and industries'+.'
/i%: America stayed on the %old standard, and this was the last time a candidate
tried to %ain office by mostly the !otes of farmers' (he depression of #G was endin%,
howe!er, and the economic problems be%an to %i!e way to international issues'
1() == A >ood 8ear to 1nau%urate the *New America+ == (his is 0r' :urnss phrase
1' a' /iou& chief /ittin% :ull is )illed on 0ecember 1C, 1J#D'
b' (he ?:attle? of Wounded Inee 0ecember $#, 1J#D ends the last ma;or
1ndian resistance to white settlement in America'
$' (he 1J#D census announced that the frontier re%ion of the Enited /tates no lon%er
e&isted and therefore the trac)in% of westward mi%ration would no lon%er be tabulated in
the census' -EAuate this to 4rederic) <ac)son (urners *frontier thesis+ and then start
loo)in% outward to o!erseas empire'.
G' !he 1n"luence o" *ea Poer 2pon 3istory- %4456%7&. by former Na!al War
Colle%e president Alfred (' 6ahan demonstrates the decisi!e role of na!al stren%th and
will ha!e enormous influence in encoura%in% the world powers to de!elop powerful
Industr+ and Labor
1' 6esabi 1ron 5re ran%e in 6innesota is disco!ered' (he mines pro!ide plentiful
iron deposits to fuel the rapidly e&pandin% steel industry'
$' (he Enited 6ine Wor)ers of America or%ani2ed <anuary $C is an affiliate of the
"=year=old American 4ederation of Habor -A4H.'
G' (he /herman Anti=(rust Act passed by Con%ress <uly $ curtails the powers of
E'/' business monopolies: ?E!ery contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise,
or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce amon% the se!eral /tates, or with forei%n
nations, is hereby declared to be ille%al'?
"' (he 6cIinley (ariff Act passed by Con%ress 5ctober 1 increases the a!era%e
E'/' import duty to its hi%hest le!el'
C' American (obacco Company is founded by <ames 0u)e, who creates a colossal
Bender? <omen
1' (he ?>ibson >irl? created by New 8or) illustrator Charles 0ana >ibson, $$,
ma)es her first appearance in the humor wee)ly Li"e' 6illions will share his conception
of the ideal American %irl'
>ace? 1frican-1merican
1' 6ississippi institutes a poll ta&, literacy tests, and other measures desi%ned to
restrict !otin% by blac)sMother states follow'
$' >eor%e Washin%ton Cable publishes !he (egro 8uestion' 1n this essay collection,
Cable challen%es pre!ailin% !iews by ad!ocatin% eAual access to education for blac)s and
re;ectin% the myth of blac) mental inferiority'
Class? *oor people
1' 3o the Other 3al" Lives by 0anish=born (e 9ork :vening *un police reporter
<acob -Au%ust. 9iis, "1, portrays slum life and the conditions that ma)e for crime, !ice,
and disease'
:he Cit+
1' (he Wainwri%ht buildin% completed at /t' Houis to desi%ns by Chica%o architect
Houis H' /ulli!an is the first true s)yscraper'
1' (he first Army=Na!y football %ame be%ins a lon% ri!alry between West 3oint and
Annapolis, Na!y wins $" to D'
1' 1t now ta)es G7 hours to plant, culti!ate, and har!est an acre of wheat in America,
down from 1"J hours in 1JG7'
$' Iansas farmers should ?raise less corn and more hell,? 3opulist 3arty leader 6ary
Eli2abeth Hease, G6, tells them' 4rom 7C to #D percent of all Iansas farms are mort%a%ed
at interest rates a!era%in% # percent, ban)s ha!e foreclosed on rou%hly one third of all
farm mort%a%es in the state in the past decade'
1ndustriali2ation and Corporate Consolidation
2essemer process 1(5!s
Who: William Ielly -American. and :essemer -:ritish.
What: A process that made cheap steel' :y blowin% cold air on hot iron it
eliminated impurities' After a few years while the process became popular and useful'
/i%: (his method combined with the abundant materials and labor of the
Enited /tates %reatly encoura%ed the hi%h le!els of production in the second half of the
1JDDs' :y 1#DD America was producin% as much as :ritain and >ermany combined'
(he E'/' was becomin% the worlds industrial %iant by World War 1' -9ecall the
Webster=Ashburton (reaty of 1J"$, which, in addition to settlin% the 6aine boundary,
settled the boundary from the Ha)e of the Woods to Ha)e /uperior' (he :ritish did not
)now that the 6esabi iron ore ran%e was in that part of the land ceded to the E'/'.
?oriFontal inte$ration
What: A method of monopoli2in% a mar)et by buyin% out competitors'
/i%: >iants li)e 9oc)efeller used re!olutionary and ruthless methods li)e
hori2ontal inte%ration to create trusts, stiflin% competition and leadin% in time to
%o!ernmental re%ulation, startin% with the /herman Antitrust Act of 1J#D'
1ndre# Carnegie ,1(/5-1)1). and E=ertical IntegrationF
Who: Andrew Carne%ie
What: Andrew Carne%ie was a )in%pin amon% steelma)ers, at one point
producin% 1F"
of the nations :essemer steel' His company controlled e!ery aspect of
the steel=ma)in% process, throu%h *!ertical inte%ration,+ which was a means of
combinin% into one or%ani2ation all phases of production, from minin% the ore to
production of finished steel' He sold out to <'3' 6or%an for "DD million dollars'
1nfluenced by the %ospel of wealth, he dedicated his remainin% years to %i!in% away his
money for libraries, pensions for professors, and other philanthropic purposes'
/i%: He was one of the nations %reat industrialists who preached and practiced
the *%ospel of wealth'+ He %a!e away about WGCD million of his money'
"ohn 30 >oc6efeller ,1()/-1)/%. and ;ori'ontal Integration
What: (he owner of the /tandard 5il Company, he used the tactic of *hori2ontal
inte%ration,+ whereby he would buyout or sAuee2e out competitors to achie!e a
monopoly' At one point he owned #C percent of all oil refineries in the country' He used
secret rebates from railroads as well as spies to achie!e his ends' He was one of the first
so called *robber barons'+
/i%': He was part of the reason for the bac)lash a%ainst the *trusts+ and the
emer%ence of presidential trust busters 9oose!elt, (aft, and Wilson'
+(e *merican )ederation of 0a&or' Samuel Compers218861>00s
What: (he A4 of H was the brainchild of /amuel >ompers, president from 1JJ6
to 1#$"' /tron% craft unions within the A4 of H were able to pool monies to fund
boycotts and wal)outs, all toward the end of establishin% closed shops in which all
wor)ers had to be unioni2ed' Crafts included ci%ar ma)ers, electricians, carpenters,
teamsters, for e&amples -no uns)illed laborers.' (he A4 of H was more conser!ati!e,
pursuin% practical and immediate %oals relatin% to wa%es, hours, and conditions of
employment' -Contrast this with the 1nternational Wor)in%men of the World -1WW., a
union that wanted to attac) capitalism'.
/i%: Ender >omperss leadership, the A4 of H became the premier labor union
in American history'
Dni$(ts of 0a&or 186>18>0s
What: (he Ini%hts of Habor was the leadin% labor or%ani2ation in the 1JJDs'
/tartin% off as a secret society, in 1JJ1 it soon rolled out a welcome mat for all laborers,
blac), white, man, women, s)illed, and uns)illed' 9efusin% to become entan%led in
politics, they campai%ned for economic and social reform' :lamed for the Chica%o
Haymar)et riot of 1JJ6, they went into decline'
/i%': (he Ini%hts were an important early national labor union' (he public
attitude toward labor was chan%in%' (hey be%an to see the laborers ri%ht to bar%ain
collecti!ely and stri)e' Habor 0ay was e!en made a national holiday in 1J#"' 1n stri)es,
howe!er, 3residents were willin% to support mana%ement and call out troops if needed'
4urther, the /herman Antitrust Act was sometimes used a%ainst stri)in% wor)ers'
;a+mar6et ,Chicago, 1(($., ;omestead ,*ittsburgh, 1()-., *ullman ,Chicago,
What: (he ;a+mar6et >iot ,1(($. was a rally or%ani2ed by a small anarchist
%roup to protest the )illin%s durin% the 6cCormac) Har!estin% 6achine Company stri)e'
(he police showed up and demanded they disperse, a dynamite bomb went off amon%st
the police )illin% one and woundin% se!eral, se!en of whom would die later' (he police
responded with %unfire and )illed se!en to ei%ht people' While the Ini%hts of Habor
were not responsible, they were blamed and their influence declined thereafter'
(he ;omestead stri6e ,1()-. pitted Carne%ie /teel Company a%ainst the
Amal%amated Association of 1ron and /teel Wor)ers' Carne%ie wanted to brea) the union
and so when the wor)ers struc) a%ainst the increased wor) hours, the mana%er called for
GDD 3in)erton %uards to brea) the stri)e' (hey were met on the doc)s by 1D,DDD stri)ers,
many armed, and an all=day battle ensued' (he 3in)ertons surrendered, but the mana%er
appealed to the %o!ernor who sent J,DDD troops to end the stri)e'
(he *ullman stri6e ,1()7. resulted when >eor%e 3ullman cut his wor)ers
wa%es by GD percent but his company town did not reduce rents' Eu%ene 0ebs of the
American 9ailway Enion %ot in!ol!ed' 3resident Cle!eland sent in troops to brea) up
the stri)e, ar%uin% that the disruption of railroad ser!ice ad!ersely affected E'/' mail
ser!ice' -0ebs was defiant and spent si& months in ;ail for not complyin% with a court
order to abandon the stri)e'.
/i%': (hese separate instances demonstrated the late nineteenth centurys
!iewpoint of business and %o!ernment on labor' (he nati!ist fear of immi%rants and the
arri!al of radicals at the Haymar)et affair led to further red scares in the future' At this
time, the %o!ernment %enerally supported mana%ement at the e&pense of labor'
+ec(nolo$ical improvements in &usiness and industry t(at c(an$ed t(e nature of t(e
6or;place :18,0’s to 1>00’s<
What: (he sewin% machine, electric li%ht bulb, typewriter, telephone,
transoceanic cable, and ele!ator re!olutioni2ed business practices' (he assembly line
was created to help businesses and factories produce more products at a faster pace'
/i%: (echnolo%ical impro!ements supplied people with more products at lower
cost, thus impro!in% the standard of li!in% in %eneral'
Erban /ociety
Bospel of <ealth 1(()
Who: Andrew Carne%ie
What: *(he >ospel of Wealth+ was the philosophy preached by the wealthy
entrepreneurs -most notably Andrew Carne%ie. which held that *the wealthy, entrusted
with societys riches, had to pro!e themsel!es morally responsible'+ As the */teel
3reacher+ said, *the main consideration should be to help those who help themsel!es, to
pro!ide part of the means by which those who desire to impro!e may do so, to %i!e those
who desire to rise the aids by which they may rise' ' ' '+ PNote: the >ospel of Wealth is
not directed at aidin% the indi!idual but in aidin% society with par)s, museums, etc' (he
/ocial >ospel of protestant social wor)ers was directed at helpin% needy indi!iduals' 0o
not confuse the /ocial >ospel with the >ospel of Wealth'Q
/i%: 3rominent museums of art, par)s, and public institutions are testaments to
the endurin% promise of the *>ospel of Wealth+
Social Bospel ,around 1).
Who: 1' Walter 9auschenbusch, a pastor of a >erman :aptist church in
New 8or) Citys *Hells Iitchen+ -1n Christianity and the *ocial Crisis )%#D7., he
ar%ues that sin is not ;ust applicable to the indi!idual but to society at lar%e also'.
$' Charles /heldons boo) is of interest here' 1n 3is *teps -1J#7.
was one of the most popular and influential boo)s in the /ocial >ospel mo!ement'
Accordin% to /heldon, American society would e&perience a dramatic transformation if
only people would base their public and pri!ate actions on the answer to the simple
Auestion of ?What Would <esus 0oR?
What: 9auschenbusch sou%ht to apply the lessons of Christianity to the slums
and factories' He preached the *social %ospel,+ insistin% that the churches tac)le the
burnin% social issues of the day' (he /ermon of the 6ount, he declared, was the science
of society' /ocial >ospel adherents, who were optimistic and pra%matic about helpin%
the poor and relie!in% the conditions of their po!erty, should be contrasted with /ocial
0arwinists, who held that the poor were where they were as a result of the application of
the principle of the *sur!i!al of the fittest'+
/i%: (hese *Christian socialists+ did much to pric) hardened middle=class
consciences, thus preparin% the path for the pro%ressi!e reform mo!ement after the turn
of the century'
Social Dar6inism :1870’s to 1880’s<
Who: 8ale 3rofessor William >raham /umner
What: /ocial 0arwinism is the misapplication to society of Charles 0arwins
principle of the *sur!i!al of the fittest'+ 5nly the stron%est and *fittest+ sur!i!e, allowin%
humans to mo!e towards a ;ust and peaceful society' (o literally feed, clothe, and
shelter the needy would be inconsistent with /ocial 0arwinism'
/i%: /ocial 0arwinism could be used to rationali2e insensiti!ity to the needs of
the poor and needy and ;ustify to the rich their place in society' P4urther, 0arwins
thin)in% not only influenced */ocial 0arwinism+ but another *ism,+ i'e', Christian
4undamentalism -which was in part a reaction to 0arwins theory relatin% to the descent
of human)ind from a more primiti!e bein%.'Q -Contrast /ocial 0arwinism and Christian
Social critics and dissenters
Who: African=Americans, Habor unionists, /ocialists, 3ro%ressi!es, 4eminists,
and writers reco%ni2ed that political, economic, and social chan%es were needed to
correct in;ustices and imbalances in E'/' society at the turn of the century -1#DD.'
/i%: As cities and industry flourished, many di!erse %roups of people wor)ed,
fou%ht and ar%ued for chan%e' (he most important result was the 3ro%ressi!e
6o!ement, 1#DD=1#$D'
Immigration at the turn of the centur+
What: 1mmi%ration chan%ed drastically around the comin% of the $D
now, <ews, 1talians, Croats, >ree)s, 3oles, and /lo!a)s started to arri!e' Culturally and
reli%iously they differed from old American -An%lo. stoc)' Also, many of these new
immi%rants were %enerally illiterate people who preferred to wor) in industrial tas)s
rather than farmin% duties, they mo!ed to America because Europe seemed to be runnin%
out of space for its people to inhabit and because of persecution' 6any Americans
profited from this immi%ration as industrialists wanted the low=wa%e labor, states wanted
more population, railroads wanted buyers for their land %rants, and the steamship lines
wanted more human car%o in their holds, howe!er, some were nati!ists who hated
America bein% populated by forei%ners with different lan%ua%es, reli%ions, and customs'
6ost of these immi%rants settled in cities li)e New 8or) and Chica%o e!en thou%h many
of these *Hittle 1talys+ and *Hittle 3olands+ became slums, <acob 9iis wrote How the
5ther Half Hi!es to communicate to the American people the li!in% conditions of these
poor souls'
/i%: (hese new immi%rants filled a demand for cheap labor and they helped
spread much European culture to America, also, their immi%ration in part caused many of
the slums to be created -due to the immense population increase.' A nati!ist reaction
could be seen in the immi%ration laws of the 1#$Ds'
>iis? ;o# the Hther ;alf Lives ,1().
Who: <acob 9iis -1J"#=1#1". was a 0anish immi%rant and reporter for the (e
9ork *un'
What: How the 5ther Half Hi!es -1J#D. was a powerful account that
communicated the terrible li!in% conditions of the New 8or) slums' He told of the dirt,
disease, !ice, and misery of the rat=infested slums and con!inced many to attempt to
chan%e these awful places'
/i%: (his boo) con!inced many to ta)e action and helped fuel the 3ro%ressi!e
-ity pro&lems' slumsG mac(ine politicsG 6ater and se6er pro&lems
What: (he cities in the early $D
century had many problems that eroded the
Auality of life:
1' Criminals flourished'
$' /anitary facilities could not )eep up with the population increase which
led to impure water, unwashed bodies, uncollected %arba%e, and the lea!in% of animal
droppin%s all around the cities'
G' (he slums were particularly terrible places to li!e'
"' 6achine politics promoted widespread corruption' -3olitical machines such as
:oss (weeds (ammany Hall in New 8or) City would pro!ide immi%rants with
immediate ser!ices such as clothin%, food, and a place to stay' (hen a ;ob would be
found' 1n return, the wor)er would !ote for the bosss candidate in order to maintain the
;ob' (his simple and corrupt system filled a need that the city %o!ernments were
unwillin% and incapable of fillin%'.
/i%: (hese problems prompted the emer%ence of the 3ro%ressi!e reform mo!ement,
includin% the settlement house mo!ement'
"ane 1ddams and ;ull ;ouse
Who: <ane Addams -1J6D=1#GC. was a sort of urban American saint to some of
her admirers and won the Nobel 3eace 3ri2e in 1#G1, she was born into a prosperous
1llinois family as part of the first %eneration of colle%e=educated women' Howe!er, she
was re;ected by some people li)e the 0au%hters of the American 9e!olution for her
pacifistic attitude in life'
What: (he Hull House was established in 1JJ# in Chica%o and it was the most
prominent American settlement house' 1t was located in a poor immi%rant nei%hborhood,
it offered instruction in En%lish, cultural acti!ities, and counselin% to help these
newcomers cope with American bi%=city life' 1n addition to helpin% people meet their
immediate needs, Hull House wor)ed for social chan%e, addressin% such issues as child
labor, public health reform, %arba%e collection, labor laws and race relations'
/i%: (he Hull House influenced other women=founded settlement
houses li)e Hillian Walds Henry /treet /ettlement in New 8or) in 1J#G, also in 1J#G,
the women of Hull House successfully lobbied for an 1llinois sweatshop law which
prohibited child labor and protected women wor)ers'
Intellectual and cultural movements and popular entertainment around 1)
What: 1' 1ntellectual mo!ements included 3ra%matism, /ocialism,
$' Cultural mo!ements included the rise of leisure time acti!ities in
urban areas:
a' sports -baseball, bas)etball, football, bicyclin%.
b' the circus
c' !aude!ille
/i%: (his is a period of %reat cultural ferment as the E'/' ad;usts to an
industriali2ed and urbani2ed a%e' /ource:
4orei%n 3olicy 1J#D to 1#1"
What: <in%oism is a word describin% fanatical nationalism or patriotism, it can
also mean bullyin% other countries or usin% whate!er means necessary to safe%uard a
countrys national interests, entered E/ !ernacular near the turn of the $D
/i%: <in%oism was e!ident in the bi%=na!y ad!ocates, the imperialists, the
yellow ;ournalists, and the pro=war faction that led to the /panish=America War'
!osep( PulitFer and William Randolp( ?earst -irculation War2Hello6 !ournalism
Who: <oseph 3ulit2er and William 9andolph Hearst
Where: New 8or)
What: <oseph 3ulit2er and William 9andolph Hearst were owners of ri!al
newspaper companies, the (e 9ork World -3ulit2er. and the (e 9ork ;ournal -Hearst.'
(hey employed sensationalist headlines and articles, without %reat concern for the truth,
in order to compete with each other' (heir style was called *yellow ;ournalism'+
/i%: (he press had a lar%e impact on the public' (his was seen durin% the
/panish=American warMthe yellow ;ournalism of the papers spread lies about the
/panish, causin% public outra%e that propelled America into the war'
1lfred :ha+er 8ahan ,Influence of Sea *o#er upon ;istor+-published 1().
Who: Alfred (hayer 6ahan -1J"D=1#1".
What: E/ Na!y officer, %eostrate%ist, educator, he was appointed commander of
the new E/ Na!al War Colle%e in 1JJ6, published 1nfluence of /ea 3ower upon History,
an or%ani2ed compilation of his lectures, in 1J#D' (he boo)s ar%ument was that in the
wars between 4rance and En%land in the 1J
century, domination of the waters throu%h a
powerful na!y was a lar%e asset if achie!ed and a harsh setbac) if not' (herefore, control
of commerce and trade at sea was critical for national success' 6any Americans ;oined
in the demands for a mi%htier na!y and for the American built isthmian canal between the
Atlantic and 3acific' >reatness depended on economic power, and economic power
depended on sea power'
/i%: 9ead by En%lish, >ermans, and <apanese, as well as Americans, 6ahan
helped stimulate the na!al race amon% the %reat powers' 6ahan promoted the idea of a
bi% na!y, and the E'/' be%an construction of the *%reat white fleet+ -state of the art
battleships. in the 1J#Ds'
Spanis(*merican War 18>8
Who: /pain and the E'/'
What: CAE/E/: press e&a%%erated /panish treatment of Cubans -public outra%e.,
E// 6aine sun) in Ha!ana Harbor -4eb' 1J#J., press said ship had been blown up by
the /panish -public outra%e., and America wished to spread the spirit of independence to
oppressed Cuba'
E44EC(/: America became an imperial nation, obtainin% Cuba -freed in
1#D$., the 3hilippines, >uam, and 3uerto 9ico'
/i%: (he war made the E'/' an imperial o!erseas power, while at the same time
creatin% a liability -the 3hilippines.'
*$uinaldo and t(e War of t(e P(ilippine Insurrection 188>1>0/
Who: Emilio A%uinaldo and the 4ilipinos, America
Where: in the 3hilippines
What: (he E/ too) the 3hilippines at the end of the /panish=American War'
1nstead of %rantin% them their independence as e&pected, the E/ had plans to ma)e the
3hilippines an American colony' Emilio A%uinaldo had been declared the first president
of the 9epublic but the E'/' would not reco%ni2e his %o!ernment' 11,DDD %round troops
of American soldiers had been sent to the islands to occupy them, and tensions rose
between them and the 4ilipinos' War bro)e out with brutal battles and lar%e casualties
on both sides, the 4ilipinos lost to the Americans but li!ed on to recei!e their
independence later -1#"6.'
/i%: America was truly an imperial nation, resortin% to brea)in% former ties
and resortin% to ruthless war actions in order to attain more land and self=interest' While
America was so ea%er to help fi%ht for Cuban independence, they fou%ht ;ust as hard and
more to ta)e away 4ilipino independence'
*nti Imperialist 0ea$ue 18>8
Who: (he Hea%ue included prominent American leaders, such as the presidents
of /tanford and Har!ard Eni!ersities, the no!elist 6ar) (wain, the labor leader /amuel
>ompers, and the steel )in% Andrew Carne%ie'
What: (he Hea%ue was created to fi%ht the 6cIinley administrations
e&pansionist mo!es' 5b;ections to the anne&ation of the 3hilippines included: 1. the
4ilipinos thirst for freedom, $. anne&ation !iolates *consent of the %o!erned+ philosophy
accordin% to the 0eclaration of 1ndependence and the Constitution, G. imperialism was
costly and was unli)ely to ma)e a profit, and ". anne&ation brou%ht the possibilities for
the Enited /tates to %et in!ol!ed needlessly in the political and military cauldron of East
/i%: (here was strenuous and credible opposition to anne&ation of the
:he &ar East? "ohn ;a+ and the Hpen 3oor *olic+ 1())-1)
Who: /ecretary of /tate <ohn Hay
Where: China
What: <ohn Hay dispatched to all %reat powers a communication that ur%ed them
to announce that in their areas of influence in China that they respect Chinese territorial
inte%rity and fair competition in China' -(he E'/' was a late arri!al in China and the
5pen 0oor was a way to %et into the China trade'. All the %reat powers sa!e 9ussia
a%reed to this' -Hater, the E'/' and <apan si%ned the 9oot (a)ahira a%reement in 1#DJ
and were parties to the Nine 3ower A%reement in 1#$$, both of which pled%ed both
powers to uphold the 5pen 0oor 3olicy in China' As <apan later !iolated the 5pen 0oor
with its in!asions of China, the E'/' stubbornly held onto to the 5pen 0oor, while <apan
arro%antly re;ected it' (his all contributes to the risin% tensions between the E'/' and
<apan, which culminated in 3earl Harbor on 1$=17="1'.
/i%: (he 5pen 0oor policy remained a cornerstone of E'/' forei%n policy in
Asia until China *fell+ to the Communists in 1#"#'.
+(e Panama -anal-onstruction started in 1>0" E completed in 1>1"
Who: 3resident (heodore 9oose!elt
Where: 3anama
What: (he /panish=American War had emphasi2ed the need for the canal across
the Central American isthmus' After the 3anama route was decided, a treaty was
ne%otiated between the E'/' and a Colombian %o!ernment a%ent' (he Colombian senate
re;ected the treaty' (he infuriated 9oose!elt, ea%er to be elected, was an&ious to start the
canal in order to impress the !oters' (he 3anama 9e!olution started and Colombian
troops were %athered to crush the uprisin%, but E'/ na!al forces would not let them cross
the isthmus' 9oose!elt ;ustified this interference by a strained interpretation of the treaty
of 1J"6 with Colombia' 4ifteen days later, the new 3anamanian minister si%ned the Hay=
:unau=7arilla treaty' (he price of the canal strip was left the same, but the 2one was
widened from 6 to 1D miles' Acti!e wor) on the canal be%an in 1#D"' 1n 1#1", the canal
pro;ect was completed at the initial cost of about W"DD million'
/i%: (he 3anama Canal au%mented the stren%th of the na!y by increasin% its
mobility' (he Canal also made easier the defense of such recent acAuisitions as 3uerto
9ico, Hawaii and the 3hilippines, while facilitatin% the operations of the American
merchant marine' (he arro%ance of the E'/' alienated Central and /outh Americans' (9
said he too) the Canal Oone, which was not the )ind of sentiment that could be e&pected
to en%ender lo!e and respect amon% Hatin nations for the E'/' 1n 1#$1, two years after
('9' died, Con%ress in effect apolo%i2ed to Columbia and paid some conscience money'
+4R4 and Russo !apanese War
Who: (heodore 9oose!elt
Where: 9ussia and <apan
What: War with 9ussia and <apan bro)e out in 1#D"' <apan beat 9ussia, but due
to internal problems <apan secretly as)ed ('9 to bro)er a peace settlement' At
3ortsmouth, New Hampshire in 1#DC, 9oose!elt %uided the two parties to a settlement'
/i%: 9oose!elt recei!ed the Nobel 3eace 3ri2e in 1#D6' 6ore importantly, this
was the first modern !ictory of an Asian power o!er a European power and foreshadowed
the rise of <apan as the dominant power in Asia in the first half of the $D
>oosevelt Corollar+ ,logical extension. to the 8onroe 3octrine 1)7-5
Where: :ecame effecti!e when the E'/' too) o!er the mana%ement of tariff
collections in the 0ominican 9epublic'
What: Hatin American debt defaults prompted 9oose!elt to be in!ol!ed in affairs
south of the border' 9oose!elt feared that if :ritish or >ermans became bill collectors,
they mi%ht stay in Hatin America, which would strictly %o a%ainst the 6onroe 0octrine'
He then declared a policy of *pre!enti!e inter!ention+ which was better )nown as the
9oose!elt Corollary to the 6onroe 0octrine' 9oose!elt announced that in the e!ent that
a future financial malfeasance by a Hatin American nation, the E'/' would inter!ene, ta)e
o!er the customhouses, pay off the debts, and )eep Europeans on the other side of the
/i%: (his spea)s to the hea!y=handed forei%n policy of (9, which created
bitterness in Hatin nations to the south of the E'/' 4uture presidents would send troops
into Cuba, Haiti, the 0ominican 9epublic, Nicara%ua, and 6e&ico for !arious reasons,
further alienatin% Hatin peoples
+aft :in office 1>0>1,< and 7Dollar Diplomacy9
What: Efforts of the Enited /tates M particularly under 3resident William
Howard (aft==to further its forei%n policy aims in Hatin America and East Asia throu%h
use of economic power' *0ollar diplomacy+ used American in!estments in Hatin
America and Asia rather than military mi%ht to achie!e forei%n policy ob;ecti!es'
/i%: Compare (9s *:i% /tic)+ diplomacy, (afts *0ollar 0iplomacy,+ and
Wilsons *6oral 0iplomacy'+ All three presidents used differin% approaches to forei%n
policy, with mi&ed results'
<ilson and moral diplomac+ ,in office 1)1/--1.
Who: 3resident Woodrow Wilson
What: Wilson detested the *dollar diplomacy+ of the (aft administration and
instituted a new forei%n policy of moral diplomacy' He proclaimed that the E/ wouldnt
offer special support to American in!estors in Hatin America and China' Wilson wanted
to impro!e forei%n relations throu%h moral persuasion, where human -not property. ri%hts
were more important'
/i%: (his policy of moral diplomacy was e!ident in Wilsons dealin%s with Hatin
America, the 6e&ican 9e!olution, and World War 1' (his reflects Wilsonian idealism
that, when coupled with his stubbornness, did not ser!e him well' -1n spite of his
idealism, he sent troops into the Caribbean and 6e&ico on se!eral occasions, and in the
end he too) the nation into World War 1 in 1#17'.
3ro%ressi!e Era 1#DD=1#$D
*rogressivism ,#ho the+ #ereJ #hat their goals #ereJ
include their disli6e for Social 3ar#inism.
Who: 6ostly middle class men and women -and lar%ely white and urban.
Where: E'/'A' -especially bi% cities such as Chica%o and New 8or).
What: (he pro%ressi!e mo!ement of the early 1#DDs in!ol!ed both men and
women wor)in% at all le!els of %o!ernment to achie!e many reforms' (he cities were
literally filthy and corruption was common at both the local and state le!els' :i%
business was rapacious -%reedy. and uncontrolled' (he 3ro%ressi!es responded Auite
well to myriad tas)s -e&cept ;ustice for African=Americans.' (he *6uc)ra)ers+ were one
aspect of this mo!ements reform=mindedness, with writers e&posin% the social, political,
and economic ills of the nation' 4urther, some pro%ressi!es used appeals to Christian
morals to impro!e life for the poor, and 4eminists fou%ht for temperance and womens
suffra%e' -An ar%ument could be made that the ori%ins of 3ro%ressi!ism are to be found
amon% white, urban, middle=class people who felt threatened by filthy cities, corruption,
bi% and %reedy corporations, a hu%e alien immi%rant population, and socialist a%itation
for the destruction of capitalism' (hus the 3ro%ressi!e 6o!ement arose out of the fear of
many Americans' (his is merely an ar%ument that ma)es some sense'.
/i%: 3ro%ressi!ism achie!ed many lastin% triumphs in consumer protection,
conser!ation of natural resources, control of corporations, %ettin% rid of corruption,
installin% capable and honest %o!ernment, welfare laws for women, children, and
laborers, and laws that brou%ht more political power to the people -e'%', direct election of
senators, the secret ballot, the initiati!e, referendum, and recall, and the !ote for women.'
!o(n De6ey and Pra$matism 1880s on
What: <ohn 0ewey, educator, philosopher, and psycholo%ist, is reco%ni2ed as one
of the founders of the philosophical school of *3ra%matism+ -alon% with William <ames.'
(he essential premise of pra%matism is that the *truth+ is to be determined by what wor)s
and what does not wor)' 3ra%matism is interacti!e, meanin% that human)ind interacts
with the en!ironment and throu%h that interaction mo!es forward and ma)es
impro!ements' -1n the area of education, 0ewey is best )nown for the idea that children
learn by doin%'.
/i%: 3ra%matism is Americas home=%rown philosophy that reflects the
practical, down=to=earth approach that has come to characteri2e American self=
sufficiency and indi!iduality' :oth 3ro%ressi!es and 3ra%matists support the pro%ressi!e
impro!ement of ci!ili2ation throu%h the application of reason, especially scientific
reason, and human will'
Bood Bovernment League,s. ,local government cleans up corruption.
Who: Hocal %o!ernments in the E'/'
When: 1#DD=1#16
What: At the local le!el, people formed *>ood >o!ernment Hea%ues+ to root out
corruption at the local %o!ernment le!el and install honest and efficient politicians and
/i%: Combine this with 3ro%ressi!e achie!ements at the state le!el -initiati!e,
referendum, recall. and the national le!el -!arious laws, antitrust actions, constitutional
amendments. and you ha!e a picture of the pro%ressi!es at all le!els of %o!ernment
-national, state, local.'
Initiative, >eferendum, >ecall ,state and local government changes.
Who and Where: 3ro%ressi!es in both ma;or parties, in all re%ions, at the
state and local le!els of %o!ernment'
What: (hese reformers fa!ored the *initiati!e+ so !oters could directly enact
le%islation, bypassin% the corrupt state le%islatures' 3ro%ressi!es also wanted
*referendum+ to allow the common people to !ote on laws bein% proposed by
le%islatures' (he *recall+ %a!e the !oters the ri%ht to remo!e corrupt or incompetent'
/i%: (he initiati!e and referendum -not the recall. were 3opulist %oals of the
1J#Ds, reali2ed durin% the 3ro%ressi!e Era' (hese acts would allow the common people
to ha!e more power in this new a%e where corruption was too often standard beha!ior of
politicians' -Also add direct election of senators to these three for more *pure+
democracy durin% the 3ro%ressi!e Era'.
8uc6ra6ers Earl+ 1)s
Who: Educated ;ournalists and writers such as Epton /inclair -(he <un%le,
1#D6., Hincoln /teffens -(he /hame of the Cities, 1#D"., and 1da (arbell -(he History of
the /tandard 5il Company, 1#D".
What: /ocially and politically conscious ;ournalists, publishers and writers who
used ma%a2ines, newspapers and other forms of publishin% as a !ehicle to e&pose
business and social in;ustices, they campai%ned for honesty in %o!ernment and business'
1mportant periodicals included ma%a2ines such as McClure<s and brou%ht to li%ht the
problems in areas such as corruption in %o!ernment, underhanded practices allyin%
businesses and city %o!ernments, railroad and trusts monopoli2ation of business and
politics, prostitution, child labor, and problems in the medicinal field'
/i%: (he 6uc)ra)ers were instrumental in e&posin% problems in society and
raisin% the public consciousness which empowered the powerful pro%ressi!e !otin% bloc)
to be more effecti!e'
3pton Sinclair and +(e !un$le ,1)$.
Where: Chica%o meat processin% plants'
What: (his no!el by Epton /inclair describes the life of a family of Hithuanian
immi%rants wor)in% in Chica%os stoc) yards durin% the end of the 1#
century' 3ublic
outra%e followed publication, and 9oose!elt sent Commissioner Charles 3' Neill and
social wor)er <ames 9eynolds to Chica%o to ma)e !isits to meat pac)in% facilities' (hey
were dis%usted by the conditions at the factories and at the harsh treatment the wor)ers
endured, and reported bac) to 9oose!elt' After this, the 4ood and 0ru% Act and the 6eat
1nspection Act were enacted -1#D6.' 1ronically, /inclair, a socialist, was disappointed
with the laws because they did not address the wor)in% conditions of the wor)ers' -?1
aimed at the public@s heart, and by accident 1 hit it in the stomach'?.
/i%: (his boo) was the basis of educatin% the nation about the corrupt meat
pac)in% businesses, the inhuman treatment of the wor)ers' 9oose!elt became a supporter
of the re%ulation of the meat pac)in% industry' (he boo) was also the inspiration for the
4ood and 0ru% Act and the 6eat 1nspection Act of 1#D6'
Lincoln Steffens and :he Shame of the Cities ,1)7.
What: (he /hame of the Cities sou%ht to e&pose public corruption in many ma;or
cities' (he wor) consists of articles written for the ma%a2ine McClure=s in 1#D$ -boo)
published in 1#D". in one collection' His %oal was to pro!o)e public outcry and thus
promote reform'
/i%: (he boo) is considered one of the first primary e&amples of muc)ra)in% and
contributed to the %ood %o!ernment mo!ement to install honest and efficient
%o!ernments at local and state le!els'
Ida :arbell and :he ;istor+ of the Standard Hil Compan+ ,1)7.
What: Also published first in 6cClures, (arbells muc)ra)in% History was
moti!ated by her fathers destruction at the hands of 9oc)efeller and /tandard 5il'
/i%: 3ro%ressi!e outra%e a%ainst corporate abuse was hei%htened by this wor)'
3resident (aft filed an antitrust action a%ainst /tandard 5il, and in 1#11 it was ordered to
be bro)en up into G" companies because it was deemed to be a monopoly in restraint of
trade and in !iolation of the /herman Antitrust Act of 1J#D'
*ure &ood and 3rug 1ct of 1)$
What: (his act was desi%ned to pre!ent the contamination and mislabelin% or
pac)a%in% of foodstuffs, this act prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of
contaminated food products or poisonous patented medicines' (his law was enacted
because of public education by people such as Epton /inclair, (heodore 9oose!elt, and
the wor)ers in the companies'
/i%: (his act was a bi% step toward nationwide )nowled%e of hy%iene and clean
food, and %a!e the %o!ernment the ;urisdiction o!er food in interstate commerce' (his
act also created the 4ood and 0ru% Administration' 4inally, this act represents the
continuation of a relati!ely new acti!ityM%o!ernmental re%ulation and o!ersi%ht of
8eat Inspection 1ct of 1)$
What: (his decreed that the preparation of meat shipped in interstate commerce
would be inspected before shipped off, and any product unfit for human consumption
would be confiscated and condemned' (his law was made partly in response to Epton
/inclairs (he <un%le'
/i%: (his act standardi2ed and re%ulated the meat industry and the formation of
the E/ 0epartment of A%ricultures inspection methods' Alon% with the 3ure 4ood and
0ru% Act, this represents (9s commitment to protect the consumer -one of (9s GCs.'
El6ins 1ct 1)/
What: (he El)ins Act imposed hea!y fines on the railroads that %a!e rebates and
on shippers that accepted them'
/i%: Control of Corporations -one of (9s GCs. 4urther, it demonstrated the
3ro%ressi!e notion that the re%ulation of bi% business was a le%itimate end of
;epburn 1ct 1)$
What: Ender the Hepburn Act, Lfree passes@ were se!erely restricted' (he
1nterstate Commerce Commission was e&panded and its reach was e&tended to include
e&press companies, sleepin%=car companies, and pipelines' (he 1CC could set
ma&imum railroad shippin% rates on complaint of shippers'
/i%: Control of Corporations -one of (9s GCs.
2oo6er :0 <ashington ,2lac6 educator and author.
and the E1tlanta CompromiseF Speech of 1()5
When: 0ominant from 1JJD=1#1C
What: :oo)er (' Washin%ton was called an *accommodationist+ because in
petitionin% for blac) ri%hts, he stopped short of directly challen%in% white supremacy'
He was called in 1JJ1 to head a blac) school in (us)e%ee, Alabama because he belie!ed
firmly in education' 1n his 1J#C speech )nown as the *Atlanta Compromise,+ he soothed
/outhern fears by sayin% that education, which %a!e blac)s an opportunity for economic
security, was more !aluable to them than hi%her education, political office, or social
status' His race would coe&ist with whites *by the productions of our hands'+
Washin%ton differed from another :lac) leader, W'E':' 0u:ois, who belie!ed that
:oo)er (' Washin%ton was too soft' 0u:ois belie!ed that hi%her education and social
status was the )ey to blac) eAuality' 0u:ois was a radical compared to Washin%ton'
Hear how Washin%ton effecti!ely accepted <im Crow in his Atlanta Compromise speech,
and then put yourself in the shoes of 0u:ois: >!he isest among my race understand
that the agitation o" ?uestions o" social e?uality is the e@tremist "olly- and that progress
in the enAoyment o" all the privileges that ill come to us must be the result o" severe and
constant struggle rather than o" arti"icial "orcing. . . . 1n all things that are purely social
e can be as separate as the "ingers- yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual
/i%: Washin%ton and 0u:ois to%ether reflect the contrast in approaches to
;ustice for African=Americans, with Washin%ton adoptin% an *accommodationist+
approach that was detested by 0u:ois and his followers'
<0E020 3u2ois and the 4iagara 8ovement
When: around 1J#D=1#$D
What: W'E':' 0u:ois was an educator, writer, and ci!il ri%hts acti!ist' His (he
/ouls of :lac) 4ol) -1#DG. set in words many of his ideas' He was the first African
American to %raduate with a 3h'0' from Har!ard and thusly belie!ed in hi%her education
and economicFpolitical ;ustice no#. He also founded the NAACP, the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He was opposed to Booker
T. Washington who elieved in gradualism and change coming at its own pace.
!uBois even proposed his idea in a "talented tenth,# that one$tenth of African
Americans should e immediatel% granted complete access to mainstream
America&s social and educational rights.
!uBois rought aout the "Niagara 'ovement# in ()*+, which renounced
:oo)er (' Washin%ton@s accommodation policies set forth in his famed ?Atlanta
Compromise? speech ten years earlier' (he Nia%ara 6o!ement@s manifesto is, in the
words of 0u:ois, ?We want full manhood suffra%e and we want it now'''' We are men\
We want to be treated as men' And we shall win'? 5n <uly 11 thru 1", 1#DC on the
Canadian side of Nia%ara 4alls, twenty=nine men met and formed a %roup they called the
Nia%ara 6o!ement' (he name came because of the location and the ?mi%hty current? of
protest they wished to unleash which denounced :oo)er (s *Atlanta Compromise+ and
championed for blac) suffra%e immediately' (he Nia%ara 6o!ement led to the
formation of the National Association for the Ad!ancement of Colored 3eople -NAAC3.
in 1#D#'
/i%: 0u :ois was one of Americas %reat African=American leaders who was
uncompromisin% and coura%eous' His wor) led to the NAAC3 which championed blac)
ri%hts for the remainder of the $D
4ational 1ssociation for the 1dvancement of Colored *eopleA 1))-*resent
What: 4ounded by W' E' :' 0u:ois in 1#D#, the NAAC3 demanded that the
*talented tenth+ of the blac) community be %i!en full and immediate access to the
mainstream of American life' 5!er the years the main tactic of the NAAC3 was le%al
action that challen%ed <im Crow and other discriminatory laws' (he chief !ictory was in
the 1#C" decision, :rown !' :oard of Education, which declared the *separate but eAual+
doctrine of 3lessy !' 4er%uson -1J#6. to be unconstitutional' (hat decision be%an the
process of school dese%re%ation' (hur%ood 6arshall, a NAAC3 attorney on the case,
became the first blac) <ustice on the /upreme Court'
/i%: Contrast the more a%%ressi!e stance of 0u :oises NAAC3 with
Washin%tons Atlanta Compromise approach -*accommodation+.' (he N'A'A'C'3' was
and is a leader in the fi%ht to achie!e ;ustice for African=Americans'
8arcus Barve+91frican-1merican Leader
When: 1#$Ds
Where: 3rimarily New 8or)
What: <amaican=born political leader that founded the Enited Ne%ro
1mpro!ement Association -EN1A. to promote the resettlement of American blac)s in
their own *African homeland+ -Hiberia.Mthis was the *bac)=to=Africa+ mo!ement in the
post=World War 1 period' (oward this end, he formed the ill=fated :lac) /tar Hine, a
shippin% company' (he EN1A also sponsored stores and other businesses to )eep blac)
dollars in blac) poc)ets, but most of the businesses failed' >ar!ey was con!icted for mail
fraud and was deported to his nati!e <amaica -he was not a E'/' citi2en.' While
mismana%ement was a certainty, there is speculation that his trial and con!iction was
politically prompted by <' Ed%ar Hoo!er and the 4':'1' -then the :ureau of 1n!esti%ation
Mnot 4':'1' until 1#GC.'
/i%: >ar!ey was more international in his !ision' He was amon% the first to
mount an offensi!e a%ainst European colonialism in Africa' >ar!ey founded a million=
member or%ani2ation that %a!e racial pride and self=confidence to blac)s' He
foreshadowed the *blac) pride+ mo!ement of the 1#6Ds'
CompareB Washington )ork hard ith your hands and CaccommodateD+- Du/ois
)"ight "or e?ual rights+- and Garvey )separate "rom the hites and have your on
businesses and country+. )!his is your late %E
and early '5
century essay anser to a
?uestion involving #"rican6#merican response to inAustice.+
+(eodore Roosevelt’s 7SIuare Deal951>010>
What: 3resident (heodore 9oose!elt -(9. was interested in the well bein% of the
public and created a broad pro%ram referred to as the *(hree Cs'+ (hey were:
1. Control of the corporations
1n 1#D$, (9s plan was tested at the outbrea) of the anthracite coal stri)e
in 3ennsyl!ania' He wor)ed out a compromise of a 1D percent pay boost for the miners
and a wor)in% day of nine hours after threatening mine owners with usin% troops to
operate the mines and as)in% Wall /treet to dump mine company stoc)' -(his was the
first time a president stood between mana%ement and labor and did not merely side with
mana%ement'. Here is the ori%in of the 1#D" presidential campai%n phrase, *sAuare
deal'+ (he phrase relates to his attemptin% to establish a *sAuare deal+ between
mana%ement and labor, specifically referrin% to his settlement of the anthracite coal stri)e
of 1#D$' (he phrase can be e&panded to include what (9 did under the *GCs'+
(9 also was en%a%ed in *trust=bustin%+ under the /herman Antitrust Act
of 1J#D' Notably was the (orthern *ecurities Case of 1#D"' <' 3' 6or%an and <ames <'
Hill, amon% others, formed a monopolistic trust composed of !arious northern railroads'
(9 sued them and in 1#D" the /upreme Court ordered the dissolution -brea)up. of the
trust' -/i%: (he (orthern *ecurities case was one of the earliest and most important
antitrust cases and pro!ided important le%al precedents for many later cases'.
(9 promoted railroad re%ulation with the El)ins Act of 1#DG, which %a!e
hea!y fines to railroads and shippers who %ranted or recei!ed rebates, and the Hepburn
Act of 1#D6 which restricted a )ind of bribery==free railroad passes'
$. Consumer protection
(he 6eat 1nspection Act of 1#D6 and the 3ure 4ood and 0ru% Act of 1#D6
should be cited here'
G. Conser!ation of natural resources'
(he Newlands Act of 1#D$ used the profit from the sale of public lands for
irri%ation pro;ects in the /outhwest' (he :rown 3elican 9efu%e, the nations first
wildlife refu%e, was established in 4lorida in 1#DG' 4inally, 1$C million acres of forests
were set aside for federal reser!es'
/i%: (9 be%an the process that continued for the remainder of E'/' History:
usin% an ener%etic national %o!ernment to do what is reAuired to control corporations,
protect the consumer, and conser!e natural resources' /tart ener%etic and intrusi!e
national %o!ernment acti!ities with (9, and then reener%i2e them under 409 and the
New 0eal'
:heodore >oosevelt!s 4e# 4ationalism-1)1-1)1-
What: (9, out of office since 1#D#, ran on a third party tic)et, the 3ro%ressi!e
*:ull 6oose,+ a%ainst (aft -9ep. and Wilson -0em.' 0urin% the campai%n of 1#1$,
9oose!elt and Wilson had two !arieties of pro%ressi!ism' Wilsons plan was called *New
4reedom+ and (9s was *New Nationalism+' (9s plan was rooted in Herbert Crolys
boo), !he Promise o" #merican Li"e -1#1D., in which continued consolidation of
businesses and labor unions would be paralleled by the %rowth of powerful re%ulatory
a%encies in Washin%ton' -(hus bi% wasnt bad as lon% as it was re%ulated' (his should
be contrasted with Wilsons *New 4reedom+ which promised neutrali2ation if not entire
destruction of bi% business !ia antitrust actions and a return to an earlier period where
smaller businesses competed in a free and open mar)etplace' (he 3ro%ressi!e (9 wanted
re%ulation of bi% business, the 3ro%ressi!e Wilson wanted to promote small business
enterprises'. 0urin% the election (9 also ar%ued for womens suffra%e and a broad
pro%ram of social welfare which included minimum wa%e and social insurance'
/i%: (he New Nationalism and the 3ro%ressi!es loo)ed forward to the )ind of
acti!ist welfare state that 4ran)lin 9oose!elts New 0eal would one day ma)e a reality'
*inchot-2allinger Controvers+
When: 1#1D
What: When /ecretary of 1nterior 9ichard :allin%er opened coal fields in Alas)a
to corporate de!elopment, he an%ered >ifford 3inchot, the Chief 4orester and a friend of
(9' 3inchot spo)e out, and 3resident (aft fired him for insubordination, which an%ered
en!ironmentalists and pro%ressi!es, includin% (9' -1n!esti%ation re!ealed no impropriety
by :allin%er but he remained under a cloud of suspicion'.
/i%: (his contro!ersy hei%htened the %rowin% rift within 9epublican ran)s
between (9 and (aft supporters' -1n 1#1$, (9 ran separately and split the 9epublican
!ote, causin% the 0emocrat Wilson to be elected with less than CD] of the popular !ote'.
:he *a+ne-1ldrich :ariff ,1)).
What: (his act was the first modification of tariff laws since the 0in%ley (ariff of 1J#7'
3resident (heodore 9oose!elt had simply a!oided the issue durin% his tenure' (aft
and the 9epublicans promised a lower tariff in the 1#DJ campai%n, but the resultin%
3ayne=Aldrich (ariff of 1#D# only lowered the %eneral rate from "6 to "1 percent' While
lower than the !ery hi%h 6cIinley (ariff of 1J#D, this tariff was still protectionist' (aft
called it the best tariff e!er passed by 9epublicans, thus an%erin% 0emocrats and
3ro%ressi!e 9epublicans'
/i%: (he stru%%le o!er 3ayne=Aldrich clearly identified the %rowin% fissures
within the 9epublican 3arty' (he pro%ressi!e or insur%ent element was %rowin% away
from the >'5'3' 5ld >uard' (his is another e&ample that helps e&plain the brea)up of
the 9epublican 3arty in the election of 1#1$'
Customs ,tariffs. as chief source of revenue before income tax
What: *4or nearly 1$C years, tariffs funded !irtually the entire %o!ernment, and
paid for the nation@s early %rowth and infrastructure' (he territories of Houisiana and
5re%on, 4lorida and Alas)a were purchased, the National 9oad from Cumberland,
6aryland, to Wheelin%, West 7ir%inia, was constructed' ' ' ' Customs collections built
the nation@s li%hthouses, the E'/' military and na!al academies, the City of Washin%ton,
and, the list %oes on' (he new nation that once teetered on the ed%e of ban)ruptcy was
now sol!ent' :y 1JGC, Customs re!enues alone had reduced the national debt to 2ero
-(his is a Auote from the E'/' Customs self=%lorifyin% website'. /ince 1#1G the income
ta& rose to become the nations chief source of re!enue'
/i%: (ariffs were the chief source of federal re!enue up to 1#1G' (hus the
tariff battles were a si%nificant part of E'/' History, pittin% class a%ainst class, re%ion
a%ainst re%ion, farmer a%ainst industry'
<ilson!s 4e# &reedom 1)1--17
Who: 3resident Woodrow Wilson
What: (he policy promoted antitrust action, downward tariff re!ision, and reform
in ban)in% and currency matters'
1' (ariffs
Wilson supported the Enderwood (ariff and reduced the basic Enited /tates tariff rates
from the 3ayne=Aldrich rate of "1] to $7]' 1t was part of the 9e!enue Act of 1#1G
which included an income ta& authori2ed by the recently ratified 16
$' :an)in%
5ne of his %reatest achie!ements was the passa%e of the 4ederal 9eser!e Act of 1#1G,
which created the system that pro!ided the framewor) for re%ulatin% the nation@s ban)s,
credit, and money supply today'
G' Enions
He supported the Clayton Antitrust Act, 1#1", which was an amendment to the
/herman Antitrust Act of 1J#D' /elf=dealin%, lar%e, interloc)in% directorates were
prohibited' 6ore importantly, labor unions and a%ricultural cooperati!es could no
lon%er be treated as a combination in *restraint of trade'+ -(he national %o!ernment used
the 1J#D act a%ainst unions and stri)ers, ar%uin% that they were actin% in *restraint of
trade'+ (he %o!ernments position was contrary to the spirit and intent of the act, which
was to pre!ent abuse by trusts or monopolies'. (he Clayton Act restricted the use of the
in;unction a%ainst labor, and it le%ali2ed peaceful stri)es, pic)etin%, and boycotts' (he
Clayton Act has been called the 6a%na Carta -declaration of ri%hts. of the American
labor mo!ement'
/i%: Wilsons achie!ements were lastin%' (oday: 1. the income ta& is the
principal source of E'/' federal re!enue, $. unions and their peaceful acti!ities are le%al
and protected, G. (he 4ederal 9eser!e /ystem is the foundation of the nations money
supply' -Compare with 409s le%acy: nine pro%rams still operati!e today'.
)ederal +rade -ommission :)+-< and Wilson
What: (he 4(C -1#1". is an independent a%ency of the Enited /tates
%o!ernment' 1ts principal mission is the pre!ention of unfair or anticompetiti!e business
practices' (he 4(C contains a bipartisan body of fi!e members appointed by the
3resident of the Enited /tates for se!en year terms' (his Commission was authori2ed to
issue Cease and Desist orders to lar%e corporations to curb unfair trade practices'
/i%: (he 4ederal (rade Commission was one of 3resident Wilson@s le%islati!e
actions desi%ned to promote fair competition' (he 4(C is consistent with Wilsons New
4reedom a%enda'
)ederal Reserve *ct 1>1,
What: (he 4ederal 9eser!e /ystem is the central ban) of the Enited /tates'
Wilson supported the creation of the 4ederal 9eser!e :oard -49:. throu%h a law passed
in 1#1G, char%in% the 49: with a responsibility to foster a sound ban)in% system and a
healthy economy' (here are 1$ 4ederal 9eser!e :an)s nationwide, each issuin% standard
paper money' (he 49: re%ulates the amount of currency in circulation throu%h !arious
de!ices, includin% settin% the interest that ban)s are char%ed for borrowin% money from a
4ederal 9eser!e ban)' -1f the rate is hi%h, there will be less spendin% and the economy
will cool, if the rate is low, there will be more spendin% and the economy will heat upM
accordin% to the macroeconomic theory that supports current 49: thin)in%'.
/i%: (he 4ederal 9eser!e Act is one of Wilsons most important achie!ements,
creatin% a national ban)in% system that has endured for almost one hundred years'
Pro$ressive 8ra -onstitutional *mendments :16 t(rou$( 1><
What: (he pro%ressi!es hea!ily influenced Amendments 16=1# of the
Constitution' (he 16
Amendment -1#1G. authori2es income ta&es' (he 17
-1#1G. pro!ides for the direct election of /enators by the people of a state rather than
their selection by a state le%islature' (he 1J
Amendment -1#1#. established prohibition'
(he 1#
Amendment -1#$D. prohibits both the federal %o!ernment and the states from
usin% a person@s se& as a Aualification to !ote'
/i%: (hese important reforms were achie!ed at the national le!els and pro!ed
the power of the pro%ressi!e reformers'
<omen!s roles? famil+, #or6place, education, politics, and reform ,*rogressive Era.
Who: Women of the 3ro%ressi!e Era
What: 1. :y 1#1D, about "D percent of Americans who attended colle%e were
$. Women established the settlement house mo!ement, the womens club
mo!ement, and literary clubs' Women who fou%ht for laws to protect wor)ers, women,
and children in the wor)place defended their acti!ities on the basis that such a%itation
was consistent with the maternal role of the housewife who is merely protectin% her
G. Women fou%ht for abstinence from alcohol and founded the Womens
Christian (emperance Enion in 1J7"' (he WC(E emphasi2ed an attac) a%ainst alcohol
but was acti!e in many other reform mo!ements includin% protection of women and
children at wor) and at home, and the ri%ht to !ote'
/i%: At a time when women could not !ote or hold political office, they pro!ed
themsel!es to be a !ital element of the 3ro%ressi!e Era' (heir actions foreshadowed their
future influence in e!ery sphere of life' (heir wor) empowered them and brou%ht them
%reater eAuality, as well as needed reforms to American life'
World War 1
World War I' -auses of 34S4 participation in
What: Culturally, Americans were closer to :ritain than >ermany, trade with
:ritain s)yroc)eted, while trade with >ermany dropped to almost nothin%, :ritain
!iolated property ri%hts on the hi%h seas, while >ermany !iolated human ri%hts throu%h
its conduct of submarine warfare a%ainst merchant ships' While the E'/' wanted to stay
out of the war, when the >ermans be%an sin)in% E'/' ships in 6arch, 1#17, Wilson too)
the E'/' to war'
/i%: (he E'/' stayed out of the war for almost three years, yet due to support
for :ritain and the submarine warfare of >ermany, the E'/' finally %ot in!ol!ed'
@eutral in t(ou$(t and action' pro&lems due to ties to 8n$land
Who: Enited /tates -En%land as well.
What: After war bro)e out in Europe in 1#1", 3resident Wilson issued a
neutrality proclamation' (he :ritish were upset with this decision since they were
culturally, lin%uistically, and economically connected to the E'/' (he :ritish be%an
forcin% American !essels into their ports for trade' (he >ermans announced a submarine
war 2one' (hey san) the Lusitania, in which 1$J Americans died, and issued the #rabic
and *usse@ pled%es to not attac) unarmed ships' Wilson as)ed the E'/' people to be
neutral in thou%ht and deed, but close relationships with :ritain made that impossible'
4urther, the :ritish bloc)ade caused business with >ermany to fall off tremendously and
%o up se!eral times o!er with the :ritish'
/i%: (he ties with :ritain, alon% with the :ritish bloc)ade, were too stron% to
remain neutral in thou%ht and deed' :y the time of E'/' entry into the war in 1#17, the
E'/' was not in fact neutral, and both sides )new thatMit was only a matter of time
before the E'/' would be suc)ed into the fi%ht, and the >ermans prompted E'/' entry
when it be%an to sin) our ships in 6arch, 1#17'
1rabic *ledge 1)15
What: (he :ritish liner, #rabic, was sun) in Au%ust 1#1C by >ermans with the
loss of $ American li!es' (he >ermans pled%ed to not attac) passen%er ships without
%i!in% proper warnin%'
/i%: (he >erman !iolation of human ri%hts on the hi%h seas was a source of
contro!ersy and finally war'
Sussex *ledge 1)1$
What: (he >ermans torpedoed the 4rench passen%er ship, *usse@.
/i%: (he >ermans bro)e the Arabic pled%e and Wilson threatened to ;oin the
war' (he >ermans made yet another pled%eMthe /usse& 3led%e' 1n 4ebruary 1#17,
>ermany, in a desperate need to brea) the :ritish bloc)ade, announced unrestricted sub
warfare, and by April the E'/' declared war after losin% se!eral ships to >erman
=irt( of * @ation relatin$ racism and proDDD 1>11
What: While a technically ad!anced film, :irth of A Nation -1#1C. by 0'W'
>riffith was a blatantly racist mo!ie that %lorified the Iu Ilu& Ilan'
/i%: (he mo!ie promoted racism and the reemer%ence of the III after WW1'
War =oards :WWI<
Who: 3resident Wilson
What: War 1ndustries :oard of 1#17=1J was meant to pro!ide a national plan for
the or%ani2ation of the labor and factory efforts to aid the War effort' (he W1: was
lar%ely cooperati!e, with the W1: wor)in% with industry to ma&imi2e production by
increasin% producti!ity and resol!in% labor disputes to a!oid stri)es' Comin% late in the
War, it was relati!ely ineffecti!e'
/i%: (he War 1ndustries :oard was a step toward national mana%ement of the
pri!ate sector for war' -War boards arose a%ain with %reater authority to ration %oods
durin% WW11'.
<<I on the ;ome &ront 1)17-1)1(
What: 1. 1ndustrial 3roduction: 4actories were reor%ani2ed to ma)e bombs and
%uns' A popular sayin% was *Habor Will Win the War+ and the War 0epartment, in 1#1J,
said *wor) or fi%ht+ threatenin% all unemployed people with the draft'
$. Women' Women %ained a %reater foothold in the wor)place' With
many new ;obs openin% up, women came forward to fill them'
G. A%riculture' Accompanyin% the boom in manufacturin% was a boom in
a%riculture' Herbert Hoo!er headed up the 4ood Administration and introduced a number
of policies li)e *meatless (uesdays+ and the %rowin% of *!ictory %ardens+ to aid the war
". Ener%y' (he 4uel Administration also adopted such efforts to %reat
C. War bonds' (he lar%e=scale sale of war bonds helped %reatly in
fundin% the war'
6. (he 0raft' 5ne problem was the shorta%e of troops' :ecause of this a
draft bill was be%un, reAuirin% all males between 1J and "C years of a%e to si%n up and
nobody could hire a replacement: only men in industries such as shipbuildin% were
7. Anti=>ermanFanti=/ocialist sentiment' (here was much anti=>erman
and anti=/ocialist sentiment in the E'/' durin% the war' Con%ress passed the Espiona%e
Act of 1#17 and the /edition Act of 1#1J and prosecuted people who spo)e out a%ainst
the war' (his was upheld by the Enited /tates /upreme Court in Sc(enc; v4 3nited
States, $"# E'/' "7 -1#1#., in which <ustice Holmes asserted the *clear and present
dan%er+ test: ?(he Auestion in e!ery case is whether the words used are used in such
circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present dan%er that they
will brin% about the substanti!e e!ils that Con%ress has a ri%ht to pre!ent'?
/i%: While women %enerally returned to the homes after the war, their
contribution furthered their Auest for the !ote -1#
Amendment, 1#$D.' (he War
1ndustries :oard, the 4uel Administration, and the 4ood Administration demonstrated the
national %o!ernments willin%ness to or%ani2e and mana%e the pri!ate economy in
wartime' (his would occur a%ain in WW11' -(he draft in WW11 was started before the
war, it occurred durin% the war in WW1' 4urther, control of the economy by the
%o!ernment was much %reater durin% WW11'. (he hysterical fear of espiona%e would
reappear in WW11 with the internment of the <apanese'
Wilson’s )ourteen Points!anuary 8# 1>18
Who: 3resident Woodrow Wilson deli!ered the 4ourteen 3oints Address to the
E'/' Con%ress'
What: (he 4ourteen 3oints were the proposals of 3resident Woodrow Wilson
desi%ned to establish the basis for a ;ust and lastin% peace followin% the !ictory of the
Allies in World War 1' /ome of the more important points were:
-1. abolition of secret diplomacy by open covenants, openl+ arrived at
Psecret alliances were a cause of WW1Q
-". reduction of armaments Pan arms race was a cause of WW1Q
-1G. an independent *oland, #ith access to the sea P*access+ became
the 0an2i% corridor, which became a reason for the >erman
in!asion of 3oland in 1#G#Q
-1". creation of a general association of nations to %i!e mutual
%uarantees of political independence and territorial inte%rity -this
led to the Hea%ue of Nations.
/i%: (he 4ourteen 3oints held out hopes for a lastin% peace, self=determination
for pre!iously sub;u%ated minorities, and an international or%ani2ation that would ensure
a peaceful future world' (he Allies, howe!er, were too interested in punishin% >ermany,
and the E'/' /enate bal)ed at the Hea%ue of Nations' (he E'/' /enate did not a%ree to
the terms of the (reaty of 7ersailles, lar%ely because of the Hea%ue' -(he E'/' si%ned a
separate peace with >ermany in 1#$1'. (he idealistic Wilson was swept away by
European realpolitik and the E'/' /enates fear of forei%n entan%lements'
;enr+ Cabot Lodge ,1(5-1)-7.
Who: E' /' /enator Henry Cabot Hod%e
What: Chairman of the /enate 4orei%n 9elations Committee who led the
successful fi%ht a%ainst American participation in the Hea%ue of Nations proposed by
3resident Woodrow Wilson at the close of World War 1' His reason was membership in
the world peace)eepin% or%ani2ation would threaten the so!erei%nty of the Enited /tates
by bindin% the nation to international commitments it would not or could not )eep'
/i%: (he Hea%ue of Nations was established anyway, but only lasted about
twenty years until WW11' -(he E'N' was created in 1#"C: where the E'/' did not ;oin the
Hea%ue, it created the E'N'Mthis is a hu%e contrast between WW1 and WW1'.
:reat+ of =ersailles
League of 4ations ,including 1rticle K. 1)1)
Who: E'/' and !arious nations in!ol!ed in WW1, includin% >ermany'
What: (he Hea%ue of Nations was Wilsons ultimate %oal for lastin% peace in his
fourteen points' He en!isioned an assembly with seats for all nations and a council to be
controlled by the %reat powers' (he /enate denied the peace treaty, alon% with the Hea%ue
of Nations, twice' (he leaders of the other ?:i% 4our? nations :ritain, 4rance and 1taly
resisted many of Wilsons proposals for the post war world that he had outlined in his
4ourteen 3oints and insisted that >ermany pay reparations for startin% the war' Wilson
was thin)in% peace while they were thin)in% punishment and reparations' Wilson did
succeed, howe!er, in ma)in% sure that his proposal for a Hea%ue of Nations was included
in the final draft of the 7ersailles (reaty' Article X bound the Enited /tates to aid any
member !ictimi2ed by e&ternal a%%ression' Article X was re;ected by the /enate because
it eroded the constitutional reAuirement that Con%ress declare war' -/enator Hod%e
would accept Article X only if the E'/' Con%ress appro!ed %oin% to war to defend a
member of the Hea%ue' 5ne of his *reser!ations+ was that the *Enited /tates assumes no
obli%ation to preser!e the territorial inte%rity or political independence of any other
country ' ' ' unless ' ' ' Con%ress, which ' ' ' has the sole power to declare war ' ' ' shall ' ' '
so pro!ide'+ (his was unacceptable to Wilson'.
/i%: E'/ ne!er ;oined in Hea%ue of Nations' Wilson ne!er compromised with
the 9epublican /enators to water down his precious fourteen points' Without E'/'
participation in the Hea%ue, it was doomed from the start' -Compare this with the E'/'
creatin% the Enited Nations in 1#"C and bein% its chief supporter after WW11'.
Red scare 1>1>1>/0 :include Palmer Raids<
What: Americans feared communism after the :olshe!i) ta)eo!er in 9ussia' A
nationwide campai%n a%ainst left win%ers whose Americanism was suspect was launched
under the direction E'/' Attorney >eneral A' 6itchell 3almer and <' Ed%ar Hoo!er' (he
*3almer 9aids+ resulted in the roundin% up of thousands of anarchists, socialists, and
communists' 6any were ;ailed, and many were deported for !iolations of !arious federal
laws related to sedition, espiona%e, and alien status'
/i%: (he 3almer 9aids are part of post=WW1 anti=communist hysteria'
Compare this with the anti=communist hysteria -*6cCarthyism+. in the post=WW11
*frican *merican .i$ration durin$ and after World War I
Who: African Americans
What: 0urin% the war, tens of thousands of African Americans mi%rated from the
/outh to the North because of war industry employment opportunities'
/i%: (his was a ma;or shift in re%ional mi%ration for African Americans' (his
trend was accelerated durin% World War 11' (hus blac) communities in the North and
West -especially California. %rew as a result of ;obs durin% both world wars' -4acin%
continued discrimination after the war, many African Americans were loc)ed in urban
%hettos in Northern and Western cities, which in turn became the scene of %reat unrest,
includin% riotin%, after WW11'.
(he 9oarin% $Ds
Disarmament' Was(in$ton @aval -onference 1>/11>//
What: 3resident Hardin% in!ited ma;or powers -e&cept 9ussia. to Washin%ton for
a disarmament conference' (he a%enda was e&panded to include the situation in the 4ar
East and led to !arious a%reements, includin% the 1. 4our 3ower, $. 4i!e 3ower and G.
Nine 3ower a%reements'
/i%: A series of a%reements were reached with the intent to a!oid confrontation
and war in the 3acific' (he E'/' was *isolationist+ -no forei%n entan%lements that could
lead to war. and these a%reements should be analy2ed in the conte&t of *isolationism'+
(o)yo terminated the 4i!e 3ower A%reement in 1#G" -the na!al disarmament treaty. and
in its in!asion of China bro)e the Nine 3ower A%reement -5pen 0oor., all contributin%
to the %rowin% confrontation between the E'/' and <apan that led to WW11'
1. &our *o#er 1greement 1)--
What: (he E'/', :ritain, 4rance, and <apan a%reed to respect the territorial
inte%rity of their possessions in the far east'
/i%: 1n retrospect, this was a meanin%less a%reement to be respectful and to tal)
to each other if one of the si%natories !iolates the a%reement' 4rom an isolationist
perspecti!e, howe!er, it was a positi!e step to maintain peace in the 3acific'
-. &ive *o#er 1greement 1)--
What: (he E'/', :ritain, <apan, 4rance, and 1taly, a%reed to limit the construction
of capital -lar%e. ships to a ratio of C:C:G:1'7C:1'7C, respecti!ely' 4urther, the E'/'
:ritain, and <apan a%reed to not further fortify their insular possessions in the 3acific'
(his was intended to relie!e potential tensions that mi%ht arise from an arms buildup, but
it left the 3hilippines !irtually defenseless in case of a <apanese attac), which came on
1$=7="1' -(he 3hilippines fell to the <apanese on 6ay 6, 1#"$, ;ust fi!e months after
3earl Harbor'.
/i%: 1mmediately, an arms race was a!erted' (his is all a part of the E'/'
isolationist effort to a!oid situations that mi%ht lead to war' -(he ban)ruptcy of the
process is ob!iousMwith $DF$D hindsi%ht'.
/. 4ine *o#er 1greement 1)--
What: (his a%reement was part of the Washin%ton Na!al Conference' (he :i%
4our -E'/', :ritain, 4rance, <apan., plus 1taly, :el%ium, the Netherlands, 3ortu%al and
China supported the 5pen 0oor 3olicy whereby the si%natories pled%ed mutual respect
for Chinese territorial inte%rity and independence'
/i%: <apan !iolated the a%reement after its in!asion of China in 1#G1' (he E'/'
insistence on the 5pen 0oor in China became a continuin% source of contro!ersy for the
E'/' and <apan and should be !iewed as part of the bac)%round to the comin% of WW11'
;arding Scandals ,his shortened term #as 1)-1-1)-/.
Who: Hardin%, the *5hio >an%,+ Colonel Charles 4orbes, Harry /inclair, and
Edward 0oheny
What: Hardin%, li)e >rant, was surrounded by croo)ed men, who are collecti!ely
)nown as the *5hio >an%'+ He was successful by %oin% alon% with 5hio 9epublican
machine politicians' When elected to the /enate, he said it seemed to be ?a !ery pleasant
place'? He was nominated for president because his 5hio bac)ers thou%ht he loo)ed li)e
a president' Not surprisin%ly, scandal roc)ed his administration' 5ne scandal included
7eterans Administration head Colonel Charles 9' 4orbes, who was found to be stealin%
W$DD million from the %o!ernment' Another maPor scandal durin% his administration
was the :eapot 3ome in 1#$1, in which /ecretary of the 1nterior Albert :' 4all, who,
after recei!in% almost W"DD,DDD in bribes, leased oil lands to two oilmen, /inclair and
0oheny' Hardin% would not li!e to hear the public results of the scandals: 1n Au%ust of
1#$G, he died in /an 4rancisco of a heart attac), and 7ice 3resident Cal!in Coolid%e
became president'
/i%: Hi)e >rant, Hardin%s in!ol!ement with corrupt men shows his wea)ness
of character' He is re%arded as one of the worst presidents because of these scandals, but
he should be %i!en credit for the Washin%ton 0isarmament Conference and the !arious
a%reements resultin% from that Conference'
;arding and Coolidge pro-business policies 1)-1-1)-)
Who: Hardin%, Coolid%e, 6ellon
What: :oth Hardin% -?Hess %o!ernment in business and more business in
%o!ernment'+. and Coolid%e -?(he business of America is business'?. had pro=business
policies' Ender Hardin%, antitrust laws were i%nored or feebly enforced, lettin%
corporations and bi% industrialists thri!e' :oth Hardin% and Coolid%e often increased
tariffs, rather than decreasin% them, which is seen in the 6cCumber (ariff of 1#$$'
/ecretary of the (reasury Andrew 6ellon -ser!ed 1#$1=G$, which means that three
presidents *ser!ed under him+. promoted lar%e ta& reductions' Ender his lead, Con%ress
repealed e&cess=profits ta&, as well as abolishin% the %ift ta&, and reducin% e&cise ta&es,
the surta&, the income ta&, and estate ta&es'
/i%: (he actions of both presidents show their pro=business policies' 6ellons
actions concernin% ta&es shifted the ta& burden from the wealthy to the middle class'
9elate all this to the pro=business mood of the country in the 1#$Ds'
"a'' 1ge 1)-s
What: (his period in American history coincides with the 9oarin% (wenties'
(he name refers to ;a22 music, brou%ht up from the /outh by the mi%ration of African
Americans durin% WW1' (he a%e was also mar)ed by indi!idualism and a pursuit of
pleasure' (his a%e also brou%ht forth literature, includin% 4' /cott 4it2%eralds (he >reat
>atsby and (his /ide of 3aradise, which addressed the superficiality, e&tra!a%ance, and
hedonism -pleasure=see)in%. of the period'
/i%: (his a%e influenced America deeply addin% to its cultural identity,
includin% the addition of Americas most nati!e music' (he a%e also displays the cultural
influence created by the :lac) community'
;arlem >enaissance 1)-s
Where: (he blac) community in Harlem, a community within New 8or) City
What: (he Harlem 9enaissance -rebirth. was the blossomin% of racial pride and
culture in Harlem' (his includes e&pression throu%h art, music, dance, literature, history,
politics, and business' 5ne of the %reat poets was Langston ;ughes, who contributed
%reatly to the mo!ement' 6arcus >ar!ey contributed to the renaissance, foundin% the
Enited Ne%ro 1mpro!ement Association -EN1A. and the :lac) /tar Hine /teamship
/i%: (his mo!ement furthered the cultural identity of the African Americans,
as well as contributin% to American culture as a whole' 5ut of this renaissance,
contributions to !arious forms of art and blac) self=awareness and pride were achie!ed'
*rohibition, bootlegging 1)1)-1)//
What: 3rohibition was authori2ed in 1#1# by the 1J
Amendment and was
implemented by the 7olstead Act' 3rohibition was considered a noble *e&periment,+ but
was not able to stop the consumption of alcohol' 5ld=time saloons were replaced by
*spea)easies+ and *moonshine+ was made at home' :ootle%%in% was also rampant, as
alcohol was smu%%led into America' 3rohibition spawned criminal mobs associated with
bootle%%in%' 3rohibition was repealed with the $1
Amendment in 1#GG'
/i%: 3rohibition, an antebellum reform mo!ement that was finally successful,
showed the influence of churches and women' 3rohibition also demonstrated the
ban)ruptcy of le%islatin% morality without first con!incin% the drin)in% public of the
need for prohibition'
8odernism in the 1)-s and responses to it ,fundamentalism, nativism.
Who: (he *Host >eneration,+ 4undamentalists, and Nati!ists
What: 6odernism in the 1#$Ds is rooted in the idea that people can ma)e
pro%ress and can reshape their en!ironment throu%h the application of scientific and
technical )nowled%e and the absence of any fear of chan%e' E&ploration and
e&perimentation is critical to e&perience in many areas of life' (his leads to a *try
anythin%+ attitude that was loathsome to many traditional Americans'
(hese chan%es in tradition were countered by the efforts of the
4undamentalists, who were concerned with modernism creepin% into society and schools'
Notably, they fou%ht a%ainst the teachin% of e!olution in schools and were successful in
%ettin% many states to pass anti=e!olution laws'
(he *New 1mmi%ration+ of the modern era was condemned by the *one
hundred percent Americans+ and their nati!ist ideals' (hey called for an end to mass
immi%ration from Europe' 6any of the immi%rants embraced socialism, which was
detested by many traditionalists' Nati!ists succeeded with the 1mmi%ration Act of 1#$"'
(he worst reaction here was the reemer%ence of a powerful III that opposed blac)s,
<ews, and Catholics==all seen as threats to traditional American culture'
/i%: (he modernist mo!ement of the 1#$Ds led to a cultural stru%%le between
traditionalists, includin% 4undamentalists, and those who embraced the 9oarin% $Ds with
its liberatin%, boundless, and pro%ressi!e ener%y'
4ativism ,throughout the nation!s histor+, 1%s-1)s.
Who: Conser!ati!e, American born citi2ens'
What: (his anti=immi%rant sentiment had its be%innin%s after the 9e!olution,
with a ma;or presence in the pre Ci!il War *Inow Nothin% 3arty'+ :y the 1JJDs,
Chinese were the principal tar%ets of Nati!ism' At the turn of the century, nati!ists based
their actions upon the fear that European immi%rants brou%ht radical ideas o!er with
them, and they feared that communist, socialist, and anarchist mo!ements would ta)e
hold in America' Nati!ist ideas also appeared within or%ani2ations such as the Iu Ilu&
Ilan durin% the 1#$Ds, as *nati!e+ Americans wor)ed to crush the cultural di!ersity that
was appearin% with the forei%ners'
/i%: (his anti=immi%ration !iew reflects the racial, cultural, and economic fears
directed at eastern and southern Europeans from 1J#D up to the 1#$Ds' (he pressures put
upon the %o!ernment by those who held this !iew led Con%ress to establish the Auota
system throu%h the 1mmi%ration Act of 1#$" -finally repealed in 1#6C as part of H:<s
>reat /ociety.' (he nati!ist outloo) also helped to feed the *red scare+ of 1#$D, which
was a nationwide crusade a%ainst those who were suspected of bein% Communists'
>eligious fundamentalists versus modernists?
the Scopes :rial 1)-5
Who: <ohn (' /copes, William <ennin%s :ryan, Clarence 0arrow'
Where: 0ayton, (ennessee'
What: /copes, a hi%h school biolo%y teacher, was char%ed with teachin%
e!olution in his classroom, which contradicted a state law that made it ille%al to teach any
theory that disa%reed with the :iblical account of creation' 1n a hi%hly publici2ed e!ent,
he was defended by nationally acclaimed attorney Clarence 0arrow' -(he prosecution
called on William <ennin%s :ryan, a famous 4undamentalist, as an e&pert witness'.
/copes was found %uilty and fined W1DD, but the supreme court of (ennessee released
him from the fine due to a technicality'
/i%: (his e!ent si%nals the clash between modern scientific ideas and
fundamental Christian beliefs' (he 4undamentalists may ha!e won the case, but
0arrows cross e&amination made :ryan loo) li)e a fool' (his ridicule of their cause
caused many Christians to later reconcile their established beliefs with modern science'
-Hater, the /upreme Court struc) down anti=e!olution statutes'.
Du DluB Dlan 1>/0s
Who: An%lo /a&ons, *nati!e+ Americans, 3rotestants, lower=middle=class
Where: 6idwest and the *:ible :elt+ /outh'
What: (his society of ultraconser!ati!e e&tremists, first founded as an anti=:lac)
%roup durin% the 9econstruction period, witnessed a rebirth in the early 1#$Ds' :y the
mid 1#$Ds, it boasted of C million dues=payin% members' (he III was anti=forei%n,
anti=<ewish, anti=:lac), anti=Catholic, anti=Communist, anti=pacifist, and
anti=e!olutionist' 1ts members, the *Ini%hts of the 1n!isible Empire+ used the bloodied
lash and the bla2in% cross as weapons of fear' With C,DDD,DDD members, the Ilan could
intimidate both blac)s and politicians' (he mo!ement dwindled in popularity towards
the end of the decade due to le%al and financial issues'
/i%: (he III is the best e&ample of anti=blac) and nati!ist sentiment in E'/'
<omen and the famil+ in the 1)-s
What: 1. 3olitically, women recei!ed the ri%ht to !ote !ia the 1#

Amendment, which was ratified in 1#$D'
$. Economically, women had been findin% increased employment in
cities since the late 1JDDs, and this trend continued throu%hout the 1#$Ds' (hey wor)ed in
;obs such as retail cler)in%, typin%, receptionist, teacher, nurse'
G. /ocially, further independence was brou%ht with the automobile,
which decreased womens dependence upon men' *4lappers+ raised their hemlines, rolled
their stoc)in%s, put rou%e on their chee)s, and smo)ed ci%arettes publicly to symboli2e
their brea) from the standards of pre!ious %enerations' 6ar%aret /an%er preached birth
control, which meant that the new woman==wor)in%, more mobile, and relati!ely
liberated==could control her own life to an unprecedented de%ree' (he new woman could
delay marria%e and not ha!e as many children as her mother or %randmother' With a
smaller or no family, a more liberated woman was emer%in%' (his trend would continue
for many decades, acceleratin% in the 1#6Ds'
". (echnolo%ically, the woman was benefitin% from in!entions such
as the refri%erator and the washin% machine which sa!ed time'
/i%: (he chan%in% roles of women reflected many chan%es in American
society, and a%ain traditionalists and 4undamentalists ob;ected to the disruption of what
would be characteri2ed today as *family !alues'+
.ar$aret San$er and =irt( -ontrol 1>/0s on6ard
What: /an%er promoted birth control openly' /he critici2ed censorship of her
messa%e by ci!il and reli%ious authorities' 1n 1#$1 New 8or) police bro)e up the
inau%ural meetin% of the American :irth Control Hea%ue, whose founder, 6ar%aret
/an%er, saw contraception as the scientific alternati!e to po!erty, crime and urban
/i%: Her promotion of birth control aided in the further erosion of
traditionalism in the cultural re!olution that too) place durin% the 9oarin% $Ds' A%ain,
traditionalists fou%ht her, ar%uin%, for e&ample, that the soarin% di!orce rate was a
reflection of her )ind of acti!ities'
ELost BenerationF 1)-s
Who: Authors: Hemin%way -!he *un #lso Fises., 4it2%erald -!his *ide o"
Paradise and !he Great Gatsby., E2ra 3ound, /herwood Anderson, ('/' Eliot -!he
Waste Land., >ertrude /tein, eecummin%s
Where: E/ and Europe
What: (he %eneration of youn% people comin% of a%e in the E/ durin% and
shortly after WW1 was considered *lost+ because the war had sha)en their traditional
beliefs' 0isillusioned by the o!erwhelmin% death and destruction caused by the war, this
%eneration re;ected the notions of morality and propriety of their elders and as e&patriates
went to Europe' (he se& and alcohol of the L$Ds literature was rooted in disillusionment
with the world as a result of the horrors of World War 1' -:y the time of the 1#CDs and
1#6Ds, the post=World War 11 %eneration of writers %rew up with this disillusionment,
alon% with the 0epression and World War 11' (hey en%a%ed in se&, alcohol, dru%s, not
out of disillusionment but out of curiosity'. (he Host >eneration of the L$Ds and the
*:eat+ %eneration of theCDs both re;ected the normati!e standards of contemporary
society, but the *:eat+ %eneration of the LCDs did so with a casualness that was absent in
the L$Ds because the *:eat+ %eneration simply accepted the world for what it was, while
the *Host+ %eneration once belie!ed in and supported societal standards of beha!ior and
then became disillusioned'
/i%: (he literature demonstrates the o!erwhelmin% effect of the war and how it
contributed to the further de%radation of traditionalism in America'
Isolationism in the 1)-s and T/s
What: 1solationism dro!e E'/' forei%n policy in the L$Ds and LGDs' Not wantin%
to repeat the mista)es that %ot the E'/' into World War 1, Con%ress, presidents, and the
public supported laws and policies that would )eep the E'/' out of forei%n entan%lements
-so they thou%ht, erroneously.' With this in !iew, !arious 3E3/ can be de!eloped to
support an isolationist forei%n policy: the failure of the E'/' to ;oin the Hea%ue of
Nations, the Washin%ton Na!al 0isarmament Conference of 1#$1=$$ and the !arious
treaties arisin% therefrom, the 0awes 3lan for reparations, the Iello%%=:riand 3eace
3act, the /timson 0octrine, and the Neutrality le%islation of 1#GC=1#G7'
/i%: 6any of Americas isolationist actions actually pro!o)ed WW11 by
con!incin% the dictators in Europe and the <apanese militarists that America would not
fi%ht them if they tried to ta)e o!er Europe or the 4ar East' :y not helpin% nations under
attac), the E'/' only bolstered <apanese and >erman confidence'
WWI Reparation Pro&lems 1>/0s and 1>,0s
Who: Charles 0awes, >ermany, En%land, and 4rance
What: (he 4rench and :ritish demanded that the >ermans ma)e enormous
reparations payments as compensation for war=inflicted dama%es, but >ermany suffered
from hyperinflation and could not pay either :ritain or 4rance' America refused,
howe!er, to lower :ritains and 4rances debts to the E'/', so in order to be paid
American Charles 0awes produced the 0awes 3lan of 1#$"' (he 0awes 3lan stated that
American in!estors would lend money to >ermany so that >ermany could ma)e
reparations to :ritain so that :ritain could repay their allied war debt to America' (his
financial merry=%o=round only resulted in hi%her debt for >ermany and a boost for
American creditors who made profit on the hi%h interest loans'
/i%: 1n the end America ne!er did %et its money, but it har!ested a bumper
crop of ill will in Europe' Also, Americans did not li)e the enormous debt caused by the
war and this contributed powerfully to the isolationist policy of America leadin% up to
&arm problems in 1)-s
What: 0ue to the ad!anced technolo%y of machines, farmers faced an
o!er=abundance of crop production' 4urther, after WW1 European farmers were ha!in% a
%reater impact on worldwide production' (his abundance decreased prices on crops and
increased the chance of depression for farmers' (he 6cNary=Hau%en :ill -1#$7=$J. was
an effort to boost a%ricultural prices by ha!in% the %o!ernment buy surplus crops at pre=
WW1 prices, but Coolid%e !etoed the bill twice'
/i%: (he worldwide surplus of crops after WW1 caused a decrease in price'
(he sudden price drop caused many farmers to lose money and their farms' (he final
solution, the AAA of the New 0eal, would ha!e to wait for 409'
?enry )ord and )ord .otor -o
Who: Henry 4ord
Where: 0etroit, 6ichi%an *6otorcar Capital of America+
What: Creator of the 4ord car -6odel (.' (his car was mass mar)eted and well
within price reach at W$6D, thus pro!idin% a car for all classes of society' 4ord mastered
the techniAues of assembly=line production and made a durable, ine&pensi!e car for
America' He opened a hu%e industry that created hundred of thousands of ;obs' With
impro!ed transportation, includin% roads, farmers could %et their produce more Auic)ly to
mar)et, and people in %eneral could tra!el almost anywhere and li!e far from city centers'
/i%: (he automobile was, ar%uably, the sin%le most important contribution to
American ci!ili2ation in the $D
century, and Henry 4ord is to be %i!en credit for
brin%in% it to the common person'
Immi$ration Restrictions in t(e 1>/0’s
What: 1n response to nati!ist fears of immi%rants from eastern and southern
Europe, with their different customs, lan%ua%es, and political traditions, Con%ress passed
the Emer%ency Buota Act of 1#$1 -G] of a nations people who were in the E'/' in 1#1D
would be allowed into the E'/' e!ery year, the 1mmi%ration Act of 1#$" lowered the
percent to $] with the base year bein% 1J#D, before most of the immi%rants from eastern
and southern Europe arri!ed in the E'/'.' (he 1#$" Act also prohibited entirely the
immi%ration of <apanese'
/i%: (he E'/', respondin% to nati!ist fears, sacrificed its tradition of freedom
and opportunity for immi%rants'
Consumerism in the 1)-!s
What: (he 1#$Ds saw the %rowth of the culture of consumerism==many
Americans be%an to wor) fewer hours, earn hi%her salaries, in!est in the stoc) mar)et,
and buy refri%erators, !acuum cleaners, cars, and radios' Companies sent out ads to
con!ince Americans to buy many thin%s' Credit purchases fueled consumer purchases'
/i%: Consumerism fueled an already heated economy' Consumerism led to too
much installment buyin% and o!erproduction by manufacturers who in the end could not
sell their %oods once the 0epression %ot under way'
Dello$$=riand Peace Pact 1>/8
Who: 4ran) :' Iello%% -Coolid%es secretary of state. and Aristide :riand
-4rances forei%n minister.
Where: 4rance, America, and ultimately 6D other nations
What: (he E'/' and 4rance si%ned this treaty which renounced war as an
instrument of forei%n policy' (he treaty had no enforcement or sanctions a%ainst those
who bro)e the pact and it did not pre!ent war between countries'
/i%: (his pact was ineffecti!e and useless as seen in >ermanys in!asion
->ermany si%ned the document. of 3oland' (he pact was a hope that diplomacy would
pro!e stron% enou%h to )eep countries from wa%in% war a%ainst each other' (he pact also
fueled American isolationism in that the treaty produced a false sense of security'
:he ongoing struggle for equalit+ in the 1)-s? 1frican 1merican and #omen
What: :oth African=Americans and women stru%%led for freedom in the 1#$Ds
without %o!ernmental help' (he %o!ernment did little or nothin% to suppress <im Crow
and women continued to be treated as they were before WW1 in spite of their
contributions to the war effort' :oth %roups sou%ht freedom of e&pression'
African=Americans e&pressed their independence most notably throu%h the Harlem
9enaissance, and women e&pressed their independence most notably throu%h the
*flapper+Mthe short=s)irted, drin)in%, smo)in%, unchaperoned youn% woman who defied
/i%: Contrast the post=WW1 with the post=WW11 period for both African=
Americans and women' After WW11, from the 1#"Ds to the 1#7Ds and beyond, both
%roups bro)e the bonds of tradition and laws with asserti!e and a%%ressi!e social and
political campai%ns to achie!e eAuality, and both %roups were !ery successful'
>reat 0epression and the New 0eal
Causes of 3epression
What: (he >reat 0epression was an economic crisis that lasted from 1#$# to the
late 1#GDs' (he reasons for the 0epression were:
1. Hverproduction of farm and factor+ goods and not enou%h demand'
(his caused factories to cut bac) production and layoff wor)ers' As total salaries
declined there was less money to spend on %oods, and the cycle spiraled downward'
$. Hverexpansion of credit purchases stimulated production, resultin% in
lar%e in!entories of %oods'
G. Speculation in the stoc6 mar6et, where stoc) buyers would buy on
*mar%in+ -which meant they could pay a small part of the actual price, wait for the stoc)
to increase in !alue, sell at the hi%her price, and poc)et a tidy profit with little actually
in!ested.' /toc) !alues soared as a result' (he !alue of stoc)s was %reater than the !alue
of the companies the stoc) represented, and when ner!ous in!estors be%an the sell=off in
1#$#, there was a chain reaction where sellers %reatly outnumbered buyers and stoc)
prices plummeted' 6anufacturers no lon%er had a ready source of added income for
in!estment, and this contributed to further cutbac)s in production and ;obs'
/i%: (he >reat 0epression was a national calamity that would ta)e a decade to
set strai%ht in spite of New 0eal %ains' America seemed to be crumblin% because there
was no immediate answer pro!ided that would %et them out' 409 came alon% in 1#G$
and promised a *New 0eal'+ 1n the end, World War 11 was the answer to the 0epression'
?oover’s Response to Depression
What: 3resident Herbert Hoo!er hoped that state and local %o!ernments and
pri!ate welfare a%encies could sol!e the problems of the 0epression' As the 0epression
wore on, they ran out of money and he reali2ed that the federal %o!ernment had to %et
in!ol!ed' (he 9econstruction 4inance Corporation was de!eloped' Hoo!er as)ed for
money -W$'$C billion. to fund public wor)s pro%ram to help %enerate ;obs -i'e' Hoo!er
/i%: Hoo!er tried to do what 9oose!elt would later do with the *Alphabet+
a%encies, which was to pro!ide public wor)s ;obs that would put money into the hands of
the common people and thus stimulate the economy' Hoo!ers response was too little,
too late'
What: Hoo!er!illes were *7illa%es+ made of shac)s and tents that were formed
in desolate areas durin% the 0epression' (hese ser!ed as temporary li!in% Auarters for
those who could no lon%er afford a real home or apartment'
/i%: (he >o!ernment did not formally reco%ni2e these and would often force
people to mo!e out of them, which led to riots'
2onus 8arch ,2onus Expeditionar+ &orce.
Who: (he :onus E&peditionary 4orce -:E4. was made up of impo!erished
!eterans of World War 1'
What: 0urin% the sprin% and summer of 1#G$ they con!er%ed on the capital and
demanded that Con%ress immediately pay the bonus %ranted by Con%ress in 1#$" but not
payable for se!eral years'
/i%: /ome of the *6archers+ stayed in Washin%ton and continued to protest
which e!entually forced Hoo!er to call in the army to remo!e the protestors' Hoo!ers
harsh treatment of !eterans lessened his popularity ri%ht before the 1#G$ election'
&ran6lin 3elano >oosevelt
Who: 4ran)lin 0elano 9oose!elt, president from 1#GG=1#"C
What: 409 was the only president to be elected more than twice -four times.' He
created the New 0eal, which mo!ed the %o!ernment in a social welfare direction' Within
the New 0eal he created or%ani2ations to help with relief, reco!ery and reform' He
fou%ht WW11 until his death in April 1#"C'
/i%: 5ne of the most influential leaders in E'/' history, as 3resident durin% the
0epression and WW11'
1 3a+s? Ealphabet agenciesF including :=1
Who: Con%ress and 4ran)lin 0elano 9oose!elt
What: A%encies were created by 409 and Con%ress to aid relief, reco!ery and
reform' CCC= Ci!ilian Conser!ation Corps employed three million wor)s who wor)ed in
en!ironment ;obs such as reforestation, forest fire fi%htin% and flood control' AAA=
A%ricultural Ad;ustment Act= %ot money to pay mort%a%es of farmers and paid farmers
not to plant' 4E9A= 4ederal Emer%ency 9elief Act %ranted around three billion dollars to
states for payments of wa%es on wor)s pro;ects' H5HC= Home 5wner Hoan Corporation
refinanced mort%a%es of non=farm homes' CWA= Ci!il Wor)s Administration created
temporary ;obs doin% labor such as minor ;obs in!ol!in% roads, par)s and brid%es' (7A=
(ennessee 7alley Authority built dams and electrified Appalachia'
/i%: (he *1DD 0ays+ restored the peoples faith in their %o!ernment and helped
employ many ;obless citi2ens' (he 1
1DD days -and the /econd New 0eal in 1#GC.
helped mo!e the E'/' towards a social welfare stateMthus to ar%ue that the E'/' is
*capitalistic+ to the e&clusion of other issues is wron%, to ar%ue that the E'/' is
*socialistic+ to the e&clusion of other issues is wron%' (he E'/' is capitalistic, but as a
result of 3ro%ressi!e=inspired re%ulations, the capitalistic economy is controlled, and as a
result of New 0eal=inspired relief, the E'/' has si%nificant social welfare pro%rams but is
not *socialistic'+ (hin) of balance in answerin% essay Auestions'
Civilian Conservation Corps ,CCC. ,8arch /1, 1)//.
What: 3ro!ided employment in fresh=air %o!ernment camps for about G million
youn% men' Wor) included reforestation, fire=fi%htin%, flood control, and
swamp draina%e' Wor)ers were reAuired to send money bac) home to their parents'
/i%: (his was a popular and producti!e effort to put youn% men to wor) and
help their families'
&ederal Emergenc+ >elief 1dministration ,&E>1. ,8a+ 1-, 1)//.
Who: Harry H' Hop)ins
What: 1mmediate relief, rather than lon%=term reco!ery (he a%ency %ranted about
WG billion to the /tates for direct dole payments or wa%es on wor) pro;ects'
/i%: While many ar%ued a%ainst handouts or doles, 4E9A demonstrates 409s
willin%ness to do whate!er was reAuired to help Americans in dire need'
1gricultural 1dPustment 1ct ,111. ,8a+ 1-, 1)//? -
111 in 1)/(.
What: (he AAA established *parity prices+ for basic commodities -parity [
price set for a product that %a!e it the same !alue in purchasin% power that it had from
1#D#=1#1".' (he Act was supposed to eliminate price=depressin% surpluses by payin%
%rowers to reduce their crop acrea%e' (he money needed for this pro%ram was raised
throu%h ta&in% processors of farm products, such as flour millers'
/i%: 4inally, the %o!ernment did somethin% about the chronic farm problem of
o!erproduction' (he AAA was struc) down by /upreme Court in 1#G6 because its
ta& pro!isions were found unconstitutional' A second AAA was passed in 1#GJ, and
price supports -payin% farmers to not produce surpluses. remain, in $DD7, a costly
;ome H#ner!s Loan Corporation ,;HLC. ,"une 1/, 1)//.
What: H5HC helped refinance mort%a%e on non=farm homes' 1t assisted about a
million households'
/i%: (his pro%ram was desi%ned to sa!e non=farm homes from bein% foreclosed
and is another social welfare pro%ram of the New 0eal'
Civil <or6s 1dministration ,C<1. ,4ovember ), 1)//.
What: A branch of 4E9A -headed by Hop)ins. desi%ned to pro!ide temporary
;obs durin% the winter emer%ency -immediate relief.' (ens of thousands were employed
at leaf=ra)in% and other ma)e=wor) tas)s' (his )ind of wor) became )nown as
/i%: (his pro%ram demonstrated 409s willin%ness to try anythin% and to help
common people sur!i!e in dire times'
4ational >ecover+ 1dministration ,4>1. ,"une 1$, 1)//.
What: 1ncorporated short=term and lon%=ran%e reco!ery
0esi%ned to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed
1ndi!idual 1ndustries -o!er $DD in all.
were to wor) out codes of fair competition
hours of labor reduced -which would increase o!erall employment.
ceilin% placed on ma& hours could wor)Ffloor placed on min wa%e le!els -which would
increase o!erall employment.
wor)ers %uaranteed ri%ht to or%ani2e and bar%ain collecti!ely throu%h reps of their own
choosin% -not of corporations choosin%.
antiunion contract forbidden
restrictions placed on child labor
3atriotism for N9A aroused by mass meetin%s and parades
A blue ea%le became N9A symbol
4or a brief period, business acti!ity impro!ed
(he N9A collapsed when the /upreme Court made the /chechter *sic) chic)en+ decision
that declared that Con%ressional control of interstate commerce could not properly apply
to a local business'
/i%: (he N9A was a massi!e national effort to impro!e the economy' When
struc) down by the /upreme Court, the labor protection part was sal!a%ed with the
Wa%ner National Habor 9elations Act of 1#GC'
*ublic <or6s 1dministration ,*<1. ,"une 1$, 1)//.
Who: A%ency headed by /ecretary of the 1nterior -Harold H' 1c)es.
What: 1ntended for industrial reco!ery and unemployment relief, spendin% ?bi%
buc)s on bi% pro;ects'? 5!er W" billion was spent on G",DDD pro;ects -public buildin%s,
hi%hways, schools, and hospitals.' 5ne pro;ect: >rand Coulee 0am on Columbia
9i!er _ lar%est structure since >reat Wall of China'
/i%: (his was an important *1DD days+ pro%ram for relief and reco!ery,
pro!idin% many lon%=term ;obs and pro;ects'
:ennessee =alle+ 1uthorit+ ,:=1. ,8a+ 1(, 1)//.
What: (he (7A was initially intended to determine how much the production
and distribution of electricity cost so that national standards could be set up to test the
fairness of rates char%ed by pri!ate companies' -(here was %reat concern about the
possibility of price=fi&in% and %ou%in% in the electricity industry at that time'. (7A
in!ol!ed the de!elopment of hydroelectric ener%y for the entire (ennessee 9i!er area'
409 could combine the immediate ad!anta%e of puttin% thousands of people to wor)
with a lon%=term pro;ect for reformin% the power monopoly'
/i%: (he pro;ect brou%ht to the area not only full employment and cheap
electrical power, but low cost housin%, abundant cheap nitrates, restoration of eroded soil,
reforestation, impro!ed na!i%ation, and flood control' 1t became one of the most
flourishin% re%ions in the E'/' (he (7A remains as an important federal a%ency in the
E'/' southeast'
Securities and Exchange Commission ,SEC. ,"une $, 1)/7.
What: 0esi%ned as a watchdo% administration a%ency' /toc) mar)ets would be
operated as tradin% mar)ets and less as %amblin% casinos'
/i%: (he /EC was %i!en re%ulatory authority o!er the stoc) mar)et'
Second @e6 Deal :1>,15, la6s<
Who: Con%ress and 4ran)lin 0elano 9oose!elt
What: 1. /ocial /ecurity which pro!ided *old a%e+ payments to retired wor)ers
$. Wor)s 3ro%ress Administration -W3A. which spent billions of dollars
employin% millions to wor) on thousands of public buildin%s, brid%es, roads, and art
pro;ects -the W3A e&pired durin% WW11 when the economy had re!i!ed.'
G. Wa%ner Act or National Habor 9elations Act of 1#GC %a!e wor)ers the
ri%ht to or%ani2e and bar%ain with representati!es of their own choosin% and created the
National Habor 9elations :oard to o!ersee union or%ani2in% and other labor acti!ities'
/i%: /ocial /ecurity is still present today and is the nations lar%est social
welfare pro%ram' (he Wa%ner Act and National Habor 9elations :oard remain the heart
of pri!ate sector labor relations still, in $DD7'
Immi$ration# includin$ .eBican Immi$ration# durin$ t(e Depression
What: 1mmi%ration declined si%nificantly durin% the 0epression, with the
9oose!elt administration bein% reluctant to issue !isas to those who wanted to come to
the E'/' 6e&icans were especially hard hit' (hey had been ur%ed to emi%rate before the
0epression' With the 0epression, those wor)ers were a threat to the employment of
E'/' citi2ens, and hundreds of thousands of 6e&icans were deported' (hose who
remained were forced to find whate!er wor) they could, includin% mi%rant labor'
/i%: (his treatment of 6e&icans reflects yet another nati!ist reaction to
>adical and Critics of &3> and the 4e# 3eal
10 &ather Coughlin
Who: An influential broadcaster durin% the 0epression
Where: 6ichi%an
What: As a Catholic priest, Cou%hlin be%an by preachin% sermons and messa%es
o!er the radio in 1#$6, but by 1#GD, 4ather Cou%hlin had mo!ed on to politics and
economics' Cou%hlin tau%ht his messa%e of *social ;ustice+ which hea!ily supported
monetary *reforms'+ He be%an as a 409 supporter, but when 409 did not continue
ma)in% reforms in office, Cou%hlin became anti=409 and anti=New 0eal' Cou%hlin
became e&tremely popular and influential durin% the 0epression era, but when he showed
si%ns of anti=/emitism, he was ta)en off the air in 1#"D'
/i%: 0urin% the 0epression, almost one=third of the population in America was
listenin% to his show' He became a !ery influential fi%ure in politics and his !iews on
*social ;ustice+ stuc) with many Americans' He was 409s bi%%est critic durin% the
-0 ;ue+ Long 1()/-1)/5
Who: /enator and >o!ernor of Houisiana
What: Huey *Iin%fish+ Hon% was a radical populist who fou%ht for the *little
man+ instead of the rich' Hon% fou%ht for his */hare 5ur Wealth+ pro%ram which
promised WC,DDD to each American family' 1n addition to this, he wanted to limit
incomes and le%acies as well as %i!e old=a%e pension to anyone o!er 6D' His slo%an was
*E!ery 6an a Iin%+' 4earin% the rise of a fascist dictator, Hon% was assassinated in
/i%: Hon% helped pass many reforms as >o!ernor to help the rural poor' He
was feared by 409 as a threat to the %o!ernment because of his stand on political
,4 )rancis +o6nsend
Who: 9etired physician who fou%ht for support for the elderly
Where: California
What: (ownsend %ained the support of C million *senior citi2ens+ throu%h his
proposed plan to the %o!ernment' His plan stated that each month, any person o!er the
a%e of si&ty would recei!e W$DD, pro!ided that all the money is spent within that month'
(ownsend claimed that this would help the economy durin% the 0epression by pro!idin%
more ;obs because the elderly would ha!e more money to spend' His 5ld A%e 9e!ol!in%
3ension 3lan was %i!en to 409 with $D million si%natures attached'
/i%: 3ro!ided elderly citi2ens with a !oice in %o!ernment' Was one of the
radicals who pushed New 0eal reformsMcollecti!ely one of many dema%o%ues who
could ha!e pushed the E'/' towards totalitarianism had it not been for 409 and his New
0eal reforms'
70 Ipton Sinclair, #riter ,:he "ungle 1)$. and socialist
What: /inclair proposed E31C, End 3o!erty in California, by which the
%o!ernment would buy or lease unused land or buildin%s and ha!e unemployed wor)ers
or farmers raise crops or manufacture %oods'
/i%: 409 and the 0emocrats saw /inclair as a threat to the New 0eal
*corporate+ form of relief, reco!ery, and reform' (he 0emocrats acti!ely sou%ht to
discredit him'
N5(E: (HE 353EHA91(8 54 (HE/E 0E6A>5>EE/ HEH3E0 3E/H 409 AN0
0E65C9A(/ (5 A053( HE>1/HA(15N -E'>', /5C1AH /ECE91(8. (HA(
W5EH0 E44EC(17EH8 NEE(9AH1OE (HE A33EAH 54 (HE/E 0AN>E95E/
"ohn Collier and the Indian >eorgani'ation 1ct 1)/7
Who: <ohn Collier and Nati!e Americans
What: With the 1#G" 1ndian 9eor%ani2ation Act, Enited /tates policy too) a
dramatic swin% and ac)nowled%ed the continuin% force and !alue of Nati!e American
tribal e&istence' (he *1ndian New 0eal,+ ushered in by the reform=minded Commissioner
of 1ndian Affairs <ohn Collier, put an end to further allotment of lands' Nati!e American
tribes were encoura%ed to or%ani2e %o!ernments under the terms of the 1ndian
9eor%ani2ation Act and to adopt constitutions and by=laws, sub;ect to the appro!al of the
E'/' 0epartment of the 1nterior'
/i%: (he 19A of 1#G" re!ersed the assimilation and allotment policies set down
in the 0awes Act of 1JJ7' 4or the first time, 1ndians were to be treated with di%nity and
respect by the E'/' %o!ernment' 4or the 1ndians, the 19A was a *New 0eal'+
Congress of Industrial Hrgani'ations 1)/5
What: (he C15 was first formed within the A 4 of H as the Committee for
1ndustrial 5r%ani2ation in 1#GC, its mission was to or%ani2e all wor)ers in mass=
production industries -steel, auto, rubber., which had few unions at that time' -9ecall that
the A 4 of H was composed of relati!ely autonomous craft unions'.
(he leadership of the C15 included <ohn H' Hewis of the Enited 6ine Wor)ers' 1n 1#GJ,
the C15 bro)e away from the A4 of H'
/i%: Alon% with the A4 of H, the C15 was one of the nations important labor
or%ani2ations, militantly supporti!e of its millions of wor)ers in mass=production
)DR’s Supreme -ourt fi$(t 1>,7
What: (he ultraconser!ati!e and obstructionist /upreme Court -struc) down the
AAA and the N9A. stood in the pathway of 409s New 0eal pro%ress' (herefore, in
1#G7, 409 as)ed Con%ress to permit him to add a new ;ustice to the /upreme Court for
e!ery member o!er se!enty who would not retire' (his was his *court=pac)in%+ scheme'
His plan failed and he was accused of tamperin% with the chec)s and balances system and
flirtin% with dictatorial moti!es' (he Court did become a little more liberal in its
decisions, but by then the New 0eal was on the wane'
/i%: 409 lost much of his political %oodwill that carried him so far' (his
court=pac)in% scheme was an u%ly and dan%erous moment in his administration'
Deynesian 8conomics# 1>,7
Who: <ohn 6aynard Ieynes and 3resident 9oose!elt
What: When the American economy in 1#G7 too) another sharp downturn,
3resident 9oose!elt at last embraced the ideas of the :ritish economist <ohn 6aynard
Ieynes' 1n April 1#G7, 9oose!elt announced a bold pro%ram to stimulate the economy
by planned deficit spending0 Ep to that point, 409 had not done enou%h to pull the
nation out of the 0epression because he belie!ed in balanced bud%ets' 1n !iew of the
1#GJ recession, howe!er, it appeared that Ieynesian deficit spendin% was the answer'
-(his was pro!en when WW11 deficit spendin% finally ended the 0epression and
Ieynesian economics became orthodo& belief thereafterM%o!ernment deficit spendin%
could in!i%orate a slu%%ish economy'.
/i%: (his new pro%ram called *Ieynesianism+ became the new economic
orthodo&y and remained so for decades' (he rise of Ieynesianism mar)ed the end of
laisseG6"aire economics'
=oo;s E Crapes of Wrat( :1>,><# 34S4*4 :1>,8<# +o&acco Road :1>,/<
Who: <ohn /teinbec), <ohn 0os 3assos, Ers)ine Caldwell
What: >rapes of Wrath is a boo) written by <ohn /teinbec) that describes the
mi%ration of people from 5)lahoma to California due to the 0ust :owl' (he E'/'A'
(rilo%y is the ma;or wor) of American writer <ohn 0os 3assos that comprises the no!els
!he ,'nd Parallel -1#GD.- %E%E -1#G$., and !he /ig Money -1#G6.' 0os 3assoss trilo%y
relates the li!es of many characters as they stru%%le to find a place in American society
durin% the early part of the twentieth century' (obacco 9oad, written by Ers)ine
Caldwell, ta)es place in >eor%ia durin% the worst years of 0epression' 1t depicts a
family of poor white tenant farmers, the Hesters, as one of the many small /outhern
cotton farmers estran%ed by the industriali2ation and mi%ration to cities'
/i%: (hese boo)s represent the stru%%les of American people durin% the
0epression Era' (hey present the truthful tale of the ma;or issues of that time era -li)e
the 0ust :owl 6i%ration. and the feelin%s and the responses of the American people'
>ecession of 1)/(
What: :y 1#G7 9oose!elts New 0eal pro%ress was not able to end the
depression' 1n late 1#G7 the economy too) another surprisin%ly se!ere depression=
within=the=depression that the presidents critics Auic)ly dubbed the *9oose!elt
recession'+ 1n the con%ressional elections of 1#GJ, the 9epublicans, for the first time,
cut hea!ily into the New 0eal ma;orities in Con%ress, thou%h failin% to %ain control of
either house' (he international crisis that came to a boil in 1#GJ=1#G# shifted public
attention away from domestic reform'
/i%: (he 9ecession of 1#GJ pro!ed the inadeAuacy of New 0eal pro%rams, and
it was not until WW11 that the 0epression finally ended' 1n the meantime, howe!er, 409
and the New 0eal %a!e the nation hope while puttin% millions to wor) in producti!e
employment' 4urther, the New 0eal fore!er entrenched the E'/' %o!ernment in the social
and economic welfare of the people'
(he Comin% of the /econd World War
Stimson Doctrine and !apan 1>,1
Who: /ecretary of /tate Henry H' /timson -under Hoo!er.
What: After the <apanese !iolated the Hea%ue of Nations a%reement and Nine
3ower (reaty -affirmin% the 5pen 0oor. by launchin% an attac) into 6anchuria in
/eptember 1#G1, /timson declared that the E'/' would not reco%ni2e any territorial
claims acAuired by force'
/i%: <apan went on to bomb /han%hai the ne&t year and America did nothin%
serious to stop them due to hopes of stayin% isolated' 1n a sense, it was the start of WW11'
(he /timson 0octrine was ;ust words' /timson later admitted that the 0octrine was ;ust
*spears of straws and swords of ice'+
Cood @ei$(&or Policy and t(e .ontevideo -onference' 1>,,
Who: 409 and his forei%n policy in Hatin America
What: 1n 409s inau%ural address in 1#GG, he said ?1n the field of world policy 1
would dedicate this nation to the policy of the %ood nei%hbor==the nei%hbor who
resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the ri%hts of others'?
9oose!elts /ecretary of /tate, Cordell Hull, participated in the 6onte!ideo Conference
of 0ecember 1#GG, where he bac)ed a declaration fa!ored by most nations of the
Western Hemisphere: ?No state has the ri%ht to inter!ene in the internal or e&ternal
affairs of another'+ 9oose!elts >ood Nei%hbor policy represented an attempt to distance
the Enited /tates from earlier inter!entionist policies, such as the 9oose!elt Corollary to
the 6onroe 0octrine and military inter!entions in the re%ion durin% the 1#1Ds and 1#$Ds'
/i%: (he >ood Nei%hbor policy reflects American isolationist tendencies in the
PN5(E: 1n Hatin America we ha!e the >ood Nei%hbor 3olicy -1#GG., in Asia we ha!e
the Washin%ton 0isarmament Conference treaties of 1#$1=$$ -disarm and respect the
5pen 0oor., in Europe we ha!e the neutrality laws of 1#GC=G7' All around the world the
E'/' is tryin% to isolate itself and )eep itself free from forei%n entan%lements in the 1#$Ds
and 1#GDs' (his is an answer to an essay Auestion'Q
London Economic Conference 1)//
Who: 9oose!elt and dele%ates from other nations of the world
Where: Hondon
What: A conference held in attempts to control %lobal depression by stabili2in%
e&chan%e rates' 9oose!elt at first a%reed but then withdrew because he wanted to pursue
inflationary policies at home as a means of stimulatin% American reco!ery' 409 was
unwillin% to sacrifice the possibility of domestic reco!ery for the sa)e of international
/i%: 409s announcement reflected Americas isolationism and essentially
ad;ourned the conference, thus ma)in% international cooperation e!er more difficult'
4+e Committee report 1)/7
Who: /enator >erald Nye of North 0a)ota
/i%: (he Nye Committee presented e!idence that shifted the blame for
Americas entry into WW1 from >erman submarines to American ban)ers and arms
manufacturers' Na`!e citi2ens leaped to the conclusions that munitions ma)ers had
caused the war in order to ma)e money, this led to the belief that America could stay out
of future wars if it could remo!e profits from the arms traffic and supported later
neutrality le%islation'
/i%: (he Nye Committee report fueled neutrality le%islation in 1#GC, 1#G6 and
"apanese, Italian, and Berman aggression in the 1)/!s
Where: Europe, Asia, and Africa
What: <apan attac)ed China in 1#G1 -6anchuria. and 1#G7, all in !iolation of the
5pen 0oor' 1taly -6ussolini. in!aded Ethiopia in 1#GC and anne&ed it in 1#G6' (he
Hea%ue of Nations did nothin% to fi%ht 1taly' >ermany, led by Hitler, too) o!er much of
Europe -includin% 4rance.'
/i%: America claimed neutrality and attempted to remain isolationist while
much of the world was %oin% to war' (he Hea%ue of Nations was too feeble to stop the
a%%ression' (he a%%ressors had little to fear from American or Hea%ue inter!ention'
Isolationism? neutralit+ legislation
What: (he Neutrality Acts of 1#GC, 1#G6, and 1#G7 were passed by Con%ress as
a way to le%islate America out of World War' (he acts stated that in a time of forei%n war
-or ci!il war., Americans could not sail on a war=in!ol!ed ship, sell or transport arms to a
war=in!ol!ed nation, or ma)e any loans to the countries in!ol!ed'
/i%: (he E'/' had abandoned what it had always stri!en and fou%ht for:
freedom of the seas' :y stayin% out of the conflicts of the 1#GDs and then the first two
years of WW11, America failed to assist those !ery nations that became our allies and
friends durin% the war' American isolationism allowed the a%%ressors to continue their
a%%ressi!e acti!ities with confidence that the E'/' would not inter!ene' 1n retrospect,
%i!en the reality of E'/' participation in WW11, one could ar%ue that the isolationist
policy was dan%erous and ban)rupt'
1ppeasement 1)/(
Who: Western European democracies, >ermany
Where: 6unich, >ermany
What: 1n order to pre!ent war, a conference was held in 6unich, >ermany in
hopes of appeasin% -%rantin% concessions to enemies to maintain peace. Hitler and the
Na2is' (he Western European democracies allowed >ermany to continue ta)in% the
/udetenland, wishin% that it would be Hitlers last conAuest' Hitler promised it would be
but he later too) all of C2echoslo!a)ia' (he act of %i!in% in to Hitler at 6unich was
called *appeasement'+
/i%: Nations learned that appeasin% Hitler was not an effecti!e way to stop his
a%%ression' 1n spite of 6unich, he in!aded 3oland in 1#G#, thus startin% WW11'
Lend-Lease ,1)71.
What: Wantin% to support :ritain in spite of isolationist sentiment, 409
introduced a LHend=lease :ill into Con%ress in <anuary 1#"1 empowerin% him to sell,
transfer, e&chan%e, lease, or lend war supplies to any nation whose defense was deemed
!ital to E/ security' (hou%h bitterly contested by isolationists, the bill became law in
6arch 1#"1' (hereafter, the E'/' sent war supplies to :ritain in its war a%ainst >ermany'
/i%: (he Hend=Hease Act must be seen in the conte&t of 9oose!elt@s !ery
delicate balancin% act to re!erse hostile E/ public opinion and brin% it around to acti!e
support for :ritain'
1tlantic Charter 1)71
Who: Winston Churchill, 409
Where: a warship off the coast of Newfoundland
What: 9oose!elt and Churchill framed the ei%ht=point Atlantic Charter at a secret
meetin% )nown as the Atlantic Conference' (he Charter detailed plans for democracies
when the war ended' Amon% other %oals, it promised self=determination -the ri%ht of
people to choose their own %o!ernment. and *a permanent system of %eneral security+
-which became the Enited Nations in 1#"C.'
/i%: Comin% a few months before 3earl Harbor, the Atlantic Charter si%nals
409s %rowin% commitment to brin% the E'/' out of its isolationist shell and contribute
to :ritains !ictory -at the time of the Charter, :ritain was the only ma;or power actually
fi%htin% the >ermansM4rance surrendered in 1#"D.'
World War 11
Pearl 3arbor %'6576,%
Where: 3earl Harbor, Hawaii
What: (he <apanese initiated a surprise attac) a%ainst the 3acific 4leet at 3earl
Harbor' (he attac) )illed thousands of American sailors and sun) many ships, includin%
many battleships' -(he <apanese, howe!er, did not sin) a sin%le aircraft carrier, which
turned out to be the most important ship in WW11' No carrier was at 3earl on 1$=D7'.
/i%: (his e!ent drew the Enited /tates into World War 11' 1solationism was
sun) alon% with the fleet'
8id#a+, "une /-$, 1)7-
Where: (his battle was fou%ht o!er and near the tiny E'/' 6id=3acific base at
6idway 1sland'
What: All fi%htin% was done by aircraft launched from carriers' <apan was
defeated by smaller and more s)illfully maneu!ered American carrier tas) forces' (he
loss of their carriers put <apan on the defensi!e after 6idway, ;ust si& months after 3earl
/i%: 6idway was a pi!otal !ictory and the success halted <apans L<u%%ernaut'
:eheran Conference 4ovember -( - 3ecember 1, 1)7/
Who: Churchill, 9oose!elt, /talinMthe *:i% (hree+
Where:(eheran, the capital of 1ran'
What: (he *:i% (hree+ met and 409 and Churchill a%reed to open a second front in
/i%: 9esulted in the An%lo=American in!asion of Normandy on *0=0ay,+
<une 6, 1#""'
3-da+? Beneral Eisenho#er "une $, 1)77
Who: (he o!erall commander was >eneral Eisenhower'
Where: Normandy on the coast of 4rance
What: (he allies pinpointed Normandy for the in!asion assault' 1n spite of %reat
losses, the in!asion was ultimately successful and >ermany surrendered in 6ay, 1#"C
-Hitler committed suicide on April GD.'
/i%: 0=0ay was the be%innin% of the end for Hitler' (he /o!iets, who sou%ht a
*/econd front,+ finally %ot it' -(he /o!iets resented the delay in openin% the second
1dmiral 4imit' and Beneral 8ac1rthur
Who: Admiral Nimit2 was a hi%h=le!el na!al strate%ist, >eneral 6acarthur
commanded American and Australian forces'
Where: >eneral 6acArthur fou%ht in the south 3acific while Admiral Nimit2
fou%ht in the north 3acific'
/i%: Nimit2 and 6acArthur won the war a%ainst <apan in the 3acific'
5alta Conference &ebruar+ 1)75
Who: Churchill, 9oose!elt, /talin'
Where:8alta, in the Crimea
What: /talin a%reed that 3oland should ha!e a representati!e %o!ernment based
on free elections' -/talin then went bac) on this.' :ul%aria and 9omania were also to
ha!e free elections' -(his was another promise bro)en by /talin'. (here were also plans
for or%ani2in% a new international peace)eepin% or%ani2ationMthe Enited Nations' /talin
also a%reed to attac) <apan within three months after the fall of >ermany -/talin did so.'
(he /o!iets were then promised /a)halin 1sland -lost to <apan in 1#DC.'
/i%: 8alta was called a *sellout+ by critics of 409 -later.' /talin rene%ed on
his promise of elections in Eastern Europe, instead settin% up Communist puppet re%imes'
*otsdam Conference9"ul+, 1)75
Where: Held near :erlin
WhoFwhat: 3res' (ruman -409 died in April, 1#"C., /talin -E//9., and :ritish
leaders -first Churchill, then Atlee. discussed how to o!ercome <apan'
/i%: (he final decision on <apan was made at 3otsdam: <apan must surrender
or be destroyed'
Inited 4ations9"une, 1)75
What: (he E'N was su%%ested by the three allied leaders at the 8alta Conference'
(he E'N' became a reality after 9oose!elts death' (he E'N' was dominated by the *:i%
C+ powers, E/A, :ritain, E//9, 4rance, and China' (he E'/' /enate o!erwhelmin%ly
appro!ed the E'N' in 1#"C'
/i%: Hearnin% from the failure to support the Hea%ue after WW1, the E'/'
pled%ed to support this new international peace)eepin% or%ani2ation' 5r%ani2ed in /an
4rancisco and headAuartered in New 8or), the E'/' has been an acti!e and leadin% force
in the E'N' since its foundin% in 1#"C'
?iros(ima and @a$asa;i5*u$ust 6
and >
# 1>"1
Where: Hiroshima and Na%asa)i, <apan
What: (he Enited /tates dropped two atomic bombs, first on Hiroshima, and
then, three days later, on Na%asa)i' 4earin% an in!asion of <apan would cost up to one
million E'/' casualties, (ruman decided to drop the bombs in the hopes that <apan would
surrender and fi%ht no more' He was correct'
/i%: (he <apanese were ready to defend a%ainst an in!asion' (he two bombs,
howe!er, caused the <apanese to reali2e that they could not fi%ht on' <apan surrendered
soon after the bombs were dropped -Au%ust 1C.' 4urther, this is the only occasion in
history when one nation used atomic weapons in war'
(he Home 4ront durin% World War 11
Wartime mo&iliFation of t(e economy durin$ WWII 1>"11>"1
What: War mobili2ation actions enabled the Enited /tates to be%in the economic
con!ersion needed for the war effort: to mo!e industries into the manufacture of
armaments, to establish the contractin% procedures, and to launch the research and
de!elopment that was needed to win the war and stay ahead of the >erman scientists'
1. Achie!in% these %oals was possible only by converting e&istin% industries and
usin% materials that pre!iously went into manufacturin% ci!ilian %oods' -Auto
companies, for e&ample, stopped ma)in% cars and be%an to manufacture war items such
as tan)s, truc)s and airplane en%ines'.
$. (he draft was started in 1#"D, before 3earl Harbor and in anticipation of the
need for soldiers'
G. :y 1#"G, more wor)ers were needed and more and more #omen went into the
". (here was lar%e=scale mi%ration to industrial centers, especially out of the
/outh, and many blac6s sou%ht employment in northern or western cities' 8exicans
were brou%ht in to fill employment needs -braceros+'
C. 1mportantly, the <ar *roduction 2oard -W3:. was established in 1#"$ by
e&ecuti!e order of 4ran)lin 0' 9oose!elt' (he purpose of the board was to re%ulate the
production and allocation of materials and fuel durin% World War 11 in the Enited /tates'
(he W3: rationed such thin%s as %asoline, heatin% oil, metals, rubber, and plastics' -(he
W3: was dissol!ed shortly after the defeat of <apan in 1#"C'. -(he W3: was much
more important and effecti!e in WW11 than the W1: -War 1ndustries :oard. was in
/i%: (he harnessin% of E'/' industrial power tipped the scales decisi!ely
toward the Allied forces, re!ersin% the tide of war' >ermany and <apan could not match
the Enited /tates in this effort'
Irban migration and demographic changes91)71-1)75
Who: 9eturnin% war !eterans, blac)s and American 1ndians'
What: (he war tri%%ered a mi%ration of many Americans, includin% African
Americans in the /outh, from rural areas to urban areas, includin% cities on the West
/i%: (he war contributed si%nificantly to the rise of si%nificant minority
populations in urban areas, includin% African Americans, Nati!e Americans, and
<ar and regional development during <<II ,1)71-1)75.
What: (here was a massi!e industrial effort in the E'/' to win the war' All o!er
the country, people mo!ed to wor) for industries that were supplyin% the military'
3eople were drawn to industrial areas li)e H'A', 0etroit and /eattle' (he /outh
e&perienced !ery dramatic chan%es' (he /outhern states recei!ed a %reat number of
defense contracts' (his was especially helpful in raisin% the /outh from po!erty' 1n spite
of this fact, 1'6 million blac)s left the /outh to wor) in other areas of the country' Nati!e
Americans left the reser!ations to wor) in ma;or E'/' cities' 5f course, men of all
ethnicities ;oined the armed forces causin% the need for those left on the Home 4ront to
accommodate their absence in industry and a%riculture' All these factors helped to
de!elop different re%ions of the country especially the West and /outh'
/i%: (he mi%ration patterns created by the war led to the rise of the West as a
ma;or industrial and economic player in the E'/' economy' 4urther, the increase in the
African American presence in northern and western cities si%naled the nationali2ation of
problems relatin% to race relations and ;ustice'
Expansion of government po#er during <<II ,1)71-1)75.
What: (otally dedicated to winnin% the war, %o!ernment power e&panded
%reatly' (he War 3roduction :oard stopped the manufacturin% of unessential items and
con!erted ordinary factories to those that produced weaponry' (he National War Habor
:oard, created to pre!ent wor) stoppa%es, imposed pay caps' Con%ress authori2ed the
/mith=Connally Anti=/tri)e Act, which gave the president power to sei,e and
operate privatel% owned war factories when a strike disrupted war production.
(he draft was imposed on all men a%es 1J="C than)s to the /electi!e /er!ice Act of
1#"D' 1mportant items li)e meat, %as and rubber were needed for the troops and were
/i%: (he >o!ernment committed to win the war at any cost and for the most
part Americans a%reed to %o!ernments decisions, whate!er they may be' (he
%o!ernment %reatly increased its power as a result'
Women and Rosie t(e Riveter 1>"11>"1
What: When America entered the war, men went off to fi%ht lea!in% the factories
short of wor)ers' Women were encoura%ed to ta)e up industrial ;obs and more than 6
million women heeded the call' Women who too) up war ;obs were affectionately called
*9osies+ as they built items li)e aircraft and munitions' (he fictional *9osie the 9i!eter+
was first seen in the propa%anda poster entitled *We Can 0o 1t After the war was o!er
$FG of the women left the wor) force'
/i%: Women played a crucial role in winnin% WW11 by supplyin% the troops
with what they needed' (his period really be%an womens status chan%e and after that
point it was )nown that women could hold their own in the wor)force'
Internment of "apanese-1mericans 1)7--7$
Who: <apanese, <apanese American citi2ens -mostly li!in% on the West Coast.
What: After the bombin% of 3earl Harbor, there was a wa!e of anti=<apanese
sentiment on the West Coast' 4'0' 9oose!elt authori2ed the internment of 1$D,DDD
<apanese in remote and hastily constructed camps' (here were 1D camps located in some
of the harshest climates of the country' (hey were forced to stay for the duration of the
war' (hose li!in% in the camps were depri!ed of basic ri%hts and human di%nity' -(here
was no due process of law reAuired under the C
Amendment'. (his was especially
un;ust because $FG of the internees were American citi2ens' 1n Iorematsu !' E'/' in
1#"", the E'/' /upreme Court appro!ed the internment' 1n spite of the depri!ations,
<apanese Americans created small and !ibrant communities within the camps' 6any
youn% <apanese American men ser!ed with and coura%e and distinction in the E'/' armed
ser!ices while their parents and youn%er siblin%s remained in the camps' -(he ""$

9e%imental Combat (eam is the best e&ample'.
/i%: (he internment of the <apanese demonstrated how a nation can deny ri%hts
to a minority as a result of hysterical o!erreaction to a percei!ed and unsubstantiated
:he 3ouble-= Campaign
What: African Americans fou%ht for 7ictory a%ainst fascism o!erseas and
7ictory o!er discrimination at home' (his was the 0ouble=7 of WW11'
/i%: (he 0ouble=7 campai%n of WW11 reflects the role that war has on
effectin% chan%e more rapidly' 6any African Americans and others became aware of
the hypocrisy of fi%htin% fascism abroad but doin% nothin% about <im Crow at home'
(his accounts in part for the more a%%ressi!e ci!il ri%hts acti!ities that followed WW11,
not ;ust by African Americans but by the national %o!ernment as well'
Coot Suit >iots ,1)7--7/.
What: 4lamboyantly dressed 6e&ican and 6e&ican=American youth were
attac)ed by white E'/' sailors in Hos An%eles' (he sailors claimed that they were bein%
attac)ed while on liberty' :oth sides claimed self=defense'
/i%: (he riots symboli2ed the dan%ers of throwin% %roups of ethnically mi&ed
youth into the same
(ruman and the /tart of the Cold War 1#"C=1#C$
Post WWII 8conomic =oom 1>"11>10s
What: 5nce WW11 ended, the soldiers returned ready to lead producti!e li!es and
for%et their wartime ni%htmares' (han)s to the >1 bill -1#""., some J million !eterans
ad!anced their education' With help and encoura%ement from the 7eterans
Administration, many bou%ht *tract+ homes in the %rowin% suburbs' 6ost of these 1C
million !eterans %ot married, and the *baby boom+ followed, which added CD million
more to the population' (hese *middle=class+ !eterans e&perienced %reat prosperity, and
there was desire for more consumer %oods such as (7s, cars, and washin% machines'
/i%: 7eterans returned to build new li!es' (he country became e&ceptionally
prosperous as families floc)ed to the suburbs, and industry thri!ed to supply American
B0I0 2ill 1)77
What: 5n <une $$, 1#"", 3resident 4ran)lin 0elano 9oose!elt si%ned into law:
the /er!icemembers@ 9ead;ustment Act of 1#"", commonly )nown as the >1 :ill of
9i%hts' :y the time the ori%inal >1 :ill ended in <uly 1#C6, 7'J million World War 11
!eterans had participated in a colle%e education or trainin% pro%ram and $'" million
!eterans had home loans bac)ed by the 7eterans Administration
/i%: (he >'1' :ill was one of the most si%nificant pieces of le%islation e!er
produced by the Enited /tates %o!ernment$ 1t helped with the transition of 1C million
members of the armed ser!ices bac) into the ci!ilian population and contributed to the
robust economy of the post=war period'
:aft-;arle+ 1ct 1)7%
Who: 9epublican Con%ress o!er (rumans !eto
What: 1mmediately after WW11, remo!al of wartime price controls caused a GG]
increase in the cost of %oods' Wor)ers belie!ed that wa%es would not )eep up and they
would not be able to buy the %oods they were ma)in%' Numerous stri)es occurred in
1#"6' A more conser!ati!e Con%ress passed this law that outlawed the closed shop -must
be union member before %ettin% ;ob., made unions liable for dama%es resultin% from
;urisdictional disputes, and reAuired union leaders to ta)e a noncommunist oath'
(ruman called it a *sla!e=labor bill+ and !etoed it, but Con%ress had a $FGrds ma;ority
needed to o!erride the !eto'
/i%': (his pro=mana%ement act slowed but did not stop the %rowth of or%ani2ed
labor after WW11' Note too the %rowin% anti=Communist fear loaded into the bill'
+ruman’s )air Deal as eBtension of @e6 Deal and resistance to it
Who: (ruman
What: 0emocratic 3resident (ruman promoted full employment le%islation, an
increase in the minimum wa%e, economic assistance for farmers, e&tension of /ocial
/ecurity, and enactment of anti=discrimination employment practices' He faced a hostile,
conser!ati!e, and !eto=proof 9epublican Con%ress, and yet his 4air 0eal did achie!e
some success'
/i%': (he minimum wa%e was raised, public housin% was pro!ided for with the
Housin% Act of 1#"#, and the benefits of /ocial /ecurity were e&tended' (rumans *4air
0eal+ should be seen as an e&tension of 409s *New 0eal'+
Emplo+ment 1ct of 1)7$
What: (he Employment Act of 1#"6 was a definiti!e attempt by the federal
%o!ernment to ?promote ma&imum employment, production, and purchasin% power'?
Conser!ati!es in Con%ress stripped the Act of much of its power but the spirit of the act
/i%: (his act represents the E'/' %o!ernments effort to mana%e the economy
far beyond the more limited understandin%s of the past -i'e', control of money, trade, and
commerce.' (he act represents a breathta)in% e&ample of the opposite of the laisse2=faire
policy that was characteristic of the late 1JDDs' 4rom about 1#DD to this act in 1#"6, the
relationship of the E'/' %o!ernment to the economy and society had under%one radical
chan%es as industriali2ation, depression, and wars forced %o!ernmental responses and
chan%es' Henceforth the E'/' %o!ernment would be intimately in!ol!ed in the economic
and social affairs of the country'
DiBiecrats 1>"8
Who: /trom (hurmond
What: (he 0i&iecrats were a states=ri%hts party that split from the 0emocratic
3arty and 3resident (ruman' (he 0emocratic 3arty platform of 1#"J included:
*(he 0emocratic 3arty commits itself to continuin% its efforts to eradicate all
racial, reli%ious and economic discrimination' We a%ain state our belief that racial and
reli%ious minorities must ha!e the ri%ht to li!e, the ri%ht to wor), the ri%ht to !ote, the full
and eAual protection of the laws, on a basis of eAuality with all citi2ens as %uaranteed by
the Constitution'+
/trom (hurmond of /outh Carolina led a brea)away %roup and formed the
0i&iecrats -/tates 9i%hts 0emocratic 3arty. that carried se!eral states in the 0eep /outh
in the Electoral Colle%e in the election of 1#"J' (he 0i&iecrats platform of 1#"J
*We stand for the se%re%ation of the races ' ' ' ' We oppose the elimination of
se%re%ation ' ' ' We oppose and condemn the action of the 0emocratic Con!ention in
sponsorin% a ci!il ri%hts pro%ram callin% for the elimination of se%re%ation ' ' ' '+
/i%: (he 0i&iecrats were successful in the 0eep /outh, thus demonstratin% the
power of <im Crow after World War 11 and foreshadowin% the comin% of the ci!il ri%hts
battles of the 1#CDs and 1#6Ds'
1lger ;iss
When: 1#"J
What: Al%er Hiss, an e&=New 0ealer, was accused of bein% a communist by
9ichard Ni&on' He demanded the ri%ht to defend himself before the House En=American
Acti!ities Committee and denied ha!in% been a communist a%ent, but was cau%ht in
strin% of lies and sentenced to fi!e years in prison for per;ury'
/i%: (he Hiss case reflected the lar%ely anti=<ewish, anti=communist sentiment
durin% the early years of the Cold War, and helped ele!ate Ni&ons career'
"ulius and Ethel >osenberg trial 1951-53
What: (he 9osenber%s were two communist spies who were American citi2ens
and who were accused of sendin% atomic data to 6oscow for the de!elopment of an
atomic bomb' (hey were con!icted of espiona%e and sent to the electric chair'
/i%: /ympathy for the 9osenber%s and their two orphaned children caused
some to reco%ni2e that red-hunters were going too far.
Containment? Mennan 1)7%
Who: >eor%e 4' Iennan, a so!iet specialist, crafted the *containment+ doctrine'
What: Iennan, writin% in Foreign #""airs, stated that 9ussia was relentlessly
e&pansionist and needed to be *contained+ in order to pre!ent its e&pansion and
/i%: Containment became the or%ani2in% principle of Cold War forei%n policy
from 1#"C to 1##1'
-ontainment' +ruman Doctrine 1>"7
What: (he (ruman 0octrine stated that America needed to aide *free peoples+
resistin% attac) by *armed minorities'+ (his aid would come primarily in the form of
money' America was fearful that >reece and (ur)ey would fall under /o!iet control and
pro!ided some "DD million dollars in aid'
/i%: (he (ruman 0octrine si%nificantly e&panded the E'/' role in hinderin%
communist %rowth' 1t set the sta%e for the 6arshall 3lan, in which America rebuilt
Western Europe and helped counter communist ta)eo!ers there' (he (ruman 0octrine
and 6arshall 3lan can be seen as *containment+ in action'
%.ars(all Plan 1>"7
Who: /ecretary of /tate >eor%e C' 6arshall proposed the plan'
Where: Europe
What: (he 6arshall 3lan was the primary plan of the Enited /tates for the
reconstruction of Europe followin% World War 11' (he plan was in operation for four
fiscal years be%innin% in <uly 1#"7' 0urin% that period some W1G billion of economic and
technical assistance = eAui!alent to around W1GD billion in $DD6=was pro!ided'
/i%: :y the time the plan had come to completion, the economy of e!ery
participant state, with the e&ception of >ermany, had %rown well past prewar le!els' 5!er
the ne&t two decades Western Europe as a whole would en;oy unprecedented %rowth and
prosperity' (he 6arshall 3lan was hi%hly successful and effecti!ely ser!ed the (ruman
administrations need to confront /talinist 9ussia and the e&pansionist tendencies of
2erlin 1irlift Crisis 1)7(-7)
Who: American, 4rench, and :ritish
Where: West :erlin
What: (he :erlin food=drop, one of the first ma;or crises of the Cold War,
occurred from <une $", 1#"J = 6ay 11, 1#"# when the /o!iet Enion bloc)ed Western
railroad and road access to West :erlin -(he di!ided :erlin was wholly in /o!iet=
controlled East >ermany.' (he crisis abated after the /o!iet Enion did not act to stop
American, :ritish and 4rench airlifts of food and other pro!isions to the Western=held
sectors of :erlin followin% the /o!iet bloc)ade' (he :erlin airlift was hu%e, supplyin%
$'$ million West :erliners for almost one year'
/i%: (his aerial supplyin% of West :erlin became )nown as the :erlin Airlift'
6ilitary confrontation loomed while (ruman embar)ed on a hi%hly !isible mo!e which
would publicly humiliate the /o!iets' A lar%e amount of %oods, such as coal and food
were able to be transferred to West :erlin throu%h the Airlift process' /talin bac)ed
down in the end: the airlift was a !ictory for (rumans forei%n policy'
41:H94orth 1tlantic :reat+ Hrgani'ation 1)7)
What: NA(5 is an international or%ani2ation for collecti!e security established
in 1#"#' Western European nations and the E'/' were -and are. members' (he members
a%reed that an attac) on one would be an attac) on all' (his was in opposition to the
/o!iet Enions Warsaw 3act treaty, pittin% eastern European nations within the /o!iet
bloc a%ainst NA(5'
/i%: NA(5 is the first permanent entan%lin% alliance since the 4ranco=
American of 177J -cancelled by the Con!ention of 1JDD.' 3resident Washin%ton warned
a%ainst such alliances, and the E'/' heeded his ad!ice until the /o!iet threat seemed to
warrant ;oinin% NA(5 in 1#"#' NA(5 !ersus the Warsaw 3act represented the heart of
the Cold War confrontation'
(he 1#CDs*rt(ur )eud :durin$ Dorean War !une /1# 1>10 to cease fire on !uly /7#
Who: >en' 6acArthur and 3resident (ruman
What: (he Iorean War was ta)in% place and a bitter feud between >eneral
6acArthur and 3resident (ruman too) place' Althou%h one of the most decorated
soldiers in E'/' history, after se!eral public criticisms of White House policy in Iorea,
which were seen as undercuttin% the Commander in Chief@s position, Harry (ruman
remo!ed 6acArthur from command and ordered him to return to the Enited /tates
-April, 1#C1.' 6acArthur would ha!e e&panded the war by %oin% into ChinaMwhich
(ruman and his military ad!isors )new would be the wron% war in the wron% place at the
wron% time'
/i%: (he feud demonstrated how di!ided Americans were on whom was the
real enemy -North IoreaR ChinaR /o!iet EnionR.' (ruman asserted himself as
Commander=in=Chief and )ept the war contained to the Iorean peninsulaMto his credit'
(ruman was fi%htin% a *limited+ war consistent with *containment,+ and many
Americans were ha!in% a hard time with the concept, includin% 6acArthur'
.c-art(yism 1>101"
Who: Named after the E'/' /enator <oseph 6cCarthy, a 9epublican from
What: (his communist witch=hunt too) place durin% a period of intense suspicion
in the Enited /tates, primarily from 1#CD to 1#C", when the E'/' %o!ernment was
acti!ely counterin% American Communist 3arty sub!ersion, its leadership, and others
suspected of bein% Communists or Communist sympathi2ers' 0urin% this period people
from all wal)s of life became the sub;ect of a%%ressi!e ?witch hunts,? often based on
inconclusi!e or Auestionable e!idence' 1t %rew out of the /econd 9ed /care that be%an in
the late 1#"Ds' 6cCarthys ;ustified his unfairness on the basis that ;ust as you would not
want a person who associates with )nown se& offenders to baby=sit your children, you do
not want someone who associates with Communists to be in a position of influence' (hus
careers could be ruined and e&pertise lost, both within and outside %o!ernment, solely on
the basis that 6cCarthy accused the person of ha!in% Communist *connections'+ 4ew
had the coura%e to openly defy 6cCarthy, and if they did, their careers could be o!er'
/i%: 3ersons who were !ictims of 6cCarthyism were either denied
employment in the pri!ate sector or failed %o!ernment security chec)s' 1n the film
industry alone, o!er GDD actors, writers and directors were denied wor) in the E'/'
throu%h the informal Hollywood blac)list' 6cCarthy@s influence faltered in 1#C"' 5n
6arch #, 1#C", famed C:/ newsman Edward 9' 6urrow aired a hi%hly critical ?9eport
on <oseph 9' 6cCarthy? that used foota%e of 6cCarthy himself to portray him as
dishonest in his speeches and abusi!e toward witnesses' 6cCarthys attac) on the E'/'
Army, tele!ised, brou%ht him discredit and the /enate finally censured him'
8cCarran 1ct 1)5
What: (his was an internal security act which authori2ed the president to arrest
and detain suspicious people durin% an *internal security emer%ency'+
/i%: (he 6cCarran Act was at the start of the 6cCarthy era -1#CD=C".'
3resident (ruman !etoed the Act, but con%ressional *%uardians of liberty+ enacted the
bill o!er (rumans !eto' 9elate this to 6cCarthy=li)e hysteria of the times'
Impact of the Cold <ar on 1merican societ+
What: ?Cold war? is the term %i!en to the competition, conducted throu%h means
short of direct military conflict, between the Enited /tates and the /o!iet Enion since
World War 11' (he American society was impacted in many !arious ways'
Economically: 6ilitary spendin% s)yroc)eted in order to confront the /o!iet
threat and this promoted economic prosperity in the 1#CDs'
/ocially: 1. (he Cold War hei%htened fears of nuclear war amon%
$. (he Ci!il 9i%hts mo!ement was fueled by E'/'
%o!ernmental awareness that the /o!iets were usin%
discrimination a%ainst African Americans as a
propa%anda tool in its Auest for influence, particularly in
(hird World nations, includin% Africa'
G. Anti=Communism was normati!e' 5ne could lose a ;ob or
career for bein% associated with Communists or
espousin% the communist cause' Conformity to the
anti=communist position was reAuired'
/i%: (he communists@ success in consolidatin% power and the possibility that
their communism would spread to Europe, Asia, and perhaps e!en the Western
Hemisphere created deep American suspicion and fear' While the LCDs were *happy
days+ for most Americans, the constant fear arisin% from the Cold War and the ci!il
ri%hts re!olution that was ;ust be%innin% told a different story'
Impact of changes in science, technolog+, and medicine ,1)5!s.
What: (he chan%es in science and medicine helped dri!e economic %rowth after
WW11' (he /al) polio !accine was introduced in 1#C$, remo!in% this awful disease
from the world sta%e' 6any chan%es in!ol!ed technolo%y, includin% the de!elopment of
transistors and computers' (he National Aeronautics and /pace Administration -NA/A.
of 1#CJ was established, leadin% in time to puttin% a man on the moon in 1#6#' (he
/putni) scare inspired the National 0efense Education Act -1#CJ., stren%thenin% the
educational underpinnin%s of science education in the E'/'
/i%: (he chan%es made durin% the 1#CDs would lead to the de!elopment of
what is )nown today as the *information a%e'+
Social developments durin$ t(e J10’s
What: 1. (ransportation' Anticipatin% a limitless future of low=cost fuels,
endless ribbons of modern, multilane hi%hways were constructed' (he interstate hi%hway
system radically chan%ed the mo!ement of %oods and people in addition to shiftin%
hundreds of thousands of ;obs away from small towns alon% the old E'/' hi%hway system
to new businesses and towns alon% the interstates'
$. Housin%' With low=cost loans and ine&pensi!e housin% a!ailable, a
mass mi%ration occurred in which many people -with emphasis on white, middle=class.
came to li!e in suburbs due to the speedy commutes that were now a!ailable due to low=
cost housin% and loans'
G. /tandard of li!in%' >N3 ->ross National 3roduct. increased
dramatically' (he economy also increased the a!era%e Americans li!in% standards,
more affluent people were loo)in% at obtainin% two cars, swimmin% pools, !acation
homes, and e!en recreational !ehicles' :y the end of the 1#CDs the !ast ma;ority of
families owned a car and washin% machine, #D] owned a (7, and many owned their
". :lac) mi%ration' Hu%e numbers of African Americans poured into the
northern cities, escapin% southern racism and <im Crow' -Note the unintentional
se%re%ation that occurred when whites mo!ed to new suburbs built alon% new hi%hway
corridors while blac)s mo!ed to cities'. As African Americans left the south, not only
conflict occurred, but also the incomin% blac)s imported the %rindin% po!erty of the rural
south into the inner cores of northern cities for the first time in lar%e numbers'
C. :aby boom' (he baby boom -1#"6=6G. was the lar%est %eneration born
in American history'
6. 9oc) and roll' 1n addition to all this, roc) and roll, rooted in African
American rhythm and blues music, chan%ed music as America had )nown it' White
performers such as El!is 3resley made roc) and roll wildly popular'
7. *Happy days'+ (he LCDs were *happy days+ for many middle=class
Americans, but many poor people, most especially :lac)s cau%ht in a <im Crow society,
/i%: (he 1#CDs, otherwise )nown as a decade of conformity, ne!ertheless
witnessed profound chan%es in American society'
+(e literature of criticism of t(e 1>10s' +(e 0onely -ro6d# +(e %r$aniFation .an#
+(e .an in t(e Cray )lannel Suit# and +(e *ffluent Society
Who: 0a!id 9iesman, William H' Whyte, /loan Wilson, <ohn Ienneth
What: 9iesman -(he Honely Crowd., Whyte -(he 5r%ani2ation 6an., and
Wilson -(he 6an in the >ray 4lannel /uit. all addressed similar issues relatin% to the
idea that the postwar %eneration was a pac) of conformists' >albraith -(he Affluent
/ociety., on the other hand, Auestioned the relation between pri!ate wealth and the public
%ood, he claimed that the postwar prosperity produced a troublesome combination which
led to a lac) in social spendin%, but abundance in pri!ate consumer purchases'
/i%: Critics of conformity and consumerism represent the conscience of
Consensus and conformit+? suburbia and middle class 1merica 1)5s
Who: American middle class
What: (he middle class was buyin% the same cars, the same houses, watchin% the
same ('7' pro%rams, and %enerally e&periencin% a homo%eni2ation of culture'
*Hocalness+ was yieldin% to mass merchandisin% of the same )ind of products across a
broad spectrum of %oods' 6c0onalds is ar%uably the best e&ample of this risin% culture
of conformity' As prosperity increased for many Americans, the nations communities
lost character' 6odesty and conformity were normati!e'
/i%: (he appearance of radical cultural forms durin% an era notorious for its
social conser!atism indicates that there were perceptible public doubts o!er whether this
)ind of mass consensus was really healthy' El!is 3resley, 9oc) and 9oll, the :eatni)s,
the literature of alienation, all spo)e to a %rowin% awareness of chan%es that would
e!entually brea) throu%h this conformity' (he e&plosion would occur the 1#6Ds'
=eatni;s 1>10s
Who: (his was a %roup of American counter=culture writers of the 1#CDs -e'%',
<ac) Ierouac and his boo) 5n the 9oad.
What: (heir writin%s reflected the new consciousness which became the
%roundwor) for the social and cultural re!olution of the @6Ds'
/i%: (hey moc)ed the materialistic people of America and the conser!ati!e
conformity of the nation' (his challen%ed the mainstream of America' (he LCDs had
*:eatni)s+, the L6Ds had *hippies'+ :oth %roups were countercultural and embraced
nonconformist beha!iors rotatin% around communal acti!ities, music, se&, alcohol, and
"ohn &oster 3ulles! foreign polic+ 1)57
Who: <ohn 4oster 0ulles, /ecretary of /tate
What: 0ulles called for a re!ision of forei%n policy based on *brin)smanship,+
whereby the E'/' would confront the /o!iet threat directly anywhere in the world' (he
new policy would be based on the idea of *massi!e retaliation,+ or the ability to destroy
the /o!iet Enion' (his reAuires the buildup of intercontinental bombers and missiles
carryin% nuclear weapons' 6assi!e military e&penditures would be reAuired'
/i%: (he new loo) pro!ed illusory and the ri%id futility of massi!e -i'e',
nuclear. retaliation was e&posed' -American forei%n policy had to be re!ised later to
pro!ide for %reater responsi!eness to local situations'. 1n the meantime, a nuclear arms
race between the E'/' and E'/'/'9' %ot underway, leadin% to 6A0 -mutual assured
destruction.' (he costs were astronomical'
Sputni; and the space race Hctober 7, 1)5%
Who: /o!iet Enion
What: /putni) was an unmanned space mission launched by the /o!iet Enion in
1#C7 to demonstrate the !iability of artificial satellites' /putni) caused %reat fear that the
/o!iets had a lead in the space race' (hat fear spar)ed the American space pro%ram'
/i%: /putni) shoo) American confidence and complacency and Eisenhower
was accused of allowin% a *technolo%ical 3earl Harbor'+ (he E'/' made a commitment
to catch up and spent billions of dollars on research and de!elopment leadin% to manned
E'/' space fli%ht, includin% the moon landin% in 1#6#' 1n 1#CJ, Con%ress authori2ed the
National 0efense Education Act in part to impro!e the teachin% of the sciences'
I;e and t(e 7.ilitary Industrial -ompleB9 !anuary 17# 1>61
Who: 3resident of the Enited /tates -and former >eneral of the Army. 0wi%ht
0' Eisenhower
What: 1n his 4arewell Address to the Nation on <anuary 17, 1#61 he warned the
nation to beware of the military=industrial comple& which had arisen the 1#CDs in
response to the Communist threat'
/i%: 1)es warnin% went lar%ely unheeded as military e&penditures continued to
s)yroc)et and the pri!ate sector defense contractors %ained %reater influence and power'
2ro#n v0 2oard of Education ,1)57. ,and *less+ v0 &erguson.
What: (he E'/' /upreme Court ruled unanimously that racial se%re%ation in
public schools !iolated the 1"th Amendment to the E'/' Constitution, which says that no
state may deny eAual protection of the laws to any person within its ;urisdiction'
(he Court declared separate educational facilities to be inherentl+ unequal, thus
re!ersin% its 1J#6 rulin% in Plessy vs. Ferguson' /chool boards were ad!ised to
dese%re%ate ?with all deliberate speed'?
/i%: (his is the most important ci!il ri%hts decision in E'/' history' (he
decision dro!e a sta)e into the heart of <im Crow'
>osa *ar6s and the 8ontgomer+ bus bo+cott 1)55
Where: 6ont%omery, Alabama
What: 9osa 3ar)s was an African=American woman who refused to sit at the
bac) of the bus one day in 0ecember 1#CC' /he was arrested for this action' (his led to
the 6ont%omery bus boycott that lasted for a year and caused the inte%ration of
6ont%omery buses' Her arrest was a test case which allowed the National Association
for the Ad!ancement of Colored 3eople -NAAC3. to challen%e the se%re%ation of public
buses' (he E'/' /upreme Court -1#C6. declared <im Crow buses to be unconstitutional'
/i%: 9osa 3ar)s spar)ed the ci!il ri%hts mo!ement and the comin% to power
and influence of 6artin Huther Iin% -who led the bus boycott.'
-ivil Ri$(ts -ommission 1>17
What: A Ci!il 9i%hts Act was passed in 1#C7, pro!idin% for a Ci!il 9i%hts
Commission authori2ed to in!esti%ate racial conditions within the Enited /tates' 4urther,
a wea)ly enforced !otin% ri%hts pro!ision was in the law but little pro%ress was made
here' Eisenhower had little interest in the Act -this is his shortcomin%Mci!il ri%hts.'
/i%: (he watered down Act foreshadows the %reatly stren%thened Ci!il 9i%hts
Act of 1#6" and the 7otin% 9i%hts Act of 1#6C'
(he 1#6Ds: Iennedys New 4rontier
and <ohnsons >reat /ociety
U4e# &rontierU 1)$
What: (he New 4rontier was the le%islati!e pro%ram <ohn 4' Iennedy announced
when he ran for president in 1#6D' 1t called for economic reforms to ?%et the country
mo!in% a%ain'?
/i%: Iennedy pro!ed unable to win passa%e of many of the items on his
a%enda, includin% 6edicare to pro!ide medical help for the elderly -appro!ed under
<ohnson in 1#6C., pro%rams to rebuild the inner cities, and an increase in federal fundin%
for education' Con%ress did raise the minimum wa%e from W1'DD to W1'$C an hour and
added G'6 million wor)ers to the rolls of those eli%ible to recei!e it' Iennedy also won
support for e&pandin% /ocial /ecurity benefits and made W"'# billion a!ailable in federal
%rants to cities for mass transit, open spaces, and middle=income housin%'
Creens&oro sitin 1>60
Who: 4our blac) students from the North Carolina AN( -a local all=blac)
What: (hey sat down at a se%re%ated Woolworths lunch counter in >reensboro,
North Carolina' Althou%h they were refused ser!ice, they were allowed to sit at the
counter' 1n ;ust two months the sit=in mo!ement spread to C" cities in # states' /i&
months after the sit=ins be%an, the ori%inal four protesters were ser!ed lunch at the same
Woolworth@s counter' /it=ins would be effecti!e throu%hout the /outh in inte%ratin% other
public facilities' (he /tudent Non!iolent Coordinatin% Committee -/to)ely Carmichael.
arose out the sit=in mo!ement'
/i%: (he sit=in mo!ement demonstrated the power of 6artin Huther Iin%s
strate%y of non!iolent, passi!e resistance to in;ustice'
&reedom >ides 1)$1
Who: Con%ress of 9acial EAuality -C59E. and indi!iduals from around the E'/'
What: (he 4reedom 9ides were or%ani2ed by the Con%ress of 9acial EAuality
-C59E. to test the effecti!eness of a 1#6D /upreme Court decision, /oynton !' Hirginia-
which prohibited racial se%re%ation in public areas that ser!ed interstate tra!elers' A
small interracial %roup of C59E members tra!elin% in two buses challen%ed southern
se%re%ated rest rooms, waitin% rooms, and restaurants in bus terminals between
Washin%ton, 0'C', and New 5rleans' (he first bus was set on fire and some passen%ers
were beaten' (he freedom ride mo!ement cau%ht on, and hundreds of buses rolled into
the south from all o!er the E'/'
/i%: (he initial 4reedom 9ides furthered dese%re%ation in terminals throu%hout
the /outh and demonstrated that ci!il ri%hts !ictories in the 0eep /outh were possible'
Mhrushchev and 2erlin 1)$1
Who: Ihrushche!, Iennedy, and Eisenhower
What: /o!iet premier Ni)ita Ihrushche!@s demand that the four=power
occupation of :erlin be terminated created tension' Ihrushche! further threatened to
ma)e a treaty with East >ermany and cut off western access to :erlin' (o stop the
continued e&odus of East >ermans to the West, East >ermany built the *:erlin Wall+ in
1#61, hei%htenin% tensions between East and West'
/i%: (he :erlin crisis of 1#61 reflected the continued di!ision of Europe after
World War 11 and represents the dan%ers of the Cold War turnin% hot at some flashpoint
such as :erlin'
2a+ of *igs ,1pril 1%, 1)$1.
Who: (wo thousand Cubans who had %one into e&ile after the 1#C# re!olution
Where: At the :ay of 3i%s, Cuba
What: (his was an unsuccessful in!asion by those Cuban e&iles who belie!ed that
they would ha!e air and na!al support from the E'/' and that the in!asion would cause
the people of Cuba to rise up and o!erthrow the re%ime of communist 4idel Castro'
Neither e&pectation materiali2ed, althou%h unmar)ed planes from 4lorida bombed Cuban
air bases prior to the in!asion' Cuban army troops pinned down the e&iles and forced
them to surrender within se!enty=two hours'
/i%: :efore and after the in!asion, the E'/' promoted the e&pulsion of Cuba from the
5r%ani2ation of American /tates, attempted an unsuccessful diplomatic Auarantine of
Cuba, and stopped all Cuban e&ports from enterin% the E'/' Economic and diplomatic
estran%ement remained American policy toward Communist Cuba for the indefinite
future' (he :ay of 3i%s in!asion, or%ani2ed by the C1A, was a crushin% blow and
sta%%erin% embarrassment to the E'/' and the Iennedy administration'
Cuban missile crisis ,17 da+s in Hctober, 1)$-.
Who: Iennedy and Ihrushche!
What: Ihrushche! deployed /o!iet nuclear missiles in Cuba' Iennedy re;ected
Air 4orce proposals for a *sur%ical+ bombin% stri)e a%ainst the missile=launchin% sites,
and on 5ctober $$, he ordered a na!al *Auarantine+ of Cuba and demanded immediate
remo!al of the threatenin% weaponry' E'/' Na!y warships were sent to bloc)ade the
Cuban coast' 5n 5ctober $J, Ihrushche! a%reed to a partially face=sa!in% compromise,
by which he would pull the missiles out of Cuba' (he E'/' in return a%reed to end the
Auarantine and not in!ade the island' (he American %o!ernment also si%naled that it
would remo!e from (ur)ey some of its own missiles tar%eted on the /o!iet Enion'
/i%: Nuclear war was a possibility at the time' Iennedy faced Ihrushche!,
and Ihrushche! blin)ed first' (his was a !ery %ra!e Cold War crisis'
1ffirmative 1ction ,11.
Who: 6inority %roups such as African=Americans, Nati!e Americans, women
What: AA is a set of public policies and initiati!es desi%ned to help eliminate
past discrimination based on race, color, reli%ion, se&, or national ori%in, ensured an
eAual opportunity for all in employment and education'
/i%: AA %a!e better opportunities in school and the wor)place for those who
were once discriminated a%ainst' AA caused a white bac)lash on the basis of *re!erse
discrimination+ and came under attac) from the LJDs on'
Silent Spring ,1)$-.
What: 9achel Carsons boo) e&posed the dan%ers of 00( to animals and
humans' 00( was remo!ed from the mar)et'
/i%: Carsons boo) launched the modern en!ironmental protection mo!ement'
.artin 0ut(er Din$ :8arly $oals versus later $oals only<
What: Iin%s early efforts attac)ed <im Crow and emphasi2ed political ri%hts,
after 1#6C, he be%an to emphasi2e economic ri%hts -he was )illed in 1#6J while in
6emphis supportin% a trash collectors stri)e. and opposition to the 7ietnam War -the
war cost money that could ha!e been better spend on social pro%rams at home.'
/i%: Iin%s a%enda chan%ed o!er time, from the early days of the 6ont%omery
bus boycott -1#CC. to opposition to the 7ietnam War -1#6J.' 1n any e!ent, he was the
dominant African=American leader of the ci!il ri%hts era'
:he &eminine 8+stique ,1)$/. and 2ett+ &reidan ,and 4H<.
Who: :etty 4reidan
What: 4reidans (he 4eminine 6ystiAue -1#6G. is the boo) that launched the
modern womens mo!ement' 4reidan spo)e in rousin% terms to millions of able,
educated women who applauded her indictment of the stiflin% boredom of suburban
housewi!es trapped in the *comfortable concentration camp'+ /he told them of *the
problem that has no name,+ which is simply the fact that American women are )ept from
%rowin% to their full human capacities' /he ar%ued that the *problem+ was ta)in% a far
%reater toll on the physical and mental health of our country than any )nown disease'
/i%: 4reidan and her literature were most often credited with launchin% the
*second wa!e+ of the American feminist mo!ement in the later half of the twentieth
century' /he was founder -1#66. and first president of N5W, the National 5r%ani2ation
for Women'
=ietnam <ar ,1)7s-1)5s-1)$s-1)%s.
What: 1n the closin% sta%es of World War 11, the <apanese encoura%ed the
people of
1ndochina to declare themsel!es independent' When the 7ietnamese declared
independence in 1#"6, the 4rench military and the 4rench colonists opposed it'
(he Enited /tates supported the 4rench effort in order to contain the
Communist 7ietnamese rebels under Ho Chi 6inh' After the 4rench fortress
at 0ien :ien 3hu fell to the Communists in 1#C", the E'/' bac)ed a
noncommunist re%ime established in the /outh' (hat noncommunist re%ime
was corrupt and ineffecti!e, and in 1#6" Con%ress authori2ed 3resident
<ohnson to fi%ht the war a%ainst the Communists' :y 1#6J, the war became
unpopular, and the newly elected 3resident Ni&on be%an *7ietnami2ation,+
which was the process of turnin% the war o!er to the /outh 7ietnamese army'
(he E'/' pulled out in 1#7G when a cease=fire was a%reed to, but the fi%htin%
was renewed and /ai%on, the capital of the /outh, fell in 1#7C, thus endin% the
lon% war with a Communist !ictory'
/i%: 7ietnam, the only forei%n war in which the E'/' has e!er been
defeated, cruelly con!ulsed American society, endin% not only Hyndon
<ohnsons presidency but the thirty=fi!e=year era of the 0emocratic 3artys
political dominance as well'
:on6in >esolution ,Bulf of :on6in. ,1ugust %, 1)$7.
Who: 3resident Hyndon :' <ohnson and Con%ress
What: After the E'/' destroyer 6addo& was alle%edly fired on and under attac) by
North 7ietnamese torpedo boats, <ohnson proceeded Auic)ly to authori2e retaliatory air
stri)es a%ainst North 7ietnam' (he ne&t day he accused the North 7ietnamese of *open
a%%ression on the hi%h seas'+ He then submitted to Con%ress a resolution that authori2ed
him to ta)e ?all necessary measures to repel any armed attac) a%ainst the forces of the
Enited /tates and to pre!ent further a%%ression'? (he resolution was Auic)ly appro!ed by
Con%ress' <ohnson later admitted that the incident in the (on)in >ulf may not ha!e ta)en
place' -(he E'/' ships had not been dama%ed in the alle%ed *attac)'+. (he (on)in >ulf
9esolution was the war authority <ohnson needed to be%in a massi!e troop buildup in
/i%: Hater, when more information about the (on)in incident became a!ailable,
many concluded that <ohnson and his ad!isers had misled Con%ress into supportin% the
e&pansion of the war' (he (on)in resolution was characteri2ed by <ohnson as
*%randmas pa;amas,+ meanin% it co!ered e!erythin% and that he could fi%ht the war any
way he wanted to fi%ht it'
*nti6ar .ovement :1>61 E 1>7/<
What: (his was the most si%nificant antiwar mo!ement in Enited /tates history'
6arches and mass protests occurred throu%hout the war' After Ni&on be%an bombin%
Cambodia in 1#7D, the antiwar mo!ement be%an to embrace the lar%er American public
and the American war effort was doomed thereafter' -1ncluded here is the demonstration
at Ient /tate Eni!ersity in 1#7D, at which the National >uard )illed four students'.
/i%: (his antiwar mo!ement had a %reat impact on policy and practically
forced the E/ out of 7ietnam' (he antiwar mo!ement applied pressures directly on
<ohnson and Ni&on and turned the public a%ainst the war'
Civil >ights 1ct of 1)$7
What: (he act outlawed discrimination based on race, color, creed -reli%ion.,
national ori%in, and se& -Hums 9ACC55N/.' 1t was ori%inally made to protect the
ri%hts of blac)s' Howe!er, the bill was amended prior to passa%e to protect the ci!il
ri%hts of women too'
/i%: (he Act transformed American society' 1t prohibited discrimination in
public facilities and in employment' (he ?<im Crow? laws in the /outh were abolished,
and it was ille%al to compel se%re%ation of the races in schools, housin%, or hirin%' :his
is one of the most important la#s in I0S0 histor+0
Selma 2ridge ,1)$5.
Who: 6artin Huther Iin% <r' F :lac) Community of 6arion, Alabama
What: 5utra%ed o!er the )illin% of a demonstrator by a state trooper in 6arion,
Alabama, the blac) community of 6arion decided to hold a march' 5n ?:loody /unday,?
6arch 7, 1#6C, about 6DD ci!il ri%hts marchers headed east out of /elma on E'/' 9oute
JD' (hey only reached the Edmund 3ettus :rid%e about si& bloc)s away, when they were
confronted by the state and local police' (he police attac)ed them with billy clubs and
tear %as and dro!e them bac) into /elma' (wo days later on 6arch #, 6artin Huther
Iin%, <r', led a ?symbolic? march to the brid%e' (hen ci!il ri%hts leaders sou%ht court
protection for a third, full=scale march from /elma to the state capitol in 6ont%omery'
4ederal 0istrict Court <ud%e 4ran) 6' <ohnson, <r' ruled in fa!or of the demonstrators'
5n /unday, 6arch $1, about G,$DD marchers set out for 6ont%omery, wal)in% 1$ miles a
day and sleepin% in fields' :y the time they reached the capitol on (hursday, 6arch $C,
they were $C,DDD=stron%'
/i%: Hess than fi!e months after the last of the three marches, 3resident Hyndon
<ohnson si%ned the 7otin% 9i%hts Act of 1#6C
:he Breat Societ+ ,1)$5.
Who: Hyndon :aines <ohnson
What: (his was a political slo%an used by E'/' 3resident Hyndon :' <ohnson
-ser!ed 1#6G_6#. to identify his le%islati!e pro%ram of national reform' 1n his first /tate
of the Enion messa%e -<an' ", 1#6C. after election in his own ri%ht, the president
proclaimed his !ision of a *>reat /ociety+ and declared a *war on po!erty'+ He called for
an enormous pro%ram of social welfare le%islation includin%
1. federal support for education -includin% 3ro;ect Head /tart, an antipo!erty pro%ram.,
$. medical care for the a%ed throu%h an e&panded /ocial /ecurity 3ro%ram -6edicare for
the elderly and 6edicaid for the poor.,
G. federal protection for citi2ens depri!ed of the !ote by state !oter re%istration -7otin%
9i%hts Act of 1#6C., and
". immi%ration reform -dropped the national ori%ins Auota test first established in the
Emer%ency Buota Act of 1#$1.'
After a landslide !ictory for the 0emocratic 3arty in the elections of
No!ember 1#6", a sympathetic Con%ress passed almost all the president@s bills -noted
abo!e in parentheses.'
/i%: (he War on 3o!erty, and the >reat /ociety of which it was a part, left a
mi&ed le%acy' (hey were responsible for the most important le%al protections of ci!il
ri%hts since the 1J6Ds, they permanently e&panded the American welfare and social
insurance system, and they %a!e the federal %o!ernment important new responsibilities in
such areas as the en!ironment, education, and the arts' :ut the lar%est >reat /ociety
pro%ramsM6edicare and 6edicaidMpro!ed to be hi%hly inefficient and unwieldy, they
ultimately became two of the most costly items in the federal bud%et' And the %ap
between the e&pansi!e intentions of the War on 3o!erty and its relati!ely modest
achie!ements fueled later conser!ati!e ar%uments that %o!ernment is not an appropriate
!ehicle for sol!in% social problems' 4urther, the costs of the 7ietnam War caused
support for <ohnsons >reat /ociety a%enda to wane'
=oting >ights 1ct ,1)$5.
Who: 3resident Hyndon <ohnson
What: (his landmar) law pro!ided for the Enited /tates 0epartment of <ustice to
super!ise the re%istration of !oters in states with histories of !oter re%istration
discrimination a%ainst minority citi2ens'
/i%: :ecause of this Act, within fi!e years, millions of blac)s were re%istered
to !ote and their !otes chan%ed the character of /outhern politics'
=lac; .ilitancy after 1>61
What: 1n Au%ust 1#6C, frustrations with hi%h unemployment and po!erty led to
riots, one specifically in the Watts section of Hos An%eles -primarily a blac)
nei%hborhood.' 1n the summers of 1#66 and 1#67, urban riots occurred in the poorer
nei%hborhoods of se!eral Northern cities' (he summer of 1#67 saw 1CD racial
confrontations and "D riots' 1n 1#6J, the summer after the assassination of 6artin Huther
Iin%, <r', many race riots bro)e out a%ain' (hese urban riots of the mid=1#6Ds !oiced
blac) ra%e and demands for :lac) 3ower, which chan%ed the tone of the ci!il ri%hts
mo!ement' 6any people such as /to)ely Carmichael and 6alcolm X helped to promote
blac) economic and political independence' Conflicts soon arose between the older ci!il
ri%hts or%ani2ations, such as the NAAC3, and black poer ad!ocates, with their aura of
militancy and !iolence' /ome blac)s called for racial pride and separatism instead of
inte%ration' Ci!il ri%hts demands shifted from color=blinded to color=consciousness'
/i%: :y the end of the 1#6Ds, the African American Auest for political ;ustice
-!otes. shifted more to economic ;ustice -;obs.' 4urther, the ci!il ri%hts mo!ement had
stron%ly influenced other %roups, which adopted its protest tactics' 4or e&ample, in 1#6J
Nati!e American leaders demanded a reimbursement for lands that %o!ernment had ta)en
throu%h treaties and 1ndians en%a%ed in !iolent confrontations with 4ederal authorities'
At the other e&treme were abortion clinics protestors, who included those who would use
!iolence' (he !iolence of the later part of the 1#6Ds foreshadowed a dar) and u%ly turn
of e!ents across America, a turn that influenced not only blac)s but others'
8alcolm K
What: 6alcolm X was one of the most prominent :lac) Nationalist leaders in the
Enited /tates in the 1#6Ds' As a militant leader, 6alcolm X ad!ocated blac) pride and
economic self=reliance' He ultimately rose to become a world renowned African
AmericanF3an=Africanist and human ri%hts acti!ist' He was assassinated in N8 City on
4ebruary $1, 1#6C on the day of National :rotherhood Wee)'
/i%: He was a powerful African American leader who inspired millions of
African Americans to belie!e in themsel!es and ha!e pride in who they were'
2lac6 1ctivists and Hrgani'ations in the 1)$s
1' /to)ely Carmichael: He was a blac) separatist and a 3an=Africanist and leader of
the /tudent Non!iolent Coordinatin% Committee -/NCC., the :lac) 3anther 3arty, and
participated in the Con%ress of 9acial EAuality -C59E.'
/NCC: 5ne of the primary institutions of the American Ci!il 9i%hts 6o!ement' 5ri%inal
student members were or%ani2ers of sit=ins at se%re%ated lunch counters in the southern
Enited /tates' 1ts purpose then was to coordinate the use of non!iolent direct action to
attac) se%re%ation and other forms of racism' /NCC played a leadin% role in the 1#61
4reedom 9ides, the 1#6G 6arch on Washin%ton, 6ississippi 4reedom /ummer and the
6ississippi 4reedom 0emocratic 3arty o!er the ne&t few years' When Carmichael led the
or%ani2ation, it focused on :lac) 3ower and then fi%htin% a%ainst the 7ietnam War'
$' 9oy Wil)ins: He was acti!e in the National Association for the Ad!ancement of
Colored 3eople -NAAC3. and between 1#G1 and 1#G" was assistant NAAC3 secretary
under Walter 4rancis White' When 0u:ois left the or%ani2ation in 1#G", Wil)ins
replaced him as editor of the official ma%a2ine of the NAAC3
NAAC3: 1t was founded 4ebruary 1$, 1#D# to wor) on behalf of African Americans'
6embers of the NAAC3 ha!e referred to it as (he National Association, confirmin% its
pre=eminence amon% or%ani2ations acti!e in the Ci!il 9i%hts 6o!ement since its ori%ins
in the first years of the $Dth century' :y the mid=1#6Ds, the NAAC3 had re%ained some
of its preeminence in the Ci!il 9i%hts 6o!ement by pressin% for ci!il ri%hts le%islation'
(he 6arch on Washin%ton for <obs and 4reedom too) place on Au%ust $J, 1#6G'
Con%ress passed a ci!il ri%hts bill aimed at endin% racial discrimination in employment,
education and public accommodations in 1#6", followed by a !otin% ri%hts act in 1#6C'
G' <ames H' 4armer: 1n 1#"$, he founded the Con%ress of 9acial EAuality -C59E.'
C59E: 1t played a pi!otal role in the E'/' Ci!il 9i%hts mo!ement' 1t sou%ht to apply the
principles of non!iolence as a tactic a%ainst se%re%ation' (he %roup belie!ed that
non!iolent ci!il disobedience could be used by African=Americans to challen%e racial
se%re%ation in the /outh and e!entually other parts of the E'/'
"' Huey 3ercy Newton: He was the co=founder and inspirational leader of the :lac)
3anther 3arty'
:lac) 3anther 3arty: A re!olutionary, :lac) Nationalist or%ani2ation also founded by
:obby /eale and 9ichard Ao)i' 1t %rew to national prominence in the E'/' and is a
representati!e of the counterculture re!olutions of the 1#6Ds' 1t was founded on the
principles of its (en=3oint 3ro%ram, which called for %reater autonomy of blac)
Americans and correction of the in;ustices of racism' (he %roup@s political %oals were
often o!ershadowed by their confrontational and uncompromisin% !iews and approach
toward a%ents of law enforcement, who the :lac) 3anthers saw as the linchpin of racism
that could only be o!ercome by a willin%ness to ta)e up armed self=defense'
1)$(91 5ear to >emember in I0S0 ;istor+?
Important Events in 1)$(
10 :et Hffensive
What: (et was the %reat battle of the 7ietnam War, a coordinated surprise attac)
by the 7iet Con% -the rebel forces, sponsored by North 7ietnam. on hundreds of cities,
towns, and hamlets throu%hout /outh 7ietnam' 1n <anuary of 1#6J, on the first day of (et
-the lunar New 8ear holiday., 7iet Con% units attac)ed fi!e of /outh 7ietnams si&
cities, most of its pro!incial and district capitals, and fifty hamlets' (he E'/' and A97N
soldiers responded Auic)ly by re%ainin% most of the %round the attac)ers had won' 5nly
in Hue did the 7iet Con% hold on'
/i%: America and /outh 7ietnamese military forces defeated the North
7ietnamese e!erywhere, but the Communists demonstrated that they could attac) when
and where they wanted to attac)' (his demonstrated the absence of control of the country
by /outh 7ietnam and the E'/' and led to increased opposition to the war at home'
-0 1ssassination of 8LM
Who: 6artin Huther Iin%, <r' and <ames Earl 9ay
When: April ", 1#6J
Where: 5n the balcony of the Horraine 6otel in 6emphis, (ennessee
What: He was preparin% to lead a local march in support of the predominantly
blac) 6emphis sanitation wor)ers union on stri)e at the time' (he assassination led to a
nationwide wa!e of riots in more than 6D cities' (wo months later they captured and
escaped con!ict <ames Earl 9ay' He confessed of )illin% him because of his e&tensi!e
ci!il ri%hts wor)'
/i%: Iin% left a hu%e impact on America throu%h his promotion of non=
!iolence and racial eAuality' He was considered a peacema)er and martyr' 1t was a hu%e
loss for America to lose the most famous leader of American Ci!il 9i%hts 6o!ement'
/0 4uclear 4on-*roliferation :reat+
When: <uly 1, 1#6J
What: A treaty established to limit the spread of nuclear weapons' (he treaty is
summari2ed as ha!in% three pillars: nonproliferation, disarmament, and the ri%ht to
peacefully use nuclear technolo%y'
/i%: (his has been a !ery successful treaty that still has %reat affect in todays
70 1ssassination of >&M
When: <une C, 1#6J
Who: 9obert 4' Iennedy and /irhan :' /irhan
What: <ust four years after the death of his brother <ohn 4' Iennedy, 9obert was
assassinated' 1n a crowded )itchen passa%eway, /irhan :' /irhan, a $"=year=old Hos
An%eles resident, fired a '$$ caliber re!ol!er directly into the crowd surroundin%
Iennedy' Iennedy ne!er re%ained consciousness and died in the early mornin% hours of
<une 6, 1#6J at the a%e of "$' Iennedy was appointed by his brother as Attorney >eneral
for his administration'
/i%: He was one of 3resident Iennedys most trusted ad!isors' 1n 1#6", after
his brothers death, he was elected to the E'/' /enate from the state of New 8or) and at
the time of his assassination he was runnin% for president'
50 1)$( <ashington 30C0 >iots
Where: Washin%ton 0'C', Washin%ton, :altimore, and Chica%o
What: (he ready a!ailability of ;obs in the %rowin% federal %o!ernment attracted
many to Washin%ton in the 1#6Ds, and middle class African=American nei%hborhoods
prospered' As word of Iin%@s murder by <ames Earl 9ay in 6emphis, (ennessee, spread
on the e!enin% of April ", crowds be%an to %ather' :y 11pm, widespread lootin% had
be%un -as well as in o!er GD other cities.'
/i%: (he riots utterly de!astated Washin%ton@s inner city economy' With the
destruction or closin% of businesses, thousands of ;obs were lost, and insurance rates
soared' 6ade uneasy by the !iolence, city residents of all races accelerated their
departure for suburban areas, depressin% property !alues' Crime in the burned out
nei%hborhoods rose sharply, further discoura%in% in!estment'
$0 1)$( 3emocratic Convention >iots
What: 1n Au%ust, 1#6J, the 0emocrats held their con!ention in Chica%o'
Antiwar protestors battled police before a national tele!ision audience'
/i%: (he depths of antiwar protest were ob!ious' 4urther, many Americans
!iewed the protestors as dan%erous radicals, which fueled Ni&ons campai%n on behalf of
the *silent ma;ority'+
:he Election of 1)$( and the ESilent 8aPorit+F
Who: 9ichard 6' Ni&on
Where: Enited /tates of America
What: 9ichard Ni&on won the electron of 1#6J, beatin% out the 0emocrat Hubert
H' Humphrey, and >eor%e C' Wallace' Ni&on won with only "G'"] of the popular tally,
and 1#1 electoral !otes' He did not win a sin%le ma;or city'
/i%: Ni&ons appeal to the *silent ma;ority+ at the end of the decade of protest
struc) a chord in the electorate' An old anticommunist fi%hter, the people trusted him to
%et the E'/' out of 7ietnam in some acceptable manner'
Beorge <allace and the race issue in the election of 1)$(
What: Wallace ran a third party campai%n that was racist, in opposition to
0emocratic candidate Humphrey who supported the Ci!il 9i%hts Act of 1#6" and
9epublican Ni&on who was not o!ertly racist' Wallaces 1ndependent 3arty was
successful in the deep /outh'
/i%: Wallaces campai%n demonstrates the deeply felt racist feelin%s in the
4ixon!s Challenge? =ietnam
What: 3resident Ni&on became 3resident in <anuary 1#6#, when the war in
7ietnam was hi%hly unpopular' His challen%e was to %et the E'/' out of the war without
losin% it' (hus he sou%ht to *7ietnami2e+ the 7ietnam War by withdrawin% American
(roops while concurrently trainin% /outh 7ietnamese troops to ta)e o!er the American
role' Ni&on also pursued a peace treaty, and in <anuary 1#7G he announced the si%nin% of
a peace treaty with the phrase, *peace with honor'+ (he E'/' pulled out in 1#7G, and the
war was renewed between North and /outh' (he war was lost in 1#7C when the /outh
7ietnamese capital, /ai%on, fell to the North 7ietnamese'
/i%: Ni&on %ot the troops out of 7ietnam but the war was lost after the
What: /oon after ta)in% office 3resident 9ichard Ni&on introduced his policy of
?7ietnami2ation'+ (he plan was to encoura%e the /outh 7ietnamese to ta)e more
responsibility for fi%htin% the war' 1t was hoped that this policy would e!entually enable
the Enited /tates to withdraw %radually all their soldiers from 7ietnam'
/i%: Ni&on was able to achie!e *7ietnami2ation,+ but the /outh 7ietnamese
%o!ernment did not en;oy enou%h support to win the war on its own'
4ixon!s Challenge? China
What: 1n 1#7$, 9ichard Ni&on became the first American 3resident to %o to
China' (he !isit, planned in secret, ama2ed the world and mar)ed the end of the deep
free2e in /ino_American relations that started with the Communist ta)eo!er in 1#"#' 1t
was an immense %amble but a brilliant stro)e of policy, chan%in% the international
balance of power' With China not hostile, Ni&on could withdraw E'/' forces from
7ietnam -hopefully, at least., American )now=how could help 6ao reco!er from his
disastrous Cultural 9e!olution, most of all, each now had a card to play a%ainst the
/o!iet Enion in the Cold War stru%%le'
/i%: Ni&on, a hard=line anticommunist, may ha!e been the only America with
the ability to open relations with China and be%in a more cordial era between the two
4ixon!s Challenge? <atergate scandal and investigation--"une 1%, 1)%- @ 1)%7
Who: 3resident 9ichard 6' Ni&on and some of his supporters
Where: 0emocratic 3artys 1#7$ campai%n headAuarters at Water%ate Hotel,
Washin%ton, 0'C'
What: *Water%ate+ was a ma;or political scandal, which be%an with the bur%lary
and wiretappin% of the 0emocratic 3artys campai%n headAuarters in the summer of 1#7$
and before Ni&ons reelection in No!ember' (he bur%lary was committed on <une 17,
1#7$, by C men who were cau%ht in the offices of the 0emocratic National Committee in
the Water%ate Hotel in Washin%ton 0'C' (heir arrest soon unco!ered a White House
sponsored plan of espiona%e a%ainst political opponents and a trail that led to many of the
nations hi%hest officials, includin% the president himself' (apes recorded by Ni&ons
recordin% system were subpoenaed, but Ni&on refused to turn them o!er' 1n E'/' ! Ni&on
-1#7"., the E'/' /upreme Court re;ected Ni&ons e&ecuti!e pri!ile%e defense and ordered
him to turn o!er the tapes, which pro!ed to be his undoin%' 4acin% impeachment, he
resi%ned in 1#7", the only 3resident in E'/' history to do so' 7ice 3resident >erald 4ord
became president and pardoned Ni&on from all crimes he mi%ht ha!e committed while in
office' -Ni&on was then immune from federal prosecution'.
/i%: (he Water%ate scandal se!erely shoo) the faith of the American people in
the presidency and turned out to be a supreme test for the E'/' Constitution' Water%ate
showed that in a nation of laws no one is abo!e the law, not e!en the president'
4e# &ederalism 1)$)-1)()
Who: 3resident 9ichard Ni&on and 3resident 9onald 9ea%an
What: New 4ederalism was a name %i!en to pro%rams desi%ned to decentrali2e
%o!ernment power: money and power were directed away from federal bureaucracy and
to the states' Ni&on practiced re!enue sharin%, in which the federal %o!ernment shared
some ta&es with state and local %o!ernments' 9ea%an continued this and consolidated
cate%orical %rants -made for a specific purpose. into bloc) %rants -affordin% state
%o!ernments more latitude.'
/i%: (he assi%nin% of %reater responsibility for social and other pro%rams to the
states was characteristic of Ni&ons and 9ea%ans efforts to shore up states ri%hts
pri!ile%es and responsibilities a%ainst an e!er=e&pandin% national presence'
Environmental *rotection 1genc+--1)%
Who: 1ndependent a%ency of the E'/' %o!ernment
What: (he E3A was established to reduce and control air and water pollution,
and to ensure safe handlin% and disposal of to&ic substances' -1n 1#6$, 9achel Carson
published /ilent /prin%, which e&plained the dan%ers of pesticides, notably 00('
(estifyin% before Con%ress in 1#6G, Carson called for new policies to protect human
health and the en!ironment' Her boo) launched the en!ironmental protection mo!ement
in the E'/' and is part of the bac)%round to the establishment of the E3A in 1#7D'.
/i%: (he E3A reflected the %rowin% public awareness of lon%=ran%e dan%ers to
the en!ironment -unre%ulated to&ic waste dumpin%, for e&ample.'
:itle IK 1)%-
What: (itle 1X prohibits discrimination on account of se& in federally funded
educational acti!ities'
/i%: 4or practical purposes, this act helped women in school and colle%e sports
pro%rams achie!e some eAuality with men in the fundin% of athletic pro%rams
Roe v4 Wade 1)%/
What: (he E'/' /upreme le%ali2ed abortion in 1#7G in the Foe v. Wade case'
/i%: (his pro=choice !ictory le%ali2ed abortion and spar)ed a ci!il ri%hts
conflict that is still %oin% on today
Changes in 1merican econom+? 1)%5 on
What: 4undamental chan%es occurred in the E'/' economy from the 1#7Ds on'
5lder and hi%her=payin% industrial ;obs in steel and autos were bein% lost to forei%n
competitors and low payin% ser!ice ;obs such as those found in fast=food restaurants,
commercial boo)stores, retail sales, coffee houses, hotels, and resorts too) their place'
6eanwhile, owners and mana%ers of ser!ice sector companies enriched themsel!es with
hi%h salaries and stoc) options'
/i%: (his problem was not sol!ed as we closed out the study of E'/' History in
the 1##Ds' (his problem was further a%%ra!ated by *outsourcin%+ of e!en hi%her=paid
(he Enited /tates since 1#7$
DKtente :J70s< and Clasnost :J80s<
Who: /o!iet Enion and E'/'
What: DItente is *rela&ation of tension+ in 4rench' DItente used to describe the
decrease in tension between the /o!iet Enion and E'/' and the wea)enin% of the Cold
War' Ni&on was the first president to !isit 6oscow' A tan%ible first fruit of dItente was
the Anti=:allistic 6issile -A:6. (reaty of 1#7$' 0^tente e!entually failed when the
/o!iet Enion in!aded Af%hanistan in 1#7#, followed by the election of 9onald 9ea%an in
1#JD' 9ea%an stressed military preparedness as the )ey to /o!iet=American relations -he
called the /o!iet Enion the *e!il empire+.' (he warmin% of relations came later under
the /o!iet leader >orbache! when 9ea%an responded to him' P1ndeed, they a%reed in the
1N4 (reaty of 1#J7 to ban intermediate=ran%e nuclear forces -1N4. in Europe'Q
>orbache! wanted glasnost -openness. in %o!ernmental relations and embraced 9ea%an
as a %reat leader' 9ea%an responded and the E'/' and /o!iet Enion de!eloped a less
confrontational and much friendlier relationship -indeed, >orbache! won the Nobel
3eace 3ri2e in 1##D for his efforts in endin% the Cold War.'
/i%: Ni&on should be %i!en credit for an effort to reduce tensions with both
China and the /o!iet Enion by ma)in% trips to both nations' -(he cynic can always
claim he merely wanted to dri!e a wed%e between the two communist powers and play
one a%ainst the other'. 9ea%an should be %i!en credit for embracin% >orbache! and for a
rapprochement -renewal of friendly relationsQ with 9ussia'
Camp 3avid 1ccords 1)%(
Who: 3resident <immy Carter, 3resident Anwar /adat of E%ypt and 3rime
6inister 6enachem :e%in of 1srael
Where: Camp 0a!id, 6aryland
What: (he Camp 0a!id Accords was a *framewor) for 3eace in the 6iddle
East'+ Carter won the Nobel 3eace 3ri2e' (his 1#7J a%reement ended the war between
E%ypt and 1srael ori%inally started in 1#"J but ne!er formally concluded' 1srael a%reed to
return the /inai 3eninsula to E%ypt in return for E%ypts reco%nition of 1sraels ri%ht to
e&ist as a separate nation'
/i%: (his was 3resident Carters %reatest achie!ement as president' E%ypt was
the first Arab country to reco%ni2e 1srael'
:hree 8ile Island ,1)%). and Chernob+l ,1)($.
What: (hree 6ile 1sland in 3ennsyl!ania and Chernobyl in the then /o!iet
9epublic of the E)raine were two nuclear power plants that sustained dama%e and eroded
the safety and credibility of nuclear power' (he Chernobyl meltdown was a disaster'
/i%: (he (hree 6ile 1sland meltdown was less dama%in% than Chernobyl, but the E'/'
lost its commitment to nuclear ener%y after the meltdown' (he E'/' continued to rely on
fossil fuels -coal, %as, oil. for ener%y' -3resident >eor%e W' :ush is currently pushin%
for alternati!e ener%y as a way to become less forei%n oil dependentMnotably ethanol'.
Iranian ;ostage Crisis 1)%)-1)(1
Who: E'/' 3resident Carter, 1ranian re!olutionaries, and American hosta%es
Where: American embassy in (ehran
What: 1ranian re!olutionaries held more than CD Americans hosta%e in the E'/'
embassy for """ days, until the crisis was o!er' Carters efforts, both diplomatic and
military, failed to %et the hosta%es released durin% his term' (he hosta%e crisis was
Carters worst ni%htmare durin% his administration' Al%eria interceded and ne%otiated
an a%reement between the E'/' and 1ran ;ust as the hardliner 9ea%an was about to be
inau%urated' 5n the day of 3resident 9ea%ans inau%uration, the Enited /tates released
almost WJ billion in 1ranian assets and the hosta%es were freed'
/i%: (he hosta%e crisis demonstrated how wea) and powerless the E'/'
%o!ernment was in dealin% with terrorists'
Carter and the *anama Canal 1)%%, 1)))
What: 1n 1#77, Carter ne%otiated a treaty with 3anama to %i!e 3anama full
control o!er the 3anama Canal in 1###'
/i%: (he E'/' %a!e up control o!er the Canal to a forei%n -but friendly. state
toward the end of establishin% friendlier relations with Hatin American nations'
-arter’s economic pro&lems
What: Carter@s mana%ement of the economy aroused widespread concern' (he
inflation rate climbed hi%her each year he was in office, risin% from 6 percent in 1#76 to
more than 1$ percent by 1#JD, unemployment remained hi%h at 7'C percent, and !olatile
interest rates reached a hi%h of $D percent or more twice durin% 1#JD' :oth business
leaders and the public at lar%e blamed Carter for the nation@s economic woes, char%in%
that the president lac)ed a coherent strate%y for tamin% inflation without causin% a
painful increase in unemployment' -*/ta%flation+ was hi%h unemployment coupled with
hi%h inflation'.
/i%: (he nation blamed Carter for the stru%%lin% economy -includin% hi%h %as
prices, a%ain. and the hosta%e crisis and he lost the election of 1#JD to 9ea%an' Carter,
on the other hand, blamed the American people in a startlin% 1#7# (7 speech, in which
he said:
*1n a nation that was proud of hard wor), stron% families, close=)nit communities,
and our faith in >od, too many of us now tend to worship self=indul%ence and
consumption' Human identity is no lon%er defined by what one does, but by what one
owns' :ut we!e disco!ered that ownin% thin%s and consumin% thin%s does not satisfy
our lon%in% for meanin%' We!e learned that pilin% up material %oods cannot fill the
emptiness of li!es which ha!e no confidence or purpose' ' ' ' (he symptoms of this crisis
of the American spirit are all around us'+
@e6 Ri$(t and t(e -onservative social a$enda 1>80
Who: New 9i%ht acti!ists under the 3residency of 9onald 9ea%an
What: (he emer%ence of a *New 9i%ht+ mo!ement was in response to the
countercultural protests of the 1#6Ds' 6any New 9i%ht acti!ists were less worried about
economic or cultural concerns and more worried about social issues' (hey re;ected
abortion, porno%raphy, homose&uality, feminism, and affirmati!e action' (hey put prayer
in schools and added tou%her penalties for criminals'
/i%: (he 5ld and New 9i%ht were a powerful political combination, de!oted to
chan%in% the character of American society' 9onald 9ea%an supported the New 9i%ht in
his presidential bid in 1#JD'
Rea$anomics 1>80’s
Who: 3resident 9ea%an
What: *9ea%anomics+ were the economic policies of 3resident 9onald 9ea%an'
He promised lower ta&es and a smaller %o!ernment' He fa!ored *supply side+
economics, whereby a cut in ta&es would put more money in pri!ate hands with the
understandin% that the money would be used to stimulate in!estment and create ;obs' His
ta& cuts were lar%e, but in the end 9ea%anomics could not be ;ud%ed fairly because of his
massi!e military e&penditures which dro!e the national debt up to new and sta%%erin%
/i%: 9ea%anomics became a new wordMthe idea bein% to hold the line on the
federal bud%et and ha!e ta& cuts stimulate the economy' (he problem was that massi!e
military e&penditures fueled bud%et deficits that made the New 0eal loo) stin%y'
Rea$an and -arter as Was(in$ton outsiders
What: :oth Carter and 9ea%an did not ha!e careers in Washin%ton before
becomin% president' :oth were *outsiders+ in this sense, and the people, disenchanted
with Washin%ton for !arious reasons, found them attracti!e and !oted them into the
White House'
/i%: (hese men represent a popular re!olt a%ainst the traditional
1rms Limitations :al6s and :reaties 1)%s-1))s
1' A:6 (reaty and /AH( 1 -Ni&on.
Who: (he Enited /tates and the E//9
What: (he Enited /tates and the E//9 a%reed to an A:6 -anti=missile missiles.
(reaty in 1#7$ which limited the anti=missile -defensi!e. nuclear
missiles between the two countries' (he (reaty also pro!ided for continued /trate%ic
Arms Himitation (al)s -/AH(., which resulted in the limitin% of the number of lon%
ran%e offensi!e missiles'
/i%: (he A:6 (reaty and /AH( 1 represented a temporary thaw in the E'/'
/o!iet relationship'
$' /AH( 11, 1#7# -Carter.
Who: 3resident Carter and /o!iet leader Heonid :re2hne!
What: (his failed treaty limited the number of lethal weapons both countries
could ha!e, but the treaty was not appro!ed'
/i%: (oo many other issues clouded the relationship between the /o!iet Enion
and the E'/' (he hi%h water mar) of strate%ic arms limitation and reduction came earlier,
durin% the Ni&on years, notably 1#7$'
G' /(A9( 1 -1##1. and /(A9( 11 -1##G.M/trate%ic Arms 9eduction (reaty
Who: (he Enited /tates and the /o!iet Enion
What: 1t too) about ten years of ne%otiations between these two countries in
order to si%n the /trate%ic Arms 9eduction (reaty'
/i%: 4i!e months after /(A9( 1, the /o!iet Enion dissol!ed and four
independent states with strate%ic nuclear weapons in their territory formed==:elarus,
Ia2a)hstan, 9ussia, and E)raine' (hree of the four states came up with their own
strate%ic arms treaties' 9ussia, the fourth state, ne%otiated a separate /(A9( 11 (reaty
with the E'/' in 1##G' Ender /(A9( 11, 3resident :ush and 9ussian 3resident :oris
8eltsin a%reed to reduce lon%=ran%e nuclear arsenals by two=thirds within ten years'
Invasion of Brenada9Hctober, 1)(/
Who: 3resident 9ea%an and the Enited /tates
Where: >renada -Caribbean.
What: 6ar&ists in >renada too) control of the country and )illed the 3rime
6inister in a military coup' 3resident 9ea%an sent in an in!asion force that Auic)ly
defeated the insur%ents and installed a %o!ernment friendly to the E'/'
/i%: /hows the policy of 9ea%an to assert Americas dominance in the
Caribbean and openly confront communist e&pansion' 9ea%an did not ha!e
Con%ressional authorityMhe sent the troops in to protect American interests, as usual'
(his time the *interests+ were American students attendin% a medical colle%e' (he
3resident had to ha!e some authorityMhe did the best he could but protectin% the
students was a sham for any intelli%ent obser!er' 5nce a%ain, the E'/' president e&erted
an imperial=li)e attitude toward Hatin American nei%hbors'
Iran-Contra Scandal91)($-(%
Who: 3resident 9ea%an and his administration
What: (he 3resident was sendin% money to Nicara%uan contras -fi%htin% against
the leftist /andinistas %o!ernment of Nicara%ua.' 9ea%an as)ed Con%ress for money for
the contras' Con%ress refused' 9ea%an aides found a *neat+ plan to sub!ert the will of
Con%ress' (hat is, his aides sold arms to an embattled 1ran in return for 1ranian
assistance in freein% American hosta%es bein% held by 6iddle Eastern terrorists' -(he
E'/' at the time was supportin% /addam Hussein of 1raA in his war with 1ran'. (he
proceeds from the sale of the arms to 1ran were pro!ided to the contras' (ele!ised
Con%ressional hearin%s demonstrated the deceptions and lies perpetrated by hi%h le!el
officials in 9ea%ans administration' National /ecurity Ad!isor staff officer Ht' Col'
5li!er North told Con%ress, in a tele!ised hearin%, that he thou%ht it was a *neat+ idea'
/i%: 9ea%an sur!i!ed this scandal by playin% dumb' (his was a !iolation of
the constitutional chec)s and balance system, where one Ht'Col' E/6C presumed to
)now more than the E'/' Con%ress and had his way with his boss, the /ecretary of /tate,
and the 3resident'
Resur$ent )undamentalism :1>80s<
Who: 9onald 9ea%an, E!an%elical Christian %roups such as the <erry 4alwells
6oral 6a;ority dedicated belie!ers who en;oyed startlin% success as political fundraisers
and or%ani2ers'.
What: New ri%ht acti!ists were more interested in social issues than economic
ones' (hey denounced abortion, porno%raphy, homose&uality, feminism, and affirmati!e
action' (hey championed prayer in the schools and tou%her penalties for criminals' (he
Christian *ri%ht+ or%ani2ed and became a political force at all le!els of %o!ernment' -4or
e&ample, at the local le!el, Christian acti!ists could %ain control of a school board and
influence te&tboo) selection'.
/i%: (he le%acy of the counter=cultural 1#6Ds was a more liberal, open, and
tolerant society that was a threat to traditional Christian morality' (he Christian *ri%ht+
arose and became a political force'
What: Consumerism is the belief that the %ood life is rooted essentially in the
possession of material %oodsMcars, electronic %ad%ets, boats, 97s, and e!ery
concei!able item that could ease the burdens of e!eryday li!in%' Ad!ertisin% and easy
credit accelerated consumerism, a phenomenon that be%an in the 1#$Ds, went into hidin%
durin% the 0epression and World War 11, and then came roarin% bac) after WW11' :y
the 1##Ds, electronic brea)throu%hs added computers, cell phones, and !ideo %ames to
the list of *must=ha!es+ for the typical consumer, thus addin% hundreds of billions of
dollars to the %rowin% international consumer=oriented economy'
/i%: Consumerism reflected the %rowin% selfishness of the industriali2ed world
as it sou%ht to deli!er the *%ood life+ to those who could afford it with little concern for
1. the poor or $. inter%enerational en!ironmental costs -e'%', smo% at the local le!el and
*%lobal warmin%+ at the %lobal le!el.'
End of the Cold <ar ,1))1.
What: (he collapse of the /o!iet Enion and the democrati2ation of its client
re%imes in Eastern Europe ended the four decades=lon% Cold War and left the Enited
/tates the worlds sole remainin% superpower' Americans were unsure about how to use
their power effecti!ely' -:y #F11FD1, anti=terrorism replaced anti=communism as the
or%ani2in% principle of American forei%n policy durin% the >eor%e W' :ush
/i%: (he Enited /tates emer%ed as the only remainin% superpower'
As the 1##Ds came to a close, the E'/' was becomin% aware of *imperial blowbac),+ or
the unintended conseAuences of co!ert C1A operations durin% the Cold War period' #F11
represents the e&treme e&ample in caricature of C1A blowbac)' (hus the le%acy of the
Cold War could be that the E'/' has to fi%ht or oppose many %roups that were alienated
principally due to E'/' o!erseas efforts to confront Communism durin% the Cold War'
Blobali'ation and the 1merican econom+
What: >lobali2ation is the tendency of in!estment funds and businesses to mo!e
beyond domestic and national mar)ets to other mar)ets around the %lobe, thereby
increasin% the interconnectedness of different mar)ets' (he E'/', committed to
%lobali2ation throu%h !arious free=trade a%reements, is %oin% into a period of economic
reali%nment at it ad;usts to such issues as the outsourcin% of ;obs and the decline of
traditional American hea!y industries -steel, auto.'
/i%: (he increased interconnectedness of different mar)ets around the world
renders isolationism obsolete as the domestic beha!ior of a nation affects other nations
around the world'
Environmental Issues in a Blobal Context
What: Coal fired electrical %eneratin% plants helped form acid rain and probably
contributed to the %reenhouse effect, an ominous warmin% in the planets temperature'
(he unsol!ed problem of radioacti!e waste disposal pre!ented further de!elopment of
nuclear power plants' (he planet was bein% drained of oil, and disastrous accidents li)e
the %roundin% and subseAuent oil spill of the %iant tan)er :@@on HaldeG in 1#J# in
Alas)as pristine 3rince William /ound demonstrated the ecolo%ical ris)s of oil
e&ploration and transportation at sea' :y the early $1
century, the once lonely cries for
alternati!e fuel sources had %i!en way to mainstream public fascination with solar power
and windmills, methane fuel, electric *hybrid+ cars, and the pursuit of an affordable
hydro%en fuel cell' As the human family %rew at an alarmin% rate on a shrin)in% %lobe,
new challen%es still faced America' (he tas) of cleansin% the earth of its abundant
pollutants, includin% nuclear weapons, was one ur%ent mission confrontin% the American
people in the new century'
/i%: (hese issues are important to future %enerations -the issue is
*inter%enerational eAuity+.' (he Clinton administration was responsi!e to these issues,
supportin%, for e&ample, the Iyoto 3rotocol, which called for the nations of the world to
reduce %reenhouse %ases, a cause of %lobal warmin%' (he current :ush administration
publicly critici2ed the Iyoto 3rotocol and proclaimed its opposition to it on the basis of
the ;obs that would be lost if the E'/' were to reduce %reenhouse %ases' (he current :ush
administration is promotin% alternati!e ener%y sources, such as ethanol -deri!ed from
:he *ersian Bulf Crisis--1))
Who: 1raA and Iuwait
Where: Iuwait
What: 1raA, under /addam Hussein, in!aded Iuwait and sei2ed its !ast oil
supply, also one of the worlds main oil supplies'
/i%: Husseins in!asion of Iuwait resulted in 5peration 0esert /torm'
Hperation 3esert Storm--1))1
Who: (he E'N' and 1raA
Where: Iuwait
What: 5peration 0esert /torm was a E'N' rush of troops -E'/' led the attac)
throu%hout. after relentless air raids on 1raAi positions that ended the war and liberated
Iuwait' (he campai%n lasted only one hundred hours'
/i%: 5peration 0esert /torm showed the mi%ht of the E'N' under E'/'
leadership' 5il rich Iuwait was liberated, but America became more entan%led in
6iddle Eastern affairs'
Clinton Impeachment--1)))
Who: 3resident Clinton
What: 3resident Clinton lied under oath -per;ury. to a %rand ;ury about his
relationship with White House intern 6onica Hewins)y and was also char%ed with
obstruction of ;ustice' (he impeachment trial in the /enate failed to con!ict him -thus he
was not remo!ed from office.'
/i%: (his was the second time in Enited /tates history that a president has been
impeached, the first bein% Andrew <ohnson -who also was not remo!ed.' -Ni&on faced
impeachment but resi%ned first'.
:he Bra+ing of 1merica ,1)%s-present.
What: 1ncreased life e&pectancy is creatin% record numbers of people a%ed 6C
and older' 1n less than a century, we ha!e added $C years to our life span' (hose a%ed 6C
and older will represent 1G] of the population in $DDD, and about $1] of the population
in $DGD'
/i%: (he federal bud%et for older Americans pro%rams will soon be the lar%est
e&penditure' 5lder Americans are becomin% increasin%ly more politically powerful' (he
youn%er %eneration will be increasin%ly more burdened with financial and other needs to
assist and ser!ice older Americans'
3omestic and &oreign :errorism
Who: Al Baeda, 5sama :in Haden, /addam Hussein
Where: New 8or) Citys World (rade Center, the 3enta%on
What: 5n /eptember 11, $DD1, suicidal terrorists hi;ac)ed planes and crashed
into the (win (owers and 3enta%on' (hose attac)s were lin)ed to Al Baeda, 5sama :in
Haden, and /addam Hussein'
/i%: Catastrophic terrorist acts posed an unprecedented challen%e to the Enited
/tates' (he e!ents of that murderous /eptember mornin% reanimated American
patriotism' Now American security and American liberty ali)e were dan%erously
imperiled' /ubseAuent reports indicated that 3resident >eor%e :ush led the nation into a
war a%ainst 1raA on the basis of faulty andFor manipulated intelli%ence' At present, there
is no end in si%ht for the war in 1raA -3resident :ush declared in 6arch $DD6 that future
presidents will ha!e the ;ob of withdrawin% E'/' troops from 1raA.' After a century of
war in the 1#DDs, the E'/' was insecure as it be%an the $1