Chapter No.4.

Results
This study was conducted in district Mardan in order to get an insight into the consanguinity
parameters in the area. Results obtained through statistical analysis is classified into
following three categories;
1. Data distribution
2. Prevalence of consanguinity with respect to different parameters
3. Family types and subject’s siblings
4.1 Data distribution
4.1.1 Tehsil-wise distribution of subjects
A total of 1, 002 unrelated subjects (900 male and 102 female) were interviewed at random in
order to generate primary data for this study. Overall, age of male subjects varied from 17 to
80 years while age of female subjects ranged from 15 to 49 years. Subjects included in this
study originate from three tehsils namely Main Mardan (304 subjects), Takht Bhai (349
subjects) and Katlang (349 subjects). Varying number of samples were collected from
different towns/sampling sites in each tehsil. In this context highest number of samples (81
subjects) were collected from Narshak while least number of samples (11 subjects) were
collected from Gujar Ghari in tehsil Main Mardan. Similarly, highest number of samples (202
subjects) were collected from Katlang city and least number (147 subjects) were collected
from Maddo in tehsil Katlang. Likewise, highest number of samples (161 subjects) were
recruited from Jalala whereas least number of samples (7 subjects) were obtained from
Hassan Khel in tehsil Takht Bhai. (Table 1)
Table 1: Tehsil-wise distribution of subjects
Tehsil Town/Sampling site Male Female Sample
M
a
i
n

M
a
r
d
a
n

Bakhshali 0 19 19
Gujar Ghari 0 11 11
Jhandhi 6 40 46
Mardan City 56 0 56
Moqam 75 0 75
Narshak 81 0 81
wapda colony 16 0 16
Net Total 234 70 304
K
a
t
l
a
n
g

Katlang City 196 6 202
Maddo 147 0 147
Net Total 343 6 349
T
a
k
h
t

B
h
a
i

Dako BaBa 14 0 14
Hakeem Abad 16 0 16
Hassan Khel 7 0 7
Jalala 151 10 161
Parrow 42 0 42
Sher Garh 24 6 30
Takht Bhai 69 10 79
Net Total 323 26 349
Grand Total 1002
4.1.2 Caste-wise distribution of subjects
Subjects included in this study originate from different ethnicities in all three tehsils. In this
context varying number of samples were collected from different ethnic groups. In tehsil
Main Mardan, highest number of samples were collected from Yousaf Zai (149 subjects)
whereas least number of samples were collected from Baz Khel (subjects). In tehsil Katlang
highest number of samples were collected from Yousaf Zai (209 subjects) whereas least
number of samples were recruited from Mohmand (6 subjects). Likewise, highest number of
samples were obtained from Yousaf Zai (152 subjects) whereas least number of samples were
collected from Utman Khel (9 subjects). Variation in samples with respect to different castes
is partially due to lack of consent approval from the subjects and lack of availability of
resources person to some areas. (Table 2).

Table: 2 Tehsil wise caste distribution of subjects

Tehsil Caste Samples
Mardan








Bazkhel 5
Jahdoon 34
Khatak 22
Kolal 51
Mohmand 24
Shalmani 8
Shamozi 11
Yousaf Zai 149
Net Total 304
Katlang








Bazkhel 16
Gujar 32
Khatak 24
Mohmand 6
Phyninda Khel 11
Shalmani 9
Shamozi 6
Uthmankhel 7
Uthamanzi 29
Yousaf Zai 209
Net Total 349
Takht Bhai










Bajouri 17
Gujar 10
Kalal 14
Khatak 32
Kolal 42
Mohmand 66
Shalmani 17
Syed 13
Uthman Khel 9
Yousaf Zai 152
Net Total 349
Grand Total 1,002
4.2 Consanguinity Parameters
4.2.1Tehsil-wise consanguinity in district Mardan
Consanguineous marriages were classified into first cousin, second cousin and Bardari.
Additionally, prevalence of unrelated marriages and unmarried subjects was also calculated
for three tehsils of district Mardan. Results suggested that 1st cousin marriages were highly
prevalent in tehsil Main Mardan (44%) followed by Takht Bhai and Katlang (30.09% each).
Similarly, 2.30% of the marriages recorded from tehsil Takht Bhai and Mardan were between
second cousin while no second cousin marriage was recorded from tehsil Katlang. Highest
frequency for Bardari was reported from tehsil Takht Bhai (15%) followed by Katlang (12%)
and Main Mardan (4%). Non-consanguineous marriages were highly prevalent in tehsil Takht
Bhai and Katlang (15% each) which was higher than in tehsil Main Mardan (7%). Unmarried
subjects included in this study were highly frequent in tehsil Katlang (42%) which was
followed by Main Mardan (41%) and Takht Bhai (36%). (Figure 1)


0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
1C 2C Bradari UR UM
F
R
E
Q
E
N
C
E
Y

(
%
)

PERAMETRS OF REALATION
Figure 1: Tehsil-wise prevalence of consanguinity
Takht Bhai
Mardan
Katlang
4.2.2 Prevalence of consanguinity with respect to caste of the subject
Prevalence of consanguineous marriages were calculated with respect to caste of the subject.
In this context subjects were classified into 15 classes depending upon their ethnic
affiliations. Consanguineous marriages were found in the order: Jadoon > Khattak > Gujar >
Yousaf Zai > Kolal > Mohmand > Bajouri > Uthman Zai > Painda Khel > Shalmani > Syeds
> Baz Khel > Uthman Khel > Shamozi > Kalal. (Figure 2). Non-consanguineous marriages
were absent in Jadoon which may be due to small sample size from this caste (10 subjects).
(Fig. 2).




0
20
40
60
80
100
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)



CASTES
Figure 2: Caste-wise consanguinity of subjects
Consanguineous
Non-consanguineous
4.2.3 Consanguinity with respect to occupation of the subjects
Frequency of different types of consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages were
checked with respect to occupation of the subject. In this regard first cousin marriages were
highly prevalent in unemployed subjects whereas least prevalent in students. Second cousin
marriages were absents in subjects of all occupations except Labour and unemployed subjects
having frequencies of 2% and 1%, respectively. Marriages among Bardari were highly
prevalent (29%) in Farmers whereas least prevalent (12%) in Govt. Employees. No marriages
among Bardari was found in students and Self-employed subjects. Unrelated Marriages were
highly frequent (25%) in Govt. Employees whereas least frequent (6%) in Farmers. Unrelated
marriages were absent in students. Overall, great proportion of students (87%) were
unmarried whereas least proportion of Govt. Employees (24%) were unmarried. (Figure 3).


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
%
)



OCCUPATION
Figure 3: Prevalence of consanguinity with respect to
occupation of the subject
1st Cousin
2nd Cousin
Bradari
Unrelated
Unmarried
4.2.4 Prevalence of consanguineous marriages with respect to education of the subject
Prevalence of consanguineous marriages was checked with respect to education of the
subject. In this regard, subjects were classified into Illiterate, Matric, FA, BA and Masters
depending upon the level of their education. First cousin marriages were highly prevalent in
FA (67%) followed by BA (58%), illiterate and Matric (55% each) and Masters (18%). No
potential trend was observed in prevalence of second cousin marriages with respect to
education of the subject. Our analysis revealed that prevalence of Bardari marriages is
declining with the increasing education of the subject except Masters which showed an
unusual behaviour. This deviation shown by Masters may be attributed to the small sample
size (10 subjects) collected from this category. Unrelated marriages were highly frequent in
Masters (64%) which was followed by BA (29%), Matric (22%), Illiterate (19%) and FA
(18%). An increasing trend was observed in prevalence of unrelated marriages with respect to
education of the subject. Thus, we can conclude that education play an important role in
discouraging the close marriages in the society. (Fig. 5)




0
20
40
60
80
100
illetare Metric FA BA Master
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)


EDUCATION
Figure 4: Prevalenc of consanguinity with
respect to education of the subject
1st Cousin
2nd cousin
Bardari
Unrelated

4.2.5 Consanguinity with respect Age Wise.

In order to find any association between prevalence of consanguinity and age of the subject,
data were also analysed with respect to age of the subject. Our analysis suggested that a sharp
decline was observed in prevalence of first cousin marriages beyond the age of 31 years up to
70 years. No association was found in second cousin marriages with respect to age of the
subjects. Additionally, prevalence of marriages between Bardari was declining at 10-50 years
age of the subject, beyond which no potential trend was observed between for this category.
Marriages within Bardari incentive in the age group (61-70) 29% while least in (41-50) 15%.
An incline with in unrelated marriages shows from age (10-20) to age (61-70).while in this
context the age groups (31-40) and (71-80) show unusual behaviour respectively (18.45%),
(25%). No potential trend was observed between prevalence of unrelated marriages and age
of the subject.(Fig.6)



0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
10--20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y

(

%
)

AGE OF THE SUBJECT
Fig:5 Consangunity with respect to age.
1st Cousin
2nd cousin
Bardari
Unrelated

4.2.6 Prevalence of consanguinity with respect to family types
Prevalence of consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages were also calculated with respect to
family types of the subject in order to find any association between the two. In this regard, first cousin
marriages were highly prevalent (60%) in Grandparent with one couple followed by Nuclear family
(57%) and More than one couple (45%). Similarly, second cousin marriages were highly prevalent
(7%) in Grandparent with one couple whereas least prevalent (1%) in Nuclear families. Second cousin
marriages were not reported from families with more than one couple. Likewise, marriages between
Bardari were highly frequent (37%) in families with more than one couple followed by Nuclear (19%)
and Grandparent and one couple (13%). Unrelated marriages were highly frequent in Nuclear families
(22%) followed by Grandparent and one couple (19%) and families with more than one couple (17%).
(Fig.7)



0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Nuclear Grandparent with one couple More than one couple
F
R
E
Q
U
N
C
E
S

(
%
)

FAMILY TYPES
Fig. 6. Prevalence of consanguinity with respect to
family types
1st Cousin
2nd cousin
Bardari
Unrelated
4.3 Family types and subject’ siblings
4.3.1 Distribution of subject’s sibs with respect to age of the subject
Distribution of subject’s sibs was recorded with respect to age of the subject to check whether there is
any variation in average number of sibs according to age of the subject. For this analysis we have used
mean number of sibs per subject. Our analysis revealed that mean number of sibs (total) per subject
was highly frequent in subjects of age group 31-45 years whereas least frequent in subjects of age
group 61-75 years. Further analysis of the data revealed that frequency of male sibs was higher than
female sibs in all age groups. No potential trend for either male or female sibs per subject was
reported with respect to age of the subject. (Figure.8)











0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
15-30 31-45 46-60 61-75
(
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)


SUBJECT AGE
Figure.7, Distribution of Subjects ,s sibs thought out
distric
Male
Female
Total


4.3.2 Tehsil-wise distribution of subject’s sibs
In order to check any geographic variability in mean number of sibs per subject across district
Mardan, data were also analysed with respect to different tehsils. Our analysis revealed that
mean number of sibs (total) was higher in Takht Bhai (Mean = 6.39) which was followed by
Katlang (Mean = 5.98) and Main Mardan (Mean = 5.56). Mean value for male sibs was
always higher than female sibs. (Figure 8).













Male
Female
Total
0
2
4
6
8
Katlang Mardan Takht Bhai
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)

TEHSILS
Figure .8, Tehsil Wise Subject Sibs Distribution
Male
Female
Total
4.3.3 Distribution of subject’s sibs with respect to education

Distribution of subject’s sibs with respect to education of the subject revealed that the mean
number of sibs (total) per subject were highly freqent 6.23 among illetratre followed by FA,
Matric, BA and Masters having 6.08, 6.04, 5.47 and 5.44 sibs/subject (mean value),
respectivly. A sharp decline in frequency of sibs per subject was recorded with the increasing
education of the subject. Thus we can conclude that education has a negative role on number
of offsprings produced by a couple. (Fig9)














I L L E T E RAT E MAT RI C F A BA MAS T E R
M
E
A
N


F
E
R
Q
U
E
N
C
Y

O
F

S
U
B
J
E
C
T

S
I
B
S

EDUCATION OF SUBJECTS
FIGURE . 9, DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECT’S
SIBS WITH RESPECT TO EDUCATION

Male
Female
Total

4.3.4 Distribution of subject’s sibs with respect to urban/rural status.
In order to check any association between number of sibs per subject and urban/rural area of
the subject data were analyzed. Mean number of sibs per subject was higher in rural subjects
compared to urban subject. Mean value of sibs per subject was higher in male than females
for both categories. (Fig.10).















0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
Rural Urban
S
u
b
j
e
c
t


s
i
b
s

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
M
e
a
n
)

SUBJECT RURAL/URBAN STATUS
Figure.10, Distribution of subject's sibs with respect
to urban/rural status
Male
Female
total



4.3.5 Distribution of subject’s sibs with respect to Occupaion.
Distribution of subject sib with respect to occupation of the subject revealed that mean
number of sibs (total) per subject was highly frequent in Shopkeepers whereas least frequent
in unemployed subjects. Mean value for male sibs was always higher than female sibs in all
categories of the subjects.(fig.11).












0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
S
U
B
J
E
C
T

S
I
B
S

(
M
E
A
N

F
R
E
Q
U
N
C
E
Y

)

SUBJECT OCCUPATION
FIG.11,DISTRIBUTION of Subject Sibs With respect to
Occupation .
Male
Female
Total
4.3.6 Distribution of subject’s sibs with respect to caste of the subjects
In order to check caste-wise distribution of subject’s sibs the data were analyzed with respect
to caste of the subjects. Analysis of the results suggests that mean value for sibs (total) per
subjects was higher (7.40) in Utman Zai than all other castes in the area. Likewise, mean
value for male sibs was higher (4.47) in Tarkani while least mean value for male sibs was
recorded from Utman Khel (2.62). Similarly, mean value for female sibs per subject was
highest in Jadoon (3.60) whereas least value for the same was recorded from Kalal (1.3)
(table. 3).

Table No 3. Caste-wise distribution of subject’s sibs
S. No. Caste Male Female Total
1. Yousafzai 3.37 2.40 5.75±1.9
2. Uthman Khel 2.62 2.62 5.23±2.0
3. Tarkalani 4.47 2.68 7.16±2.0
4. Syeds 3.79 1.79 5.57±1.8
5. Mohmand 3.31 2.83 6.14±0.7
6. Kolal 3.65 2.71 6.35±2.0
7. Kalal 3.57 1.3 5.50±2.0
8. Baz Khel 4.45 2.36 6.82±1.7
9. Utmanzai 4.17 3.27 7.40±2.9
10. Painda Khel 3.37 2.21 5.58±2.1
11. Shamozi 3.81 1.56 5.38±1.7
12. Shalmani 4.00 1.74 5.74±1.7
13. Khatak 3.56 2.66 6.12±1.7
14. Jadoon 3.64 3.60 7.00±2.2
15. Gujar 3.55 2.90 6.45±3.1