25/3/2014 Solutions To Some DE EC Problems

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SOLUTIONS TO SOME OF THE APPLICATION PROBLEMS
Mixture Problem 2
MIXTURE PROBLEM 2: A tank holds 100
gallons of liquid. The tank is half full with a salt water
solution that contains 0.1 lb of salt per gallon. Pure
water is added to the container at the rate of 2 gallons
per minute and at the same time one gallon of salt water
per minute is removed from the tank. Assume that the
concentration of salt in the water in the tank remains
uniform throughout. When the tank becomes full it
begins to overflow and at that time a total of 2 gallons
per minute of salt water will be leaving the tank.
Construct a piecewise continuous function S(t) that
gives the amount of salt in the tank as a function of time
t where t = 0 represents the time when the 2 gallons
per minute of pure water began being added to the
tank and the 1 gallon per minute of "well-stirred,
uniform" mixture began exiting the tank. The picture at
the right shows the amount of salt in the tank as a
function of time.
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NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING PROBLEM 2:
When a thermometer reads 36
o
F, it is placed in an
oven. After 1 and 2 minutes, respectively, it reads
60
o
F and 82
o
F. What is the temperature of the oven?
25/3/2014 Solutions To Some DE EC Problems
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I guess we could say that this is a thermometer that
reacts pretty slowly to an increase in the temperature
around it.


NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING PROBLEM 3:
Some hot chocolate has been created using milk and
chocolate and has a temperature of 200
o
F. The hot
chocolate is in a cup that is 9/10 full. Cool milk at a
temperature of 50
o
F is to be used to help cool the hot
chocolate. Assume that the cooling constant, k, from
Newton's Law of Cooling is the same for the hot
chocolate and the milk and therefore the same for any
mixture of hot chocolate and milk. If the cup of 200
o
F
hot chocolate is filled the rest of the way up to the brim
with the 50
o
milk then the milk diluted hot chocolate
will have an immediate temperature of
Two minutes later the milk diluted hot chocolate will
have a temperature of 160
o
F if it is in a room whose
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temperature is 80
o
F. Use this fact to calculate k. (a)
If the milk was added to the hot chocolate at time t=0
minutes, how long will it take for the temperature of the
milk diluted hot chocolate to reach 120
o
F? (b)
Suppose instead that the milk is not added to the hot
chocolate until the originally 200
o
F hot chocolate has
been in the 80
o
F room for 5 minutes. In this case how
long will it take (total) for the hot chocolate (ultimately
diluted by milk) to reach a temperature of 120
o
F? (c)
Using the 80
o
F room and the 50
o
F milk, how could the
hot chocolate be cooled to 120
o
F in the least amount
of time and what would this time be?

25/3/2014 Solutions To Some DE EC Problems
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Red gives the temperature curve when the milk is
added immediately.
Blue gives the temperature curve when the milk is not
added until five minutes after the hot chocolate was
poured into the cup in the 80
o
F room.
Green gives the temperature curve when the milk is
added when the temperature of the hot chocolate
reaches 127.778
o
F.
The graph above is a zoom in on the graph at the left
around the points where the three temperature curves
are intersecting the horizontal line along which the
temperature equals 120
o
F.



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Lane Vosbury, Mathematics, Seminole State College email: vosburyl@seminolestate.edu
This page was last updated on 01/07/14 Copyright 2002 webstats