Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
“Making visible…
Making us visible…”
The construction of the paradigm
of the integral protection of rights
in daily life at school

Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
“Making visible…
Making us visible…”
The construction of the paradigm
of the integral protection of rights
in daily life at school

Zeballos, Evelina Rosanna
Making visible... making us visible : the construction of the paradigm of
the integral protection of rights in daily life at school . - 1a ed. - Ciudad
Autónoma de Buenos Aires : el autor, 2014.
ISBN 978-987-33-5116-7
1. Violencia Escolar. I. Título.
CDD 371.782
Fecha de catalogación: 16/05/2014
Author: Evelina Rosanna Zeballos (e_zeballos@hotmail.com)
Translation: Tim Lough (tim@lough.com)
Translation & general correction: María Valentina García (valenteacher@hotmail.com)
Cover & inside photos: Florencia Nussbaum (flornuss@hotmail.com)
eBook: Diego Ferruchelli (dferruchelli@gmail.com)

To Michael W. Apple.

To the children, our students at Indira Gandhi school,
from whom we learn every day.
To my colleagues, all the staff at school,
with whom we are building up a popular and democratic State School.

“Making visible...” is an account of pedagogical practices and experiences carried out for
over more than five years with the educational community at “Indira Gandhi” school
(N°11 D.E.10 in the City of Buenos Aires) in which the children, staff, families and
external support teams and institutions, with whom we built various projects, actively
The text results from and accounts for the daily schoolwork, the reflections, readings,
queries and discussions with endearing partners. It is enhanced with texts by authors I
was able to have access to throughout different formative segments of my life, and which
have been of immense value to systematize ideas; among them, the works of Michael
Apple and of authors put forward by FLACSO's Social Science Specialization. It is here
where “Making Visible...” is born.
I have decided to socialize experiences that make our students visible mainly because I
reckon that no true change is possible unless it revises and delves into children's place as
Rights' holders (the 1989 International Convention on the Rights of the Child develops
this idea). An educational practice that forms students in this field is necessarily a
transformative political practice.
“Making visible...” reveals the emancipatory power of the word through the exercise of
the right to be listened to.
What I have learnt about this right, general axis of this work,
is specifically owed to my teacher Daniel López, Headmaster at the Training and
Research Institute “Master Cacho Carranza”, belonging to the Education Workers´ Union,
where I have participated since 2003. Regarding this right several topics are raised, such
as the class assemblies, which are resumed and expanded through presentations and
papers of my authorship.
These experiences show that our students, intelligent, sensitive, eager to learn and with
much to share, are Holders of Rights as long as their rights are acknowledged, respected
and exercised. And we are working on (and towards) that.
The proposal seeks to be a contribution towards the transformation of hegemonic
cultures which, to a great extent, are still in force in present societies and schools.
The opinions expressed in this book are exclusively my responsibility and might or might
not be shared.
The author.

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Observation N°5; Law 114 Art.17 from C.A.B.A.; Law
26061, art. 24 from the Argentine Nation).
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 7
What is to make a child visible...?
What is to be a social and political subject...? .................................................... 8
FIRST PART .................................................................................................... 13
A brief history of “the 11” .............................................................................. 14
The Child: subject or object? .......................................................................... 17
The leading team and their situation today.
What place do they have in this construction?................................................... 19
SECOND PART................................................................................................. 23
The (incipient) construction of the paradigm for the
integral protection of rights in the daily life of the school. ................................... 24
The experience of instituting areas for taking part
by means of discussion and reflecting on decision taking. ................................ 24
1. The construction of the school project ....................................................... 25
Memory and Identity.............................................................................. 28
2. Class Assemblies and Exchange Rounds..................................................... 32
The situation of the children today ........................................................... 32
3. Room for community sharing ................................................................... 35
4. Support Teams ...................................................................................... 38
An account of what happened in 2012. ..................................................... 39
Fragments of the recorded teachers' meeting on November 19th, 2012......... 44
5. A road forward to the formation of promoters of rights ................................ 48
Case (or situations) analysis as a pedagogic strategy.................................. 48
The Human Rights Forum. A place to socialize knowledge............................ 51
January 2012 – A Journey .................................................................. 52
“The Right to Land”, a significant learning................................................. 55
Words of the teachers as a part of the presentation of the work............... 56
I would like to share some issues with you for reflection:........................ 57
Chart on the right to land................................................................... 58
More information on this right ............................................................. 59
The Family of Good Land (final version corrected and printed) ................. 60
Table which summarises paradigms.............................................................. 62
BY WAY OF CONCLUSION ................................................................................. 63
Retrieving principles in action ......................................................................... 64
Those who work at “Indira” ............................................................................ 67
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................. 71
Legislation / Documents ................................................................................ 73
Talks, conferences & papers by the author or in which she has co-authorship........ 74
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos

"Making visible… Making us visible…"
What is to make a child visible...?


What is to be a social and political subject...?


After participating in different school leading teams for 10 years I am still wondering why
are students so often invisibilised at educational institutions?, if the norms, amongst
them the curricular lineaments, propose the prominence of the subjects. On the one
hand I refer to a legality linked to human rights which has become more noticeable in
recent years, and on the other the use of an old paradigm, of a model of education,
where the student does not take decisions and is very often manipulated. This
“protective” model is contradictory with the paradigm of Human Rights. These tensions
and contradictions are found in the daily school life, they are a part of scholastic culture.
To regard students as subjects of law is something that is included in school speeches.
Nevertheless, in this culture they continue to be objects under the decisions of others
and of practices of detrimental rights, very often presented as forms of “protection”.

You can therefore identify contradictions between the merely formal discourse of the
scholastic system and what really happens in the school and in the teaching practice. In
this reality, from the institutional practices, the power of Education as a transforming
political practice and the students as social and political subjects are not recognised. Or is
it a culture that recognises them and therefore they are gagged?
On recording, systematizing and analysing the problem, we find manifestations of the
school culture as a weave of senses.
Culture is made up of stories which account for
what is happening and is mainly reflective. If we refer to a school culture, we will
encounter the value of the actions which are produced in the school. In this culture
authoritarian traits are manifested, especially when, from personal experience, an
opposition and an antagonism arise between those who order and those who obey, which
makes team work and cooperation between people little credible. Furthermore, in
classrooms some contents are prioritized over others, without taking into account where
the youngsters come from and where they are raised. Thus, the context such as the
physical environment, historical or cultural circumstances, is a further reference; ideas,
previous learning and knowledge are as yet little recognised.
The histories of the
students, beliefs, forms of recognition of what to do with others or intervene (in their
own family, their neighbourhood, their friends, etc.) are not taken into account,

That they can be seen, perceptible, distinguishable.
It is a person that belongs and takes part in a social group. It is also allusive to the figure of a citizen as
the subject actor, with the ability to choose and live in freedom, taking part in an active manner in the
social and political outcome-
Ministry of Public Guardianship (2010). “Childhood, adolescence and mental health in the City of
Buenos Aires” report on the management of the Ministry of Public Guardianship of the City of Buenos
Culture is the conjunction of habits, representations, reciprocal expectations which characterize the
social sphere; it is a network of feelings that configure the subjective conditions of the educational
organizations… who each one is and what they do in the school; it can be interpreted as from a
scholastic culture, says Siede I. (2011): “Articulations, filtrations, contrasts and contributions between the
initial and primary levels”. Specialization in Social Sciences with a mention in Curriculum and Scholastic
Practices in Context, University of Latin American Social Sciences (FLASCO).
Bixio, C. (2005): “Teaching hoe to learn, build a collective area of teaching-learning”, educational
series, Homo Sapiens Publishing.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
prioritizing knowledge “which has to be transmitted” formulated from the designs built up
from the central government. These curricular guidelines, even though they originated in
some collaborative work and from articulation of some groups consulted at that time,
they are still the official thinking, markedly technical and distant for the individuals at the
school. That is to say, it results in a knowledge produced by the dominant culture, as
Max Weber understood the domination such as “the possibility of imposing a mandate in
a social relationship, in such a manner that its compliance is considered a

From this protective culture the transmission of knowledge valued by certain power
groups is put in jeopardy and “the spread of knowledge that the school presents is
reduced (at the same time that) the voices that are outside of this culture are silenced”

and the “official” knowledge is taught as an absolute truth. In this way it becomes
complex to generate institutionalized conditions to transform the curriculum according to
the characteristics of the school and of the children who attend the school, tackling the
context in which it is immersed, and the knowledge of the community members. No
politics are in view which could cause a change in the relationship of the knowledge of
the minorities.
Likewise, what occurs in the daily life of the school many times constitutes “a hidden
curriculum through which significant lessons in justice, power, dignity and self -value are
That is to say what and who the school values.
Summing up, old teachers with years of experience as well as new teachers, consider
that there are repeated instances of hegemonic models that underlie the teaching
practice with the students. In official judgement, and in the majority of cases, there is no
participation of the knowledge of the children and their families.
A characteristic trait in the daily practice of culture care is not to listen to the students´
voice. One of its causes is their own anguish in front of the difference, though this cause
is disguised, for example, with the fear of losing authority before the students. It could
be said that this is why authoritarianism increases; it places the adult in the place of the
lord and master, of that who does not need to listen because they already know what
happens with the other. Wouldn’t it be more correct to regard the different as enriching?
Another possible cause is not having taken part in democratic exercise in their own
schooling. This indicates the loss of opportunities and commitment as young students,
being agents of the practices of silencing, shutting-up, obeying, repeating what was
dictated to them.
A third cause probably has to do with the influence of adverse working conditions which
create diverse anxiety problems. These conditions range from precariousness to the
permanent attention of violent conflicts, which exceed teacher training and oblige
teachers to move out of their working areas, and show the lack of public policies to
attend to the diverse social problems, as well as educational measures of protection/care
towards the teachers and pupils.

Garcia, O. (2012): Education, social pact and citizenship”, in Seda, J .A. (coordinator): “Spreading
rights and citizenship within the school”, Chapter 7, Eudeba, Buenos Aires, page 120.
Apple, M.W. & Beane J .A. (1999): “Democratic Schools”, Collection of Pedagogy; Pedagogy Today,
Morata Publishing, Madrid, page 30.
Apple, M.W. & Beane, J .A: op.cit, page 30
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
In this work, “Making children visible”, is above all else to respect their condition as
“The subject is somebody conscious of their own existence…. they are aware that they
are before the world and they raise enigmas….. Knowing does not mean having
information but rather producing hypothetic issues….. The subject is the protagonist:
they believe they are unique and irreplaceable”.
To respect the condition of the subject means that every child should be listened to and
taken into consideration, since they are already carriers of knowledge and needs, and
they must be protected against any situation of vulnerability. Therefore they have to be
respected as children as well as to know their responsibilities. In our job it is an
indispensable condition because “it is a question of ethics. Ethics consists in taking into
account the presence and existence of the other… it is based on the principle of a similar
being, that is to say, in the manner in which I confront my responsibilities towards
someone else”.
We have to take into account, furthermore, that the relationship in the
school between teacher and student is asymmetrical. That is to say, a bond that involves
forms of responsibility and not forms of authority; the asymmetry “is based on actions
and not on the power of who exerts it….Obviously, it has to be sustained in a difference
of knowledge and not of power”.
Many times, in fear of being authoritarian teachers
undertake a symmetry that blurs responsibilities.
What can be done, then, for the students to consolidate, to take charge of their condition
of subjects?
The most important thing is to consider their word as “authorized word”.

At “Indira Ghandi School”, of which I am a part, the road to follow to build up this
positioning is the daily exercise of the right to be listened to.
What then, is to consider them as social and political subjects?
In the first place, when we think of students as social and political subjects, we think of
them as taking part in the world, with the ability to choose and live freely and with the
ability to take measures which improve their condition in life and that of others. In other
words, carrying out and building up citizenship.

Dente, L & Bener G. ( 2010): “Moving towards the production teaching cultures sensitive to infantile
and juvenile cultures”, Diploma in Curriculum and Scholastic Practices in Context, FLASCO.
Bleichmar, S (2010): “Social Violence-School Violence. Establishing limits on the construction of
legalities”, Conjunction Collection, Noveduc, Argentina, page 136.
Bleichmer, S: op. cit., page 28.
Bleichmer, S: op. cit., page 144.
Curricular Design for Primary Schools of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires
Documents from the Institute of Formation & Investigation, Master Cacho Carranza, Education
Workers Union, CTERA, CTA. Observation No 13 (2011): Introduction, page 3, General Overview.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
And this is how Michael Apple, pedagogue and theoretician in critical pedagogy, believes
that to be able to build democratic schools, that is to say, a place where the right of
people to take part in the decision making is respected, where the students consolidate
their condition as subjects and where an integral protection of rights exists, it is
necessary to create structures and democratic processes, by means of which school
life and a curriculum that offers democratic experiences for the children
configured. This outline of work will be possible if we count on educators who “put into
effect the dispositions and opportunities which will give life to democracy”.
Therefore, the school has the obligation of taking the necessary actions to steer towards
“citizenship education whose learning is expressed in attitudes, values and forms of
relationship with the community”;
we refer to an intersubjective formation, which
contains all the subjects of each one of these networks which are defined by the personal
(with reference to someone else), scholastic or citizenship; fundamentally considering the
infancies in terms of present and future.
That is to say “that they become active
members of the community, taking part in and carrying out articulated roles in public

Here it would be interesting to reflect upon some experiences which have tried to and are
trying to generate a scholastic culture that makes the students more visible, and to place
them as social and political subjects
, by enabling the legitimate processes of
participation where individual and collective capabilities are developed to question, for
example, concealments and omissions linked to law.

But... are the only invisible ones are the children and teenagers in the schools?
I think not. That is why, in the case of our school, the challenge is that all members of
our community can cease to be so.
“People committed to the creation of democratic schools also understand that creating
them is more compromising than the proper education of the youngsters. Democratic
schools are designed to be democratic places, inasmuch that the idea of democracy
should also encompass the numerous roles that adults play in schools…”.

Upon this construction, that of visibility, and on the emancipating power of the word lies,
this story.

Apple, M.W & Beane, J .A.: op. cit., page 25.
Apple, M.W & Beane, J .A.: op. cit., page 24.
Varela, M.C. (2012) “Citizenship Formation and Pedagogic Link”, in Seda J .A. (coordinator) “Diffusion
in the school of rights and citizenship”, Chapter 2, Eudeba, Buenos Aires.
Dente, L & Brener, G.: op. cit.
Apple, M.W. & Beane, J .A.: op. cit.
Dente, L. & Brener, G.: op. cit.
López, D. (2012): “To be heard, human rights and education” in: Secretary of Education of the
Education Workers Union: “Politics of Infancy: Teacher contributions to current debates on children and
youth”, Miño & Davila, Buenos Aires, pages 125 to 148.
Apple, M. W. & Beane, J .A.: op.cit, page 22
"Making visible… Making us visible…"

Evelina Rosanna Zeballos

"Making visible… Making us visible…"
A brief history of “the 11”
“Indira Ghandi” school is located in the area of Nuñez, near the Buenos Aires University
campus and a few meters from the “Costanera”. Next door is “Parque Norte”, a complex
belonging to the Union of Commercial Employees, and it also shares a paddock of more
than three hectares with “Puerto Pibes”, an institute that belongs to the Ministry of Social
Development of the City of Buenos Aires, which is dedicated to the use of children and
adolescents. In its large green areas it has small pitches for games, swings, slides, etc.
for the entertainment of the students.
The school facilities used to be where the old “Nuñez Swimming Pools” operated in the
time of the Social Welfare State, and there was no gas or a kitchen from 2007 up to April
2012. This was when the families of our students, who live in the “Villa 31”, decided to
join their plea for school buses for their children to the appeal to put the school building
into proper condition; an appeal that had been ignored for years.
The school population is made up of children who live in the neighbourhoods of the area
around Retiro station that conform the Villa 31 (YPF, Güemes, Chino, 31, 31 Bis…), the
shanty towns that surround Saldías station and the district which carries the same name,
and also the conurbation areas of the Province of Buenos Aires as far as “Tierras Altas”
(High Lands) through which the Belgrano Railway runs and has a stop at a station in
front of the school. Some of these families have been attending the school for more than
thirty years, which speaks of a history and involves us all in the daily cohabitation of
various generations of pupils.
As for the environmental conditions in which these families live, they are diverse; be it
because they are different districts, as it happens with the conurbation, or because they
live in different neighbourhoods within the same area as is the case of the Villa 31. These
conditions range from absolute precariousness (families that live in the streets or in large
sheds in which small rooms have been built) up to having basic services and incomes
that allow for a better subsistence. However, they all carry the stigma of being “villeros”
(people who live in shanty towns). This also conditions the type of jobs they can access,
and in the majority of cases these are informal part time jobs, like portering, masonry,
sale of cardboard, illegal parking attendants, cleaning and, in a few cases steady full time
employment. There are some families who are entirely unemployed. Most of them make
up short falls in their income going on the dole. Some adults work long hours and this is
influential in the amount of time they can spend with their children who, in many cases
are left in the charge of older siblings. The daily life of the groups to which our students
belong is diverse and complex and with multiple needs unsatisfied, as is the case of the
sectors of abject poverty, where the majority of their rights are violated as a result of
social, economic, and exclusion policies. Faced with this, the Government of the City of
Buenos Aires is implementing policies of inclusion and solving everything just with
children´s school attendance. This compensation also includes school books and writing
Relating to the school, I can say that, even having been through very complicated
situations, we meet many parents showing their concern that their children should learn
and that they should do so in the best conditions possible. The children on the other
hand, arrive at class with a lot of uncertainty due to the daily difficulties they struggle
through related to food, home, health, protection, etc.; and this does not allow them to
fully develop their potential as also their possibilities of questioning the world. Can a
school teach a child that is so worried about their and their family’s survival?... How?
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
It is important to take into account several matters concerning the history of the school
and which are related to this work: up until 2008 the teaching and non -teaching staff, in
their greater majority, had been a long time with the school; they had a “paternalistic”

attitude towards the management team. The teachers were friendly with the kids, they
attended to the families and they taught. In their majority the children were very
affectionate with adults from the school and they were also quiet and obedient. If
situations or problems with the children arose they were mainly resolved in two ways:
summoning them to the headmaster’s / headmistress’ office, alone or with the child’s
parents or the method of mediation
was used. These forms in different manners are
still used by some of the staff. It can be said that they thought of the children as beings
to be “moulded” for the future.
It is interesting to point out that, according to what people close to the institution have
mentioned, the families not only consider the school to be a place where they can place
their problems, but also where they will be solved. For example, obtaining clothes,
money, food, appointments with diverse professionals and making the school schedules
flexible to cater for their needs, etc. That is to say that the ideas of the community as to
what the school functions consisted of were blurred, becoming an omnipresent point of
reference due to the absence of state policies on the part of the Government of Buenos
These families felt welcome, contained and they recognised with words and gestures
what the school was giving them; the teachers at the same time took care of the children
and the issues of vulnerability, but this bond was not regarded as welfare (guardianship,
in reality subordination), far from the links between subjects, where, for example,
urgencies, needs, expectations are recognised, giving way to diverse voices in equality
levels and finding solutions that overcome the problems, from the collective
As for the parents, their participation was on formal occasions such as meetings where
the terms marks were handed out, school ceremonies, tiding up the kitchen garden or
doing general repairs, but they had no part in the decision making at the school. It
should be borne in mind that this lack of participation in the decision making at the
school has to do with, amongst other things, not giving sufficient importance to the voice
of the children and the adults of their community, in the necessary collective construction
of the school. It all responded to the model of a “large family”
, where the primary links

A model in which the head of the school invokes the father figure that protects and evolves, in this
case an example could be to tell them what to do and how to do it before taking decisions and being
responsible for these, amongst other things.
This last strategy is an instance where after learning various techniques, a child takes part in a problem
between two other students. This is related to resolving personal and individual conflicts, where his
strength lies, but its solution doesn’t always result in benefits for the interior of the groups. Furthermore
you run the risk that the interests of the mediator will interfere. Therefore a permanent supervision is
required as in some cases the people don’t open their mouths.
Frigerio, G., Poggi, M. (1995): “The educational institutions. Heads or Tails. Elements for its
understanding”, Flasco Action Series. Troquel education, 5
edition, page 40.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
The need existed to take action that would position the students, teachers, auxiliary help
and parents in another place…
Could we think of gathering them to take part with their own knowledge and together try
to generate a culture different to a “large family”?
Could this positioning help to construct another view of the school and the place that
each one can occupy within and out of the school?

Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
The Child: subject or object?
“It is not possible to teach citizenship values in our era and to question children from a
position of inequality and submission”
Leandro Stagno
Within Argentina the educational system of the City of Buenos Aires is one of the most
advanced in curricular legislation. These norms extensively emphasise the place of
children as subjects, as well as vindicate the importance of the Community within the
daily life at School. Dussel states that the curriculum “is what allows us to see what type
of organization of knowledge , experiences and bonds with the students and the world
the school proposes”.
Nevertheless, in many practices and speeches marginalization and the Guardianship
Paradigm continue to be legitimised.
Within this paradigm people and specially children
have no voice; like infants: they cannot speak. Schools regard them as “underage” who
have to be formed, educated and prepared for the future; that is to say they have no
present. Their place as subjects is not recognised.
As a result, even if the importance of the development of critical thought, autonomy and
the capability of transforming the world is spoken about, it is impossible that this can
move forward as the children have no possibilities of learning and being taught from a
position of active subjects (this looks back on the self -reflection and action on what is
being lived and not simple activism). I make reference here to the intervention upon
school life from topics specifically linked to the disciplinary areas of the curriculum, as in
matters that crop up in the institution and beyond this those related to citizenship, such
as solving problems that affect their daily life, that of their family and the groups to
which they belong, etc…
To sum up, in this guardianship culture, relationships of minority and of incapacity are
established. There is no subject, relationships are those of subordination. A lot of “don’t
do’s” are taught and behaviour is analysed from a “disciplinary”
point of view. As I was
saying, the subjects are objects of the decisions of others.

Dussel, I: “Curriculum, approaches to define what should be taught in schools today”. Explore &
Project, Pedagogic, Part No 7.
Paradigm Guardianship has it legitimacy as from 1919 under the Board of Minors Act (or the Agote
Act) which under the argument of protecting minors in situations of crime or abandonment authorized
the State’s discretional intervention, a power to place at the disposal of the State all minors considered
to be in a “moral and material risk situation”. This doctrine of “irregular situation” (as opposed to integral
protection) establishes a complex guardianship (protection) and a correctional system (healing) and
puts into effect a group of institutionalized politics for minors. This Act was valid up to 2005. En Carli, S.
(2001): “The child as a Subject of Law”, Rosario.
Lopez, D: op. cit.
Carli, S.: op.cit.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
As from the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), which Argentina ratified in
1990 and incorporated into her Constitution in 1994, a change has been produced in the
way in which infancy and its relationship with the State, with the family and the
community is conceived. Children are defined as “Rights´ Holders”, an essential concept
in a new paradigm. Later, Acts N° 114 (of the City of Buenos Aires-1998) and N° 26.061
(of the Nation-2005) reaffirm this concept. The family as a primordial nucleus in the
defence, promotion, and protection of rights is recognised, and co-responsibility between
this, the civil society and the State in this protection.
As from this point “the subject is
thought of per se, material, concrete, and immersed in the social relationships in which
the subject lives”.
Nevertheless, the change of the paradigm is a slow construction for
diverse reasons. Amongst them the authoritarian history, the lack of awareness of
children’s rights, the lack of training in Human Rights, the fear of losing teacher
authority, the need to maintain an “order”, the political intentionality, etc. The
institutional actors: students and professors primarily are the main constructors of the
scholastic culture, taking actions and producing diverse knowledge.
And you have to
give them (or take from them?) the place which corresponds to them in the school.
At “Indira Ghandi” school we are working on these changes. The institution, as has been
mentioned, attends to children from underprivileged and highly vulnerable families. Many
times in schools which attend to communities in complex contexts, the teachers and
personnel do not listen to the voices and associate poverty with lack of intelligence, thus
marginalizing the subjects.

Beginning with historical as well as emerging situations, we have started to use devices
and processes
that foster a place where children and their families, as well as teachers
and helpers, can be heard. We can all freely express our needs, difficulties and obstacles.
We can also come up with solutions, strengths, and wishes and take part in the decision
If we think, then, of a summoning issue, the relationship between voice and citizenship,
we could say that the initial moment of that relationship is the moment that we recognise
students as subjects, trusting their word as “authorised”, that is to say, that it has value,
and that every child has the right to be heard.

Documents from the Cacho Carranza Institure-UTE.
Barna Cingolani, A.L. (2012): “An anthropological look at the discourse on the rights of the child” in
Seda, J .A. (coordinator): “Diffusion of the rights and of citizenship in the school”, Chapter 9, Eudeba,
Buenos Aires, page 161.
Stagno, L. (2011) “On forms of thinking and living infancy” 12/98 City of Buenos Aires Legislature.
Kaplan, C. (2005) “Inequality, failure, exclusion: A question of genes or of opportunities?” in S.
Llomovatte & C. Kaplan (coordinators): “Educational inequality: nature as a pretext” , Noveduc,
Educational Novelties Publishers, Page 81.
Apple, M.W & Beane, J .A. : op. cit., page 24.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
The possibility of the word will open new roads through the expression of ideas,
arguments, position taking, argumentation, etc. generating visions and positioning
allowing for common horizons, backed up by the right to be heard.

Making students visible, is to consider them as subjects with rights, by the permanent
exercise of the right to be heard.
Can this road pave the way for the construction of a social democratic school culture?
Will this right mean a commitment in the transformation towards a guardian school
culture towards a culture of protection of integral rights?
The leading team and their situation today.
What place do they have in this construction?
State schools are under a governing board, made up by a Headmaster or Headmistress,
a Deputy Head and a Secretary.
What words would define the role of this board? In a general outline its members
organise and manage the life of the school by means of a variety of tasks such as
accompanying, informing and advising the teachers; helping and guiding the students,
their families or family groups; favouring communication, interpreting the context and
the emerging situations, etc. The members share this work coming to agreements in
accordance with their characteristics and capabilities, and the institutional needs.
Notwithstanding the specific functions of each one of them, these needs are clearly
defined in the School Regulations.

In the framework of this work, addressing the concerns of our mission as Heads in these
times, and the legal responsibility we have, in many cases legitimised by the community,
we have to ask ourselves: are there difficulties in the daily life of the school that make
the democratic role of the Heads, which favour the protection of rights, an impossibility?
And if these exist, what are the causes for this to happen?
In the first place, and from my own personal experience as part of these teams and on
conversing to many of them, issues that produce an impact on the dynamics of the
institution as also the working conditions can be named.

Law 114 “Integral Protection of Children and Adolescent Rights 12/98, City of Buenos Aires Legislature.
Scholastic Regulations for the Schools of the City of Buenos Aires – Resolution from the Ministry of
Education No 4776/06.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
We have to be in charge of:
• Administrative tasks in some cases repeated more than once, or which correspond to
other instances of the system.
• Attending to tasks of infrastructure: formalities dealing with problems linked to
flooding, blocked sewage, gas, leaks and breakages in the roof which can destroy
part of the class rooms or be dangerous to the children, etc. Tasks which are
devastating due to the time, the effort and the energy they require and over which
we know nothing about but, all the same, we have to take charge of.
At present,
and for some time now, minor tasks (electricity, cleaning of water tanks, fixing locks,
unblocking pipes) are being carried out by personnel from companies contracted by
the government of the City of Buenos Aires; each one of them takes care of various
schools during the month. Problems with the buildings continue in many schools as
this government does not have the necessary funds to solve them, or due to the
precariousness of those jobs already carried out.
• The difficulties which a large part of the students are going through such as
abandonment, ill treatment, physical and verbal violence, and the consequent
learning problems which we have to handle alone and without being able to solve the
problems of lack of tools or strategies for the teachers who have to face these
students every day. We cannot seriously count on an Orientation Team
as a work
group as the current one is more than insufficient as it already handles hundreds of
situations which crop up in the district (there are five professionals for a population of
6,000 students) which ends up being no more than two or three students per school.
And when we try to inform of these situations which occur with the students to the
office for the Protection of the Rights of Children and Adolescents
the handling of
the case is totally deficient. The State and its representatives ignore their obligations
in relationship to the politics or programs for the protection of children.

These working conditions, amongst other issues, invalidate the possibility of organizing
ourselves or of being heard and, hence, reflect upon the problems.

In the school I am speaking about, for example, the costly formalities and intense discussions, in many
cases with different teams under the Ministry of Education of the City of Buenos Aires, over a period five
years for them to solve the problems such as the lack of gas and a kitchen, the poor condition of the
roofs, and the poor workmanship of the tasks already carried out (roofs, gas, sewage…) etc.
Organization or resource which each scholastic district has, and which has personnel with professions
such as psychology, psychopedagogy and social assistants to attend to diverse problems.
Dependency of the Council for Children and Adolescents of the city of Buenos Aires.
Convention on the Rights of the Child – Committee for the Rights of the Child – Observation No 13
(2011) “The right of the child not to be the object of any form of violence” – Heading IV Legal Analysis of
article. 19 Art. 42-point b1-a & 1b.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Furthermore, also on multiple occasions, incoherences within the system become
manifest. On the one hand, preaching on human rights, team work, and the collective
decision making… and on the other hand, people who occupy higher positions remind us
that we are in a hierarchical system and they tell us to obey, and at the same time
explain to us how the others should obey us: “you are the Heads of the school” (referring
to the headmistresses/Headmasters), “all (they enumerate….) are obliged to respect the
hierarchical way”. Contributions, apart from the daily work of the Board, are related to
“how to look after yourself” so as to not have problems. All of us who are in the
ascension process of the teaching profession accept that there are people who occupy
positions of more responsibility, and that they will give us indications which we have to
respect, as a necessary form of organization (until all together we propose others); but
that which we feel and see has to do with the authoritarianism which is “used” when
lacking a public political consensus which prioritises subjects. I furthermore believe that a
young democratic history has not yet been able to modify an authoritarian national,
social, familiar, school history.
Furthermore, if we think of the formation made up of the scholastic (institutional –
academic) and life experience of each subject (experiences, capabilities, and attitudes) it
is very diverse in each leader. We get an updating just before the ascension contest and
in many cases with few possibilities to build up a communication to overcome the
unidirectional system and make way for other topics which are not those that will be put
forth. Therefore it is impossible to think at that moment of an instance where collective
knowledge can be generated.
And there are the diverse district training programs. The majority of these are to do with
general matters regarding disciplines, emerging or new subjects, or measures, but they
do not address the particulars of each context or improve our training to work with
children, as for example the vulnerable citizenry.
In spite of the efforts and the
attempts from some of the supervisions, it is very difficult to measure the impact on
teachers as there is no give and take to modify practices. Many areas end up being a
catharsis of all the accumulated bad feelings.
We cannot leave aside either, some of the traits that appear in the people under our
control (and more than one): self-sufficiency, despotism, paternalism, lack of
enthusiasm, and volunteerism; etc., which impact in diverse manners inasmuch on the
teachers as on students and on their families.

Do these traits ease or hinder the construction of a paradigm for the protection of rights?
It is hard to think of an environment where the word keeps moving and collective
knowledge is generated if these approaches predominate; because the efforts
undertaken, the time consumed and the feelings brought about alienate the possibility of
reflecting upon the practice. Nonetheless, many leading teams ruminate over the working
conditions and on how these invalidate their job, both because of the children and their
particular situations. And they launch every possible effort to make room for reflection.

Observation No 13: 4th heading Legal Analysis from art. 19 – Art. 19.
See more on this subject in Del Franco, A. & Zeballos, E. (2006): “From home cultures to democratic
cultures”, Presented at the XI Pedagogic Congress: “A school where the weavers of words are the
makers of the world” – Secretariat of education, U.T.T., CTERA, CTA.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
But… should the facilitation of listening skills, reflection and collective decision-making be
left in the hands of a few individual attempts? Wouldn’t we, then, be working from
Will service training on how to build areas for discussion and dialogue be necessary? It is
also evident that we lack legal training on human rights. This could have something to do
with knowing about legislation where students are recognised as subjects, systems for
the protection of rights, protocols that tell us how to act within the law,
Could reflection be promoted within the different formation proposals, such as relevant
How could we implement this in our daily life at school?
Wouldn’t it be necessary, in the first place, to take a general look at our students as
How to favour (or generate) then, a school culture which would make the children ever
more visible…both as social and political subjects?

Observation No 13: 4
heading Legal Analysis from art 19, Art. 42 point b 1 b.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos

"Making visible… Making us visible…"
The (incipient) construction of the paradigm for the
integral protection of rights in the daily life of the school.
The experience of instituting areas for taking part by means of
discussion and reflecting on decision taking.
At “Indira Ghandi” school, in these five years, we have institutionalised diverse areas
where the word circulates: work get -togethers between teachers, students´assemblies,
meetings and exchange workshops with the students, meetings with parents, etc., in an
attempt to contribute a way of democratic life.
Groups which make up the teaching community change every year due to transfers,
becoming tenured, retirements, reincorporations, etc., situations which arise for diverse
reasons. Notwithstanding this we try to keep these areas over time with the intention of
constructing by means of dialogue, reflection, discussion, collective knowledge and
building up an institution which can channel its activities towards education.

Generally, meetings are planned with the commitment of the teams. At these we take
into account working moments in small groups and with the group as a whole, many
times it is a brain storming moment, giving importance, furthermore, to registering those
The construction of a democratic form of life as is mentioned here, requires, as Apple
explains, “a creative process to find ways of extending and developing democratic values.
Nevertheless, this process isn’t simply a participative conversation over something; it is
more a case of guiding towards an intelligent and reflexive consideration of the problems,
the events and the questions that arise in our collective lives”.
I would like to socialise
some experiences we have had in School N° 11 by means of recounting some of the
areas which follow this course.

See the Curricular Design for a Primary School- Government of the City of Buenos Aires-2004.
Apple, M.W. & Beane J .A: op. cit page 34.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
1. The construction of the school project
One of these areas is the School Project (Institutional Project), in which all the personnel
are involved, where in a systematic manner it is reflected upon, discussed, planned, and
decisions are taken, and collectively evaluated. This is “a form of looking at, thinking
about, and acting collectively in the institution. It is the conjunction of institutional
agreements on the school we have and the school we want. It is a way of shaping the

In our school, from the first moment, we work on orality. In the diagnosis,
we recognised the difficulties in its development as a central problem, and that the
causes for this could be multiple. At first sight, not without prejudice… we centralised
everything on the characteristics of the environment to which our pupils belong, on
issues such a low stimulation, few cultural experiences (from our western point of view),
the migratory movements, the situations of oppression in which they live, etc.
Later we started to analyse how much our attitudes towards them are an influence in the
development of orality, as also the experiences we give them and we began to realize
the need to revise the value of the cultures that our students and their families bring. We
decided then to focus on this area through our daily work, spreading out all the possible
After an intensive work session we defined orality as “the capability of being able to
express ideas, feelings, opinions, emotions, demands, in a spontaneous manner by
means of the WORD. Also supporting, arguing, discussing, confronting ideas, inferring,
reaching conclusions, and explaining, in each instance that the teacher, or others,
propose. This tool appears in all that is related to the school. Firstly in the contents
named tasks of the speaker and of the listener, of the reader, and of the writer acquiring
relevance in all the areas that are crossed, and its development is exceedingly important
for life within and out of the school and related to CITIZENSHIP.
By means of orality, then, the children not only expand their possibilities for
communication, but also reflect on the uses of the language and they learn to value the
diversity it offers. They become authoritative speakers when they stand up to speak
and are listened to, to demand when they are not respected, to put forth their ideas and
argue in favour of or against a given position, to communicate their decisions, to petition.
As listeners they are attentive to different points of view, listen to and infer that which is
not expressed, become valid speakers, etc. This contributes to their formation as
students and develops their critical judgement, and it allows them to have the tools by
which they can take part in diverse experiences, inasmuch scholastically as extra
scholastically which constitutes democratic life.

Ministry of Education of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires, Directorate of Curriculum and
Teaching, Directorate of Educative Evaluation (2008): “Orientations for elaborating the School Project”.
The Ministry of National Education: “Nucleus of Priority Education”.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
It is important here to identify, as well, the place that writing had and has in the life of
the students. Although the mission that has been historically assigned to school has
been to teach literacy (commonly understood as reading and writing), this was not
sufficient as it did not guarantee rights. Today we can think that when we speak of
literacy we mean to say “communicating with others with social practices, knowledge and
and we can think of writing as inseparable from orality, and a form of
essential communication. We recognise that for a full citizenship life, it is necessary to be
not only a speaker but also a competent writer, and forming them is one of the many
objectives of the school.
“To value orality as a fundamental tool in the construction and circulation of knowledge”
was (and is) our institutional objective. This will be achieved in the future working from
those four outlines of action, following the indications of the current educational
a) Implementing curricular and extra -curricular workshops where, from the point of
view of orality and specific strategies, other aspects of the children are put into play.
b) Institutionalization of areas for reflection and discussion with decision taking,
essentials for the consolidation of the subjects. Meetings, round tables of interchange,
course meetings, strategies for better communal living and citizenship construction
are used.

c) Interrelationship between areas and curricular subjects, as a part of this integral
based on agreements and giving answer to needs and interests.
d) Systematization of orality, tied in with its learning and systematic application, putting
it into play in every classroom situation.
In all of the aforementioned School Project
“Words: bridges which unite” family
participation is taken into account, strengthening the links of trust.

Guerschberg, K (2012): “Legal Literacy”, in Seda J .A. (coordinator): “Diffusion of Rights and Citizenship
in the school”, Chapter 8, Eudeba, Buenos Aires, page 140.
Ministry of Education; Government of the City of Buenos Aires, Directorate of Curriculum & Teaching,
Directorate of Educational Evaluation (2008): “Orientations for elaborating the School Project”.
In the first two years we continued with a project on Mediation, which after evaluating it as well as the
external teams in charge, we decided to leave it without effect. It is worth pointing out that in the years
in which it was implemented no register on the part of the professional teams or of the teachers taking
part was made.
“In the teacher work shop, the integral formation questioned what happens with the person, with their
communication, and with their emotions. Reflecting on emotions allows for understanding contexts,
problematic situations, conflicts of rights, alternative actions or the links of trust with the students are
evaluated” Daniel Lopez. Op. cit.
More data on our Blog and a printed version at the disposal of those who want it.
Lopez, D: “Links of Trust”, a speech given at the VIIth Educational Congress: The school confronted by
a crisis in teaching, Institute of Formation and Investigation. “Maestro Cacho Carranza”, Secretariat of
Education, Teachers Union, CTERA-CTA, 2002.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Each community has its place in our institution; its history, its objects, its traditions, its
culture. As Apple says “our job is to reconstruct dominant knowledge and use it to help
those who have less privileges in society”.
Hence, on returning a voice to those
members of society who have been left aside, such as the families who attend this
school, we believe a lot can be done.
Here I would like to point out that as from five years ago we have made a special place
for the experiences which have families as protagonists. At meetings, which initially we
organise in the months of October and November and which are extended, as teachers
see fit, to other times in the year, they share their knowledge with the children as for
example making musical instruments, teaching the cultivation of rice, recipes of typical
dishes, the use of a loom, woodwork, amongst others. They have also participated in a
festival with traditional music and dances they have organized themselves. We have also
had a mother teaching Guaraní (one of the official languages of Paraguay) in year 4
throughout 2012 and 2013.
I believe it is complex to achieve an open community school, and doubly so with
communities where the groups which make it up are not considered “good or normal
families” (in this type of remarks you can see the validity of the tutelary paradigm), as
the different causes fear, amongst other issues, which crops up when faced with this
situation. I support Silvia Bleichmar’s idea of a family when she says: “in the measure in
which there is an adult capable of looking after a child or a child capable of being looked
after by an adult, we have a family”
which does not conform to the classical idea of a
In the particular case of this school I think this view is essential; basically because we
are committed to the subjects. When we sometimes say that the families do not get
involved with the learning of their children, in fact we do not believe that many people
who come from the more “neglected” groups have ever been carriers of knowledge, so
how can they take part in something with which they do not identify? How can they help
when they themselves have lived in a state of abandonment? Insofar as the word takes
on value and they begin to experience links of trust with other members of the school
and to experience the environment of the school as belonging to them, they begin to feel
that they have more to give and that they can be important to the group. This is the
basis for the construction and dissemination of knowledge. If we ask ourselves: is it
enough to come just once to share their knowledge? The answer is obviously no.
We also learnt that holding fairs to show what each community can do has more to do
with a multicultural approach (diverse isolated cultures) and not an intercultural attitude
. Families have to be a part of the daily school life and to participate from their own place
as subjects who belong to a family and a social group. There are no magical recipes!

Lopez, D: “Links of Trust”, a speech given at the VIIth Educational Congress: The school confronted by
a crisis in teaching, Institute of Formation and Investigation. “Maestro Cacho Carranza”, Secretariat of
Education, Teachers Union, CTERA-CTA, 2002.
Bleichmar, S.: op. cit, page 128.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
In recent years the sub-projects have increased. One of the most important arises from
the need to improve coordination between grade/form teachers and curricular or special
ones (line N°3), which were lacking the ability to work together as a team and this was
creating ill feelings. As I see it, this difficulty arises due to questions linked to working
conditions, but mainly from not recognising the same formative values in the different
areas. That is to say that the school privileges some areas over others. Thus, the
challenge was to discuss the problems and make proposals based on equality, something
that was not and is not easy as it requires revisions, evaluations, and new agreements
repeatedly. Daniel Lopez tells us: “the declared equality has nothing to do with equality
as an ethical obligation to listen to the other”.
To generate then, a construction within
the school on equal rights is a daily challenge. That is how “Memory and Identity” arose
in the year of the Bicentenary, a project that banked heavily on the integral formation of
the students.
Memory and Identity
In a well-known expression we could say that memory is a combination of memories
which serves to make sense of a given place, a given time, personal and collective
histories, etc. But it is important and enlightening to know and take into account the
words of Pilar Calveiro
when she says that by exercising our memory, the present and
the actions we take at that point are revealed to us as a construction. Therefore,
exercising our memory allows us to convert it into an act that makes it possible to modify
our present and decide how to construct the future.
Similarly, we understand identity as a form of defining a category of being which is
constructed in a social relationship of an individual or a group with other individuals or
, and we pledge through this project to fortify that construction.
We planned to address the issue from personal and collective histories, and within each
one of them, the school, the neighbourhood, the nation, the world, working on objects,
anecdotes, experiences of our students and their families. During the first year all our
teachers were involved in this project as also many professionals belonging to
“Programmmes and Projects, as for example: “Espacio para la Memoria” (Room for
memory) with workshops on Human Rights, “Buenos Aires under the Tiles” where
children discovered the secrets of the City, and “Legislators for a Day”, where the
children from the year 7 presented projects for the re-establishment of the gas supply to
the school. We had exchanges with the private school “Escuela para el Hombre Nuevo”,
(School for The New Man), with whom we shared a first time visit to ECuNHi, “Cultural
Environment for our Children” the ex – ESMA “Naval Petty Officers School of Mechanics”
to commemorate Memorial Day for Truth and Justice, as also their Annual Reading Fair.
These projects allowed for all kinds of experiences not only for the children but also the

Lopez, D: op. cit.
Calveiro, Pilar, former detained and missing person from E.S.M.A., PhD in Politic Science who resides in
Gysling, J . (1992): “Professors: An analysis of their social identity”, Santiago, CIDE.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
teachers, contributing to our formation.
As a closure, a Museum was held; this final
work began when each member of the institution searched for a meaningful object, then
an index card had to be prepared with the data of the object and its history. Later, during
a specially prepared exhibition, which was first held in the classrooms and later in
common areas, it was shown to the rest of the school. To everybody's surprise, the first
student to bring an object was the one with the most difficulties in coexistence: he
brought his first shoes. Objects which were brought to the Museum were fluffy toys,
balls, little boxes, family photos, newspapers etc. One year 2 student moved us all: he
had lost his mother the previous year, and he chose to bring his parents´ wedding photo
and said he knew about this photo as his mother had told him about it. The younger
students were taken aback by the fact that we, adults, would still keep our most
significant objects: a doll, the first ruler, the favourite card, etc. They approached the
adults and asked several questions after the presentations: where did you take it from?
or who gave it to you? Were you given it when you were little? Where do you store it?
Here we can see how little children could make better sense of the time and how
meaningful an object can be for every one of us. The possibility of storing it,
independently of the age and life's circumstances. As could be foreseen, all the activities,
highly touching, contributed to consolidating the personal identity.
During the second year of its implementation we thought of bringing it closer to the
curricular guidelines. That is why we worked on personal, family and neighbourhood
identity, and that which was left to us by native peoples and immigrants. We studied in
depth the characteristics of South and Latin American identities. We carried out several
activities and experiences following the contents of each course. In an additional
undertaking we sought for the identity of our school by means of games, investigations,
memories and very moving testimonies from our former students which were recorded
in diverse manners and which we extend to everyone in the community, and this
produced an impact on the parents who have been bringing their children to “Indira” for
I agree with Apple in that in the daily nature of the school “whilst a growing cultural
diversity exists, pressure is brought to bear to maintain the curriculum within the narrow
limits of the western cultural tradition”.
Nevertheless this does not mean disallowing
the need the children have to know the “official” contents by which they are guided as
they grow (as long as we do not change them) within the educational system.
Additionally, we have (and we should give) all the possibilities to add significance to

Many of them continued in: “Legislators for a Day” throughout 2011, petitioning that the problems of
the gas be resolved, not only for us, but for other schools in the City as well, that bus stops be put up in
front of the school, requests that were chosen amongst other three to be addressed in the Legislature.
The last year (2012) they petitioned for the return of a cabinet of health specialists which was removed
when the Government of the City was changed, and this was also chosen. Since 2010 it continues to be
a part of The Reading Fair, and all of us taking part were delighted with its organization which is
common to other projects in this school.
Apple, M.W & Beane J .A.: op. cit, page 16.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Already in 2012 we considered that the most outstanding feature in the identity of our
institution is promoting rights. For this reason we decided to extend this formation, which
had started the previous year in year 7, to all the courses. We retrieved the work which
had been done with the students on Children´s Rights, initiating some students into the
and we broadened our span towards Systems for the Protection of Rights
groups from the years 5, 6 and 7. In this period the participation of Omar, a Colombian
professor who accompanied the teachers voluntarily in some of the projects connected
with memory and centralised in reading, was outstanding. His commitment with children
and the public thing became manifest. We are very grateful for his generosity.
Over these years, one of the essential pillars of the school accompanying planning,
implementation, support, project productions as also the permanent generation of their
own projects, has been the school library with the great and committed help of the
Furthermore for the fourth year in a row, we have had interchanges with youths from the
programme “Community Leaders” which belongs to the Ministry of Social Development of
the Government of the City of Buenos Aires, our neighbours “Puerto Pibes”, with whom
we work in play and recreation on these themes. And we agreed on an environment of
orality in the meetings as also carry out a joint evaluation of the project. This link came
about from the joint struggle with some of them in the 2009 defence of the site.

Summing up: there are no possibilities of a neutral memory, every memory exercise has
political signs (or political – pedagogical). Furthermore the social identity is not only
circumscribed to the process of self-recognition, but it is also the complex result between
self-recognition and the recognition of what others do to us.
In this case, in the work
we carry out together with the children, the memory exercise allows us to say who we
are, restate our identity and convert it into an act, that is to say to construct a personal
and collective plot which would give us enough force to carry out actions which would
allow us to modify the present and think of the future.
Every year there are different instances of construction in the School Project. And even
though we carry on working along the alignments set out, we set out to modify and
incorporate new projects in accordance with the follow-up and evaluations we carry out.
Generally, over the first days of work at the beginning of the school year, we converse,
propose and listen to proposals, incorporating the new ways of looking at a subject; we
work in groups; later we resume the issues in meetings with the personnel and we
always make adjustments or changes in cycle meetings, which allow us to meet up
weekly or fortnightly.

It is a supposition, many times, to think that the school teaches about the International Convention of
Children’s Rights. In our case we teach and/ or we delve into rights such as the rights to identity, to have
a family, to have land, to not work, to play, to take part in, to be listened to, etc.
Decentralized Office for Attending to the Rights of Children and Adolescents – OAD – Boca –
Barracas, “Promotion Systems and Integral Protection of Boys, Girls and Adolescents in the City of
Buenos Aires” – Material Didáctico - 2012.
See under the title: “The areas of taking part in the community”.
Gysling, J : op. cit.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
At mid-year we carry out an evaluation of the first stage, by means of discussion and
reflexion, with the expected tensions in any process of construction with others, as it is
important to recognise that “many times, teachers who are committed with democratic
education are in a position of conflict with the dominating traditions of schooling”
these are very present in the representations of many teachers within the institutions.
Again, at the end of the year we go over and discuss what happened and we plan on new
roads to follow.
For me this experience of construction is new inasmuch as we have respected, revised,
improved and supported the proposed objectives over the past five years, because in my
prior scholastic experiences the “School Project” was changed each school year and it
was a job which by and large was exclusive to the leading teams.
Taking into account and without denying the cost caused by the permanent changes in
the teaching community (emotional, energetic, delayed achievements etc.), those of us
who have been here for many years believe that each colleague who goes round “Indira”
brings experiences which enrich us and enrich the project. Summarising, “School Project”
is the result of “hard work and commitment by real teachers”.

Apple, M.W & Beane, J .A: op. cit., page 29.
Apple, M.W & Beane, J .A.: op. cit., page 23.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
2. Class Assemblies and Exchange Rounds
The most appalling incident which I witnessed when I started working at this school was
that the students, during break, picked up the garbage which they or other children had
thrown in the playground in exchange for “alfajores” (a traditional confection). In this
way they learnt the value of work and that for this work they got paid. There are
numerous stories of this kind where the students, apart from being passive receivers of
the orders and indications of the adults of the school, carried out diverse collaborative
For thought: What does the depicted mean? What was instituted? What happened there
with children’s rights? What kind of collaboration is expected from the children of the
Without leaving aside the reflection each one can make after this account, I can say that
a manner does exist for looking at the children as something incomplete, something
minor, that as yet are not (and that they respond to the tutelary paradigm in which we
were formed); and who will in the future be complete thanks to the intervention of the
adults (this is our hope). This viewpoint makes them invisible. Infancy and child are
comparable only in a general sense. Today we know that there are “infancies” and for
each person it has different meanings. Categories are used in the plural: infancies,
adolescents, youths, because they give us a plural perspective. “These categories or
notions are historical and social constructions and go back to diverse and changing
The situation of the children today
Students of year 7, for example, have been working on “orality” and have taken part in
many projects where they had and have a leading role, as can be seen in the description
of the project “Memory and Identity” and in other examples which have appeared in this
chronicle. I firmly believe that in this process a device under the name of “Class
Assemblies” in the 2
cycle and “Exchange Rounds” in the 1
cycle had a lot to do with

Carli, Sandra: op. cit.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Taking into account the difficulties which could be seen and in parallel with the
construction of the “School Project”, I proposed that all the teachers should debate on
the possibility of instituting an environment where the students could make their voice
in the decision making discussions. The teachers, after giving their ideas and
what they knew on the diverse devices, which some of them had already carried out in
other schools, decided to carry out the meetings. I then handed out material to each
teacher so that they could know more about this.
I would like to point out that the use
of this tool for the construction of democracy was strongly driven directly from the
management in the Secretariat of Education of the City as from 1983.
From my own
personal point of view I was very moved because I knew the possibility of change that
the strategy entails and I could imagine the impact this would bring about in the children.
At later meetings and after exchanges on how we foresaw the effect of the
implementation in this school, we thought of the device as a strategy that would allow us
to know the difficulties of communal living and as from this point forward we could think
together of possible solutions to the problems.
As for organization, we establish a day and time to carry them out and we plan them as
from what emerges from the groups. The students select the topics and take decisions on
who should be the coordinator and who would take down the records. At the meetings
there exists a moment of collective or individual reflection and recording the outcome of
the discussions.
The meeting is in an environment where through the exercise of listening and speaking,
the children begin to recognise themselves and consolidate their personal identity as well
as placing themselves as subjects. Taking part in these environments of discussion with
decision taking from a young age helps to generate an autonomous personality,
recognition and respect towards the other person and at the same time allows us to
jointly construct a positioning which will probably contribute to the structure of a
collective identity. During the meeting concerns are brought up as also conflicts or
situations on daily life which make communal living complex and teachers and
coordinators help to carry the problem and we try to assist them in taking a position by
means of analysis, reasoning and debate etc. suggesting possible interventions and roads
to take to change the situation.
Listening can be an arduous task if you are not used to it, but it allows for revision of
your own ideas on the world, reaffirm them, modify them, and accept that there can be
different and improved points of view and to take a new look at what is known. To be
listened to allows you to say “who I am”, “what I want” and “what I think”. The exercise
of this right generates conditions in the school and in other areas to construct a
“common” base for a democratic system.

Act 114/98 “Integral Protection of the Rights of Children and Adolescents” 12/98 Legislation of the
Government of the City of Buenos Aires – Art. 17.
Volpi de Chamorro, M.I. & Golzman G. (1993) “Round Tableo f Interchange, meeting and school
council. Is taking part taught?, in Solves, H. (compiler): The School, a daily utopia”, PAIDOD, Questions of
Education, Page 127.
For example the documents of the Secretariat of Education and Culture, Directorate of the Area of
Primary Education No 13 Teaching Orientation, (1991) “The Grade Board”, Management of Pastorino.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Respecting the basic rules for interchanges, we attempt for the children to express
themselves taking care not to make a cultural imposition, and observing their right to
intimacy, that is to say that they do not feel obliged to tell us what they do not want to,
and when they run the risk of being exposed by a given topic they will be protected.
Daniel Lopez tells us: the right to be listened to and to be able to express their opinions
should have the support of institutional venues in which they can pool their differences,
maintaining confidentiality in the affairs that could lead to processes of intimidation”.

We can hereby say that it is expected that the students can inhabit the school
, that is
to say that they can express themselves, choose and hold an active position. There are
comings and goings in the experience. Considering our historical teaching formation with
authoritarian streaks in the majority of cases, it is complex to maintain democratic
postures all the time (this can be seen in the organization, in the intervention of some
teachers, in the dynamics during the implementation of the method, etc.), and the follow
up of the coordinators is complex. On the other hand, the majority of children are not
used to these spaces, as much within as out of the school and establishing links of
with the teachers and companions to be listened to taking a positioning is
not an easy task. In spite of this the results can be seen. Furthermore, we have meetings
three times a year per course (generally years 4 to 7), where we deal with issues which,
though they have been discussed in other devices, are difficult to modify as for example
those linked to lunch breaks, in the dining room, amongst others or those that require
urgent collective decisions such as modifying the established norms, for example the use
of a play area. Round Table Interchanges with the younger children, mainly those of year
1, have diverse shades as much in their organization as in their dynamics according to
the moment and the situations through which the children are going, as much in the
personal as in groups; nevertheless, there are anecdotes on these moments of
interchange which show the positive side (and which, possibly, further on we will show by
means of a publication with testimonies).
A year back, we dedicated part of a Working Day of Reflexion to comparing the records
of what happens in meetings, which we carried out at different times with teachers and
children. They turned out to be very diverse. As from this revision, we agreed on what
could not be missed out on this device and we built up a document on guidelines to take
into account for its organization and development. We shared and discussed this with
every new teacher and always within the framework of our school project. It is important
that more than one teacher should be present at the meetings, to go improving the
method and make it more efficient each time.
Citizenship is built up since one is very small as a form of relationship, and for this the
school has an undelegated responsibility, as it is a central environment for exercising it.
This device, amongst other strengths, contributes to this construction without a doubt.

Lopez, D: Op. cit.
Dente, L & Brener, G: Op cit.
Lopez, D: Op cit.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
3. Room for community sharing
Community involvement is essential in every process of citizenship construction. In this
book I would like summarise two instances in which the community played a major role
in the defence of the school and of the public thing and they left significant learning in
I recall a reflection that I had some time after these two issues when I tried to explain to
myself what I felt: can a school headmaster, with a specific formation and many
prejudices “make way” for everyone in decision making? It’s difficult but it is possible.
This institution had its kitchen out of use and the whole establishment was
without gas from 2007, until the middle of April 2012.
Some examples of community involvement when faced with this are: the petitions made
before the Defence Council for the People of the City of Buenos Aires by the Cooperative
Association and all the parents, asking for help with this problem (2008 and 2009); the
presentations made by the parents before the Educational Committee of the Legislature
during two of their weekly sessions (2010), circulating notes reporting the situation, the
discussions with civil servants in charge of the issue and the letter from the students to
Mauricio Macri, Mayor of the City of Buenos Aires.
We regard this as the result of the processes of discussions amongst the children and
adults of the school. Perhaps, for many, the strategies laid out do not appear to be
mobilizing and some may even object that that it is “common currency”. Nevertheless, in
some communities it is not. These processes showed the possibility of being listened to
(individually or as a group) and to be able to listen to others at the collective debates
where there were options, strategies and procedures to take with the problem; to learn
diverse text formats so as to be able to prepare their own and to know what sort of
answer to expect; it is important to clarify that many parents only knew the basic
rudiments of writing, nevertheless some have overcome this which they considered a
hurdle for communicating, holding elections on what they wanted to say and how to do it
with the help of more experimented parents; to set forth the problems to civil servants,
and in the news, etc. It should be remembered that “saying and taking part in is not
taken lightly, rather it has to do with the internal possibilities of each individual, who at
the same time is conditioned by the context and the reality in which they live”

Therefore, in this path there were moments of difficulties and differences. Today we
know that the promotion of tools for knowing, utilizing and claiming community rights is
positioned in a different manner.
In the first years of the struggle they managed to get
three resolutions from the Defence Council for the People of the City of Buenos Aires,
which the government of the City ignored. In March 2012, the parents who live in the
quarters which make up the Villa 31, cut the highway into the City demanding buses so
that their children could get to school. Simultaneously, they demanded that the
government attended to all the problems of “Indira Ghandi” School (gas, leaking roofs,
broken toilettes, etc.). From this moment on, the meetings between the parents and civil

Cesca, P & Denkenberg, A. (2010): “Political Knowledge”, Diploma in Curriculum and Scholastic
Practices in Context, FLASCO, Buenos Aires.
See more in ACIJ , Civil Association for Equality and J ustice (2008): “Proposal for community action –
Strategies for exercising rights”, CALC, Centre for Community Legal Help.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
servants of the Ministry of Education have not ceased. The capacity they had for holding
discussions and negotiations was surprising, even when living under great tension, as the
time when they were in a meeting and they were surrounded by the Metropolitan Police
dressed in civilian clothing, as one of the civil servants explained, just in case the parents
caused disturbances...
Finally, a bus from the 45 line was assigned to the community for the daily transport of
the children. The parents are still waiting for the judge´s decision to assign school buses
(according to the parents many school buses leave the Villa 31 but none come to this
Nevertheless, in only two days the Government of the city of Buenos Aires
sorted out a problem which had been ignored for five years: the gas supply as also other
matters which had to do with the deterioration of the school building, and all this thanks
to the collective stand.
In second place I’d like to mention another important incident. In April 2009, part of
“Puerto Pibes”, a dependency of the Ministry of Social Development of the City,
which is alongside our school and with whom we share playing fields, was
ceded to the Metropolitan Police (a force which was being created at that time). It
came as a big surprise to the community that they were planning to occupy the playing
fields and that the legislators were showing interest in occupying the school as well.
After several months of struggle on the part of the teachers of Indira, the students and
their families,
as also colleagues from other state and union organizations, deputies,
members of the press, and other social organizations, we managed to get the
Metropolitan police, who were to make up the new force who had as their head “Fino”
Palacios, to leave. During the time that the occupation lasted, we took measures such as
demanding to know what the real destiny of the playing fields would be, we mobilized
and petitioned that they be removed and that “Puerto Pibes” be returned to its original
status, a place for the integral formation of children and adolescents. I will explain in
more detail what the sentiments were at that moment in my paper “Umbilical Cord”.
exercise, as what happened here, the right to be informed and the right to petition, as
also to take part in (considering taking part as “the ability to collectively have an impact
on the decisions which affect daily life, analyse problems, articulate demands before
public authorities, propose, plan, implement and evaluate solutions, etc.”)
is a lot of

In December of the same year the Directorate of Primary Education stated that (for the third
consecutive year) school buses would be assigned on the condition that families living in the 31 enrol
their children in the D.E 1, the closest school to their domiciles, totally ignoring the thirty years of history of
this school with the community, as well as the cultural patrimony it has. Without a doubt we can think
that this is a stripping of the Indira.
We can include meetings with civil servants in the school, with an obvious tension between them and
the teachers, as when the latter left the meeting as they did not recognise their authority; meetings
between members of the community; petitions made before the authorities on behalf of the children
and their parents.
See more in www.ute.org.ar Formation – Pedagogical Congresses – Umbilical Cord – 2009.
Sirvent, M.T. (1994) “Adult Education: investigation and taking part” Libros del Quirincho, Buenos Aires.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
In this case it has also signified, with not a little cost, to establish links of trust taking the
word of the community as the authorised word and consider the decisions as a result of
the processes of discussion, as also awareness of the necessity of jointly taking part in
the transformation of situations that infringe rights.
It is important to take into account that in the first years of this government the school
lost, without getting any official explanation, services such as those related to health
which would come weekly and fortnightly from the CESAC 12 and 1 (educational
psychologists and psychologists) as also the last year students that were loaned by the
College of Odontology, who practised odontological prevention in the children (and for
which the school built two consulting rooms which in three years could not be
inaugurated). I could give numerous examples which would exceed the framework of this
paper, on actions which show a lack of interest in the more vulnerable sectors of the
The defence of the playing fields takes place every day and in this the processes of
consolidation in the areas of dialogue, discussion, participation in and the defence of
rights are very important.
It is essential then that the school “authorise and favour
forms of organization and expression which contribute to producing speeches and
political actions”
for the necessary and essential defence of that which is public, that
which belongs to everyone, that in the current times in the City, as never before is being
threatened, attacked and plundered.

Lopez, Daniel: op cit.
ACIJ : op. cit
Cesca, P. & Denkberg, A.: op. Cit.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
4. Support Teams
I would like to recognise here the interventions made by the team of Institutional
Support of the Institute of Formation and Investigation “Maestro Cacho Carranza” of the
Trade Union of the Educational Workers of the City of Buenos Aires
in different manners
as from 2008 to date as a result of situations which gave rise to violent conflicts.
Some of the questions we asked when faced with possible intervention from outside
• Is there a “record” on the part of the teachers that many times we need help from
• How are they received when they arrive at the school?
• Do we believe that the sole intervention of specialists can modify adverse situation?
• What types of interventions are needed?
• Do the interventions of the support teams have to be systematic for the situations to
be modified?
Reflecting on these methods I can say that without a doubt that accepting an
intervention has to do to a great extent with the trust and knowledge in the institution to
be able to accompany this measure. Many times in desperation or for “trying out” what
they offer us, interventions which are not appropriate are accepted or promoted.
Furthermore, at this moment, there is a proliferation of offers of teams inasmuch from
the Ministry of Education (who work under contracts) as also from private institutions
who send in their proposals to the schools.
In this experience, confidence was generated as from sharing viewpoints on the children
and adults who make up the community as subjects with rights and after a process of
joint knowledge, reflections and discussions.
The support team of Cacho Carranza and their interventions:
2008. They worked with the executive committee, to discuss how to look jointly at the
institution, as we had different points of view and in some cases opposing views; with the
teachers and syllabus on coexistence of antagonistic cultures: between teachers –
between students and teachers – etc.; I refer to hegemonic and dominant cultures,
which try to homogenise thoughts and feelings, in contrast to diverse and plural cultures
(workshops in small group conferences).
2009. We initiated the project “Grow without Fights” with the children, working on
situations of violence generated within the school in a response to the murder of an ex-
student in the neighbourhood; with the teachers, mainly, on the same issues so as to
know more about the students as also about ourselves and to think of strategies for
change. Between all of us we created interviews for the parents and strategies for better
co-existence (two discussion groups, with fortnightly meetings with each one).

This team of specialists has been supporting the work of school teachers at initial, primary, secondary
and special education in the treatment of diverse problems which appear in daily life for ten years.
More details in: Group of teachers who investigate from the school (2010), "Exercise the right to be
listened to”. Cordoba, author’s paper.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
2010. Teacher training outside school hours on “The Right to be Listened to” (CFP#14).

2011. A work of reflection and discussion on the practice with the executive committee.
An account of what happened in 2012.
It is important to emphasise the work done with the support team. On this occasion and
as from April we worked with the coordination of Daniel Lopez.
We begin with the different problematic situations which crop up in the school: situations
of violence
in which some of our students were involved with other children or
teachers. In the institutions which take in children who come from families or groups
whose rights have been violated: in education, health, home, healthy eating, care,
recreation etc., these symptoms generally recur as manifestations of pain, anger, feeling
sick, fear, as there is no other way to channel so much neglect. I agree with the fact that
“we have to do away with the myth that violence is the product of poverty. Violence is
generally the product of two things: on the one hand the resentment of promises not
kept and on the other the lack of a perspective for the future”
Besides, many times, we,
the people who conform the school, reinforce this unease by means of generalised
social and cultural practices which tolerate violence.
For all these reasons it was and is
of great importance to get this support and build up new points of view on what is
happening, so as to be able to evaluate new strategies. Mainly, to practice the right to be
listened to in education.

In the first Workshop on Reflection (now under another name) proposed by the Ministry,
we decided to start off with these issues, which worried us so much, and handle them in
a more systematic manner. Each teacher stated their worries; we worked with concepts
linked to violence, as also our place and responsibility as “adult caregivers”.
for many it sounds like the obvious, but the subject of care is so naturalized that we do
not really take it in and with all the responsibilities it implies.
This is why we jointly read and reflected on the Resolution 655 from the Board of
Children and Adolescents of 2007, a protocol that is in force and which we have to follow
in the event of witnessing or finding out about an act of violence in which the victims are
our students. At this meeting we decided to start a campaign in which no child should be
the victim of violence.

For the first time in my daily work, systematically, and in this text I try to take into account the
Convention of Children’s Rights and their development. I consider a key part to take the observation as
an element which points the transformation of daily violence towards the full applicability of rights.
These are all forms of damage or abuse be it physical or mental, carelessness or negligent treatment,
ill treatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse. Convention on the Rights of Children, Committee
for the Rights of Children, Observation No 13, “Rights of the child not to be the object of any form of
violence” article 19, paragraph 1.
Bleichmar, Silvia: op. cit.
Observation No 13 (2011), Heading IV.
Observation No 13 (2011), Heading IV Legal Analysis of article 19 – article 33.
Observation No 13 (2011).
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
It was suggested, firstly, to know more about what was happening with the children and
to be able to talk to them; that they should be able to tell in drawings and writing “what I
do not like them to do to me at school…in my house) and establish relations. This work
allowed us to reflect together on care as a primary responsibility for adults in charge of
the children, adult carers, as also on the obligations that the State has in the protection
of the rights of subjects and groups and which they do not comply with, this being the
first and foremost infringement in causing situations of violence.
With the work under way, we were able to see that taunting, hitting, screaming, scare
tactics and other issues related to bullying appeared in the drawings. We shared the
drawings to see what sentiments were transmitted. We worked on these difficulties after
meetings and round tables, always respecting the right to intimacy of each one of the
The same work was carried out with teachers by circulating a notebook to write in, not
from the complaint but as a way of saying who we are. The other person is presenting
me with who they are ... it joins us to know what we do not like, it is a way of expanding
our emotional universe…. (paraphrasing Daniel Lopez).
We also planned meetings with the parents. In the first meeting the coordinator went
over what the children had expressed. The adults showed their expectations with regard
to this campaign and is small groups constructed on posters what they considered was
looking after their children. Their positions went from confidence in the strategy of
teaching to mistrust of the whole sharing process.
In a Cycle Meeting we, the teachers, worked on strategies which we were implementing.
It is important, we learnt, to intervene in order to modify things, but we also asked
ourselves: what is teacher intervention according to legality? Since we have the right to
say what we think but not to intervene under any circumstance. It was also important to
address the causes of what goes on with the children to propose integrated and not
fragmented strategies.
On that same day Daniel Lopez carried out an intervention in
year 3, a group that was showing the largest proportion of violence amongst themselves
at that moment. He suggested that they should reflect on “hitting” and the feelings that
this produces to them and he asked the children to give explanatory answers to diverse
How to intervene so as to avoid the repetition of fights? Aiming at their keeping a record
of repeated situations, which would take them away from work. He provided guidelines
for the students for some strategies so that the situations would not be repeated.

Observation No 13 (2011).
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
We had a meeting over a working lunch; that day they were coming to fumigate the
playing fields and the building against insects and classes were being suspended; for this
reason the leading team together with the support team had planned a several - hour
meeting in another location. Finally the meeting had to be suspended due to rain and the
children came to school. Nevertheless, it was urgent that we dealt with some issues and
the meeting was finally held. The teachers set forth some of the situations they went
through with the children and in which they felt, or were not convinced that the
strategies that were carried out were sufficient or appropriate. We checked the
agreements: as from the beginning of the campaign we had agreed that we would always
chat with the students as “carers”, intervening so that there was some teaching; that we
would keep a record of the proceedings which we would read to the children; in other
cases each child would write their own account of what happened and we would chat
over it. Furthermore, recording that the children were and are listened to has to do with
the fact that they are ensuring their “guarantees”.
We talked with the students so that they would begin to commit themselves to
prevention and that there would be NO REPETITION of the events, as this inhibits the
capacity of thinking.

In this way we handled the problem directly with them getting them
to reflect on the issues and take reparatory conducts.
This is to fix, correct, repair….
prevent damage and to reflect on the words of Daniel Lopez.
An example of this is the situation lived by a year 6 female student with a group of her
class mates: they complained of her reactions when confronted with their jokes. When
we asked what was happening the girl told us they spent their time bothering her, and
that was why she reacted violently, giving details of diverse situations. At that time, and
after chatting with the boys and giving them the chance to ask all the questions they
wanted, we reminded them also of what constitutes bullying and harassment, the
damage that it produces and the consequences it brings.
We talked about the law and
we allowed them time to talk and reflect on this and the situations were never repeated.
In a second meeting with parents, many put forth their difficulties when dealing with
problems with their children, as also their worries on what happens at school and the
issues which are not solved. Some regarded this as a lack of a “firm hand…” and they
repeated that “this didn’t happen in the past” without being able to understand the
importance we give to our word and the sustained work linked to the school as a
protection system.

Law 114: op.cit.
Observation No 13 (2011), Heading IV Legal Analysis of article 19 – Article 33.
Lopez, D: op. cit.
Observation No 13 (2011).
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Sometimes the same parents got offended when we ask them for a meeting with their
children, and we have observed difficulty in understanding what was happening with
them. I point out that our obligation is not to work with the idea of a problem child but to
question what is happening with the child, intervening in such a way that there is
learning and not with actions which tend to crystallize or repeat the situations. We also
believe that families do not have where to go to talk about what is happening to them
and many times they do not know or they do not dare go to health services and they
push the problem to the back of their minds. Nevertheless, the school has the possibility
of being daily close to the families; links have to be strengthened for confidence to exist
and to be able to link with other institutions which get the specific support they need.

Teachers sometimes make the same remarks as parents; for example, on a working day
and when faced with the claim that “nothing is done with what happens to us”, we, the
leading team lead the reflection based on the four lines of action within the School
Project, so that we can understand all the possibilities of intervention that we have,
which are neither unique nor in one single direction and which accompany the daily
pedagogic work of each one of us.

It’s worth pointing out that these reactions can be related to the guardianship paradigm,
which we still suffer from: on the one hand, the need to punish bad behaviour (which the
parents want), and on the other hand the reflection against harming. Both calling
attention and intimidation, habitual conducts in some adults, do not allow us to say who
you are. Shame operates as a social control. On the other hand, the fact that someone
else solves “what is happening” (teacher comment), is, in fact, not to trust your own
intervention. Moreover, in a number of situations the head teachers protect, resolve…
and sometimes deprive of rights.
Once again we held meetings with students in the classrooms. In a round table with year
1, we observed that when faced with a problem the small ones passed the buck, showing
difficulties to take the blame in situations in which they were involved. That day the
coordinator returned to the teacher what had been observed, based on what she had felt
and they reflected together on possible strategies of awareness of situations and what
her place was in them. The same day with year 3, he carried out an observation during
an Art lesson, at the request of the teacher. We realised that a need exists for revising
the form of organising the class (handing out materials, assignments, and follow-up)
because, as these children are very active, they get dispersed very easily and this
hinders the natural development of the activity. It is very important to take into account
that the pedagogic suggestion can add or subtract from the coexistence in the

Observation No 13 (2011), Heading IV Legal Analysis of article 19, paragraph 2 – article 47c.
See the chart in our blog: www.escuela11de10.blogspot.com.
School Regulation/ Chapter VIII: Guidelines for coexistence in educational establishments/ art 60 & 61.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
These interventions when faced with problems give birth to moments of reflection on the
children, on ourselves and on the combination; the possibility of hearing our own voice,
pondering over what we think on certain issues, what plan of action we have; and what
others say, what they think, what the ill feeling is; and what we all together do for the
benefit of us all; always attempting a choice which is healthy and which guarantees the
right to education.

The dining room of “the 11”, shared with “Puerto Pibes” and a view of the park.

Act for the Integral Rights of Children and Adolescents / 26.061 October 2005.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Fragments of the recorded teachers' meeting on November 19th, 2012
The working day started with a revision of all the cases we were unable to modify.
“If you don’t have achievements, you have no tools. In revising the cases it is necessary
that you do not victimise yourselves” – says the coordinator. And he explains the need to
work in a network: “here we think we need such and such….” In cases which need
intervention, it is highly important to make a follow-up record”
Have no prejudices against the parents, and specify what we think that they do not
commit: “You don’t commit in…..”
An example of situations is what occurs in year 6: Pablo, a student, could be the
scapegoat. If we say “what are we going to do with Pablo?” he remains stereotyped in a
series of conducts, and this is reinforced. We are talking about a conduct. Pablo is…NO /
Pablo does. It is important to talk about undesirable behaviour in the classroom: which
conduct to reproach, not to tolerate, say no. Ask ourselves: which is the conduct or
behaviour that damages? And if Maria were to do it?… would it be reproachable? The
topic is the conduct of the other which produces ill feeling / violence. It is important for
the teacher to ask: “what is it that gives you pleasure?” Undesirable conducts demand
formative and educational work on our part. Pablo is the centre of the scene and this
makes him stronger. You have to disarm the armed. You must not dilute your own
pedagogic intervention. In all groups those “snakes in the grass” maintain the status
quo. It is the ability of the teacher to give power to one who does not have it. Find a
way. The rules are the same in the classroom as out of it. “We go against complicity”
(this is the order of the physical misdemeanour). With this group, for example, you have
to work in the construction of autonomy, because they do it out of complicity, not out of
Let’s take up the question of the agreements again: We teachers believe that there is a
lack of word between us….
The coordinator highlights the worry over territorial cultures: “the children perceive
tension because they are specialists in territory…. There is something weak… each one
does what they can but… There is a lack of support… Do they recognise one another…? Is
there a team…? There is distrust in the institution, distrust in articulation.”
“These children need a BODY of CARERS”.
“Many times we are loaded with prejudices: this one I tell… this one I don’t tell… whilst I
live… Where? I choose to be in the school. Yes, I’m going to do my best to look after
myself integrally. Not make a fool of myself; that is not taking care of myself; a decision
for reasons of health”.
Trust the institution: demanding what should be complied with. An institutional
positioning, that is to say: I want these issues to be taken into account for the 2013 Plan
(revert: this isn’t my affair, he’s not my student…)
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
“Groups are noisy… There is a diversity of looks, it isn’t a lack of will… we put body and
soul… The consensuses are not discussed and we do what the strongest says that should
be done (it is reinforced by the one who shouts the loudest). A series of
examples…”territoriality has to be resolved. Madness at what has to be done…. First you
have to listen. There is suffering, anger and disenchantments amongst you. Passions run
higher than what occurred….Breathe, see what emotions you have engendered, the
children had it very clear that there are differences and there is difficulty in being heard.
Make up a team”.
One example of discredit in the dining room: another person reminds you of the rules but
does not put herself in your place. “She tells me but does nothing about the child”. Do
not discredit. I coordinate with the adult involved. “If the car is running away it’s because
the accelerator is being pressed”. You have to intervene. See what the agreements deal
with and what the disagreements consist of. They are children that require another type
of attention and another type of strategies. Take coordination amongst us more
seriously. You don’t give it the importance it deserves. The first rule amongst your peers
is to do with empathy.
REMEMBER: the term goes back to being able to communicate with affection, suggest
norms, jog your memory, make agreements, take collective compromises… in the words
of Daniel Lopez.

Remember the agreements
“Auxiliaries discredit the teachers”
Remember the agreements so that they can be remembered. The law regulates areas of
conflict. Remembering it sets a limit. If we all remember the law/there is consent. Which
is the law? What is the rule? Valued speeches and agreements. Main task: pedagogical.
Remember it has a load of empathy… this is good for your personal care. Task: that the
children know what the agreements are. ASSETS/Remember them/someone has to go
and ask/the children have to know them.
“The situation at the school dismissal is a situation of madness”
We have feelings: enforce/make clear/have no problems “You do not believe among
yourselves… We are not positioned as an institution… Suggest a change… Each one to
take charge of their class. Entry and dismissal as part of an institutional project, i.e.:
remember something for the next day….” Institutional weakness/if people ignore their
duties the non-institution wins.
“Counselling by the Ministry of Public Guardianship”
Project 2013: Accompaniment by the Guardianship Consultancy. Control/assess/

López, D. op.cit.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Examples on which to work: the intention is to build agreements on how to make a
follow-up. Work on the agreements with the Counselling Team – state deadlines.
Institutionally, what happens with children who have family working here or families who
are in the school every day? The usual comments are: “you’ve done something to him”,
“at home he isn’t like this”. Commitments with the families. Keep a written record, as
words are not binding. Degree of arbitration: “with this one, no.”. Don’t leave all the
weight on the school… Authorities can question families who are in a sit-in. The State can
intervene by means of protection organisms. “The possibility of a reencounter with the
world”. Politics which highlight the potentialities of the children. If the school can’t cope
you have to ask for the intervention of public policies; for example: Dario (a student with
a reduced schedule due to serious behavioural problems) can attend swimming lessons
out of school hours. The idea of power/rights and obligation.
We debated the use of the belt
We analyse the case of Santiago who has been belted many times: can we say that there
is a “belt” culture? Hitting to produce damage!!! A problem to report/Communicate
Resolution 655 of the Council of Children and Adolescents asking that they protect the
rights of the children…
Topic: “He got me with the belt”. Use the board to set it up…. Educational campaign
against the belt: What does it mean? Why is it incorrect? It is an obligation to educate!!!
Law 26061 art 3 talks of the superior interests of the child. Social Development: feel a
presence outside of the school.
Some actions that belong to the guardianship paradigm
To Embarrass: guardianship concept, a manner of speech when faced with an
autonomous moral so that they feel low/very internalized, subtle violence. / Punishment
or Repair Tool for setting limits. They are embarrassed in the speeches. I’m telling you
that you can’t go through here, why, do you think? / The law says NO / Now we will write
– take in the law / respect the law. The speech is not taken in (I’m embarrassed and stab
somebody in the back!!) Relationships based on embarrassment: “You should be
ashamed of this… because…” Ask: what problems do you have with this? Secret –
complicities – interchange relationships. What damage is caused when one hits? It’s only
Damage – forgiveness – commitment – forms of repair. How do you hold responsibility?
Order and damage = repair /order = punishment or sanction / institutional order.
“They built an inequality which is not undone by words. To undo, something from the law
is necessary.” Equality – manage a game – contradictions are built. Demand and make
responsible with an institutional look. Put in place the agreements which are institutional.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Within the framework of “No Child is the Object of Violence”, and faced with the lack of
concrete support from other teams such as the District Team of School Orientation or the
Defence Councils, the Guardianship Council visited the school due to a joint request by
the support team of the Union of Educational Workers and the managing team, so that
community doubts and concerns could be cleared up. This organization which comes
under the Ministry of Public Guardianship is in charge of controlling the compliance of the
protection of children and adolescents’ rights, on behalf of the institutions in charge of
this as for example the Defence Councils in the area. On her first visit the advisory
lawyer got herself acquainted, by chatting to a group of teachers, of situations which our
students go through and our strategies for handling the problems as these affect their
right to education. The second time, we held meetings with the parents and the teachers.
The parents, who had been invited with forewarning, stated who they were and why they
were at the school: to talk about the access to rights (among other topics). In the case of
the teachers, they worked with those who had not been present at the first meeting. At a
third meeting, during a conference in the month of December, the Advisory Council,
through two of their lawyers, carried out a training session on “Systems for the
Protection of Rights”. This information was highly important and as it was given out by
specialists it had a minimum margin for error and it made the laying out of doubts and
concerns on the spot possible. We understood the importance of uncovering the violation
of rights and which rights are being violated etc. Together with other advisors our work
will go into more depth over this new school year.
All this that I am enumerating occurs in the middle of the situations described, linked to
the dynamics of the school institutions: the attention of the students, the lack of time,
the obligations, the arguments and quarrels… I think that the interventions in the school
(of specialists, teams, institutions….) should not be made just once and for ever, there is
permanent negotiation (explicit and implicit) and it has to do with a daily correlation or a
rooting from our own actions in the proper dynamics/practice; that is to say, give a
continuity of the strategies that are born from a joint/shared reflection. Furthermore, the
generation of a system of networks, is something that one goes learning on the way.
We should ask ourselves: do the support or teams who collaborate with the school
institutions understand that it is not with the teacher that they collaborate but with the
school trajectories of the students and complementing the work of the teacher?
After more than fifty years since the Declaration of Children’s Rights and twenty-five
since the Convention why is it so difficult to visualize (and petition) from the school
teams that the government propose, coordinated policies for the full applicability of
children’s rights and as from here build up areas and articulate politics so that the
support, and interdisciplinary teams be really articulated and that the integral rights be
properly protected?
In this experience we improved on a joint work, on thinking and all together constructing
pedagogic strategies and other strategies of intervention to achieve this protection.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
5. A road forward to the formation of promoters of rights
Case (or situations) analysis as a pedagogic strategy
In 2011, apart from the projects linked to orality, in the School Project, we decided to
put into practice, by means of a permanent exercise of the right to be listened to, a
training on which we had been working but doing it in a far more systematic manner: the
formation of “Promoters of Rights”, that is to say, students with the capabilities of
contributing, by means of their knowledge and diverse means of intervention, to the
construction of a community where everyone is respected. We needed a strategy so that
the students could know reality in more depth; we chose case analyses.
It is a crucial part of our job, an obligation, that within the scope of social sciences we
focus on multicausality when we undertake the study of problems. And so it is that
Diego, the Deputy Head at that time, and myself began to think together and bounce
ideas on how to work from the reality of the students beyond the school, by means of
“authentic tasks, that is to say that they are linked to real problems… complex,
contextualized… significant and valuable from an intellectual point of view”.

We discussed this with Silvia, the year 7 teacher. We thought, then, of the three of us
taking part in some of the Social Science lessons during the second school term, where
we would deal with what was agreed.
As it can be imagined, this had been generated as there were colleagues with a lot of
willingness to meet, discuss and plan. Tasks which make for collective work and which
take time and effort which, many times, do not abound at school, due to the given
conditions and the role and task each of the members has to undertake. As Lagarralde
explains: “One of the disadvantages is the setting of the limits on the specific people
taking part, which has been generated since the 90s. A division was marked between the
roles of the teachers and directors and this division in the work affected the make up of
teams for joint work and reflection
. We made sure that this work would not come
under “voluntarism”
At first, together with the students, we carried out an investigation on what they see as
their community and personal needs. The children repeatedly identified insecurity as the
major problem. But what moved us was the fact that they came up with a solution: that
there were more police and security forces. The same group had stoned security forces in
a confusing incident over the murder of a female school mate two years earlier.
“Security” was the first topic chosen. Here we took part as a team and this gave us ideas
for taking further action.

Di Matteo, M.F. (2012): “Teach and evaluate by means of case methodology” in Seda J .A.
(coordinator): “Spreading rights and citizenship in the school”. Chap. 5, Eudeba, Buenos Aires, page 82.
Lagarralde, M. (2011): “The actual debates on teacher formation in Latin America”, Specialization in
Social Sciences with mention in Curriculum and Scholastic Practices in Comtext, FLASCO.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
We then suggested which the causes of the lack of security could be. The students gave
us anecdotes and situations in which they, their families and friends had been involved.
Mainly, the actions of the police in the townships like Villa 31: the seizure of drugs from
the mafia which ended up being for their own consumption, abuse towards women, act
as vigilants, get problems off their backs (such as immigrants), etc. etc. They also
identified others such as: when they were left alone, not being able to go to school
because their parents did not send them, having to go to “work”, having a violent person
in the family, etc.
The stories questioned, for example, the idea of security forces as guardians of the
norms, people and places. The children started to keep a record of the complexity of the
Previously, in other meetings, with a plan drawn up and shared with the children, we
asked them to think of a situation which would have unsettled or worried them in their
neighbourhood and which was linked to infringement on their rights.
We got thirty powerful anonymous stories. They ranged from domestic violence to
situations of extreme vulnerability. We decided to choose just three cases “the good
cases contain dilemmas, difficult problematic situations or of complex resolution, which
must be understood, evaluated or resolved thinking of different options and possible
correct answers”.

In the first case, together with the students we came up with a variety of problems which
showed up in each situation, and how we would evaluate them. Additionally, we saw that
the same case could be the origin of others. We asked the children to scratch their
memories and think of whom they could go to if some of these problems cropped up. To
the surprise of the whole team, they mentioned people and institutions to whom they
could go and how to do it. The systematization of ideas on the Protection Systems
In the second case we undertook a similar job, but in an individual manner with plenary
In the third case, after building up an analysis, small groups selected a problem and
showed the cause and effect it had. They then shared the data. Furthermore this case
was worked on by means of an exercise from “Teatro Foro”. In this type of theatre, after
the performance, the public suggest how they could change what they had seen without
removing the problem or those who are involved in it. The children suggested a situation
with a possible resolution of the new conflict, appealing to their prior social knowledge.
For example: the intervention of a neighbourhood representative, a mediator, etc. This
was made possible as we had a theatre professor, Valeria, as a guide, with a high level of
commitment with the children, and who devoted a lot of extra time to helping us carry
through this project.

Di Matteo, M.F.: op.cit, page 83.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
After an exhaustive analysis of the cases, we proposed making up small groups to
navigate through the site of the Public Defenders´ Office of the City of Buenos Aires
an institution that has supported the school for years when faced with problems, as in
the case of the lack of gas amongst other issues. They, then, navigated through the
legislation finding laws that are a part of the Integral System for the Protection of
These groups selected legislation which, according to them, had to do with the
protection of rights which are being violated in the examples given and listed them, as
“you cannot exercise a right which is unknown”.

Over the following days they carried out a meticulous reading. Afterwards, they selected
parts of some texts, teachers assigned a case to each group and asked them to identify
the articles which give a framework of protection against this vulnerability.
Finally, they carried out theatrical exercises and a triptych which was used for
commentary with families. We planned socializing instances between courses but this
was not carried through due to a lack of time.
In this sequence we confirmed the importance of “considering groups of children as social
actors with full rights and furthermore highlighting their collective personality and the
construction of their world in a constant interaction with adults”.

It is impossible to describe what it means for everyone to hear the voices of the students
when faced with the situations they were setting forth and to see that they had more
clarity than an adult for analysing problems as also recognising the values of the links of
trust in the school. “Confidence is something which we daily express by means of our
music, with our stories, with our fictions, with what we give to the children, with what we
plan for them when we trust that they can do something with it”.

It is essential, then, to carry out an approach to reality taking distance, from the analysis
of cases as the strategy of learning. A moment of “looking”, observing, and analysing is
shared; the voices add up, and for the children it is a solid way of generating knowledge.
The school is constituted as the place for the production of collective knowledge which
positions them as subjects. In this project, not only did they get to know rights, but also
practices associated with these.

This is made up from all the organizations, entities, and services which design, plan, coordinate,
guide, execute, and supervise public politics aimed at promotion, prevention, protection assistance,
protection and reestablishment of the rights of children and adolescents.
Guerschberg, K: op. cit, page 144.
Stagno, L.: op cit.
Zelmanovich, P. (2007): “Bet on Transmission and Teaching. In Relation to the Production of Infancies”
Course of conferences “Initial Education Today: Teachers, Children, Education”, Moron.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Unfortunately this type of experiences show up in an isolated manner in schools, due to a
lack of time and institutional areas (or a lack of interest that this should occur), the
complexity of the class and institutional dynamics and, in the majority of cases,
teachers´ formation, as I said, oblivious to the awareness of the legality of human rights.
Furthermore, it should be pointed out that, as Lagarralde explains “continuous formation
does not adequately contemplate the complexity of situations and the peculiarities of
experience of each teacher and each school”.
Therefore, we lack a true educational
policy in teachers´ contextualized formation, as a total lack of knowledge exists of the
social actors in the system, of their worries and their needs as also their capabilities and
potentialities. Additionally, we lack the circuits where collective knowledge as proposed
from this policy is generated and circulated.
This particular experience strengthened the institution in the construction of links of trust
and the possibilities for the children to grow as social and political subjects, knowing that
“the knowledge of law assumes a new level of participation in society.”
The strength
arises from recognising an opportunity to improve and transform a reality that many
times is unjust or oppressive when faced with adversity. To the above mentioned, we can
add the scoring and the socialization of their production which we carry out in an
experience of interchange with partners from other schools of Latin America, at a Forum
of Human Rights in the Classromr, which was organized by “Colsubsidio Chicala School”
in Bogota, Columbia.
The Human Rights Forum. A place to socialize knowledge.
At a conference held in Cordoba in 2011 (the 6
Latin American Teachers Network
Conference who investigate from the school) in which I took part, a group of Colombian
teachers who also work on Class Assemblies, invited me to take part in a virtual Forum
on Human Rights in the Classroom which one of its schools had been carrying out for
some years. Institutions from several Latin American countries took part.
Without any time to prepare a talk and after chatting with teachers and students about
the invitation, they considered it important to socialize; they felt that I could talk about
the Round Tables of Interchange and Class Assemblies, and what the “Case Analysis” on
which they were working was about through a videoconference.
We decided that years 1 and 7 would take part and so the year 7 children prepared a
Power Point Presentation and other pieces of information for uploading into the site of the
Forum. After investigating the country that was hosting the Forum, year 1 prepared a
text and a small exhibition on Argentine customs.
The Forum had the dynamics for two virtual conferences on the 6
and 19
October and
the students began to prepare themselves to be exhibitors, to take part in virtual
dialogues, communicate with others, express themselves, and exercise these rights
which make up what the school has to teach.

Larragalde, M.: op. cit.
Guerschberg, K: op. cit, page 144.
See www.escuela11de10.blogspot.com, October 2011.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Everyone was frightened; on top of this the school did not have Internet access to go try
how it would be performed. Nevertheless, in spite of all the things that were missing, the
exchange went well thanks to a modem and a computer which were loaned to the school.
It was quite an experience for a school which wants to do something with restless and
intelligent children and for whom it is of foremost importance to learn, reach out to the
community, communicate with other students. Nevertheless, a lot was done through
sheer effort, as the necessary means (which should have been there) were not.
In the summer of 2012 I went to Bogota to learn more about schools and the work of the
teachers and I visited the institution where the Forum was being held. I wrote a brief
summary of this experience: Summer of 2012, which can be found farther ahead in this
We repeated the exchange the following year, this time with the year 7 teacher, Miss
This shared experience, from the classroom to the community, the interchange with
other students from Latin American schools, allows us to see other perspectives, it
requires taking a position and communicating it and, summing up, it strengthens the
formation of subjects as promoters of rights.

J anuary 2012 – A J ourney
I have just arrived from Bogota, a two - week journey which resulted in a profound
I had been invited to Bogota by Colombian colleagues whom I had met at Huerta Grande
(Province of Cordoba) in July 2011 at a Congress of Latin American Network of Teachers
who carry out their investigations from within the schools. At this Congress we agreed on
the themes of our work: orality and class assemblies. In October, students and teachers
from School N° 11of the 10
District of the City of Buenos Aires, of which I am the
headmistress, took part in a forum on human rights which was organized in one of the
In January, apart from visiting beautiful places, taking entertaining trips and meeting up
with charming friends, I got to know six schools. Four of them, state primary and two
private schools, which teach initial, primary and secondary levels. Along with my
companions I felt almost part of an expedition as recounted in texts about teachers who
do research.
During my visit, the teachers were in the organizational stage of the school period. I
heard multiple voices, took part in heated discussions about “our” students and
furthermore, I chatted with adolescents. I also went around three universities and bore
witness to the depth which they go to in preparing their investigation. I was delighted to
find that I coincided with some of the teachers and professors in the passion they had on
the same themes.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
A student who was in his last year of secondary studies at a school with which we had
made interchanges in 2011 – the Colsubsidio Chicalá School in Bogota – after listening to
me talk to a group in his school, asked me why the word democracy was repeated so
often and he mentioned that they never talked about the “common good”. Also, at a
small meeting with investigators of the Columbian Language Network, I was asked how
we worked in Argentina on the subject of our students as subjects of rights in our school.
Their comment was: “How much more we need to know and construct in this paradigm of
integral protection!”
During this trip I was able to share my worries which I had focalized more clearly over
these last years in which taking distance from the schoolroom allows you to look from a
different angle at the things that happen (happen to us) at the school. Unfortunately
teacher working conditions obstruct systematic reflection on your own practice. Diverse
tasks, time organization, isolation, difficulties of and with children, solitude, lack of
knowledge, etc., makes this a reflection a reality for a few.
The histories and stories flowed. With each story I went finding out which life experience,
which content, what situation or problem makes the Columbian children more visible. It
can occur that, if in the current daily life, the children remain invisible to the adult world
the cultural practices and their particular interpretations on the world will be unknown. I
thought that their work had to do with constructing and circulating knowledge, placed in
concrete situations, such as classroom projects, where they work, for example, on tools
for reading comprehension, the development of writing scripts for plays and staging
them, the environmental problems of their city, etc. And without explicitly stating a
positioning on children as subjects of rights, this is already assumed, in the intention of a
curriculum which contributes democratic experiences for the students.
The trip allowed for knowing that we teachers share similar needs and characteristics, as
for example some of the working conditions, our worries about the learning of our
students, training etc.; even if the context is different. If we talk about context we
remember that “the things we would like to discover are historically, socially and
culturally situated”
which makes it indispensable to know.
Colombia is living situations of armed violence, historically originated by the great
inequalities. This makes it exceedingly difficult to generate links of trust amongst those
living within the same school and neighbourhood, etc. One example I can give is in the
neighbourhood of popular sectors where some schools are located, the professors take
care about talking politics in public, especially never to show their support for any group
who could have something to do with armed conflicts “as they know how the parents of
their students think”.

Coll Delgado A.C. & Muller, F. (2005) “Infant Sociology: investigation with children”, Education and
Society, vol 26 m 91, Campiñas.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Furthermore, schools recognise this social inequality.
Here, our school takes in children from the neighbourhoods made up from the Villa 31,
settlements adjoining the Saldias station and different neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos
Aires which are reached by the Belgrano railway line. We can also talk about inequalities
in the neighbourhoods as these lack basic services, such as light, drinking water, gas,
health services, etc. even those that are located in the central area of the City of Buenos
Aires. Moreover, the school, also near the city centre, has not had gas or a working
kitchen for the past five years. Frequently the Internet connexion collapses and the
Government of the City of Buenos Aires has withdrawn all support linked to health
(educational psychologists, hearing specialists). For those of us who integrate these
communities to be visible and for our claims to be attended to, we have to go out and
demonstrate or petition (not always with success).
But it is also important to recognise that “at the same time that the effects of social
inequality, structural and dynamic, on school learning are questioned and rethought, one
also has to reflect upon the school construction of inequality in education, strictly
speaking … The construction of school failure and discrimination due to nationality,
disabilities, or social origins is the most known manner in which this school inequality is

Summing up, as Daniel Lopez writes “we have diverse systems for the protection of
rights, however, a handful of doubts persist on the meaning that the “protection of
rights” acquires for educational policies, and how an education towards becoming
subjects of “protection” can be favoured”.
Every trip brings in new learning. In this
case in particular, it allowed me to revalue what I have learnt and done over these years
with my school partners; to cast new light on common subjects and to continue to
question myself. I’d like to take up again, after this experience, the reflection over my
worry for the “visibility” of the students (principally). And to continue to reflect on “…
how the subjects face up to the impositions and construct individual and collective
resources in (or from) the interior of the school”.

Dussel, I. (2004): “Social Inequalities and Scholastic Inequalities in Argentina Today. Some reflections
and proposals”, FLASCO
Lopez, D: op. cit.
Gonçalves Vidal, D. (2010): "Scholastic culture: a theoretical tool for exploring the past and the
present of the school in its relationship with society and culture”, Bachelor of Science in Curriculum and
Scholastic Practices in Context, FLASCO.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
“The Right to Land”, a significant learning
“I like to be a person because, even knowing the material, economic, social and political
conditions, cultures and ideologies, in which we find ourselves almost always generate
barriers which are difficult to surmount for carrying out our historic task of changing the
world, I also know that obstacles are not forever”.
Paulo Freire
On the 30
November 2012 we held a ceremony to celebrate the Patron of the School, in
our case a woman, Indira Ghandi. We always thought and maintained that on that day
there was nothing better than to exhibit the most relevant works done by the children
over the year instead of “exclusive preparations”. At a prior meeting we selected what we
were going to show taking into account that we would have two or three more
ceremonies together with the families before the end of the academic year and
everybody would have a chance to display their work.
It was a magical moment: the year 4 children put on their “Shadow Theatre” based on
the history of the Right to Land. I was wrapped up in emotion, not only due to the
subject selected: the right to land, a theme that is essential to deal with in the lives of
the children who belong to underprivileged and disadvantaged sections of the population,
and we were dealing with it for the first time, but also because of all the construction of
the project where the children, their school teacher and their drama teacher had put up
different productions which made up a real participative work. The stage displayed
scenes from farmlands and the city, prepared by the children together with Nélida, their
plastic arts teacher; and a screen ready for the shadow theatre. We all waited anxiously…

"Making visible… Making us visible…"
What follows are the words of Andrea, year 4 teacher, and Valeria,
drama teacher, as a part of the presentation of the work
Good morning. We are very excited to share this “Shadow Theatre” with you after so
much work. We would like you to know that there are many ways of staging a shadow
theatre, but we have chosen this one.
We would like to tell you how this was produced as in the eight and a half minutes that
this lasts there are a number of moments, situations, questions and learnings that have
enriched each one of us that has taken part and which we would like to share with you.
The title which year 4 chose for this story which began to grow at the beginning of the
year is: “The Good Land Family”.
As a starting point, we resumed the concept of human rights centralizing ourselves
principally on the right that every human has to land. For that we studied what it was like
to be on the land for the indigenous peoples, before the arrival of the Spaniards and what
it is like for us today to be on the land.
As a result of this exercise, many questions cropped up in the classroom:
• What is it to live on the land?
• What does it mean to have a right to land?
• What is it to feel “at home”?
• What is it to have a house?
• What is it to be a property owner?
• If in the era of the indigenous peoples there was no paper and pencil… Who brought
the Title Deeds to the land?
• Who is responsible that my right is complied with?
• How can I exercise my right?
And so it was how from those questions we started thinking and writing this story. Each
day we added something new to what we had written. Always advancing and welcoming
the unknown.
And one day… the title appeared!
Another person suggested the idea of recording it in the studio so that the voices of each
could be heard at the moment of the presentation. And so we did; we started adding
voices and sounds.
Afterwards, we cut out the figures of the characters, the areas and each element of this
story and we put little sticks so that they would remain firm and could be manoeuvred.
We got a light. We tried it and found the manner in which it should stay right where we
wanted. We coordinated different stages in the story with different cut - out figures. We
rolled up our sleeves and got to work on the staging and the title. We practised,
practised and practised!
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
We prepared the invitation cards. Each one drew their house on the paper; we placed
them in the computer, printed and delivered them.
Each step and decision was taken jointly and agreed upon. It was a collective work as
each student (before taking decisions) had their moment and space.
Each one narrated his part at his own speed and today will manoeuvre the figures we
distribute and hopefully with good luck.
It has been and is a great job of coordination where we learnt to organise ourselves, to
listen to ourselves, stating our points and deciding.
Before starting with the play, we would ask you to read what is in the frame on the
Rights of the Land which is over on that side and which summarises what we have been
working on.
Lastly, we would like to thank parents, grandparents and family members who are here
today to give support to the children in such an important moment. We also thank our
team of directors for their unconditional encouragement and for being with us and
guiding us. We would like to extend this appreciation to all our colleagues who
accompanied us in this project and specially Fernanda, from year 1B, who created, at our
request, the phrase which is here and which synthesises all the work done:
“With your feet as roots,
Anchored in the ground
You will extend your arms
And you will reach your dreams.”

I would like to share some issues with you for reflection:
• When does a project make sense to our students?
• Can the children learn everything, as we are assured in our Curricular Guidelines?
• What does “equal opportunities” mean in this example?
• What place does the teacher or do the teachers take in these constructions?
We were the audience of a marvellous play, which gives a detailed account of all the
personal, family and school trajectories of our children and our students, as also the
knowledge, the sensitivity and commitment of our companions. At the closing of the
event the children sang “Let it be” from The Beatles, with our music teacher, Javier,
accompanying them. Summing up, it was an enjoyable and collective learning
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Chart on the right to land

The right to land therefore It is a human right

It belongs to everyone

buying it
We obtain property by
renting it

means of wealth distribution by the STATE

It is as indispensable as: Guaranteed by:


subsidies plans programs
a respectable life
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
More information on this right
Throughout history, land has been regarded as a main source of wealth, social position
and power. It is the basis for home, food and economic activities; it is the most
important source of employment in rural areas and an ever scarcer resource in urban
centres. The access to water and other resources, as also basic services such as
sanitation and electricity, in many cases is conditioned to the access to the rights to the
The right to land is implicit in Property Law.
The right to property, individually or in association, as also the right to not having it
taken arbitrarily, is encompassed within Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human
It is very important to take into account
• the political will of the State;
• the widespread knowledge of the different norms which guarantee the rights of the
more underprivileged sections of society;
• the ability to demand that it should be so.
The mechanism which contributes to strengthening the validity of rights consists in
highlighting when and under which circumstances these rights are violated. Surveillance
exercised by an organised society serves this purpose.
In the project we worked on a story by Gustavo Roldán “A Living Tale”, in which he
shows that we can fight for what corresponds to us, in the case of this tale, the woods
which conform the land.
The right to land allows communities and people to carry out their life projects. For that,
we have the right to meet up with other people who want the same, that is to say we
organize to fight for our rights; and also to demand that the plans, programs or subsidies
be complied with to guarantee those rights.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
The Family of Good Land ( final version corrected and printed)
Not long ago in a town called “Good Land”, up in the north west of Argentina, in a
province called Tucumán to be precise, Don Jorge and his wife lived very peacefully with
their son Ricardo who was nine years old.
They were a very humble family; they were very close and they loved one another
Very early every morning, Don Jorge left his house to go and work. He was an expert
woodcutter; he carefully cut the branches off the trees so that they could go on
sprouting, and this is how he got his daily pay.
Ana was a very good cook and on Saturdays and Sundays she would go into the town
square, called Güemes, to sell her little pies..
“Pies, pies, sweet pies with quince jam and very cheap” she would cry. And with the
money from her sales she also helped to cover the costs of the family.
They lived in a small rented house with a straw roof and adobe walls; they all shared one
It was surrounded by enormous trees and there was a kitchen garden which Ana and her
son Ricardo cared for; from here they got tomatoes and all kinds of vegetables to eat.
The problem was that Don Jorge had been acting strangely of late, as if he was worried.
A week had gone by and he didn’t get any work, nobody called him to work. This
situation didn’t let him sleep and he said:
• Ana, this month we’ll have difficulties paying the rent.
• Don’t worry, everything will be alright, she answered.
• It’s that the month is nearly over and I haven’t worked enough. We have to think of
how we can get out of this situation.
And so some days went by.
One morning the town grocer, Don José, came to Don Jorge’s house.
Don José said: - Don Jorge you have a phone call from your sister Lucia, she said that
she would call back in half an hour.
Don Jorge replied: - What a surprise my friend, what could my poor sister in Buenos
Aires want?
And he fled to the old grocery store to wait for his sister’s call. She had left the town
three years before to try her luck in Buenos Aires.
Nervously Don Jorge sat and waited when suddenly the phone rang. He grabbed the
phone and said…
Don Jorge - Hello! Hello! Lucia?
Lucia: - Yes, it’s me.
Don Jorge: - How are you?
Lucia: - Fine and you?
Don Jorge: - Desperate, I can barely get any work.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Lucia: - Calm down. I’m calling you to suggest that you should come to my house for a
time till you can get some work.
Don Jorge: - Do you think so? I’ll talk it over with Ana and Ricardo to see if they are in
agreement and I’ll call back and let you know.
Lucia: - I’ll be waiting for your call! A kiss for the three of you. Bye. I love you.
That same night, when Don Jorge told his family what his sister suggested there was no
discussion as Ana agreed immediately.
Ricardo, on the other hand was sad as he didn’t want to leave and lose track of his
Ana, noticing her son´s sadness, sat down beside him and explained to him the reasons
for this decision.
Ricardo understood and agreed to travel to Buenos Aires. Early the next day Don Jorge
called his sister to tell her that he accepted her offer and that they had decided to go.
It took them six days to prepare then departure, and the money for their tickets were all
Ricardo’s savings. “The day has come at last” said Don Jorge, and the three of them went
down to the bus station.
When they arrived in Buenos Aires they marvelled at the tall buildings, the cars and the
billboards, and as they had arrived at night all the coloured lights had them dreaming.
Lucia was anxiously waiting for them at Retiro bus station and she took them home on
foot. She lived in the Chinatown neighbourhood within the Villa 31, where she had a
small and comfortable house and she had fixed up a small room for them. Everyone was
happy to meet up again. Ricardo was still sad but amazed by everything.
The days went by….
Don Jorge managed to get work helping a painter in the neighbourhood and Ana spent
her time looking after Ricardo and housecleaning far from there; a job she had got
through a recommendation.
Ricardo had started year 4 in the neighbourhood school but he wasn’t having a good
time, neither in the neighbourhood nor at school. He felt that his new companions didn’t
want to play with him, they laughed at his country accent, they held birthday parties and
he wasn’t invited, or they fixed up to go and play games and he wasn’t included.
Little by little things started to improve until…..
Don Jorge was able to purchase a small house in the neighbourhood with his savings.
Ricardo was very happy as for the first time he would have a room of his own but he also
knew that they didn’t have title to the land. They were the owners of the bricks and walls
It was then that Ricardo hugged his parents for the sacrifice they had made and he
promised them that he would fight to get the title of property.
He loved to play chess and through this game he was able to get closer to his
companions. Years later, already an adult, that union would help him, as he would be
aware of his rights and be able to fight for them.

"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Table which summarises paradigms
They tell you “what it should be like”. Coercive conducts. Actions with a corrective -
moral sense. Justice = punishment. There are no guarantees. Children, the object of
guardianship. Crystallization of inequality. Teacher training far from the legality of human
rights. Vigilance – control. Disciplinary isolation. Ignorance of children as citizens with
A place where the children are visible. They are listened to and they exercise that right.
Their knowledge and that of their families is recognised and it is a contribution to the
curriculum. Knowledge is constructed and circulated. An idea of justice is linked to
reparation. Training in the legalities of human rights. Equality. Confidence. Everyone
takes the decisions which affect their daily life (taking part in solving problems through
diverse discussions, arguments and proposals). Plans are made inasmuch for the present
as for the future. Families are strengthened. The children are subjects.

Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Retrieving principles in action
In the actions developed at Indira Ghandi School we tried, with a fair amount of work, to
generate a democratic school culture. This culture can make students, as also every
member of this community, ever more visible, recognizing and respecting us as subjects.
But, in how many situations at the schools is it possible that children and adolescents can
consolidate their condition as subjects? Not many.
This is why we believe that it is essential to generate mechanisms and processes
where this condition can be brought into play. For this it is necessary to have a place
where orality is fostered and where each student can say who they are, what they think,
what position they take in each situation they go through in their daily life within and out
of the school. Places where children can become ever more visible and have an impact on
the decisions they face.
The mechanisms which we use in this school and which are put to function periodically,
as I have already said, are mainly Class Assemblies and Round Tables of Interchange
between the children, where for example, we build up norms and revise the existing
ones; between parents where they discuss topics linked to the gas or the need for school
buses; to the forementioned we could add other mechanisms such as reflection sessions,
cycle meetings, discussion groups, with a strong relevance placed on teaching. Also the
petitions before the Governments, the taking part in programs by the students, etc.
We believe, furthermore, in the need to build a democratic curriculum; that is to say a
curriculum “which underlines the access to a huge variety of information and the right of
those with another opinion so that their points of view can be heard”
; and that it be
built with the contribution of the students and their families as also the teachers, as we
recognise ourselves as carriers of knowledge.
Moreover, we favour the free flow of the word and we enable the processes of discussion
and reflection upon decision – taking and choice, on behalf of all the members of the
community, in classroom and institutional projects or other affairs in which we are
involved. “The educators in a democratic society have the obligation of helping
adolescents (and children) to search for other ideas and express theirs”.
represents a huge amount of work as we have no history on democratic participation in
scholastic institutions.

Apple, M.W. & Beane, J .A.: op. cit. page 30.
Apple, M.W. & Beane, J .A.: op. cit. page 30.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
Amongst the examples I can give on possible strategies in this curriculum is the “case or
situation analysis”, a reflective work of the children and in accordance with
multicausality, as I have explained; in this work we took and went into depth on the
perspective of Social Sciences and we took into consideration all the individuals in
generating and circulating knowledge from their own reality. It belongs to the project
“Promoters of Rights”, it is a mechanism which allows for a diversity of processes and
which we developed extensively in this work. Other examples are: students taking part in
the “Legislators for a day” Program, interchanges with other schools and private or public
institutions, the possibility of carrying out diverse cultural experiences where we include
those which were provided by the families of our children, the classroom projects, and
amongst them “The Right to Land”, etc.
Taking a broad view over the Curriculum, passing over what happens in each particular
school and following what was set out, I agree with Magendzo in that “the sectors not
included in the definition of curriculum should become aware of the need to do it and to
look for the necessary mechanisms to be able to carry it forward”.

Furthermore, it is essential to point out that in complex contexts like those that the
popular and vulnerable sections of society go through, as in this case, the school
strengthens them in the exercise of their rights and responsibilities.

On occasions, the way in which parents solve their problems is through violence, as it is
not common in the families to talk to their children about what is happening. This creates
a situation in which the feelings and actions shown by the children in their daily life at the
school are diverse, according to their own experiences: they are silent, they think, they
frighten, they hit, they talk, they listen, they smile, they study, they insult, they learn.
Members of the families, which we often characterize negatively or we stigmatize when
we see some of their behaviour, such as easily getting angry or making multiple claims,
show feelings which perhaps are no more or less than an accumulation of ill sentiments
or pain, or the only manner of defending themselves and handling problems which they
know or which they have to put up with.
Therefore, for this possibility of strengthening them to be contemplated, inasmuch
individually as collectively, we have to know the problem. The contexts, the expectations,
the needs of the community, their views on the present and future, the records of a past
in common, and to give them all the possible areas as also the disposition to construct
links of trust and “work together on the creation of democratic schools which will serve
the common good of all the community”.
Furthermore, we should accompany them in their struggle for inclusive policies which
contemplate not only the right to education but also to health, housing, recreation, etc.,
as these policies are indispensable to attempt to compensate the inequality of the
inhabitants of Buenos Aires.

Magendzo, A. (1986): “Curriculum and Culture in Latin America”, Chile.
Act 26061: Integral Protection of Rights.
Apple, M.W. & Beane, J .A.: op. cit. page 23.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
Regarding teachers, we are said to be social and political subjects, culture workers. We
are expected to carry out reflective work about our practice, based on analysis processes
where questions of pedagogical, didactical, philosophical and political matters are
Nevertheless, our own condition as subjects and our right to be listened to is
jeopardised in many institutions where there is no appreciation of this exercise. In our
case, we try to generate a dynamics which places us (each one of us and the teaching
community as a whole) as subjects, making our voices heard in manifold situations, be it
related to the processes of teaching and learning aimed at an integral formation of
students at school, as also in everything that is linked with the institutional management
or the defence of its working conditions.
I would like to point out that it is, furthermore, imperative that those of us, teachers,
who hold positions of specific responsibilities such as being members of the management
team, and take care of our own formation as well, also petition for the backing we need,
demanding other ways of accessing (complementary perhaps?) these posts, as for
example, internships which at the same time allow for other learning. If as subjects we
do not have the possibility of exercising our rights and if we do not have institutional and
didactical conditions to generate other practices, the initiative could be breached by
volunteerism which would obstruct continuity and consolidation.

It should be explained that the recognition of children as subjects with rights requires
from us new forms of constructing authority, because the rights of children, whom we
have made special mention in this paper, could become invalid if there are no adults to
foster them and who comply with their responsibilities
; this is why it is so important to
mark them out and to “set up mutual commitments, place ourselves in the place of the
adults, maintain the conviction that transmission exists, and base that transmission on
the notion of care and recognition of the other”.
During the tour carried out in School N° 11, we tried to respect the right to intimacy and
the Life Project of the children and their families (not without some tension and
contradictions) as in moving from one place to another, the school culture, still in force,
can allow for co-action and ill treatment, so that these subjects can be straightened out
or they can choose by means of a cultural imposition.

In recognising students as subjects, the school by means of its teachers has an
undeniable responsibility: to make the students visible by taking their word as
“authorised” and to value them as bearers of a culture, apart from daily promoting the
construction and circulation of collective knowledge and the commitment with the
“common good”; that is to say, to contribute to a citizenship formation which, as it
grows, “is expressed in community coexistence, taking part in politics and social

Lagarralde, M.: op.cit.
Carli, S.: op. cit.
Pinkasz, D. (2011): “Institutions, subjects, scholastic form and curriculum. A selective text of the
concepts of specialization”, Specialization in Social Sciences with a mention in Curriculum & Scholastic
Practices in Context, FLASCO.
Documents from the Institute of Formation and Investigation “Maesto Cacho Carranza” – UTE.
Varela, M.C. (2012): “Citizenship Formation and Pedagogic Formation” in Seda J .A. (coordinator):
"Dissemination of Rights and Citizenship in the School”, Eudeba, Buenos Aires.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
For the aforementioned to be possible we must demand, as teachers and unionists, that
the Educational System attend to their obligations elaborating public policies so as to
give a formation in accordance with the current times and to support and accompany the
school in complex and multiple tasks which it currently undertakes. That is to say, to give
urgent attention to these and all working conditions which are being affected. There is no
possibility of team work unless these requirements are met.
To conclude, at our school we put into practice democratic principles and actions, with
the intention of transforming an existing guardianship culture into a culture for the
protection of rights. For this to happen we have to construct a positioning thinking of our
students as social and political subjects, and our pedagogic practice as a political and
transforming practice, and above all believe in the puissance of the word and its
emancipating power.
Those who work at “Indira”
In the next chart you will find, primarily, the names and posts of the teachers who have
taken part and take part in the construction of the Indira Ghandi School Project:
“Words: bridges that join” (and which took more than three months of work, a variable I
used as the intense movement of teachers made it necessary).
I would like to point out that the work of the teachers, in and within the schools, is very
important for reflecting the practices and generation of knowledge. More often than not
this knowledge passes unnoticed, it is not taken into account or it cannot be summarised
in a written production with possibilities for circulation as is the case with papers by other
authors who are considered “specialists”. This happens for a number of reasons, amongst
them the working conditions which I have talked about. It is imperative, then, that
institutional areas and other instances apart from them, make way for these productions,
as well as having the possibilities of socializing them. There is a lot to be said about the
daily practices in the classrooms!
Hence, the names of the caretaker and assistants, who accompanied us and still do, can
also be found, as they have been there to welcome the community with a smile, helped
us to calm the children down, thought with us of ways to solve a problem, or carried out
harder tasks “without help”. Without them our project would not have been possible.
To all teachers who work indefatigably and who produce, and also to the assistants whom
we can count on unconditionally: THANK YOU!!!!! On behalf of all the children who
come to “Indira”.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year 7 T Silvia Castelli Silvia Castelli Silvia Castelli Silvia Castelli Silvia Castelli Mariana Alarcón
Year 6 T
Maria Elena
de Bonis
Camacci Reparaz
Irene Merzari (*)
Diego Petre
Irene Merzari (*)
Melina Videla Silvia Dalus Melina Videla
Year 5 T

Year 4 T Liliana Corales Livia Gramajo Vanesa Papalia Vanesa Papalia
María Andrea
Gabriela Batiatta
Year 3 T Inés Licata Inés Licata Sandra Ghi Sandra Ghi Cristina Caputo Cristina Caputo
Year 2 T Erika Sebastiani Sandra Abescat Sandra Abescat
Sandra Abescat

Sandra Abescat Sandra Abescat
Year 1A T Elizabeth Plaza Natalia Poggio Zulma Pérez ZulmaPérez Zulma Pérez Zulma Pérez
Year 1B T Mónica Maldonado
Mónica Maldonado

Mónica Maldonado Mónica Maldonado
María Fernanda
María Fernanda
Years 2-3
María Cristina
Silvina Pérez Cali Silvina Pérez Cali Cecilia Varela Cecilia Varela Cecilia Varela
SE T Years
1A & 1B
Graciela Montero
Mónica Mera Mónica Mera Mónica Mera Mónica Mera Mónica Mera
L T MS Graciano Tozzini María Calvo Rey
Carlos Martín
Marta Rubino
Marta Rubino

María Mercedes
Carlos Martín
Ester Federico Ester Federico Ester Federico Ester Federico
Years 4-7
Ana María
Ana María
Ana María
Ana María
Ana María
Ana María
Years 1-3
Erna Sclar
María Gabriela
María Gabriela
María Gabriela
María Gabriela
Yanina Coronel
María Gabriela
Paladino (*)
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos
T T Claudia Maza Ana María Di Serio Ana María Di Serio Ana María Di Serio Ana María Di Serio Ana María Di Serio
A T Nélida Angelelli Nélida Angelelli Nélida Angelelli Nélida Angelelli Nélida Angelelli Nélida Angelelli
Years 3-7
Javier Montoya
Elvira Lavia (*)
Javier Montoya
Elvira Lavia (*)
Javier Montoya
Elvira Lavia (*)
Javier Montoya
Elvira Lavia (*)
Javier Montoya
Elvira Lavia (*)
Javier Montoya
Elvira Lavia (*)
Years 1-2
Pablo Acevedo Pablo Acevedo Pablo Acevedo Pablo Acevedo Javier Montoya Javier Montoya
Years 5-7
Rosa Carnelli Rosa Carnelli Rosa Carnelli Rosa Carnelli Rosa Carnelli Viviana Vilches
Year 4
Rosa Carnelli Rosa Carnelli Rosa Carnelli
Years 3-4
Lorena Fernández Lorena Fernández Alejandra Pérez Valeria Navarro
Years 1-2
Lorena Fernández Lorena Fernández Lorena Fernández Lorena Fernández Valentina García
DH T María Jose Orueta Ana María Pagnani Victoria Battista Diego De Vincenzi Jorgelina Mendoza Graciano Tozzini
H T Evelina Zeballos Evelina Zeballos Evelina Zeballos Evelina Zeballos Evelina Zeballos Evelina Zeballos
Barahona Flores
Barahona Flores
Barahona Flores
Barahona Flores
Barahona Flores
Barahona Flores
Assistant Oscar Alcoba Oscar Alcoba Oscar Alcoba
Assistant Delia Meyer Delia Meyer
Assistant Ana Reinoso (*) Ana Reinoso (*) Ana Reinoso (*) Ana Reinoso (*) Ana Reinoso (*) Ana Reinoso (*)
Assistant Marta Montaña Marta Montaña
Assistant Viviana Robles Viviana Robles Viviana Robles Viviana Robles Viviana Robles Viviana Robles (*)
Assistant Mirta López Mirta López Mirta López Mirta López Mirta López Ezequiel Mignone
Assistant Neri Gómez María Neri Gómez Neri Gómez Neri Gómez
Assistant Inés Orellana Inés Orellana Inés Orellana Inés Orellana
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
CHESS Guillermo Ferreyra Guillermo Ferreyra Guillermo Ferreyra Guillermo Ferreyra Guillermo Ferreyra Guillermo Ferreyra
DRAMA Valeria Fadel Valeria Fadel Valeria Fadel Valeria Fadel Valeria Fadel Paula Gómez
IT Ivette Donoso Paula González Paula González


(*) Teachers and assistants in passive tasks.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos

"Making visible… Making us visible…"
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VAN MANEM, M. (1998): Tact in Teaching, the meaning of pedagogic sensitivity. Paidós, Barcelona.
Legislation / Documents
• International Convention of Children’s Rights - Act 23.849, B.O. 22
October 1990.
• Committee for Children’s Rights-General Observation Nº 13(18
April 2011): Rights of the
Child to not be an Object of any Violence.
• Argentinian Constitution. 1994.
• Act of National Education 26.206, B.O. 28
December 2006.
• Act 114 Protection Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights in the city of Buenos Aires, 1998
• National Act for the Integral Protection of Children’s and Adolescents Rights, 26.061. Buenos
Aires, National Legislative Power, 2005.
"Making visible… Making us visible…"
• Documents from the Institute of Formation and Investigation “Maestro Cacho Carranza”-
Secretariat of Education - Unión of Education Workers-CTERA-CTA- 2009/2012
• Decentralized Office for the Attention of the Rights of Children and Adolescents OAD-Boca-
Barracas: System for the Integral Protection and Promotion of Children and Adolescents in the
City of Buenos Aires, Didactic Material, 2012
• OAD-Boca-Barracas: Consolidation of the System of the Protection of Rights of the
Neighbourhoods of La Boca-Barracas, 2012
• OAD-Boca-Barracas: The Right to Education in the Neighbourhood of La Boca. Acts and
Strategies of Incidence from the Decentralized Attention Office of the General Guardianship
Consultancy-OAD-for the year 2012, 2012
Talks, conferences & papers by the author or in which she has co-authorship
LADELFA, M. del C.; ZEBALLOS, E.(2004): “How to Manage an Institution in Flames”, Talk
published in Being teachers, being authors, U.T.E.,CTERA, CTA
RAIGORODSKY I.; ZEBALLOS, E.(2005): “Reflections on the Relationship between pedagogic
practices and planning in educational institutions”, Talk published in Pedagogic Notes Nº 7, U.T.E.
CUADERNILLO: “Conferences of Reflection: a need, a right, a duty”, publication of two articles,
U.T.E. (2005)
DEL FRANCO, A. ; ZEBALLOS, E.(2006):“From home cultures to democratic cultures”, Eleventh
Pedagogic Congress: “A School where Word Weavers are the Makers of the World”, Talk, U.T.E.
ZEBALLOS, E.(2006): “Reflection Congresses as an exercise of democracy in the world”, Eleventh
Pedagogic Congress, Talk, U.T.E.
ZEBALLOS, E.(2009): “Umbilical Cord or the lasso which unites guts with the cultural patrimony”,
Pedagogic Congress: “Public Protagonists”, Talk, U.T.E.
ZEBALLOS, E.(2010): “The Right to be Listened to”- Fifth National Encounter of the Collective
Argentine Educators /Those who Investigate from Schools, Talk, Córdoba.
ZEBALLOS, E.(2010): “Do we listen to what is happening in the School?”, Fifteenth Pedagogic
Congress: “Conditions for teaching and learning”, Talk, U.T.E.
FADEL, V.; ZEBALLOS, E.(2011): And with art…. what?, Sixth Latin American Congress of Networks
and Educators who carry out their investigation from the school, Talk in Córdoba
CÓCCARO, M.; ZEBALLOS, E.(2011): “Encounters”, Sixth Latin American Congress of Networks
and Educators who carry on investigation from the school, Talk in Córdoba
CASTAÑEDA ROJAS, G.; ZEBALLOS, E.(2012): “The Power of Speech and to be listened to at
School: an experience of democratic life in children, adolescents and teachers”
Tenth Columbian Network of National Workshop for the Transformation of Teacher Formation into
Language, Talk at Tumaco, Colombia

NOTE: all reference page numbers are based upon Spanish language editions.
Evelina Rosanna Zeballos


Evelina Rosanna Zeballos was
born in Buenos Aires in February
1959. When she graduated as a
primary school teacher from
Santa Ana and San Joaquín
Institute, she did not imagine
the long and fruitful career she
was up to begin.
For almost 30 years she has
been carrying out duties in
public schools of Buenos Aires,
training constantly and
projecting her work for the
She has a university degree in
educational management issued
by the Universidad Nacional de
Lanús (in 2002) and she also
completed her studies at
FLACSO and at the Universidad
Nacional del Comahue.
She is currently a member of the Institute for Training and Investigation "Maestro
Cacho Carranza", from U.T.E., and the group "Travesía", which belongs to the "Red
Colombiana para la Transformación de la Formación Docente en Lenguaje"
(Colombian Network for the Transformation of Teacher Training in Language).
She also works on teaching training and was part, as assistant and speaker, at
several conferences. She has written works/talks, including "Cómo gestionar una
institución en llamas" ("How to manage a burning institution"), which she co-wrote.
Since 2008 and simultaneously with the aforementioned activities, she has been
the head teacher of the School Nr. 11, DE 10, "Indira Gandhi".