# 1.

1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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1.1a Concept of significant figures
Significant figures:
The relevant digit of an integer or decimal number rounded off to a value according to a particular
level of accuracy
Properties used as a guide to round off a number to the required number of significant figures
Properties Examples
1. All non-zero digits are significant
42 (2 significant figures)
62.29 (4 significant figures)
2. Zeros between non-zero digits are significant
2.08 (3 significant figures)
2006 (4 significant figures)
3. Zero following a non-zero digit in a whole
number may or may not be significant. It
depends on how the estimation is made
*All zeros after any non-zero digit in a whole
number are not significant unless stated
otherwise
20 (1 significant figures)
200 (1 significant figures)
2000 (2 significant figures)
2000 (3 significant figures)
4. For decimals less than 1, zeros preceding the
first non-zero are not significant
*All zeros before any non-zero digit in a
decimal point are not significant
0.8 (1 significant figures)
0.08060 (4 significant figures)
5. Zeros following a non-zero digit after the
decimal point are significant
*All zeros after any non-zeros digit in a
decimal are significant
3.60 (3 significant figures)
26.00 (4 significant figures)
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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PRACTICE
1. State the number of significant figures in each of the following numbers:
(a) 6050 (d) 0.600078
(b) 7.100 (e) 30.09
(c) 0.0280 (f) 80 004
2. State the number of significant figures in each of the following numbers:
(a) 876 (d) 0.0802
(b) 294.02 (e) 2.020
(c) 8.0 (f) 600
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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1.1b Round off a positive number to a given number of significant figures
PRACTICE
1. Round off the following numbers to:
(i) Correct to 3 significant figures
(ii) Correct to 2 significant figures
(iii) Correct to 1 significant figures
(a) 38 106 (d) 45.465 (g) 0.09707 (j) 59.593
(b) 4398.7 (e) 80.043 (h) 0.0002938 (k) 598.3
(c) 1998 (f) 0.03562 (i) 0.9997 (l) 0.003498
Determine digit (x) to round off
Is it the number after x
greater or less than 5?
Is it extra digits after x
located before or after
decimal point?
Change the extra digits with zero
x does not change
Dropping the extra digits
NO
YES
AFTER
BEFORE
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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2. Round off the following, correct to 3 significant figures.
(a) 6.229 (d) 8996 (g) 0.006497
(b) 99.45 (e) 0.8429 (h) 0.02096
(c) 709.3 (f) 0.06025
3. Round off each of the following numbers to the number of significant figures indicated in
brackets:
(a) 78 534 (1) (b) 0.604 (2)
(c) 4768 (2) (d) 0.003745 (3)
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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1.1c Operations involving a few numbers and significant figures
Find the value of each of the following, stating your answer correct to 2 significant figures.
(a) 7.5 + 0.48 ÷ 0.04
(b) 0.06 x 0.1 + 35.6 ÷ 50
(c) 6.84 ÷ 30 + 3.75
(d) 5.28 – 7.5 x 0.04
(e) (724 + 25.1) ÷ 0.2
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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(f) 1.24 ÷ 0.4 + 0.8 x 4.2
(g) 0.06 x 0.4 + 0.084 ÷ 0.2
(h) 19.2 – 4.2 ÷ 0.5 + 9.1
(i) 0.21 + 4.1 x 5 – 6.5
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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Find the value of each of the following, stating your answer correct to 3 significant figures.
(a) 9.658 x 3.2 + 6.248
(b) 1.254 ÷ 0.03 – 6.2549
(c) 85.2
2
x 0.0663 – 76.369
(d)
.
.
(e)
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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Find the value of each of the following and express each answer correct to the number of significant
figures indicated in the brackets
(a) 0.028 ÷ 0.02 – 1.204 [3]
(b) 0.68 ÷ 0.2 – 0.296 [3]
(c) 0.3 x 0.04 + 1.074 ÷ 60 [2]
(d) 5.2 x 0.3 – 0.345 [3]
(e) 6.78 ÷ 10 x 3.1 [3]
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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(f) 0.3(4 – 0.38) [2]
(g) 1.38 + 8.13 ÷ 0.3 [2]
(h) 58.72 – 24.13 x 2.2 [2]
(i) 0.6 x 0.8276 ÷ 0.12 [1]
(j) 36.7 + 10.6 x 0.3 [2]
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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1.1d Solve problems involving significant figures
1. The height of the Petronas Twin Towers is about 451.9 m and each has 88 storeys. What is the
average height of a storey? Give your answer, correct to 3 significant figures.
2. The width of a piece of land is 12.5 m and its length is twice its width. Calculate the area of the
land, correct to 2 significant figures.
3. Mary borrows RM63 000 froma bank with an interest rate of 6.25% per annum. Calculate the
interest she needs to pay after two years (simple interest). State your answer, correct to 3
significant figures.
4. The length of a piece of rectangular card is 15.7 cm. its width is 12.4 cm. calculate the area, in
cm
2
, of this card, correct to 3 significant figures.
5. The volume of a cylinder is 54.5 cm
3
. The radius of the base is 3 cm. calculate the height of the
cylinder, correct to 2 significant figures. (Take = )
1.1 SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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6. The length, breadth and height of a rectangle are 7.5 cm, 12.5 cm and 10.5 cm respectively.
Calculate the volume of rectangle, stating your answer correct to 4 significant figures.
7. A box contains 6 cans. Each can has a mass of 505 g. the box has a mass of 60 g. find the total
mass, in g, of 6 cans and the box, stating your answer correct to 2 significant figures.
8. The diameter of a sphere is 8.45 cm. calculate its volume, in cm
3
, correct to 2 significant figures.
[ Volume of sphere = r
3
and use = 3.142 ]
1.2 STANDARD FORM
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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1.2a State positive numbers in standard form
1. State the following in standard form
(a) 39 871
(b) 0.006 73
(c) 430 557
(d) 0.000 523 6
(e) 9 803 000
(f) 0.00709
(g) 8833
(h) 31 584
(i) 680 000
(j) 0.9233
(k) 0.0463
(l) 0.0005452
Solution:
2. Write the following numbers in standard form
(a) 72.5
(b) 202.8
(c) 6879
(d) 325 000
(e) 0.00006
(f) 0.008382
(g) 0.0546
(h) 0.6118
Solution:
1.2 STANDARD FORM
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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3. Express 5 630 000 in standard form
A. 5.63 x 10
4
B. 5.63 x 10
6
C. 5.63 x 10
-4
D. 5.63 x 10
-6
1.2b State the numbers to standard form as single numbers
1. State the following as single numbers
(a) 5.872 x 10
6
(b) 3.012 x 10
-2
(c) 2.015 89 x 10
4
(d) 4.305 x 10
-3
Solution:
2. Express the following in single numbers
(a) 2.73 x 10
4
(b) 3.638 x 10
5
(c) 9.445 x 10
6
(d) 6.229 x 10
-3
(e) 7.47 x 10
-4
(f) 8.06 x 10
-5
Solution:
1.2 STANDARD FORM
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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3. Write each number below in standard form or as single numbers
(a) 12
(b) 189 200
(c) 542.800
(d) 54 670 000
(e) 0.12
(f) 0.0415
(g) 0.000 72
(h) 0.000 001 23
(i) 23 x 10
3
(j) 0.079 x 10
6
(k) 3900 x 10
-4
(l) 0.001 21 x 10
6
Solution:
1.2 STANDARD FORM
MATHEMATICS FORM 4
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1.2c Perform operations involving numbers in standard form
(a) 23 800 + 3947
(b) 0.040 021 – 0.000 5461
(c) 3.21 x 10
5
– 7.593 x 10
4
(d) 2.01 x 10
-4
+ 3.75 x 10
5
Solution:
(a) 7.4 x 10
2
– 3.7 x 10
2
(b) 7.9 x 10
5
– 8.8 x 10
4
(c) 6.7 x 10
-8
– 4.9 x 10
-8
(d) 2 x 10
-6
– 2.4 x 10
-8
(e) 7.2 x 10
-4
– 0.0000084
Solution: