Earth's Crust

A. Weathering definitions
1. Weathering:the process that breaks down rocks, and boulders into smaller pieces
Mechanical weathering: weathering caused b a phsical force
!ce wedging: rainwater gets caught in cracks, free"es, e#pands and creates large cre$ices
Chemical weathering: a chemical reaction between water, air or another substance and the
materials in rocks.
%iological weathering: when li$ing things cause mechanical or chemical weathering
%. &ame ' causes of Mechanical weathering: wedging
(.wind carries sand and small rocks that wear down e#posed surfaces
).water carries rocks that wear down e#posed surfaces *smooth outer surfaces+
'.rocks trapped in a glacier scrape the ground *striations+
Describe ) tpes of Chemical weathering:
1.carbon dio#ide gas dissol$es in rainwater to form a weak acid
(.pollutants in air create acid rain which dissol$es minerals such as limestone
).o#gen in air rusts iron found in minerals in rocks
D. E#plain ( tpes of Biological weathering:
1.lichen grows on rocks and produces an acid that dissol$es and wears down the rocks
(. plants grow in cracks made b ice wedging, roots split the rocks
E. Erosion definitions
erosion: the mo$ement of weathered rock materials from one place to another
deposition: the laing down of sediments
-our tpes of forces of erosion: gra$it, wind, water and ice
$alle: an low region of land between hills or mountains
plains: flat areas that ri$ers cross on their wa to the sea
delta: broad, triangle.shaped area where the ri$er breaks into a number of smaller channels
separated b islands of sediment
fiord: deep /.shaped $alles with round bottoms and steep sides, long narrow inlets of the sea
...keep scrolling for more stud notes
-orce of Erosion E#amples -ast or slow0
1ra$it Mudslide, landslide,
Wind 2and dunes, soil in wind,
dust storms
Water 3i$er carries sediment
and deposits it on
ri$erbanks or plains
Water -raser Canon, 1rand
Canon, flowing water
car$es out land
!ce 1laciers carr rocks, soil
and large boulders and
deposit them man
kilometres awa
4eat and pressure
Cementation, compaction
5he 3ock Ccle
Erosion and weathering
4ow are fossils formed0
4ow to stud this: 3ead the steps o$er and tr to e#plain them
in our own words so ou understand them. 5hen tr to
memori"e the ke words.
1. 6n ancient animals dies or falls into wet sediment. !ts
remains sink into the mud.
(. 5he skeleton graduall dissol$es, lea$ing a mould in the rock.
7ther sediments and minerals fill the mould, forming a cast.
). 5he surface rock is eroded and the fossil is e#posed.
Wh are there so few fossils in the world0
1. 2ca$engers eat dead animals
(. Most dead organisms deca
). 2oft tissue such as muscle and bod organs do not fossili"e