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The Internet has revolutionized the way organizations operate by providing them with the means
for gathering and sharing of information. As a result, it has become an indispensable resource for
economic growth, prompting the attention of individuals, organizations and governments all over
the world.
As the Internets popularity has increased, so has networ!ed multimedia applications which
place heavy demands on the networ! in terms of throughput and responsiveness. "hile these
demands are easily satisfied on networ!s with sufficient bandwidth and low delay, they present a
challenge in networ!s with large bandwidth#delay products. The latter include lin!s provisioned
over geostationary satellites, where the long distances involved impose a delay of over $%%
milliseconds &'(, 1, ')*.
+atellite lin!s are the only mode of connecting to the Internet bac!bone in areas not served by
submarine optic fiber cables. ,owever, building, launching and operating a satellite is costly,
and they also have a limited operational life span and capacity. -ue to these factors, bandwidth
provisioned over satellite lin!s is more e.pensive than that on terrestrial lin!s. /onse0uently,
subscribers of these lin!s are unable to procure enough bandwidth, leading to sharing of low
capacity lin!s by a large number of users. The satellite part of the lin! in this case becomes a
bottlenec!, leading to deterioration of user perceived 0uality of service 12o+3.
"hile most of flows on Internet lin!s are short#lived web data transfers, a small percentage of
users engage in bul! transfers of data characterized by long#lived flows. 4ai et al. &5%* estimate
less than 16 of these long#lived flows account for over $%6 of the data downloaded on an
Internet lin!. 7n low capacity shared lin!s, the presence of long#lived flows might therefore
mean 886 of the users sharing about half of the lin! capacity, leading to poor 0uality of service.
7n a 9niversity networ! for e.ample, this may mean a ma:ority of students failing to access
:ournal and other educational web sites.
;andwidth is a measure of the amount of data passing through a networ! at a given time. A
measure of spectrum 1fre0uency3 use or capacity. <or instance, a voice transmission by telephone
re0uires a bandwidth of about '%%% cycles per second 1'=,z3. A T> channel occupies a
bandwidth of ) million cycles per second 1) ?,z3 in terrestrial systems. In satellite based
systems a larger bandwidth of 1@.$ to @A ?,z is used to spread or BditherB the television signal
in order to prevent interference.
7ne system or tool is needed to monitor wireless bandwidth. "ireless bandwidth monitoring
solution helps to visualize the health of wireless networ!, alerts when problems arise, and trac!s
your actual bandwidth usage for verification and planning.
Cood wireless bandwidth monitoring software lets you visualize the health of your wireless
networ! at a glance. Automatic alerts notify you when bandwidth reaches levels you determine
are unhealthy, whether thereDs too much traffic or not enough.
This system wor!s out in wireless EAF 1Eocal Area Fetwor!3 environment. It used to chec!
bandwidth in EAF 1Eocal Area Fetwor!3 which used wireless connection.
"e need one system or tool to monitor wireless bandwidth. This system is developed using
?icrosoft >isual ;asic as new software. This software installed in one server that will monitor
access point connection. This system will detect which AP is not functioning well. It means no
activities occurred in that AP. It is also detect if bandwidth is too low or too high. Alert will
appear as massage bo. and a system will send an email to networ! admin who is monitoring that
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A number of bandwidth management architectures have been proposed to provide service
guarantees on networ!s. G.amples include the -oris 7menihu ;andwidth ?onitoring +ystem
1-7;?+3, the band differentiated services 1-iff+erv3 architecture, Integrated services 1Int+erv3
architecture and ?ulti#Protool Eabel +witching 1?PE+3. Internally, -7;?+ ;andwidth
monitoring is on the basis of Fet<low and pac!et sniffer sensors and generally use the host
machineDs networ! card, but can be configured to use monitoring ports found on some
networ!ing devices using port mirroring H forwarding in order to monitor the overall networ!
bandwidth utilization.
-ue to its support of Fet<low, -7;?+ receives preaggregated data forwarded by Fet<low#
capable /isco devices.
The -iffserv, Int+erv, and ?PE architectures use admission control, active 0ueue management,
scheduling and constraint#based routing to control bandwidth utilization. -ifferentiated services
architecture was proposed to address scalability problems e.perienced under Int+erv. -espite the
said scalability advantages, -iff+erv and similar architectures have not been widely adopted on
the Internet &5%, 5@*.
Fowadays, wireless technology becomes more popular in networ!ing environment. This is
because it more simple or easier compare to wired connection. "ireless connection needs access
point to connect device from server EAF 1 Eocal Area Fetwor! 3. Access point is a hardware
device or a computerDs software that acts as a communication hub for users of a wireless device
to connect to a wired EAF. Access Point is important for providing heightened wireless security
and for e.tending the physical range of service a wireless user has access to.
In the other hand, wireless technology has itDs own wea!nesses. 7ne of those wea!nesses is there
is no connection or connection down. "e can chec! from that AP in order own to !now that
access point has connection or not. ;y seeing at EG- which if it blin!ing itDs meant that has no
problem with that access point connection. This method much easier if we want to monitor
access point. ;ut the situation will change if it involves a large amount of access point. It is
impossible to chec! every access point by chec!ing to each location. It gives more troublesome
to networ! admin if this case involves wide area or high building.
The other wea!nesses are when connection is brea!ing down at brea! time or after office hour.
The ma:or problem occurs when there is no networ! admin stays at the office after office hours.
This will lead to some problem to those who still need to access to the internet.
The solution for that problem is to have some software that will monitor every access point in
one server. This system will monitor each access point and networ! admin and we will !now
which one has problem and need to be repaired. +o that, no need for networ! admin to chec!
every location. <urthermore, this system will alert networ! admin if problem occurs after office
hour by sending an e#mail. Fetwor! admin will be alert about that problem and chec!ed the
problem immediately.
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The aim of this pro:ect was to implement a bandwidth monitor by way of simulation based on
open source tools. The simulators design was based on data obtained from studying the
Pro:ectcorp Figeria networ!.
/ombining the passion of wireless technology in this era, monitoring system to monitor wireless
connection is very needed to avoid any problem involving wireless connection. ;ased on this
proposed monitoring system, it can be useful to achieve several ob:ectives which areI
i. To review current literature on bandwidth management technologyJ
ii. To study the Pro:ectcorp Figeria networ!, with a special emphasis on flow size
iii. To design a bandwidth monitor simulator based on data collected on Pro:ectcorp Figeria,
and techni0ues available on open source platformsJ
iv. To monitor access point connection automatically. It can help networ! admin to monitor
large amount of access point and it will not ta!e much time to monitor all access point in
one time.
v. To alert networ! admin of connection problem. The system will ping access point any
time a networ! admin want to do that. If access point does not reply when the system is
pinging two times, so the system will assume that access point is down. This system will
send an e#mail if the connection down after office hours, so that a networ! admin can
solve the problem immediately.
vi. To display current connection with different color at the interface of the system. 4ed side
if connection is down or no connection at that access point, Creen side if the connection
is doing well. This can help the networ! admin to manage the system wisely.
vii. To display current bandwidth with graph. The system will plot a graph according to the
current bandwidth which is through that access point.
viii. To display Eog <ile database. /urrent connection will be save in data as a Eog <ile.
i.. To evaluate the performance of the prototype under varying networ! loads and
This system wor!s out in wireless EAF 1Eocal Area Fetwor!3 environment. It used to chec! the
connection in EAF 1Eocal Area Fetwor!3 with wireless connection.
This system can be used in faculty especially to monitor wireless connection or access point
This wireless bandwidth monitoring use ?icrosoft >isual ;asic ).% as a programming language.
It is because >; provides more of the actual code for a programmer than any other non#visual
programming language. The structure of the ;asic programming language is very simple,
particularly as to the e.ecutable code. The graphical user interface of the >;#I-G provides
intuitively appealing views for the management of the program structure in the large and the
various types of entities 1classes, modules, procedures, forms etc.3. This system will build from
>; code to develop an interface to easier networ! admin to monitor.
This system will use windows KP Professional server as a platform. This system also can alert
networ! admin by sending an e#mail to inform about that problem.
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7ther system for wireless monitoring is already developed and already sold in the mar!et. ;ut
this system has itDs own advantages from other wireless monitoring which is already developed
Gven though there are many software for monitoring wireless connection in the mar!et, still have
organization is not used any system to monitor their wireless connection. This most bind up
small organization because it difficult to manage and need someone e.pert to manage. ;ut this
system is easy to use and not need an e.pert to manage or monitor that system. 7rdinary networ!
admin can manage and handle that system.
;y using this system, the networ! admin can monitor access point easily especially in handling a
networ! for one high building. It is troublesome for him to chec! each location every day to
ascertain every access point have connection. "ith this system the networ! admin only needs to
monitor each access point only from server and !nows if occurs some problem with connection.
This system will ma!e networ! admin alert A5 hours per day. If connection down or connection
problem, the system will alert networ! admin by sending email. That email contains time
connection down and the location.
/urrent connection will be saved in log file. This is very useful for networ! admin to print out
the connection status to give a report to a manager in wee!ly meeting if he is telling to do that.
/ompare to other wireless monitoring system, this system has a simple interface to monitor
wireless connection and easier for networ! admin to monitor access point with simple button or
simple interaction from networ! admin. This interface is user friendly for networ! admin to
manage and understand. <urthermore it give only a short time to master that interface.
"e were faced with an uphill tas! of coming out with an une0uivocal picture of what was
e.pected to be done concerning the pro:ect i.e. the ob:ectives and scope of the pro:ect itself prior
to the commencement of the research process.
-uring the research process up to the moment of documentation, we encountered the following
ugly but inevitable limitations, which posed a threat to the successful completion of the pro:ect.
These limitations in one way or the other impeded the research process and they include amongst
TI?G /7F+T4AIFT+I ;ecause the pro:ect must be conducted and completed within a
specified time and date, we had to cut down on some of the ob:ectives of the study and came out
with the scope as described in sections 1.5 to forestall any form of uncertainty and to avoid
running behind schedule. Therefore, an in#depth research into this topic was not fully carried out.
9navailability of sufficient information on simulators and networ! technologies was also among
the list of our limitations. This was as a result of the inability of the various information
personnelDs of the various institutions and organizations visited to e.ercise their prerogative to
supply us with the needed and for re0uired information.
/ontacts with each other was not that much and therefore, created what seemed to be a la.ity
problem among the researchers resulting to the seemingly endless nature of the research wor!.
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<inancial constraintsI Arising from the lean resources available to facilitate and boost the
research process had a !noc! on effect on the research process thus, ma!ing it almost impossible
to carryout a full and empea!able research wor! on the topic.
1.@ A++9?PTI7F+
The researchers wor!ed on the research process with the following assumptions.
That most organizations have some forms of networ! with e.tended services in place.
That only a distributed resource management approach can really be used to achieve and
improve the use of networ! resources efficiently when simulated.
That the bridge networ! simulator is sufficiently enough to do the simulation
1.( -efinition of Terms
/hapter Two
2.1 Bandwidth Management Mechanisms
;andwidth management is a means of allocating bandwidth resources to critical applications on
a networ! to meet the organizational ob:ectives. "ithout bandwidth management, an application
or a user can ta!e control of all available bandwidth and prevent other applications or users from
using the networ!. ;ecause it is impossible to differentiate between types of networ! traffic, it is
also impossible to control which users or applications have priority on the networ!. Applications
can also re0uire a specific 0uantity and 0uality of service, which cannot be predicted in terms of
available bandwidth. This can ma!e some applications run poorly if bandwidth is not properly
allocated to them when necessary.
;andwidth management can be done in different ways. In the networ! layer this is done in
routers using traffic shaping and rate limiting techni0ues. In some instances specially designed
devices are used for bandwidth management. 2ueuing algorithms are the fundamentals of these
specific bandwidth management products. ;andwidth management is done in the application
layer using pro.y servers.
"ith high growing demand for Internet li!e 1)$6 &'*, bandwidth management has become an
interesting research area. Today the web#based applications re0uire more bandwidth and it is
difficult to predict the re0uired bandwidth amount for a certain user at a given time. "ith this
behaviour of the web applications, managing networ! bandwidth has become a critical tas! for
all the service providers. As described in &5* new concepts and formulas are used and tested for
bandwidth allocates. Gspecially because of the unpredictability of bandwidth usage, bandwidth
management is always a new field for researches and e.periments.
/urrently used bandwidth management mechanisms are described under the following sub
2.1.1 Traffic Sa!in" an# Ra$% Li&i$in"
Traffic shaping and rate limiting are used in routers and operate as networ! layer bandwidth
management techni0ues. Traffic shaping provides a mechanism to control the amount and
volume of traffic being sent into a networ!, and the rate at which the traffic is being sent. <or this
reason, traffic shaping schemes are implemented at the networ! edges to control the traffic
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entering the networ!. It also may be necessary to identify traffic flows at the point at which
traffic enters the networ!, with a granularity that allows the traffic#shaping control mechanism to
separate traffic individual flows and shape them differently. A before#and#after e.ample &$* of
how traffic shaping wor!s is as follows.
 ;efore traffic shapingI 1% pac!ets in the first second, % pac!ets in the second second, 1%
pac!ets in the third second, % pac!ets the forth second.
 After traffic shapingI 1 pac!et per %.A seconds.
To accomplish this, 0ueues and classes are used. ;efore a pac!et is sent out to the Internet, it is
analyzed to some e.tend and based on a set of conditions, might end up on one of the many
0ueues. These 0ueues are connected to a hierarchy of classes, forming a tree. After landing in its
final destination the pac!et moves up the hierarchy until it reaches the interface and is sent out.
Technically, traffic shaping can be used on both incoming and outgoing pac!ets, but is typically
implemented :ust on the outgoing &)*. This is because user canDt control what is sent to hisHher
networ! and there is little point in building an incoming 0ueue and !eeping pac!ets in there even
though they could be dealt with right away. 7n the other hand outgoing pac!ets can leave only at
the connection speed and 0ueue up while incoming pac!ets have already come in at connection
speed. +ometimes incoming pac!ets are dropped to reduce the speed of some connections, which
is called policying. 9sually, shaping incoming pac!ets is done indirectly through the outgoing
0ueues "hen traffic#shaping bo.es are used, wide area 1Internet3 bandwidth can be actively
managed to limit traffic in several different ways&@*I
1. P%r'a!!(ica$i)n r*(%+. Traffic shapers can identify and categorize specific types of
networ! traffic, constraining each particular category of traffic to use no more than a
specified amount of bandwidth. <or e.ample, administrator may have hypothetically
defined a rule that limits aggregate <TP traffic to no more than ) mbps and another rule
that limits total streaming audio traffic to no more than ' ?bps, etc.
Traffic shapers can categorize traffic based on macroscopic characteristics, such as the
trafficDs protocol 1IP, IPK, AppleTal!, -G/Fet, etc.3, the ports an application is !nown to
use 1for e.ample, =azaa typically runs on port 1A153, or on the basis of connections to a
particular well#!nown host 1such as a central game server3, etc. Traffic can also be
categorized based of the content of the flow regardless of the flowDs macroscopic
characteristics. <or e.ample, most traffic shapers can easily identify and automatically
categorize web traffic based on the negotiations that ta!e place between a web server and
a web browser when a page is re0uested, regardless of whether the web server is running
on port (% 1the default3 or some other nonstandard port.
2. P%r'*+%r r*(%+. Traffic shapers can set per#user traffic limits to ensure that networ!
traffic is shared fairly among all users. <or instance, administrator might decide to use a
per#user rule that limits traffic to or from each user to no more than A$)=bps 1giving
them -+E#li!e service3. "hen traffic is limited in that way, a user can still access
whatever he or she wants, but the flows are Bsmoothed outB to a specified level rather
than attempting to use all or much of the total available networ! capacity campus wide.
Traffic limits can be either BhardB or Bburstable.B A hard limit is a fi.ed ceiling that
cannot be e.ceeded. ;urstable limits, on the other hand, allow traffic to e.ceed the base
threshold value at least up to a specified Bburst limitB, as long as capacity remains
available and there is no higher priority application pre#emptively claiming that capacity.
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3. Pri)ri$, &ana"%&%n$. In addition to setting hard or burstable traffic limits on a per#
application or per#user basis, traffic shaping devices can also be used to define the
relative importance, or priority, of different types of traffic. <or e.ample, in an academic
networ! where teaching and research are most important, recreational uses of the networ!
1such as networ! games or peer#to#peer file sharing application traffic3 can be allowed
bandwidth only when higher priority applications do not need it. +ome traffic shaping
tas!s can be done directly on a regular /isco or Luniper router, :ust as a router can also be
used to do some firewall#li!e pac!et filtering tas!s.
,owever, specialized traffic shapers, li!e any specialized devices, can be optimized to
specifically and efficiently handle their uni0ue responsibilities. +pecialized devices also
typically have different mechanisms to be used when dealing with problems in their
special area of e.pertise. -oing traffic shaping on a dedicated traffic shaping bo. also
avoids loading up routers with other tas!s, leaving the router free to focus on doing its
:ob of routing pac!ets as fast as it can.
Primary technology used in traffic shaping is T/P rate limiting. It is a techni0ue that
paces traffic by fa!ing out the transmitter by artificially changing T/P window and
pacing A/=s, effectively throttling the traffic. Though rate limiting is used in many
bandwidth management technologies, it has some drawbac!s, which affect the entire
networ!. <or e.ample if the rate limit size of the window is set to a smaller value than the
size of the actual data pac!et, the number of pac!et in the networ! will be increased as
well as the networ! traffic &(*. Another limitation on rate limiting is its incapability of
wor!ing on encrypted data pac!ets. +ince the T/P header is hidden in these data pac!ets,
rate#limiting techni0ue cannot be applied for bandwidth management. As the techni0ues
li!e IP+ec is utilized more and more in the data, the effectiveness of T/P rate limiting
will reduce proportionally.
A good practical e.ample of bandwidth management using hard rate limits and traffic shaping is
described by -e!e =assabian &8*. According to him, this methodology has been used to increase
the efficiency of bandwidth usage of more than 5(,%%% clients.
According to the senior networ! administrator of the 9niversity of Pennsylvania they have
applied bandwidth limits on IP address ranges in outgoing direction using firewall filters in high#
end routers. In the initial stage they limited the outbound bandwidth to a pre#defined value
15?bHs for A$) IP address3 and gradually changed to an optimum value 15%% !bps for one IP
address3. They believe this mechanism is more effective and suitable for their re0uirements than
application level bandwidth management techni0ues.
2.1.2 -*%*in" M%cani+&+ .+%# in Ban#/i#$ Mana"%&%n$
2ueuing is the reordering of traffic pac!et after their arrival and dispatching them in the new
order, favoring desirable traffic. The most commonly used 0ueuing techni0ues used in bandwidth
management are /lass ;ased 2ueuing 1/;23 and <air 2ueuing. The /;2 is commonly used in
many low#end bandwidth management products &(*. In this mechanism, the data pac!ets are
categorized into user defined MclassesN and the 0ueues are maintained for each class. The data in
these 0ueues are sent out according to the time schedules and prioritized by processing the
0ueues at specific intervals. "ith these 0ueues, the high#prioritized data frames are always sent
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out before the low prioritized data. The negative of the /;2 is that it introduces latencies to
entire traffic. It is also not practical to have a very large number of classes 10ueues3 due to
e.cessive overhead and loss of precision. Also when the number of classes is high, the efficiency
of the management decreases.
<air 0ueuing is a similar techni0ue that attempts to allocate bandwidth based on the usage by
individual flows. Its based on the relative allocations rather than the priorities. B<lowsB are
simply a property of a larger entity, as each entity can have any number of flows. Also, li!e
/;2, <air 2ueuing wor!s well in environments where there are a small number of users and a
small number of definable flows ;ut has problems when the number of flows is increased.
2.2 Previous Research on Bandwidth Management on Proxy
"hen considering application level bandwidth management mechanisms, much research has
been done on pro.y servers. The system implemented by Austin Poulton,
Peter /layton O << Lacot#Cuillarmod, is a pro.y server which is capable of providing bandwidth
management control and pricing based on the priority policies specified by the networ!
administrators. The priority policies allow networ! administrators to control congestion, provide
users with incentive to limit their usage and account for service provider cost &1%*. ,ere also, the
user involvement in allocating bandwidth is minimum since the bandwidth is set according to the
predefined priority policies, by the networ! administrators.
The concept of dynamic bandwidth allocation through delay pools was introduced by the
networ! research team of the 9niversity of ?oratuwa. The papers &11,1A* describe the complete
technology and it has been implemented in the 9niversity networ! since A%%A. This research also
uses this delay pool concept as the base and introduces the concept of managing bandwidth on
user demand and re0uest.
The concept of bandwidth sharing in hierarchical pro.ies is described in paper &1A*.
This concept is also an e.tension of the delay pool concept. It describes a way of sharing Internet
bandwidth among pro.ies A practical implementation of this system is available in the
9niversity of ?oratuwa.
2.3 0ir%(%++ S$an#ar#
As you probably !now, (%A.1l a and (%A.11 b each define a different physical layer. (%A.1lb
radios transmit at A.5 G12 and send data up to 11?bps using direct se0uence spread spectrum
modulationJ whereas, (%A.11 a radios transmit at $ G12 and send data up to $5 ?bps using
OFDM 17rthogonal <re0uency -ivision ?ultiple.ing3.
7f course the superior performance of (%A.11a offers e.cellent support for bandwidth hungry
applications, but the higher operating fre0uency e0uates to relatively shorter range. IDve seen
demonstrations of (%A.11a radios delivering $5?bps with distances of about )% feet, which is far
less than the '%% feet or so that youDll have with (%A.1lb systems. As compared to (%A.1lb, youDll
need a much larger number of (%A.1la access points to cover a facility, especially large ones.
The different radio fre0uency and modulation types of (%A.11a and (%A.11b causes them to not
interoperate. <or e.ample, an end user e0uipped with an (%A.11a radio card will not be able to
connect with an (%A.1lb access point. The (%A.11 standard offers no provisions for
interoperability between the different physical layers.
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(%A.1lg is an e.tension to (%A.11b, the basis of the ma:ority of wireless EAFs in e.istence today.
(%A.11g will broaden (%A.11bDs data rates to $5?bps within the A.5C,z band using 7<-?
1orthogonal fre0uency division multiple.ing3 technology.
;ecause of bac!ward compatibility, an (%A.11b radio card will interface directly with an
(%A.1lg access point 1and vice versa3 at 11?bps or lower depending on range. 4ange at
$5?bps will li!ely be less than e.isting (%A.11b access points operating at 11?bps. As
a result, donDt count on upgrading your e.isting access points that currently provide 11?bps
throughout all areas.
+imilar to (%A.11b, (%A.1lg operates in the A.5C,z band, and the transmitted signal uses
appro.imately '%?,z, which is one third of the band. This limits the number of non#
overlapping (%A.1lg access points to three, which is the same as (%A.11b. This means that youDll
have the same difficulty with (%A.1lg channel assignment as you do with (%A.1lb when covering
a large area where there is a high density of users. The solution of course is to lower the power of
each access point, which enables you to place access points closer.
"ireless standard compatibility list is li!e belowI
Ca!$%r Tr%%
'.% +P+TG? AFAEP+I+
+ince, it is an application development pro:ectJ a number of e.isting applications were preferred.
;andwidth ?onitor Pro and Fet Eimiter were used to get some e.tra ideas about the software we
made. "e tried to include all the necessary features that a complete bandwidth monitoring
system should have. "e have built this software on Lava on "indows operating system and thus
it will be platform independent i.e. it will wor! on different other operating systems li!e
"indows, Einu., etc.
<or doing this pro:ect, we too! reference from boo!s li!e, ,ead <irst Lava, 74eilly. Also some
reference tutorials were used to get some !nowledge to complete this pro:ect.
+ince this pro:ect re0uired some !nowledge about networ!ing, we also studied basics of
computer networ!ing which in some way helped us ma!ing this software even better.
3.3.1 E4i+$in" Ban#/i#$ M)ni$)rin" T))(+
Ban#/i#$ M)ni$)r Pr)
;andwidth ?onitor Pro is a utility that displays and logs your networ! adapters bandwidth
usage. It supports logging of all your networ! adapters at once and has a detailed transfer history.
Included is an advanced alert system where you can set up rules to e.ecute various actions li!e
send e#mail, play sounds, and e.ecute files, shutdown, etc. when certain conditions are meeting.
Pou can let ;andwidth ?onitor Pro run in the bac!ground and it will log all your incoming and
outgoing traffic for you to view later in the transfer log, or in real time if you wish. 1,elleseth,
FetEimiter is an ultimate internet traffic control and monitoring tool designed for "indows. Pou
can use FetEimiter to set downloadHupload transfer rate limits for applications or even single
connection and monitor their internet traffic. Along with this uni0ue feature, FetEimiter offers
comprehensive set of internet statistical tools. It includes real#time traffic measurement and long#
term per#application internet traffic statistics
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There are ' FetEimiter editions available, Pro, Eite and freeware ?onitor. 1FetEimiter, A%%' #
3.3.2 API5+ *+%#
To capture networ! pac!ets in our Lava program, we needed a help because no parts of the core
Lava API give access to low#level networ! data. ,owever, Lpcap is a Lava API that provides us
with this access on "indows or 9FIK systems. Lpcap isnDt a pure Lava solutionJ it depends on
the use of native libraries. 7n either "indows or 9FIK, we must have the re0uired third#party
library, "inPcap or libpcap respectively.
Lpcap uses an event model to allow us to process pac!ets.
2.2.2 Jfr%%car$
Lfreechart is an open#source framewor! for the programming language Lava, which allows the
creation of comple. charts in a simple way. Lfreechart also wor!s with CF9 /lasspath, a free
software implementation of the standard class library for the Lava programming language.
Lfreechart supports a number of various charts, including combined charts. <ollowing chart types
are supportedI
Q K#P charts 1line, spline and scatter3.
Q Pie charts
Q Cantt charts
Q ;ar charts 1horizontal and vertical, stac!ed and independent3. It also has built#in histogram
Q +ingle valued 1thermometer, compass, speedometer3 that can then be placed over map.
Q >arious specific charts 1wind chart, polar chart, bubbles of varying size, etc.3.
L<ree/hart automatically draws the a.is scales and legends. /harts in C9I automatically get the
capability to zoom in with mouse and change some settings through local menu. The e.isting
charts can be easily updated through the listeners that the library has on its data collections.
Another methodology was to investigate written materials and e.cerpts, which include
downloads from notable authors. ,owever, a top down methodology was used during the
research process. This was because when eventually, the pro:ect becomes feasible and is
implementedJ it would ultimately be managed by the /ompanies. Therefore, informed the choice
of the top down approach to information gathering.
<act#finding is an important activity in system investigation. In this stage, the functioning of the
system is to be understood in order to design the proposed system. >arious methods are applied
for this and these fact#finding techni0ues are described as belowI
• -ocument review # The researcher has reviewed the document include security reports,
system guideline of the system being used.
P a g e | 11
• 7n#site observation # The observation of current operating procedures had been. <irst#
hand !nowledge of the activities, operations, processes of the system on#site was
• Internet research # The ma:or source of the Internet research is 9niversiti Te!nologi
?A4A 19iT?3 digital library and Coogle ;oo!s as they offer great volume of boo!s,
:ournals and articles that related information.
• Interview R interviews techni0ue had been done with the potential users to collect
information about the current system. The areas of misunderstanding, unrealistic
e.ception and descriptions of activities and problems were discovered along with
resistance to the new proposed system.
3.1.1 S%&i'+$r*c$*r%# in$%r7i%/
The semi#structured telephone interview is designed to 0ualitatively analyze respondents views
on 7G?+s adoption. It is used to verify and understand the data collected from the survey. In
this research, a total of 1% top managers were interviewed independently. People, within the
event management industry, who had previous e.perience with ecommerce, were chosen for the
semi#structured interview. Interview time varied in length from 1$ to '% minutes. The interview
was recorded by note ta!ing. The interview was made up of 0uestions relating to economic and
business factors affecting the adoption of 7G?+ within the Gvent Industry.
The also study involved a personal interview of some notable Telecom institutions staff
members such as the operation manager, secretary, as well as other staff members. Also
interviewed were members of the publicHsubscribers of gsm networ!s.
3.1.2 D)c*&%n$ Ana(,+i+
The researcher investigated written materials and e.cerpts, which included downloads from
notable authors.
Information about ;andwidth management and monitoring were gathered from documents such
as companys annual report, :ournals, and industry magazines. This provided better
understanding of the research problem and findings. ;oo!s about the telecom industry were
searched, we were able to get a broader view and a deeper understanding of the industry this
way. Also, web pages of telecom operators were accessed from the Internet in order to get latest
information about the companys activities, services offered and future services being planned.
-7;?+ is a utility that monitors and saves your computers internet bandwidth usage. It
supports recording of all your networ! adapters at once and has a detail data transfer history.
Pou can let I;? run in the bac!ground and it will save all your incoming and outgoing data
transfer for you to view later in the transfer log or in real time in a graphical way. "ith -7;?+
you can see in a dashboard that how much of your bandwidth is being used.
 -isplays data in both bit and byte values. After monitoring, -7;?+ will ma!e the user
fle.ible by displaying data byte by byte or bit by bit per seconds.
 -etailed transfer history. -atabase is used to !eep records.
 /ustomizable layout. -ifferent layout facilities will be available as per the users wish. It
provides different attractive views.
P a g e | 1A
 /ustomizable colors and fonts. Also provides the different features of color changing
 Auto start with windows. -7;?+ need not to be loaded fre0uently it has the feature of
auto loading as the window starts and also we can turn off the option as per the users
 Always on top.
3.2 Or"ani2a$i)na( S$r*c$*r%
3.3 O9:%c$i7%+ )f $% E4i+$in" S,+$%&
The ob:ectives of the e.isting system are as followsI
1. Gnsure the proper use of networ! bandwidth,
A. Provides fle.ibility in meeting management and reporting re0uirements of the
'. Provide timely information for effective decision ma!ing,
5. ?aintains an up#to#date database so that the system can function on a daily basis.
3.4 In!*$ Pr)c%++ An# O*$!*$ Ana(,+i+
The input, process and output sub systems of the conventional -++ information system being
used by both tcorp and pro:ectcorp are treated below.
'.5.1 Input Analysis
The input specification here refers to the data coming fr)& ,)*r c)&!*$%r or networ! being
used. The data include search 0ueries by the user andHor those automatically sent by the system
1/omputerHnetwor!3 behind the scene, once connected the networ!.
'.5.A Pr)c%++in" Ana(,+i+
The monitor has DataMonitor class provides a container for holding byte counts of data 1either
inbound or outbound3, along with corresponding start and stop times. The start and stop times
log the time interval for the data transaction. The DataMonitor provides an addSample()
method for adding bandwidth measurement samples. Gach of these samples is interpreted as
being the number of bytes processed since the last sample, and the time interval during which the
data was processed. 7nce a number of samples have been collected by the DataMonitor, it can
be 0ueried for statistics about the historical data rate. In this e.ample we only show three
methods offering basic measurements of data throughputI one provides the average data rate for
all samples stored in the monitor 1getAverageRate()3, another provides the data rate for any
given sample stored in the monitor 1getRateFor()3, and the third returns the data rate for the
last sample stored 1getLastRate()3.
3.4.3 O*$!*$ Ana(,+i+
The output specification for the ;andwidth simulator includes the following.
• Average data throughput rate over a given time period
P a g e | 1'
• Total data throughput over a given time period
• Gstimate of time until a given amount of data will be available
• 7ther first# and second#order statistics on data rate and throughput over time 1variances,
median rate, data Bacceleration,B or change in throughput rate, etc.3.
3.5 Inf)r&a$i)n F()/ Dia"ra&
-eliberately omitted
3.; Pr)9(%&+ )f E4i+$in" S,+$%&
;elow are some of the problems identified with the e.isting system
1. -uring investigation it was noticed or discovered that much time is wasted while
recovering report related documents,
A. Eoss in transit of -++ reports during delivery as well as delay in delivery or lac! of
delivery is usually a regular occurrence,
'. Eac! of real#time online information processing,
5. Eac!s real#time online reporting mechanism, and
$. Eac! of trained attendants or specialists.
3.< J*+$ifica$i)n f)r $% N%/ S,+$%&
<rom the analysis of e.isting systems done so far, and the problems associated with them as
observed, it becomes obviously important and necessary that a new system be designed to handle
some is not all of the problems associated with the e.isting systems.
The current system being developed would go a long way to satisfy the present need of networ!
resource management. Thus it is e.pected that the networ! ;andwidth simulator to be developed
would be able to amongst others achieve the following ob:ectives.
+upport different routing and admission control algorithms
-ynamic bandwidth management and fast restoration mechanisms
<acilitate the development and testing of various mechanisms used or fund in a distributed
The networ! ;andwidth simulator can be compared with the e.isting systems in terms of its
performance, comparingly. The new system ensures speed, accurate calculations, efficiency, and
reliability. It is above all e.pected to allow for the simulation of many wor! groups of the same
topology or configuration connected to each other via the ;AF-"I-T,.
Ca!$%r F)*r
4.3 D%+i"n )f T% Si&*(a$)r
This chapter addresses issues bordering the proposed design called M-7;?+N, which include
outputHinput and design specifications, file design strategy, and system re0uirements. <ollowing
a thorough e.amination of the old system and the information needs of both researchers and the
P a g e | 15
general public, the following specifications, re0uirements, and design standards, which are
e.plained in the following sections, were put together for the new system.
4.1 D%+i"n S$an#ar#+
Two ma:or considerations were ta!en into account when designing the simulator. <irst, the
simulator had to be robust and had to be easily e.tensible to provide functionality for other
pro:ects. In other words, we wanted to build a general purpose real#time networ! simulation
framewor!. "e did this by implementing the basic structure of the simulation in as general a
way as possible, and provide an interface to the user from which to derive an application#specific
actor class from an abstract item class. This provides the necessary interface to interact with the
rest of the simulation framewor!. The user can ma!e the actors perform as re0uired by designing
application#specific handler methods. This was proven to wor!, and -7;?+ was successfully
used in another pro:ect &(*.
+econd, the simulator had to be as efficient as possible. +ince we are simulating a cloud
computing environment, we must to be able to simulate a very large number of actors. 7ur
simulations have successfully simulated more than a million actors, at which stage the
performance of the server deteriorates.
The output in whichever case 1soft or hardcopy3, must contain information about the following
field itemsI#
1. Amount of -ata +ent
A. Amount of -ata 4eceivedH-ownloaded
'. Gstimated -ownload +peed
5. Gstimated 9pload +peed
As stated in chapter three, the input specification here refers to the data coming fr)& ,)*r
c)&!*$%r or networ! being used. The data include search 0ueries by the user andHor those
automatically sent by the system 1/omputerHnetwor!3 behind the scene, once connected the
networ!. It also include some settings that may be associated with the monitor.
P a g e | 1$
Figure 4.3 DOBMS Input interface design
P a g e | 1)
Two file designs were use in the pro:ect. 7ne called -7;?+-; created with ?y+2E is to serve
as the database bac!#end file while the other called 4eport.rtf in richly formatted te.t format, is
internally generated by the software itself to serve as the printable version of the records in the
database ;ac!#end file and is compatible with ?icrosoft word of any version and other available
word processing software document templates. The ;ac!#end database file design structure is as
4.4.1 Fi(% D%+i"n S$r*c$*r%
DOBMS L)"in !r)fi(%
Fi(%# Na&% Da$a T,!% Si2%
Table 1 DOBMS Login profile
4.4 Pr)c%#*r% Car$
P a g e | 1@
P a g e | 1(
4.5 S,+$%& F()/car$
4.; S,+$%& R%=*ir%&%n$+
The system re0uirements for deploying the simulator is grouped into two main categories thusI
,ardware re0uirements and
+oftware re0uirements
4.;.1 1ar#/ar% R%=*ir%&%n$+
This category of re0uirements is basically the physical components of the computer, which
would be used to aid the design of the networ! simulator. These include amongst others.
Pentium /ore A -uo /omputer with the following configurations
• +>CA /ard
• A ?; 4A? or more
• $%%C; space in ,-- and above
• /-47?
• Gnhanced or windows !eyboard
Blog Post
Blog Post
Run Out
P a g e | 18
• +erial mouse
Easer:et or in!:et printer
1%%% >A 9P+
4.;.2 S)f$/ar% R%=*ir%&%n$+
The software re0uirements are that those used during the development phase as well as the
deployment phase. These includeI#
7perating system such as
• "indows A%%%, KP, >ista or
• Einu. 14ed,at, <edora, or <ree ;+-3
?icrosoft -ata Access /omponent A.%
?y+2E -atabase +erver
"eb server
?cAfee Antivirus or any other with up#to#date virus definition
4.;.3 O!%ra$i)na( R%=*ir%&%n$+
$ Internet 4eady 4esource /enters
1 G.ecutive Table and chair for the manning Personnel
"ell cable trenched
Air conditioners
"ell#floored with tiles
<ire e.tinguishers etc
4.;.4 P%r+)nn%( R%=*ir%&%n$+
The resource centre where this installation would be made should have at least, three to five
personnel with one technologist as the head.
The monitoring system is based on the client server model. Gach virtual machine in the cloud
runs the client application, while one server is run for each cluster of physical machines reporting
to a single aggregation router. The reason for running multiple servers is two#fold. <irst it
reduces the wor!load on each server. +econd, by e.amining each cluster individually, and
throttling the bandwidth for each cluster separately, the networ! usage of the entire cloud will
also be controlled. As mentioned above, since broadcasting is not allowed, the clients have to be
set up manually to !now which server is responsible for it.
A user can interact with the cloud either via a web interface, or the ++, protocol. +ince each
physical machine may run multiple virtual machines, there is no guarantee that all the virtual
machine instances on any physical machine belong to the same user. ;y re0uiring each virtual
machine to monitor its own traffic, the distinction between users is automatically made.
Implementation is the process of writing, testing, debuggingHtroubleshooting, and maintaining
the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language.
The purpose of programming is to create a program that e.hibits a certain desired behavior.
/oding re0uires e.pertise in many different sub:ects, including !nowledge of the application
domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic.
P a g e | A%
The proponents used P,P for the coding and the interface, and for the system to be available
online, the proponents uploaded it to 0sh.com. 9pon being uploaded, errors were e.pected to
emerge since the codes must also be compatible with the technology that the host website
supports, further debugging was done until there are no errors found.
This +ection will focus on the process of replacing the e.isting system with the proposed one by
way of program flowchart and Pseudocode. <irst a production of a program flowchart which
depicts the arrangement and approach of the program to solving the given problem is necessary.
A Pseudocode is further written to e.plain and provide a deeper understanding of the flowchart.
4.<.1 Pr)"ra& F()/ Car$
4.<.2 P+%*#)c)#%
If login +ucceed then
+plash +creen
-isplay ?ain -7;?+ I-G
+elect menu option
If option S -7;?+ then
If -7;?+ S Few 4ecords then
1Perform Few -7;?+ 7perations3
GlseIf -7;?+ S +ubmit then
1Perform +ave 7perations3
GlseIf -7;?+ S 4eset then
19nload Info active window3
GlseIf -7;?+ S Print then
1Print +elect 4eport3
GlseIf -7;?+ S G.it then
1Perform clean up 7perations3
19nload all windows3
Gnd If
GlseIf option S Gdit then
If Gdit S -7;?+ Info then
1Perform -7;?+ 9pdates3
GlseIf Gdit S -elete then
1-elete +elected 4ecord3
GlseIf Gdit S 9ser +ettings then
19pdate 9ser Profile3
Gnd If
GlseIf option S >iew then
1-isplay 4ecords3
GlseIf option S ,elp then
P a g e | A1
1-isplay ,ow to3
Gnd If
Gnd If
GlseIf Eogin <ails then
If retry S yes then
Coto login
Gnd If
Gnd If
The source program is the set of coded instructions, which is to be used for implementing the
new web#based ;andwidth ?onitoring system. +ee the printed appendi. for the source codes.
+everal factors played a ma:or role when the choice of programming language was being
considered. These factors included cryptographic security implementation, versatility,
portability, efficiency, conformity to ob:ect oriented programming models and fle.ibility. P,P
and ?y+2E seem to comply with those re0uirements.
The system re0uirements are classified into software, hardware, operational, personnel, and
environmental re0uirements.
4.?.1 S)f$/ar% R%=*ir%&%n$+
7perating system such as
• "indows A%%%, KP, >ista or
• Einu. 14ed,at, <edora, or <ree ;+-3
?icrosoft -ata Access /omponent A.%
?y+2E -atabase +erver
"eb server
?cAfee Antivirus or any other with up#to#date virus definition
4.?.2 1ar#/ar% R%=*ir%&%n$+
Pentium /ore A -uo /omputer with the following configurations
• +>CA /ard
• A C; 4A? or more
• $%%C; space in ,-- and above
• /-47?
• Gnhanced or windows !eyboard
• +erial mouse
Easer:et or in!:et printer
1%%% >A 9P+
P a g e | AA
4.?.3 O!%ra$i)na( R%=*ir%&%n$+
$ Internet 4eady /omputers /enters
1 G.ecutive Table and chair for the manning Personnel
"ell cable trenched 7ffice Apartment with IT Personnel
4.?.4 P%r+)nn%( R%=*ir%&%n$+
The people involved in the development and maintenance of the system are the followingI

System Administrator
The system administrator maintains and operates the computer system andHor networ!. The
system administrator is usually in charge with the installation, support, and maintenance of
servers or other computer systems. ,e is also in charge with the plan and response to service
outages and other problems.
The systems administrator could also do scripting or light programming, pro:ect management for
systems#related pro:ects, supervising or training computer operators, and being the consultant for
computer problems beyond the !nowledge of other staffs in the Information Technology
The system administrator must have pertinent !nowledge on networ! and database
Systems Programmer
The systems programmer is responsible for the efficient performance of the computer systems
that are being used for the enrollment system. The systems programmer would not always write
or create programs for Pro:ectcorp Figeria FigeriaJ programmers would also perform other tas!s
such as act as technical advisors to other operations personnel, continuously loo! for further
improvements in the system if there could still be any, and recommend conversion if possible in
order to optimize the performance of the system. The systems programmer must have the
!nowledge on P,P andHor A+P.Fet, ?y+2E +2E server. The systems programmer must also be
proficient in ?icrosoft >isual "eb -eveloper or the ?icrosoft >isual +tudio. +ince there would
also be a need to improve the interface of the system, the programmer is also e.pected to be
proficient in ?acromedia -reamweaver, <irewor!s, and <lashTor any software that have the
same purpose li!e Adobe Photoshop or +"i+,ma..
The system trainers would be the one to educate or teach the users 1IT Personnel and
Administration3 on how to use the system properly. The trainers could be one of the IT personnel
of Pro:ectcorp Figeria that has the s!ills to efficiently relay the instructions needed by the users
and future users of the system. Ideally, the programmers are the trainers of the users of the
system because of the pertinent !nowledge of the system.
The users are those who will get the first hand encounter with the ;andwidth ?onitoring
+ystem. The users should be trained on how to use the system and how to access it. The users
P a g e | A'
should also be informed of the different access levels that are present in the proposed system.
The users are e.pected to be computer literate especially internet#wise.
4.?.5 En7ir)n&%n$a( R%=*ir%&%n$+
• -ust free Air conditioned 7ffice Apartment
• "ell#floored with tiles
• <ire e.tinguishers etc
The testing process of -7;?+ was split into two ma:or portions whereI
• The first part of this process involves testing the compliance of the application against the
functional re0uirements.
• The second part of the testing process is concerned with aspects such as performance and
4.13.1 A!!(ica$i)n F*nc$i)na(i$, T%+$in"
A ma:or portion of the application functionality was tested whilst the system was being built.
This involved the use of structural or white bo. testing on completion of each functional unit, by
using the underlying !nowledge of the code. The aim of this approach was to test boundary and
decision conditions within the code. <urthermore, no formal documentation was produced for
this part of the testing process.
7n completion of -7;?+, the blac! bo. testing method was applied to develop a set of test
cases. 9sually, for specification based testing methods some sort of formal specification is
written. ,owever, for -7;?+ no formal specification was provided because writing a formal
specification would have meant spending less time on building the system.
<or each functional unit categories, partitions and constraints were identified and then written in
a test specification language. <or instance, code for a user logging in can be seen in Appendi. A.
Gach test frame contains set of values that need to appear in test cases. ,owever, the generated
values are not in a format that matches the systems re0uirements and therefore need to be
reformatted to produce actual sets of input values that are to be included in the test case.
G.amples of test cases produced from the Eog in.frm are given in Table 5.1.
P a g e | A5
Table 4.1 testing the login page
4.13.2 P%rf)r&anc% T%+$in"
This part of the testing process involved the use of a load testing application to simulate server
usage at different loads. The aim was to ensure that -7;?+ will have a good response time
during usage. ,ere, Mresponse timeN means Mthe time it ta!es between initial re0uest and
complete download of response i.e. rendering of an entire web pageN.
It is possible to test the performance of -7;?+ using testing software li!e 7pen+TA.
;ecause of the license re0uirement to download from the internet, the developer of -7;?+ use
a simple way of testing on different machine.
All tests were carried out by using the following specification machine, with the -7;?+
website and load testing tool present on the same machineI
• Pr)c%++)r8 A C,z
• M%&)r,8 $1A ?;
• O!%ra$in" S,+$%&8 "indows KP
7verall, all the testing conducted to test the functionality of the application led to a single
conclusion that -7;?+ is compliant with the functional re0uirements detailed in the
4e0uirements and Analysis stage. It was also felt that -7;?+ would perform substantially
better as compared to its performance during the testing process mainly because of the following
• The machine on which -7;?+ was hosted during testing cannot achieve the same
performance level as a high‐end web server because the server would have a faster
processor and a lot more memory. <urthermore, during performance testing the load
testing application was also being run on the same machine as -7;?+, which means an
increased burden on the machine resources as compared to normal circumstances.
The proponents would suggest a Parallel /onversion where the computerized system will run
simultaneously with the manual one for a specific period of time.
P a g e | A$
After the parallel conversion, the system will then be sub:ected to performance evaluation from
the people who have used the system. "ith the parallel conversion, the users will gradually be
able to get accustomed to the new system but continue to use the old one. The gradual transition
allows users to compare and contrast the new system with the old. It also allows s!eptical users
to build their confidence in the new system by comparing the results obtained with both and
verifying that the new system is :ust as effective and efficient as the old.
This guide provides the would#be user a documentation of how the system is to be installed and
used. It also provides the would#be software reviewer, a technical guide. +ee Appendi. ; for
5.1 S.MMAR6
This study has presented a networ! ;andwidth simulator # a distributed simulation platform able
to perform a wide range of e.periments related to networ! resource management. "e believe
there is a lac! of networ! simulation platforms for networ! resource management where new
algorithms or systems can be tested, because most general simulation platforms are control and
traffic oriented, and usually centralized.
The initial ob:ective of designing a very fle.ible and configurable platform, while at the same
time maintaining its modularity and simplicity, was also achieved by the use of clientHserver
At present, the simulation processes have been fully tested and are operative. And we plan to use
it for a lot of e.periments related to the researcher being carried out in our groups but we are
now developing several networ! reource management mechanisms to be tested using the
distributed networ! ;andwidth simulator.
These algorithms are still not fully implemented, so only simple e.ample and test simulations
have been performed.
@.1 <9T94G "74=
As a future wor!s on the distributed networ! ;andwidth simulators itself there are three defined
lines to follow. <irst of all we plan to develop more visual tools to ma!e the networ! topology
definition easier and automate the generation of the configuration files and the distribution of the
simulation processes over several machines and the starting of a simulation. +econdly, we plan
the development of an automatic tools to process log files generated for every wor!group. This
tool could generate statistics and graphics, which are always interesting and could also perform a
merge of several, log files to e.tract more comple. results.
<inally, these log files could also be used to perform a debug tas! of networ! management
mechanisms and even debug the simulator itself. This last point is a long#term idea but we thin!
P a g e | A)
it could be interesting to transform a simulation tool into a debugging tool for networ!
management algorithms.
1. +idor, -.L., 188(, BT?F standardsI satisfying TodayDs Feeds while Preparing for
Tomorrow, IGGG /ommunications ?agazine, 1?arch3.
A. +tallings, "., 188( B+F?P and +F?P vzI The Infrastructure for Fetwor! ?anagement,
IGGG /ommunications ?agazine, 1?arch3.
'. Armitage C., ?PE+I The ?agic ;ehind the ?yths, IGGG /ommunications, ?agazine,
Lanuary A%%%.
5. KIC7 K., ,annan A., ;ailey ;., Fi E.?., BTraffic Gngineering with ?PE+ in the
internetB, IGGG Fetwor! ?anazine, ?arch A%%%.
5. Andersson E., -oolan P., <eldman F., <redette A., Thomas ;., BE-P specification B,
4</ '%'), """.ie
). Uergher, ;ernad P., B7b:ect oriented simulation with ,ierarchical modular modulesI
Intelligent Agents and Gndomorphic systemsB, ;ostom ?assachusetts, Academic Press,
@. Ca:s!i, -aniel -.,Fi!il, -. -utt, Allen /#, "u and steve P#E Ein, B,igh level
+ynthesisI Introduction to /hips and system -esignB, =luwer Academic Publishers,
;oston ?assachusetts, 188A.
(. 4ipley, ;rian -., Bstochastic simulationB, Lohn "iley +ons, Few Por!, Few Por!, 18(%
8. /ellier, <rancois G. Bcontinous system ?odelingB, +pringer#>erlag, Few Por!, Few
Por!, 1881
1%. ?ead, carver and Eynn conway, BIntroduction to >E+I systemB, Adisson#"esley
publishing company Inc., 4eading ?assachusetts 18(%