GSM Signaling Siemens

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© 2002 Siemens AG
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Contents
1 Introduction 3


GSM Signaling
Siemens GSM Signaling


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© 2002 Siemens AG
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GSM Signaling Siemens


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© 2002 Siemens AG
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1 Introduction

GSM Signaling
HLR AC VLR EIR
ISDN BSC BTS
MS
OMC
MSC
OMC
x
Introduction

Fig. 1
Siemens GSM Signaling


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GSM Signaling – Introduction
For the transmission of user speech & data the “hardware” of a telecommunication
network (network nodes, cables) is a prerequisite. Additionally, to set up, maintain
and release connections, co-ordination of network specific functions, etc.
communication between the different network entities is necessary. This exchange of
information between network entities is called “Signaling”. Today this signaling is
quite complex and needs to be updated very often. New messages need to be added
with additional services and features. Therefore, a flexible and modular signaling
system is necessary.

Principle / Modularity
An example should show the basic principle of signaling exchange and the
advantage of modularity. A German and a Brazilian captain, meeting with their ships
on sea, like to discuss the latest soccer results. Both are speaking no common
language. So they ask their French speaking cooks to act as translator. Furthermore,
they need the help of their board radio operator to transmit their communication.
So we have a 3 layer “signaling system” for communication between the ships.
The captains (Layer 3): virtually, they exchange information (via cooks & radio
operators). They are talking about soccer results or about weather or other themes.
They give order to their cooks to translate and forward their message.
The cooks (Layer 2): they receive messages from the captains / radio operators and
translate from their native language to French and vice versa. They divide the
captains messages into short, clear sequences. They number the sequences and
control received messages if they are complete & in the right order. They tell their
counterpart if they have not understand a sequence or if something is missing, so
that their counterpart is able to repeat this sequences.
The radio operators (Layer 1): they receive / transmit message sequences from / to
the cooks and they are responsible for the radio transmission. They have to agree
rules for the radio transmission (e.g. frequency, speech or morse transmission).
Modifications of the implementation of one layer is not visible for the other layer. I.e.
the captains are able to change their themes, the cooks can change their common
language, the radio operators can change to other frequency ranges or from morse to
speech transmission. This modularity enables to modify / update parts (layers) of the
system, introduce new layers, etc., without changing the total system.


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Signaling Systems
Principle / Modularity
Captain Captain
Layer 3
Cook
Cook Layer 2
Radio
Operator
L
a
y
e
r
1
Radio
Operator
• transmit news
• define transmission
(e.g. Morse / Speech)
• translate news
• divide news into blocks
• acknowledge received
blocks
• discuss themes

Fig. 2
Siemens GSM Signaling


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Signaling System #7
The Signaling System #7 (SS#7) is used in the GSM PLMN for NSS signaling,
furthermore for signaling between the NSS and the BSS, OMS (optional) and
external ISDN.
SS#7 originally was developed for call related applications. For this purpose the 4
level model of SS#7 was created:
Level 1 (Physical & electrical attributes)
defines physical and electrical attributes of the transmission
Level 2 (Signaling Data Link)
guarantees the error free transmission on the SS#7 transmission line (error
detection, error correction, error rate monitoring)
Level 3 (Signaling Network functions)
routing of messages
network management (e.g. congestion handling)

These 3 levels form the Message Transfer Part MTP. The MTP is the base of SS#7.
The MTP transports the data generated by
Level 4 (User Parts)
responsible for call related messages (e.g. ISDN User Part ISUP, Telephone User
Part TUP, Data User Part DUP)
In contrast to the 4 level model for non-call related signaling the 7 layer model is
used. Here the tasks of the level 4 are further divided into Layer 4 to Layer 7.
Layer 1 - 3 correspond to level 1 – 3.
In GSM the Layer 4 to 7 are usually implemented by the Signaling Connection
Control Part SCCP, Transaction Capability Application Part TCAP, Mobile Application
Part MAP and BSS Application Part BSSAP.

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SS #7
Signaling System #7
Physical & electrical attributes
Signaling Data Link
Signaling Network functions
MTP
Message
Transfer
Part
ISUP
ISDN
User Part
Layer
TUP
Telephone
User Part
DUP
Data
User Part
MAP
Mobile
Application
Part
TCAP
SCCP
TCAP: Transaction Capability Application Part
SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part
7
4 - 6
3
2
1
3
2
1
L
e
v
e
l
4

Fig. 3
Siemens GSM Signaling


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Signaling Connection Control Part SCCP
The SCCP is used with minor modifications for Intelligent Network IN implementation
and for GSM. The SCCP offers additional functions on top of the MTP. Together with
the MTP, the SCCP forms the Network Service Part NSP. It extends the MTP routing
functions (limited on network basis) for global addressing (Global Title Translation
GTT) and offers four different service classes for signaling transmission.

Transaction Capability Application Part TCAP
The TCAP provides the means to distinguish independent message flows. It consists
of a “transaction” and a “component” sublayer. The service offered by the transaction
sublayer consists in the management of transactions or dialogues on an end-to-end
basis. This enables to distinguish several independent flows using in parallel the
same transmission means. The TCAP adds a transaction indicator to each message,
enabling the other end to relate all messages of the same transaction to a single
context (i.e. all messages concerning a Location Update Procedure LUP of a certain
MS). The component sublayer manages the correlation of individual commands /
responses within a dialogue.

ISDN User Part ISUP
The ISUP is used in GSM for signaling between the PLMN and ISDN and between
the different MSC’s (E-Interface). It provides procedures for the management of trunk
lines (e.g. “Block” / “Unblock”), for setting up connections (e.g. “Initial Address
Message” IAM, “Address Complete Message” ACM, “Alert”, for handling of serves
(e.g. display A subscriber CLIP, Closed User Group CUG, Call Holding HOLD). The
ISUP can be used with or without SCCP.


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GSM Signaling
HLR AC VLR EIR
ISDN BSC BTS
MS
OMC
MSC
OMC
L1
L2
L3
MTP
SCCP
TCAP
MAP
MTP
ISUP
SCCP
MTP
SCCP
BSSAP
DTAP BSSMAP
L1
LAPDm
RR
MM
CM
CC SS SMS
x
ISUP: ISDN User Part
MAP: Mobile Application Part
TCAP: Transmission Capabilities Application Part
SCCP: Signalling Connection Control Part
MTP: Message Transfer Part
BSSAP: BSS Application Part
BSSMAP: BSS Management Application Part
DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part
LAPDm: Link Adaptation Protocol
for the D channel, modified
CM: Connection Management
CC: Call Control
SS: Supplementary Services
SMS: Short Message Service
RR: Radio Resource management

Fig. 4
Siemens GSM Signaling


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BSS Application Part BSSAP
The BSSAP is used for A Interface signaling in GSM, i.e. signaling between the MSC
and BSC. It is defined in GSM Rec. 04.08 & 08.08. The BSSAP consists of two
sublayers: the BSS Management Application Part BSSMAP and the Direct Transfer
Application Part DTAP. The BSSMAP is used for the transmission of Radio Resource
RR related information. This includes transactions like Paging, Assignment / Blocking
of traffic channels, Handover Resource Request / Indication, Cipher Start, Queuing,...
The DTAP handles messages to be exchanged between the MSC and the MS.
These Mobility Management MM and Call Control CC messages are transparent for
the BSS.

Mobile Application Part MAP
The MAP is specified in Rec. 09.02. It is used for the NSS signaling, i.e. between the
network nodes HLR, EIR, VLR and MSC. MAP consists of Access Management,
Location Management (e.g. Update Location Area, Update Location, Cancel
Location, IMSI Attach / Detach), MSC-MSC Handover, Security Aspects (e.g. Check
IMEI, Authentication, Set Ciphering Mode, Provide IMSI, Forward new TMSI), O&M
(e.g. Call Tracing to identify faults), SMS (e.g. Send Routing Information for Short
Message) and Supplementary Service SS procedures.


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BSSAP
BSS Application Part
BSSMAP DTAP
MAP
Mobile Application
Part
SCCP
Signaling Connection Control Part
SS #7 for GSM
TCAP
Transmission Capabilities
Application Part
ISUP
ISDN User Part
Connection related
signaling
(MSC - MSC / ISDN) e.g.:
• “Initial Address Message IAM”
• “Address Complete
• Message ACM”, “Alert”
• “Answer Message”
Procedures supporting mobility
(MSC - Register/MSC) e.g.:
• “Update Location” (VLR HLR)
• “Insert / Delete Subscriber Data” (HLR VLR)
• “Send IMSI”, “Authenticate”, “Start Ciphering”,
“Forward new TMSI” (VLR MSC (MS))
A-Interface
protocol
subdivided into
DTAP
BSC not involved,
transparent: MS CN.
compare MM & CM
BSSMAP
BSC involved
• “Paging”
• “HOV Request”
• “HOV Complete”
Enables its UP’s:
• to take access to
data bases / exchanges
(world-wide via SS7)
• to invoke transactions
• to identify messages
of same transaction
Layer 1: Physical Layer
Layer 2: Data Link Layer
Layer 3: Network Layer
Offers (L3 extension):
• Global Routing
Global Title Translation GTT
• service classes
(Connection -oriented / -less)

Fig. 5
Siemens GSM Signaling


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Radio Interface Signaling
Signaling on the radio interface is performed using a 3-Layer protocol. It consists of
Layer 1 (Physical Layer), Layer 2 (LAPDm) and Layer 3 (RR, MM & CM).

L1 (Physical Layer)
The radio transmission (L1 physics & logic) is described in detail in the next chapter.

L2: Link Access Procedures on the Dm (Data mobile) –channel LAPDm
The link layer on Um is handled in Rec. 04.06. It is responsible for reliable
transmission of L3 units. LAPDm has been derived from fixed network LAPD protocol
and optimized for radio interface transmission. Different to MTP L2 / the LAPD
protocol no Frame Check Sequences FCS are necessary. This function and some
other are taken over by Um L1 functions (Channel Coding / Decoding).

L3: CM / MM / RR
Radio Resource management RR
RR (Rec. 04.08) is responsible for the management of the frequency resources. It
handles the paging for MTCs, the request for and assignment of dedicated channels,
Intra- & Inter-cell handover, transmission of measurement reports, cipher mode
setting, channel mode modification (e.g. from speech to data) and channel release.
Mobility Management MM
MM (Rec. 04.08) supports all mobility aspects. Different MM procedures allow to
keep track of the MS, e.g. IMSI Attach / Detach, (periodic) Location Update,
Authentication, TMSI-Reallocation, Identification, CM Service Request,...
Connection Management CM
CM (Rec. 04.08) contains 3 sublayer: Call Control CC, SMS and Supplementary
Services SS support. CC handles procedures to setup, maintain and release calls
(e.g. "Setup", "Alert", "Connect", "Disconnect"). SMS support allows the transmission
of SMS via signaling channels (SDCCH / SACCH; explained in the next chapter). SS
allows to supports Supplementary Services (e.g. Call Forwarding, Call back when
busy, Advice of charge) related with or without calls.

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Radio Interface Signaling
Layer 1
Logical
Physical
Layer 2: LAPDm
Radio Resource management
RR
Mobility Management MM
Connection Management CM
Call
Control CC
Supplementary
Services SS
Short Message
Services SMS
L3
Support of “connection types”:
Call Control CC support, e.g.
• “Setup”, “Alert”, “Connect”, “Disconnect”
Supplementary Services” support, e.g.
• Call Forwarding, Call back when busy,
Advice Of Charge,..
SMS support
Support of mobility
(Keep track of MS), e.g.:
• “IMSI attach / detach”
• “Location Update request / accept”
• “Authentication request /response”
• “TMSI reallocation command / complete”
• “CM Service Request / accept”
(activates: SS, MOC, SMS, Emergency Call)
Secure transfer of
signaling data, e.g.:
• Broadcast, Paging, Access
Grant, dedicated signaling
Setup / Maintenance / Release
of Dedicated Channels, e.g.:
• “paging”
• “channel request”
• “immediate assignment”
• “cipher mode command / complete”
• “channel release”

Fig. 6
Siemens GSM Signaling


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