Appendix I

CITATION STYLE FOR REFERENCE LIST
The APA (American Psychological Association) reference style is used which includes the following
categories : periodicals, books, brochures, book chapters, technical and research reports, proceedings
of meetings and symposia, doctoral dissertations and masters theses, unpublished work, reviews,
audiovisual media, and electronic media.
A reference list cites works that specifically support a particular article. The reference list must be
one and half spaced, and entries should start with a paragraph indent entries will then be typeset
with hanging indents.
Accepted abbreviations in the reference list for parts of books and other publication are:
!"#$%&PT&'( A))%"*&AT&'(
$hapter $hap.
"dition "d.
%evised edition %ev. ed.
#econd edition +nd ed.
"ditor ("ditors) "d. ("ds.)
Translator(s) Trans.
no date n.d.
Page (pages) p. (pp.)
*olume (as in *ol. ,) *ol.
*olumes(as in , vols) *ols.
(umber (o.
Part Pt.
Technical %eport Tech. %ep.
#upplement #uppl.
'rder of reference in the reference list
Alphabetizing names
Arrange entries in alphabetical order the surname of the first author, using the following rules for
special cases:
• Alphabeti-e letter by letter
• Alphabeti-e the prefi.es /0, /c, and /ac literally, not as if they were all spelled /ac
• #urnames that use articles and prepostions (de, la, du, von, etc.) are alphabeti-ed
according to different rules for different languages
• Alphabeti-e entries with numerals as if the numerals were spelled out
Order of several works by the same first author
1se the following rules to arrange the entries:
• #ingle author entries by the same author are arranged by year of publication, the earliest
first
2im, 2. #. (3443)
2im, 2. #. (344,)
• #ingle author entries precede multiple author entries
2aufman, 5. %. (3443)
2aufman, 5. %., and 6ong, !. 7. (3484)
• %eferences with the same first author and different second or third authors
2aufman, 5. %., 5ones, 2., and $ochran, !. 7. (348+)
2aufman, 5. %., and 5ones, 2. (3489)
• %eferences with the same surname are arranged alphabetically by the first initial
"liot, A. $. (348:)
"liot, ;. %. (3489)
• %eferences by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order)
with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by the title (e.cluding A or
The) that follows the date
Exception: &f the references with the same authors published in the same year are
identified as articles in a series (e.g. Part 3 and Part +), order the references in the series
order, not alphabetically by title
• <owercase letters = a, b, c, and so on = are placed immediately after the year, within the
parentheses
2aufman, 5. %. (3489a). $ontrol >
2aufman, 5. %. (3489b). %oles of >
Order of works with corporate authors or with no author, or agency, association, or institution as
author
Alphabeti-e corporate authors, such as associations or government agencies, by the first significant
word of the name. 7ull official names should be used (e.g. American Psychological Association, not
APA). A parent body precedes a subdivision (e.g. 1niversity of /ichigan, !epartment of
Psychology).
&f there is no author, the title move to the author position, and the entry is alphabeti-ed by the first
significant word of the title.
Entry of non-western names (Authors and Corporate odies!
7or the entry of non?western names, reference is made to /ohammed /. Aman ("d.). (3489).
Cataloguing and classification of non-western material: Concerns, issues and practices. <ondon:
'ry. Press.
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
MALAY NAMES
• "nter a /alay name under the first element of
his@her name unless it is known that he@she
treats another element of his@her /erican,
7aridah name as a surname in that case, enter
under the surname.
• &f an abbreviation is used for a word denoting
filial relationship, i.e. b. for bin, bt. or bte for
bintie, use the full form of the word.
• &f a person never uses the word denoting filial
relationship, enter the name as found
• Add after the name titles of honour, rank or
position that are commonly associated with the
name
• &f the titles of honour, rank or position are
hereditary, enter by the titles
(A/erican0 is a surname)
Ali bin Abdullah
%ogayah binte Ahmad
&smail Bussein
Abdul /aCid bin Dainuddin, BaCi
#opiee, (ordin, !ato0
1ngku Abdul A-i-
#yed Bussin Ali
(ik #afiah BaCi A. 2arim
CHINESE NAMES
• "nter the surname first
• &f a name of $hinese origin contains both
$hinese and non?$hinese given names, record
the non?$hinese given names preceding the
$hinese given name
7oh, 2am )eng
$hing, 7rancis 2. 6.
((ame appears as 7rancis 2. 6. $hing)
<oh, Phillip 7ook #eng
((ame appears as Phillip <oh 7ook #eng)
INDIAN NAMES P. #ubramaniam
((ame appears as P. #ubramaniam)
#ubramaniam, P
((ame appears as #ubramaniam Periasamy)
CORPORATE NAMES
• #pell out the full name of corporate names
• ;ive the name of the highest ranking, then, the
name of the specific department or organi-ation
or division
/alaysia. 2ementerian 2ewangan,
/alaysia. 2ementerian Pendidikan. )ahagian
Pendidikan Tinggi.
REFERENCE CITATION STYLE FOR ARIO!S FORMATS OF MATERIALS
FORMATS
PERIODICALS
(include items published on a regular basis: Cournals, maga-ines, scholarly newsletter, and so on.
;eneral format:
Author, A. A., Author, ). )., and Author, $. $. (date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
volume number(issue number.), page number.
".g.
#petch, /. <., and 6ilkie, !. /. (348:). #ubCective shortening : A model of pigeons0 memory for event
duration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: nimal !ehavior Processes, "(,), 3,?:9.
NON"PERIODICALS
(include items published separately: books, reports, brochures, certain monographs, manuals, and
audiovisual media)
;eneral format:
Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of wor#. <ocation: Publisher.
".g.
$one, 5. !., and 7oster, #. <. (344:) The careful writer: modern guide to English usage. (ew Eork:
Atheneum.
PART OF A NON"PERIODICALS
(e.g. book chapter)
;eneral format:
Author, A. A. and Author, ). ). (date of publication). Title of chapter. &n A. "ditor, ). "ditor, and $.
"ditor ("ds.), Title of boo# (pp. ..?..). <ocation: Publisher.
".g.
/assaro, !. (344+). )roadening the domain of the fu--y logical model of perception. &n B. <. Pick, 5r., P.
van den )roek, and !. $. 2nill ("ds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. F3?8,).
6ashington, !$: American Psychological Association.
PERIODICAL
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
5ournal article with one author )ekerian, !. A. (344:). &n search of the typical
eyewitness. merican Psychologist, $%, FG,?FGH.
5ournal article, two authors 2limoske, %., and Palmer, #. (344:). The A!A and
the hiring process in organi-ations. Consulting
Psychology Journal: Practice and &esearch, $'(+),
39?:H.
5ournal article, three to si. authors Borowit-, <. /., Post, !. <., 7rench, %. #., 6allis,
2. !., and #iegelman, ". *. (3483). The prototype
as a construct in abnormal psychology: $larifying
disagreement in psychiatric Cudgements. Journal of
bnormal Psychology, "(, FGF?F8F.
5ournal article, si. or more authors 2neip, %. $., !elamater, A. /., &smond, T.,
/ilford, $., #alvia, <., and #chwart-, !. (344:).
#elf?and spouse ratings of anger and hostility as
predicators of coronary heart disease. )ealth
Psychology, *+, :93?:9G.
(note: in te.t, use 2neip et al., 344: when citing).
5ournal article, paginated by issue 2limoske, %., and Palmer, #. (344:). The A!A and
the hiring process in organi-ations. Consulting
Psychology Journal: Practice and &esearch, $'(+),
39?:H.
"ntire issue of a Cournal )arlow, !. B. ("d.). (3443). !iagnoses, dimensions,
and !#/?&*: The science of classification I#pecial
issueJ. Journal of bnormal Psychology, *(((:).
Testing, concepts, policy, practice and research
I#pecial issueJ. (3483). merican Psychologist,
,-(39).
(ote:
• To cite an entire issue of a Cournal (in this
e.ample, special issue), give the editors of the
issue and the title of the issue
• &f no editors, issue title is placed before the year
of publication. Alphabeti-e the reference entry
by the first significant word in the title.
• 7or retrievability, provide the issue number
instead of page numbers. To reference an article
within a special issue, follow the general format
of periodical.
5ournal supplement %egier, A. A., (arrow, 6. "., and %ae, !. #.
(3449). The epidemiology of an.iety disorders: The
epidemiologic catchment area ("$A) e.perience.
Journal of Psychiatric &esearch, +$(#uppl. +), :?3,.
(ote:
• ;ive the supplement numbers in parentheses
immediately after the volume number
5ournal article, in press
.articles accepted for publication but not yet
published/
Duckerman, /., and 2ieffer, #. $. (in press). %ace
differences in face?ism: !oes facial prominence
imply dominanceK Journal of Personality and
0ocial Psychology.
(ote:
• do not give year, volume no. or page no. until
being published
• if another reference by the same author (or
same order of authors for multiple authors) is
included in the list of reference, place the in?
press entry after the published entry. &f there is
more than one in?press entry, list the entries
alphabetically by the first word after the date
element, and assign lowercase letter suffi.es to
the date element, for e.g., in press?a.
/aga-ine article Poster, /. &. (344:, 'ctober +4). #eeing the mind.
0cience, +-+, HG:?HG,.
(ote:
• ;ive the date shown on the publication?month
for monthlies or, month and day for weeklies
e.g. (344:, 5une) for monthly maga-ines,
newsletters and newspapers
(3448, (ovember 39) for dailies and
weeklies
• ;ive the volume no.
(ewsletter article )rown, <. #. (344:, #pring). Antidomination
training as a central component of diversity in
clinical psychology education. The Clinical
Psychologist, $-, 8:?8G.
(ote:
• ;ive the date as it appears on the issue
• ;ive the volume no.
(ewsletter article, no author The new health?care le.icon. (344:,
August@#eptember). Copy Editor, $, 3?+.
(ewspaper article, no author #tudy finds free care used more. (348+, April F).
P 1onitor, p. 3,.
(ote:
• use the first significant word in the title
• precede page numbers with p. or pp.
(ewspaper article, corporate author #taff, (3489, #eptember 3). Professional face ta.
rises as &%# targets personal service corporations.
!ehavior Today, p. F.
(ewspaper article, letter to the editor /arkovit-, /. $. (344:, /ay). &npatient vs.
outpatient I<etter to the editorJ. P 1onitor, p. :.
(ewspaper article, discontinuous pages #chwart-, 5. (344:, #eptember :9). 'besity affects
economic, social status. The 2ashington Post, p.
A3, A,.
(ote:
• &f an article appears on discontinuous pages,
give all page numbers, and separate numbers
with a comma (e.g. p. )3, ):, )F?)G)
/onograph with issue number and serial (or whole) Bood, <., and )loom, <. (34G4). 6hat, when, and
number how about why: A longitudinal study of early
e.pressions of causality. 1onographs of the 0ociety
for &esearch in Child 3evelopment, $$ (H, #erial
(o. 383).
(ote:
• ;ive the volume no., follow by issue and serial
(or whole) numbers in parentheses. 1se the
word 2hole instead of 0erial if the monograph
is identified by a whole number.
/onograph bound separately as a supplement to a
Cournal
)atting, 6. 7., and /ontague, 6. ". (34H4).
$ategory norms for verbal items in FH categories: A
replication and e.tension of the $onnecticut
category norms. Journal of Experimental
Psychology 1onographs, %((:, Pt. +).
(ote:
• ;ive the issue number and supplement or part
number in parentheses immediately after the
volume no.
/onograph bound into Cournal with continuous
pagination
;anster, !. $., and /ayes, ).T. (3443). The
nomological validity of the Type A personality
among employed adults I/onographJ. Journal of
pplied Psychology, 4-, 3,:?3H8.
(ote:
• &nclude 1onograph in brackets as a description
form
Periodical published annually 7iske, #. T. (344:). #ocial cognition and social
perception. nnual &eview of Psychology, $$, 3FF?
34,.
(ote:
• Treat series that have regular publication dates
and titles as periodicals, not books.
• &f the subtitle changes in series published
regularly, such as topics of published symposia
(e.g. the (ebraska #ymposium on /otivation
and the Annals of the (ew Eork Academy of
#ciences), treat the series as a book or chapter
in an edited book. Please refer to citation style
for non?periodical items.
Abstract (as original source) 6oolf, (. 5., and Eoung, #. <. (3443). /AP?+
e.pression in cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of
rodent corte. altered by Pavlovian conditioning.
0ociety for 5eurascience bstract, *4, ,89.
(ote:
• &f the title of the periodical does not include the
word abstracts, place Abstract in brackets
between the abstract title and the period.
Abstract (as a secondary source) (aka-ato, 2., #himonaka, E., and Bomma, A.
(344+). $ognitive functions of centerarians: The
Tokyo /etropolitan $entenarian #tudy. Japanese
Journal of 3evelopment Psychology, ,, 4?3H. (7rom
Psyc0C5: 5europsychology, 344:, +, Abstract (o.
H9,)
(ote:
• &f only the abstract and not the entire article is
used as the source, cite the collection of
abstracts in parentheses at the end of the entry.
• &f the date of the secondary source is different
from the date of the original publication, cite
both dates, separated by a slash, with the
original date first. ".g. (34H:@348,)
(on?"nglish Cournal article, title translated into
"nglish
DaConc, %. ). (3484). )ischofs gefuhlvolle
*erwirrunggen uber die ;efuhle I)ischof0s
emotional fluster over the emotionsJ.
Psychologische &undschau, $(, +38?++3.
(ote:
• &f the original version of a non?"nglish article is
used as the source, cite the original version:
;ive the original title, follow by the "nglish
translation in brackets
"nglish translation of a Cournal article, Cournal
paginated by issue
#tutte, B. (34G+). Transcultural child psychiatry6
cta Paedopsychiatrica, ,%(4), ++4?+:3.
(ote:
• &f the "nglish translation of a non?"nglish
article is used as the source, cite the "nglish
translation: ;ive the "nglish title without
brackets.
$itation of a work discussed in a secondary source
(e.g. for a study by #eidenberg and /c$lellan cited
in $oltheart et al.)
$oltheart, /., $urtis, )., Atkins, P., and Baller, /.
(344:). /odels of reading aloud: !ual?route and
parallel?distributed?processing approaches.
Psychological &eview, *((, F84?H98.
(ote:
• ;ive the secondary source in the reference list
in te.t, name the original work, and give the
citation for the secondary source.
• 7or e.g., if #eidenberg and /c$lelland0s work
is cited in $oltheart et al. and you did not read
the work cited, use the following format:
&n reference list, follow the e.ample above.
&n te.t, use the citation below:
#eidenberg and /c$lelland0s study (as cited in
$oltheart, $urtis, Atkins, and Baller, 344:)
NON"PERIODICALS #$OO%S& $ROCH!RES'
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
)ook, edition, 5r. in name /itchell, T. %., and <arson, 5. %., 5r. (348G). People
in organi7ational behavior (:rd ed.). (ew Eork:
/c;raw?Bill.
)ook, corporate author (government agency) as
publisher
American Psychiatric Association. (3489).
3iagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders (:rd ed.). 6ashington, !$: Author.
(ote:
• Alphabeti-e corporate authors by the first
significant word of the
• 6hen the author and publisher are identical,
use the word uthor as the name of the
publisher
)ook, edited ;ibbs, 5. T., and Buang, <. (. ("ds.). (3443).
Children of colour: Pshychological interventions
with minority youth. #an 7rancisco: 5ossey?)ass.
)ook, revised edition %osenthal, %. (348G). 1eta-analytic procedures for
social research (%ev. ed.). (ewbury Park, $A:
#age.
)ook, no author or editor 1erriam-2ebster8s Collegiate dictionary (39th ed.).
(344:). #pringfield, /A: /erriam?6ebster.
(ote:
• Place the title in the author position
• Alphabeti-e books with no author or editor by
the first significant word in the title
#everal volumes in a multivolume edited work,
publication over period of more than 3 year
2och, #. ("d.). (34F4?34H:). Psychology: study of
science (*ols. 3?H). (ew Eork: /c;raw?Bill.
"ncyclopaedia or dictionary #adie, #. ("d.). (3489). The new 9rove dictionary of
music and musicians (Hth ed., *ols. 3?+9). <ondon:
/acmillan.

(on?"nglish book Piaget, 5., and &nhelder, ). (34F3). :a genese de
l8idee de hasard che7 l8enfant IThe origin of the
idea of chance in the childJ. Paris: Presses
1niversitaires de 7rance.
(ote:
• &f the original version of a non?"nglish book is
used as the source, cite the original version:
;ive the original title follow by the "nglish
translation in sLuare brackets.
"nglish translation of a book <aplace, P. =#. (34F3). philosophical essay on
probabilities (7. 6. Truscott and 7. <. "mory,
Trans.). (ew Eork: !over. ('riginal work
published 383,).
(ote:
• &f the "nglish translation of a non?"nglish work
is used as the source, cite the "nglish
translation: ;ive the "nglish title without
brackets.
• &n te.t, cite the original publication date and the
date of the translation: (<aplace, 383,@34F3).
)rochure, corporate author %esearch and Training $enter on &ndependent
<iving. (344:). 9uidelines for reporting and writing
about people with disabilities (,th ed.) I)rochureJ.
<awrence, 2#: Author.
(ote:
• 7ormat reference to brochures in the same way
as those to entire books
• &n sLuare brackets, identify the publication as a
brochure
NON"PERIODICALS #$OO% CHAPTERS'
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors )Cork, %. A. (3484). %etrieval inhibition as an
adaptive mechanism in human memory. &n B. <.
%oediger &&& and 7. &. /. $raik ("ds.), ;arieties of
memory and consciouness (pp. :94?::9). Billsdale,
(5: "rlbaum.
Article or chapter in an edited book, book in press,
si. or more editors, separately titled volume in a
multivolume work (two?part title)
6oodward, 5. T. (in press). $hildren0s learning
systems. &n 5. T. 6oodward, A. Pimm, #. #. 2eman,
/. (. )lum, B. A. Banmen, and P. #ell-ner ("ds.),
&esearch in cognitive development: ;ol6 *6 :ogical
cognition in children. (ew Eork: #pringer.
(ote:
• !o not give the year unless the book is
published. &n te.t, use the following
parenthetical citation (Author name, in press)
• (o page number is reLuired for in press work
$hapter in a volume in a series /accoby, ". "., and /artin, 5. (348:). #ociali-ation
in the conte.t of the family: Parent?child interaction.
&n P. B. /ussen (#eries "d.) and ". /.
Betherington (*ol. "d.), )andboo# of child
psychology: ;ol6 $6 0ociali7ation, personality, and
social development (,th ed., pp. 3?393). (ew Eork:
6iley.
(ote:
• <ist the series editor first and the volume editor
second so that they will be parallel within the
titles of the work.
(on?"nglish article or chapter in an edited book,
title translated into "nglish
!avydov, *. *. (34G+). !e introductive van het
begrip grootheid in de eerste klas van de
basisschool: "en e.perimenteel onder-oek IThe
introduction of the concept of Luantity in the first
grade of the primary school: An e.perimental
studyJ. &n $. 7. *an Parreren and 5. A. /. $arpay
("ds.), 0ovietpsychologen aan het woord (pp. ++G?
+84). ;roningen, The (etherlands: 6olters?
(oordhoff.
(ote:
• &f the original version of a non?"nglish article
or non?"nglish book is used as the source, cite
the original version: ;ive the original title,
follow by the "nglish translation in sLuare
brackets.
"ntry in an encyclopedia )ergmann, P. ;. (344:). %elativity. <n The new
encyclopedia !ritannica (*ol. +H, pp. F93?F98).
$hicago: "ncyclopedia )ritannica.
"nglish translation of an article or chapter in an
edited book, volume in mulitvolume work,
republished work
7reud, #. (34H3). The ego and the id. &n 5. #trachey
("d. And Trans.), The 0tandard edition of the
complete psychological wor#s of 0igmund =reud
(*ol. 34, pp. :?HH). <ondon: Bogarth Press.
('riginal work published 34+:).
(ote:
• &f the "nglish translation of a non?"nglish work
is used as the source, cite the "nglish
translation.
• 7or translator, use Trans. and place the
translator0s name after the editor0s name
• &n te.t, include both original and republished
publication date: (7reud, 34+:@34H3)
"nglish translation of an article or chapter in an
edited book, reprint from another source
Piaget, 5. (3488). ".tracts from Piaget0s theory (;.
;ellerier and 5. <anger, Trans.). &n 2. %ichardosn
and #. #heldon ("ds.), Cognitive development to
adolescence: reader (pp. :?38). Billsdale, (5:
"rlbaum. (%eprinted from /anual of child
psychology, pp. G9:?G:+, by P. B. /ussen, "d.,
34G9, (ew Eork: 6iley)
(ote:
• 1se the "nglish title if the "nglish translation
of a non?"nglish work is used as the source
• &n te.t, use the following parenthetical citation:
(Piaget, 34G9@3488).
NON"PERIODICALS #TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH REPORTS'
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
"lement of a reference to a report
/a--ro, 5., !ruesne, )., and /uhlstein, A. (3443).
Comparatibility of computer and paper-and-pencil
scores for two C:EP general examinations ($ollege
)oard %ep. (o. 43?F). Princeton, (5: "ducational
Testing #ervice.
%eport authors: /a--ro, 5., !ruesne, )., and
/uhlstein, A.
!ate of publication: (3443)
%eport title: Comparatibility of computer and
paper-and-pencil scores for two C:EP general
examinations ($ollege )oard %ep. (o. 43?F)
• &f the issuing organi-ation assigned a number
(e.g. report number, contract number,
monograph number) to the report, give the
number in parentheses immediately after the
title.
• !o not use a period between the report title and
the parenthetical material
• !o not underline the parenthetical material
• &f the report carries two numbers, give the
number that best aids identification and
retrieval
Publication information: Princeton, (5: "ducational
Testing #ervice.
• ;ive the name, e.actly as it appears on the
publication, of the specific department office,
agency, or institute that published or produced
the report. Also give the higher department,
office, agency, or institute only if the office that
produced the report is not well known. &n this
case, give the higher department first, then the
specific department.
• 7or report from a document deposit service
(e.g. (T&# or "%&$), enclose the document
number in parentheses at the end of the entry.
%eport available from the ;overnment Printing
'ffice (;P'), government institute as corporate
author
(ational &nstitute of /ental Bealth. (3449). Clinical
training in serious mental illness (!BB#
Publication (o. A!/ 49?3HG4). 6ashington, !$:
1. #. ;overnment Printing 'ffice.
(ote:
• ;overnment documents available from ;P'
should show ;P' as the publisher
%eport available from the "ducational %esources
&nformation $enter ("%&$)
/ead, 5. *. (344+). :oo#ing at old photographs:
<nvestigating the teacher tales that novice teachers
bring with them (%eport (o. ($%T<?%%?4+?,).
"ast <ansing, /&: (ational $enter for %esearch on
Teacher Training. ("%&$ !ocument %eproduction
#ervice (o. "! :,H 98+)
(ote:
• ;ive the "%&$ number in parentheses at the
end of the entry
;overnment report not available from ;P' or a
document deposit service such as "%&$
1. #. ;overnment of Bealth and Buman #ervices.
(3443). Pressure ulcers in adults: Prediction and
prevention (AB$P% Publication (o. 4+?99,G).
%ockville, /!: Author.
;overnment report not available from ;P' or a
document deposit service, article or chapter in an
edited collection
/atthews, 2. A. (348F). Assessment of Type A
behavior, anger and hostility in epidemiologic
studies of cardiovascular disease. &n A. /. 'stfield
and ". !. "aker ("ds.), 1easuring psychological
variables in epidemiologic studies of
cardiovascular disease ((&B Publication (o. 8F?
++G9, pp. 3F:?38:). 6ashington, !$: 1. #.
!epartment of Bealth and Buman #ervices.
%eport from a university )roadhurst, %. ;., and /aller, %. A. (3443). 0ex
offending and redidivism (Tech. %ep. (o. :).
(edlands, 6estern Australia: 1niversity of 6estern
Australia, $rime %esearch $entre.
(ote:
• ;ive the name of the university first, then the
name of the specific department or organi-ation
within the university that produced the report.
%eport from a university, edited report, monograph #huker, %., and #oler, 5. ("ds.). (3449). >outh,
media, and moral panic in 5ew ?ealand: =rom
hooligans to video nasties (!elta %esearch
/onograph (o. 33). Palmerston (orth, (ew
Dealand: /assey 1niversity, !epartment of
"ducation.
%eport from a private organi-ation "mployee )enefit %esearch &nstitute. (344+,
7ebruary). 0ources of health insurance and
characteristics of the uninsured (&ssue )rief (o.
3+:). 6ashington, !$: Author.
(ote:
• 1se this form for issue briefs, working papers,
and other corporate documents, with the
appropriate document number for retrieval in
parentheses
NON"PERIODICALS #PROCEEDIN(S OF MEETIN(S AND SYMPOSIA'
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
Published proceedings, published contribution to a
symposium, article or chapter in an edited book
!eci, ". <., and %yan, %. /. (3443). A motivational
approach to self: &ntegration in personality. &n %.
!ienstbier ("d.), 5ebras#a 0ymposium on
1otivation: ;ol6 ,%6 Perspectives on motivation (pp.
+:G?+88). <incoln: 1niversity of (ebraska Press.
(ote:
• $apitali-e the name of the symposium, which is
a proper name
Proceedings published regularly $yn., 5., 6illiams, B., and (ottebohm, 7. (344+).
Bemispheric differences in avian song
discrimination. Proceedings of the 5ational
cademy of 0ciences, @0, %", 3:G+?3:GF.
(ote:
• Treat regularly published proceedings as
periodicals
1npublished contribution to a symposium <ichstein, 2. 2., 5ohnson, %. #., and $hilders, $. 2.
(3449, 5une). %ela.ation therapy for polypharmacy
use in elderly insomniacs and noninsomniacs. &n T.
<. %osenthal ($hair), &educing medication in
geriatric populations. #ymposium conducted at the
meeting of the 7irst &nternational $ongress of
)ehavioral /edicine, 1ppsala, #weden.
(ote:
• ;ive the month of the symposium if it is
available
1npublished paper presented at a meeting <anktree, $., and )riere, 5. (3443, 5anuary). Early
data on the Trauma 0ymptom Chec#list for
Children .T0C-C/. Paper presented at the meeting of
the American Professional #ociety on the Abuse of
$hildren, #an !iego, $A.
NON"PERIODICALS #DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS AND MASTERS THESES'
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
!octoral dissertation abstracted in 3issertation
bstracts <nternational .3</ and obtained on
)ower, !. <. (344:). "mployee assistant programs
supervisory referrals: $haracteristics of referring
university microfilm and nonreferring supervisors. 3issertation bstracts
<nternational, '$(93), F:,). (1niversity /icrofilms
(o. AA!4:?3F4,G).
(ote:
• &f the microfilm of the dissertation is used as
the source, give the university microfilms
number as well as the volume and page
numbers of !A&.
!octoral dissertation abstracted in !issertation
Abstracts &nternational (!A&) and obtained from the
university
%oss, !. 7. (3449). 1nconscious transference and
mistaken identity: 6hen a witness misidentifies a
familiar but innocent person from a lineup (!octoral
dissertation, $ornell 1niversity, 3449). 3issertation
bstracts <nternational, $", DF9FF.
1npublished doctoral dissertation, university
outside the 1nited #tates
!evins, ;. /. (3483). )elpness, depression, and
mood in end-stage renal disease. 1npublished
doctoral dissertation, /c;ill 1niversity, /ontreal.
1npublished masters theses %yerson, 5. 7. (348:). Effective management
training: Two models. 1npublished master0s thesis,
$larkson $ollege of Technology, Potsdam, (E.
NON"PERIODICALS #REIE)S'
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
%eview of a book )aumeister, %. 7. (344:). ".posing the self?
knowledge myth I%eview of the book The self-
#nower: hero under controlA6 Contemporary
Psychology, ,%, ,HH?,HG.
(ote:
• &f the review is untitled, use the material in
sLuare brackets as the title, and retain the
brackets to indicate that the material is a
description of form and content, not a title.
• 1se film, book, television program, etc. in
brackets to specify the type of medium
%eview of a film 6ebb, 6. ). (348,). #leep, perchance to recall a
dream I%eview of the film Theater of the night: The
science of sleep and dreamsA6 Contemporary
Psychology, +", +H9.
%eview of a video 2raus, #. 5. (344+). *isions of psychology: A
videote.t of classic studies I%eview of the video
program 3iscovering PsychologyA Contemporary
psychology, ,4, 33,H?33,G.
!NP!$LISHED )OR% AND P!$LICATIONS OF LIMITED CIRC!LATION
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
1npublished manuscript not submitted for
publication
#tinson, $., /ilbrath, $., and )ucci, 6. (344+).
Thematic segmentation of psychotherapy transcripts
for convergent analyses. 1npublished manuscript.
1npublished manuscript with a university cited !epret, ". 7. (344:). Perceiving the powerful:
<ntriguing individuals versus threatening groups.
1npublished manuscript, 1niversity of
/assachusetts at Amherst.
/anuscript in progress or submitted for publication
but not yet accepted
/c&ntosh, !. (. (3448). &eligion as schema, with
implications for the relation between religion and
coping. /anuscript submitted for publication.
(ote:
• !o not give the name of the Cournal or publisher
to which the manuscript has been submitted.
• Treat a manuscript accepted for publication but
not yet published as an in?press reference
• 1se the same format for a draft or work in
progress, but substitute the words 1anuscript
in preparation for the final sentence. 1se the
year of the draft you read (not Min preparationN)
in the te.t citation
• ;ive the university if available.
1npublished raw data from study, untitled work )ordi, 7., and <e!ou., 5. ". (344:). IAuditory
response latencies in rat auditory corte.J,
1npublished raw data.
(ote:
• !o not underline the topic, use brackets to
indicate that the material is a description of
content, not a title.
Publication of limited circulation 2lombers, (. ("d.). (344:, #pring). 3
&eporter. (Available from the An.iety !isorders
Association of America, H999 ".ecutive )oulevard,
#uite F3:, %ockville, /! +98F+)
(ote:
• 7or a publication of limited circulation, give in
parentheses immediately after the title a name
and address from which the publication can be
obtained.
A!DIO"IS!AL MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
7ilm, limited circulation Barrison, 5. (Producer), and #chmiechen, %.
(!irector). (344+). Changing our minds: The story
of Evelyn )oo#er I7ilmJ. (Available from $hanging
'ur /inds, &nc., 3G9 6est "nd Avenue, #uite +F%,
(ew Eork, (E 399+:)
(ote:
• ;ive the name and, in parentheses, the function
of the originator or primary contributors (in this
e.ample, Barrison as the producer and
#chmiechen as the director
• #pecify the medium in sLuare brackets. ".g.
film, videotapes, audiotapes, slides, charts, and
works of art.
• ;ive the location and name of the distributor.
(&n this e.ample, because $hanging 'ur /inds
is a small establishment, a complete address is
provided.)
Television broadcast $rystal, <. (".ecutive Producer). (344:, 'ctober
33). The 1ac5eilB:ehrer news hour. (ew Eork and
6ashington, !$: Public )roadcasting #ervice.
Television series /iller, %. (Producer). (3484). The mind. (ew Eork:
6("T.
#ingle episode from a television series %estak, %. /. (3484). The rules of the game (5.
)ender, !irector). &n 5. #ander (Producer), <8<< fly
away. (ew Eork: (ew Eork )roadcasting
$ompany.
/usic recording
;eneral format:
6riter, A. (!ate of copyright). Title of song
I%ecorded by artist if different from writerJ. 'n
Title of album I/edium of recording: compact disk,
record, cassette, etc.J. <ocation: <abel. (%ecording
date if different from copyright date.)
%ecording #hocked, /. (344+). 'ver the waterfall. 'n
r#ansas traveler I$!J. (ew Eork: Poly;ram
/usic.
%e?recording by artist other than writer ;oodenough, 5. ). (348+). Tails and trotters
I%ecorded by ;. )ok, A. /ayo, and ". TrickettJ.
'n nd so will we yet I$!J. #haron, $T: 7olk?
<egacy %ecords. (3449).
$assette recording $osta, P. T., 5r. (#peaker). (3488). Personality,
continuity, and changes of adult life ($assette
%ecording (o. +9G?,::?88A?)). 6ashington, !$:
American Psychological Association.
ELECTRONIC SO!RCES
INDIID!AL )OR%S
)asic forms, commercial supplier, and using an &nternet protocol:
Author@editor. (Eear). Title (edition), IType of mediumJ. Producer (optional). Available:
#upplier@!atabase identifier or number IAccess dateJ.
Author@editor. (Eear). Title (edition), IType of mediumJ. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if
applicable): #ite@Path@7ile IAccess dateJ.
".amples:
Cxford English dictionary computer file: Cn compact disc (+nd ed.), I$!?%'/J. (344+). Available:
'.ford 1P I344F, /ay +GJ.
Prit-ker, T. 5. ((o date). n Early fragment from central 5epal I'nlineJ. Available:
http:@@www.ingress.com@Oastanart@prit-ker@prit-ker.html I344F, 5une 8J.
• 6rite P(o dateP when the electronic publication date is not available.
• 6hen citing information retrieved on the 6orld 6ide 6eb, it is not necessary to repeat the
protocol (BTTP) after PAvailableP since that is stated in the 1%<.
PART OF )OR%S
)asic forms, commercial supplier, and using an &nternet protocol:
Author@editor. (Eear). Title. &n 0ource (edition), IType of mediumJ. Producer (optional). Available:
#upplier@!atabase identifier or number IAccess dateJ.
Author@editor. (Eear). Title. &n 0ource (edition), IType of mediumJ. Producer (optional). Available
Protocol (if applicable): #ite@Path@7ile IAccess dateJ.
".amples:
)osnia and Bercegovina. (344F). &n cademic merican Encyclopedia I'nlineJ. Available: !ow
5ones (ews %etrieval #ervice@"($E$ I344F, 5une FJ.
• This is an article from an encyclopedia with no author given.
!aniel, %. T. (344F). The history of 6estern music. &n !ritannica online: 1acropaedia I'nlineJ.
Available:
http:@@www.eb.com:389@cgi?bin@g:!oc7Qmacro@F99,@,F@9.html I344F, 5une 3,J.
• 6hen citing information retrieved on the 6orld 6ide 6eb, it is not necessary to repeat the
protocol (BTTP) after PAvailableP since that is stated in the 1%<.
*O!RNAL ARTICLES
)asic forms, commercial supplier, and using an &nternet protocol:
Author. (Eear). Title. Journal Title IType of mediumJ, volume(issue), paging or indicator of length.
Available: #upplier@!atabase name (!atabase identifier or number, if available)@&tem or accession
number IAccess dateJ.
Author. (Eear). Title. Journal Title IType of mediumJ, volume(issue), paging or indicator of length.
Available Protocol (if applicable): #ite@Path@7ile IAccess dateJ.
".amples:
$lark, 5. 2. $omplications in academia: #e.ual harassment and the law. 0iecus &eport I$!?%'/J,
+*(H), H?39. Available: 344, #&%#@#&%# 344: #chool@*olume ,@Article 4:A I344F, 5une 3:J.
$arriveau, 2. <., 5r. I%eview of the book "nvironmental ha-ards: /arine pollutionJ. Electronic
9reen Journal I'nlineJ, +(3), : paragraphs. Available:
gopher:@@gopher.uidaho.edu@33@1&Rgopher@library@egC9:@carriv93.html I344F, 5une +3J.
• This is a reference for a book review brackets indicate title is supplied.
• 6hen citing information retrieved on the 6orld 6ide 6eb, it is not necessary to repeat the
protocol (;opher) after PAvailableP since that is stated in the 1%<.
&nada, 2. (344F). A )uddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of !uddhist Ethics
I'nlineJ, +, 4 paragraphs. Available: http:@@www.cac.psu.edu@Cbe@twocont.html I344F, 5une +3J.
• 6hen citing information retrieved on the 6orld 6ide 6eb, it is not necessary to repeat the
protocol (BTTP) after PAvailableP since that is stated in the 1%<.
MA(A+INE ARTICLES
)asic forms, commercial supplier, and using an &nternet protocol:
Author. (Eear, month day). Title. 1aga7ine Title IType of mediumJ, volume (if given), paging or
indicator of length. Available: #upplier@!atabase name (!atabase identifier or number, if
available)@&tem or accession number IAccess dateJ.
Author. (Eear, month day). Title. 1aga7ine Title IType of mediumJ, volume (if given), paging or
indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): #ite@Path@7ile IAccess dateJ.
".amples:
;oodstein, $. (3443, #eptember). Bealers from the deep. merican )ealth I$!?%'/J, -(--$.
Available: 344, #&%#@#&%# 344+ <ife #cience@Article 98A I344F, 5une 3:J.
*iviano, 7. (344F, /ay@5une). The new /afia order. 1other Jones 1aga7ine I'nlineJ, G+
paragraphs. Available: http:@@www.moCones.com@/'TB"%R5'("#@/54F@viviano.html I344F, 5uly
3GJ.
• 6hen citing information retrieved on the 6orld 6ide 6eb, it is not necessary to repeat the
protocol (BTTP) after PAvailableP since that is stated in the 1%<.
NE)SPAPAR ARTICLES
)asic forms, commercial supplier, and using an &nternet protocol:
Author. (Eear, month day). Title. 5ewspaper Title IType of mediumJ, paging or indicator of length.
Available: #upplier@!atabase name (!atabase identifier or number, if available)@&tem or accession
number IAccess dateJ.
uthor6 .>ear, month day/6 Title6 5ewspaper Title IType of mediumJ, paging or indicator of length.
Available Protocol (if applicable): #ite@Path@7ile IAccess dateJ.
".amples:
Bowell, *., and $arlton, ). (344:, August +4). ;rowing up tough: (ew generation fights for its life:
&nner?city youths live by rule of vengeance. !irmingham 5ews I$!?%'/J, p. 3A(39 pp.). Available:
344, #&%#@#&%# 344: Eouth@*olume ,@Article FHA I344F, 5uly 3HJ.
5ohnson, T. (344,, !ecember F). &ndigenous people are now more combative, organi-ed. 1iami
)erald I'nlineJ, p. +4#A(++ paragraphs).Available: gopher:@@summit.fiu.edu@/iami Berald??
#ummit?%elated Articles@3+@9F@4FS&ndigenous People (ow /ore $ombative, 'rgani-ed I344F,
5uly 3HJ.
• This reference gives beginning page and the number of paragraphs this information is useful if
one wishes to refer to material in te.t references.
• 6hen citing information retrieved on the 6orld 6ide 6eb, it is not necessary to repeat the
protocol (BTTP) after PAvailableP since that is stated in the 1%<.
DISC!SSION LIST MESSA(ES
)asic forms:
Author. (Eear, /onth day). #ubCect of message. 3iscussion :ist IType of mediumJ. Available "?
mail: !&#$1##&'( <&#TTe?mail address IAccess dateJ.
Author. (Eear, /onth day). #ubCect of message. 3iscussion :ist IType of mediumJ. Available "?
mail: <&#T#"%*Te?mail address@;et IAccess dateJ.
".amples:
%%"$'/". (344F, April 3). Top ten rules of film criticism. 3iscussions on ll =orms of Cinema
I'nlineJ. Available "?mail: $&("/A?<Tamerican.edu I344F, April 3J.
• AuthorUs login name, in uppercase, is given as the first element.
!iscussions on All 7orms of $inema I'nlineJ. Available "?mail: <&#T#"%*Tamerican.edu@;et
cinema?l log4F9,A I344F, August 3J.
• %eference is obtained by searching the listUs archive.
PERSONAL ELECTRONIC COMM!NICATIONS #E"MAIL'
)asic forms:
#ender (#enderUs "?mail address). (Eear, /onth day). #ubCect of /essage. "?mail to recipient
(%ecipientUs "?mail address)
".amples:
!ay, /artha (/!AETsage.uvm.edu). (344F, 5uly :9). %eview of film ?? )ad <ieutenant. "?mail to
Via <i
(V<&Tmoose.uvm.edu).