Running head: TRANSCRIPTION 1

ESL Elementry School Teacher Experiences in Dealing With Students From Different Cultures
Aysha Suliman Bajabaa
FSHS 908
Kansas State University
Spring, 2014


Transcription is defined as “A process that is theoretical, selective, interpretive, and
representational” (Davidson, 2009, p. 37). Therefore, it is seen as “situated practice…that
provides of social and moral order” in addition to “cultural practices or cultural activity and
transcripts as artifacts that possess „temporal-historical dimension‟” (Davidson, 2009, p. 37). To
give a full presentation of the recorded sound and its situation in order to give as much details as
possible, transcript includes “e.g., talk, time, nonverbal actions, speaker/hearer relationships,
physical orientation, multiple languages, translation” (cited in Davidson, 2009, p. 37). In
addition, to preserve the features of oral language, such as “ums” and “ers” should be included,
based on the denaturalized approach (Davidson, 2009). As Davidson (2009) asserted “The less
transparent it becomes for readers unaccustomed to encountering oral features in written texts”
(p. 39).
My transcription includes two elements: strict and descriptive transcriptions
(Hammersley, 2010). In the first element, I tried write down the words exactly as were spoken
(utterances) by the interviewee (Hammersley, 2010). Hammersley (2010) emphasized
When listen to an audio-recording, what we hear is given, in the sense that we are
seeking, first and foremost, to write down the words heard. And hearing particular words
and utterances is not the same as imagining them or inventing them. (p. 560)
In the descriptive element I included some descriptions of the context of the interview,
who was speaking and how was she talking including non-verbal behavior that could not be
caught through transcribing the spoken words only, such as how serious, laughing, thinking,

pausing, etc. (Hammersley, 2010), which reflect what I saw, felt, and thought during the
The interview was transcribed using Express Scribe Software and transcription was
written using MS Word document where the interviewee‟s name was replaced by letter
identification (P) rather than using a number ID since there is only one participant. All other
personal or sensitive information including school name, school principal name, and some
students that the interviewee mentioned were replaced by suitable label in a square bracket. For
example, school name was replaced by: [school X]. I used bold font for the interviewer and
regular font for the interviewee responses. Also several labels were used as follows:
Interviewee P
Interviewer IR
(.) Silence less than half a
(..) Silence less than one second
…. Silence 2-5 seconds
Underline word emphasize
[ ] Notes, comments
Uppercase Start and End of interview
[crosstalk] Overlapping
{laughing} laughing

Source: (Bailey, 2008; Mclellan, Macqueen, & Neidig, 2003)
What I learned?
This was a great experience doing this transcript. I thought transcription is not more than
transforming the spoken words that were recorded into texts. However, after taking this practice,
I found it includes more, especially conveying to the reader what I saw, felt, and thought during
the interview, which can‟t be understood from the texts. One challenge I faced is the need to
listen to the recorded audio for more than one time to make sure I wrote the right word, it might
be as English is not my native language, which requires me to do some quick translation in my

mind “Transcription that encompasses translation from one language to another present as
especially complex and challenging situation” (Davidson, 2009, p. 38). Also I am happy for
learning how to write the transcription in specific format and labels, such as using square
brackets for comments, how to represent pausing, reporting sensitive information, and many
others mentioned above. Although I tried to transform the non-verbal actions through the
comments I added, it was not easy to interpret them correctly, especially with cultural differences
“Transcription cannot be viewed entirely in linguistic terms, narrowly defined- it necessarily also
depends upon the transcriber‟s ability to use her or his knowledge of the language and culture to
make sense of what people are” (Hammersley, 2010, p. 560). But what made this as not a big
issue is that I knew the interviewee very well as she taught all my kids. The strong connection
between the interview and transcription stages was very clear to me as I found myself
remembering the interview events while transcription, which helped me to write the memos and


Bailey, J. (2008). First steps in qualitative data analysis: Transcribing. Family Practice, 25(2),
127-131. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn003
Davidson, C. (2009). Transcription: Imperatives for qualitative research. International Journal of
Qualitative Methods, 8(2), 36-52.
Hammersley, M. (2010). Reproducing or constructing? some questions about transcription in
social research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 10(3), 231-247.
Mclellan, E., Macqueen, K., & Neidig, J. (2003). Beyond the qualitative interview: Data
preparation and transcription. Field Methods, 15(1), 63-84.


Appendix A: Transcript

Interviewer: Aysha Bajabaa
Interviewee: ESL teacher
Gender of interviewee: Female
Date of interview: March/21/2014
Location: interviewee classroom at elementary [school X]
Interviewer ID: IR
Interviewee ID: P


Start by asking the participant to read the consent and then sign two copies of them, then we
each keep one copy.

IR: This interview will be about ah, how ESL teachers communicate effectively with
student, that coming from different culture with various background and build a
successful relationship.
P: Okay
IR: yeah, if you uh, we will tell different questions, if you have any clarification or
something, you know about the question, you can ask, stopping me.
P: Okay.
IR: Okay?
P: Sounds good.
IR: We will start with the first questions, would you please give a description of your
job, tell me about yourself in the beginning.
P: Okay, just about what I do here at school? [School X]

IR: About the job [yeah]
P: About the job? Okay. Ah, my job at [school X] is to provide instruction to students who
speak another language in the home as a primary language, um and, when they first come
to school, if they have marked on the home language survey that they speak another
language, then I do a screening with them to see what their level of English is. (..)And if
they (..) do not have (.)a certain level of English, then they qualify for my program, then I
will work with those students. [talked with an audible breath]. Now if they come in
knowing enough English that they do well on the screening, then I don‟t, they‟re not part
of the program. But they are still students that I will keep an eye on, and talk with the
other teachers, just to make sure, you know, that even though they may have passed the
screening, if they‟re struggling, then I can always work with them. But normally [with
aloud voice], um, I bring students in to my classroom, we work on reading, writing, just
vocabulary, learning the English language. They‟re some students that don‟t need to
come out of their classroom, but I go into [moving her head forward]the classroom and
just give them support while they‟re doing their, you know, regular classroom activities,
whether be it during reading time, or math time, or science time, just give them support in
the classroom, if they need that, so.
IR: Okay, ah, the second question, for how long have you been working in this job, and
with which levels?
P: Okay, after I received my master‟s degree in 2005, I got my master‟s in curriculum and
instruction with ESL as my focus, so, ah, so I got the job here at [school X], so this is my
eighth year. I did teach Spanish for seventeen years before that, so this is my 25
year of
teaching, so, I‟ve been teaching for a long time {laughs} . Ah, and for ah, for the job that
I have now, I work with students kindergarten through sixth grade, and I have students at
every level this year so {laughs}
IR: Great. Ah, to what extent do you feel enjoying your job?
P: Oh I love this job [she closed her eyes], I do, yeah. I really [she had emphasized voice
and showed strong desire to learn this culture] really enjoy learning about different
cultures, I think that what I‟ve, I‟ve really enjoyed the most. Especially your culture, „cuz
I didn‟t know anything about the Arabic culture when I started this job.
IR: Uhm
P: I knew a lot about the Spanish culture because I taught that [with loud voice and Raised
eyebrows]. So I had learned that going to college, but um, I‟ve learned a lot, um, I just
love it, I wanna learn more. I‟ve gone to some of the, the different things on campus, you
know the Saudi days, or the club, activities that they‟ve had. I went to the women‟s day
last year I think, and that was, that was really fun to experience the culture. And so the
more I can learn, I feel like I can relate better to the students. And the students really are
good if I, if I have a question, you know, why do you do this, or tell me more about this
part of your culture. They‟re really good at teaching me too. So I feel like it‟s a, kind of a
two way street, you know. I‟m teaching them but they‟re also teaching me just as much.
So I really like that. But yeah I love my job. {laughs loudly} and I really like getting to

know, I feel like, because I have, I work so closely with the students, I feel like I get to
know the families, and especially like, you know, families that I‟ve had, year after year,
and I‟ve had, you know, brothers and sisters, it‟s really nice to get to know those families.
So, that another…
IR: Do you, do you want to learn Arabic?
P: Oh, I would love learn Arabic. {Laughs a lot with} I always have the kids teach me some
words you know, “how do you say this?” or “how do you say that?” {Laughs} so, yeah, I
would, I would love to learn Arabic. {Laughs}
IR: {laughs} As your job might require working with students who come from different
cultures, eh, how do you successfully communicate with them?
P: With the students?
IR: Yeah
P: Um, (..) most of my students when they come here, most of them have some English, so
that helps. Um, (..)the ones, if they don‟t have any English, or they‟re not showing me
that they know English [with soft voice ], um, a lot of pictures, a lot of visuals, and I just,
just a lot of talking and gestures, like, you know, moving around, and, but mainly a lot of
pictures and I do use, like if there‟s a younger student who doesn‟t know the language, if
there are older students that speak that language I use them a lot. You know like if, (..) if
I would get a brand new kindergarten, kindergartener that didn‟t speak any English but
they were an Arabic child, then I would, you know, go find [she mentioned one Arab
student in school], or I would go find [she mentioned other Arab student in school] or
somebody, “come help me please” [with high pitched voice ] you know, and that‟s been a
big help, to have older students that can help out like that [she took deep inhale].
IR: How do you learn about your students’ culture?
P: I use the internet [with formal voice], so I‟ve learned that way. And then, you know,
attending things that, that you have put on, ah at K-State, that, that‟s a big, big piece of it.
Just talking to the families, talking to the students. Um, I don‟t have very many Asian
students, but I have talked to, cuz I don‟t know a lot about the Asian culture, the Chinese
culture, um, but just talking to the parents and asking the students, just asking lots of
questions and doing my own research on the computer. Which I know, a lot of things that
you see on the computer, you know, aren‟t necessarily the way things are. It might be old
information, so, you know, you kinda. If I find something that I think, “oh, I wonder if
that‟s really true,” or “I‟m not sure,” you know just asking, asking around, asking people.
Um so yeah, I think just asking questions. And like at parent-teacher conferences, you
know if I‟m not sure about [talked with an audible breath], you know, just even like,
foods they don‟t eat. You know, you know “what foods do have pork”, you know, cuz I
didn‟t know gelatin, I didn‟t know that was a pork product. So just, all those kinds of
things, just keeping lines of communication open with the families, I think is a big, big
piece of that [surprise voice with moving hands].
IR: Maybe students talk about their celebration.

P: Oh yes, absolutely,
IR: Something like that
P: Yeah their holidays,
IR: Uhm
P: And things that they celebrate, and you know…., like you know, finding out like,
IR: It’s help, it’s help, yeah?
P: Uhmm, yeah, yep exactly. So yeah that‟s helped a lot {laughs}
IR: Um, what are your conception of ESL learner?
P: What are my conceptions? What do you mean by that? As far as…
IR: like, ah, what is students from different culture means for you?
P: I don‟t think any two students are alike, I just have to take them on a case by case basis,
just like, in the you know, in the regular classroom, if you have all English speaking
students they‟re not all going to learn the same. So I have to get to know the student
individually, to know how I need to help them. There are students, like I said, that come
in with more English, um and some that don‟t, so it‟s just a matter of learning what they
need. And if I have a group of students in here, some may have more English than others,
you know, and I use them to help each other. So, it‟s just learning about the student, and,
and what their specific needs are. Do they need more help with vocabulary[emphasized
voice] or they, do they have a pretty good vocabulary base, and they just, need more
work with comprehension, or those kinds of things[emphasized voice with moving her
body to right and left]. So, I think just individually getting to know the student, so I
can,…. cater my instruction to what they need, so they can, so I can bring them from
where they‟re at,(..) and just give them growth.
IR: Yeah
P: So I may have five students in here, that‟re all at different levels [talked with emphasized
voice], well this student needs to go from point A to point C, where this one is already at
point C, so I need to move them further. So, a lot of differentiation in my teaching [she
took deep inhale].
IR: What strategies do you use in your teaching? Ah, depends reading, writing
[suddenly soft sound came up zezeze].
P: Yeah well I do (..), I do basically reading and writing is what we work on in here, and
vocabulary. [deep breath]I don‟t do a lot with math ah most of my students, that‟s, a
fairly (..) strong area, because a lot of times the numbers and the concepts (..) transfer [
emphasized on the word]from their first language to their second language. But when
students come to me, we mainly work on vocabulary building and reading, and doing the
comprehension, (.) the fluency, how (..) fluid their reading is, and working on grammar

and those kinds of things. ….But then I‟m trying to get better at writing {laughs} writing
is an area that I think(..) as a school we need to work on that area. And so I, I told Dr.
[name of school principal] that‟s one thing. If I can go to conferences and learn how to
be, a better…. writing teacher....because that‟s not something that I‟ve done a lot with
[nodding], so I‟ve been trying to work with improving my writing instruction to the
IR: Maybe this ah, this questions, focus on how, maybe
P: On what do I, what strategies do I use, to teach?
IR: Yeah, deal with the students…
P: Reading? [Speaking with IR in the same time]
IR: to learn, in reading.
P: Collaboration? [Speaking with IR in the same time]
IR: collaboration strategy? Or, you know…
P: Um, yeah, most, I have one group…
IR: Individual…
P: Yeah, a lot of, a lot of my instruction is individual with students….So they‟ll come in
here (.) and we‟ll get our story, and you know, a lot of times I‟ll read the story first to
them, and then we‟ll partner read, where you read a page, I read a page [voice with more
concerned about her students], (..) until they get more comfortable where they‟re reading
more on their own. But we read a story at least three times, (..) so that way they‟re….you
know some of it is memorization, they learn a word, they memorize it, they may not
know what it means, but it‟s just (..) getting them used to seeing the words and, you
know, how to, how words fit together, how letters fit together to make words, and those
kinds of things. Um ….I‟m trying to think…um, phonics, we do a lot of phonics with the
younger ones, so they‟re learning the sounds of the letters and those kinds of things,…
IR: Yeah, Uhm
P: Um, the comprehension we have, um, the books from the library, even the books that I
have in here, we can take the AR quizzes on the computer, and that helps a lot [deep
breath]. A lot of questioning, while the students are reading; so if they read a page, I‟ll
say “okay, so, you know, ….why did so-and-so in the story do this?” or “what was the
author trying to teach us about squirrels,” or whatever we‟re reading about {laughs}. So,
you know, questioning techniques to see if they‟re understanding, because a lot of times
students can just word call. They can read and read and read, but then if I ask them,
“what was the story about?” they don‟t know[with more surprised voice]. So we need to
work more on the comprehension. The retelling, so they can retell stories back to me, to
show me they understand. So…

IR: Uhm. Okay. What, ah, challenges, have you faced with ESL students coming from
different cultures?
P: Oh, the challenges [talked with an audible breath represented to hard questions or trying
to think]. Hmm, well, not knowing a lot about the culture, you know, to begin with. So,
um, you know, like, you know in your country, the boys go to a school and the girls go to
a school. Well, when they come to me, they‟re, you know, it‟s a mixed group, you know,
and so sometimes, you know, that‟s, that‟s different for them. Um, [breath] ah, I‟m trying
to think. Just, I guess getting to know the culture, I mean that‟s a big thing. Because I
don‟t, you know, I don‟t know a whole lot about different cultures, so just, I think that‟s,
a key piece [loudly voice], to learn how the students…. you know how their culture
works. What was school like in their culture, because that gives me an idea of things that
maybe, that I could do here [emphasized on the word] that makes them more
comfortable, um.
IR: Yeah, maybe, ah, like ah, how do you motivate ah, ESL students especially who had
no knowledge about English or absolutely, [inaudible breath]
P: Yeah, a lot of, a lot of praise. I think it helps um…. even just like, working with students
who don‟t read at all, and we start with those sight words, and we just practice and
practice (..) and when they learn a certain amount, number of sight words they get a
sticker [emphasized on the word], and then they get to take their little card with their
stickers home, just, anything motivational like that. Or when, I think what ah, what…
IR: Do you think this one of challenge? That maybe you face?
P: It is, yeah, but students seem pretty motivated. I think intrinsically when they start seeing
that, I can read [emphasized on word] and especially if, you know, one of my ….
something I really want to do, and I always say this at the end of the year and I never
remember at the beginning, but I want to take my iPad and video tape my students at the
beginning of the year when they‟re reading… and then [loudly voice with moving her
head], towards the end of the year video tape them again, and have them watch both.
Because I don‟t think students realize [she smile], where they started and how much
growth they make throughout the year. Because, [hesitated] sometimes I even forget
where students have started, you know, and some people say “well”, you know, this
student should be doing better, and I‟m thinking, yeah, but this student didn‟t know how
to read at all at the beginning of the year, and now they have all their sight words. So,
….yeah, I think just to keep track and show students,‟ look how much. Yeah, (..) are you
still struggling? You know, there‟s always gonna be kids that read better than you, but
there‟s still gonna be kids that don‟t read as well as you. So just as long as you‟re making
improvement, and you‟re…” you know, they‟re putting out their best and seeing that
they‟re improving, I think that‟s motivation for them.
IR: From your experience, what are the most important qualities/skills ESL teachers
should have?
P: Well, we have to have knowledge of the content, and that‟s, [deep breath] that‟s a chore,
especially with the new standards that are coming out [emphasized on the word],

because, we were just talking about that at our meeting this morning, that, because I teach
kindergarten through sixth grade, and all these new Kansas college and career ready
standards, which ones are the most important for me [emphasized on word with nodding]
to know for my students. Because there, uh, I don‟t know that I could know all of them,
because that‟s a lot. Plus, we have our own ESL standards,
IR: Yeah,
P: So not only do I have to teach my program standards, I have to make sure that these
students are getting,…. you know, more support for their third grade standards or sixth
grade standards. So, [ deep breath] that‟s a big challenge {a lot of laughs}which ones
should I focus most on, what are the most important ones, so (..) they‟re ready for those
tests when they come{laughs}
IR: Maybe this questions, uh, related to the previous one, what is the most difficult
situation have you faced during dealing with ESL students? And how did you deal
P: Ah, Gosh [she was thinking, looking up trying to figure out the answer].
IR: you have to focus on…
P: yeah, I‟m trying to think {laughs a lot} I think what‟s, I don‟t know that I‟ve had
difficulty with the students. I think what‟s difficult is, (IP: okay) trying to, teach the
other teachers or inform them [emphasized on word with nodding] about the different
cultures. And just make sure that they are aware [emphasized on word] of these students.
And that, you know, if you have a new student in your classroom that doesn‟t speak
much English, you can‟t just give them everything that all the other students are doing (..)
You have to differentiate [emphasized on word], you have to, do the extra work, to make
that student feel comfortable. And you can‟t just sit „em in the back of the classroom with
the computer, and have „em, you know on starfall [website, learn to read with the
phonics] all day, or those kinds of things, so I think [emphasized on word] helping the
teachers understand where the students are at in their language (IR: uhm) acquisition, so
they‟ll better know how to help them in classroom. Because they can‟t be with me all
day. So that‟s, that‟s the hard part.
IR: Uhm
P: And ah, you know, some teachers, you know, when those kids are in there, it‟s just all the
same instruction, and you know, if there‟s a student that doesn‟t know a lot of English,
that‟s (IR: Uhm) overwhelming for them. So I think that‟s, that‟s a situation that‟s hard
because, you know, I don‟t want to have to tell another teacher how, and I shouldn‟t tell
them [loudly voice with surprised], how to do their job. But just to inform them, about
those students that we share.
IR: Uhm, yeah.
P: But as far as, with the students, you know, I don‟t, I don‟t feel like I‟ve had any kind of
discipline issues. Um, I think there has been, ….you know….different things like, you

know, ….with the cafeteria making sure, that they know which students can‟t have pork
products. Um, which students go to music and don‟t go to music. And what do we do
with these student when they don‟t go to students, do they just sit in the library for thirty
minutes? So it‟s just those kinds of things, or, you know, there‟s other,…. you know,
….other cultures that I have, and the students are tardy, tardy, tardy all the time. So it‟s
just a matter of, understanding, you know, making phone calls home, and those kinds of
things that we have to do, so….
IR: Do you think, ah, some, some students, ah like to come to you, and ah, want from,
yeah, they want help from you? About something, ah, in the, in school or that
usually want to go to you?
P: Yeah
IR: To just feel comfortable…
P: Yeah, I feel like students feel comfortable ….
IR: Yeah
P: Coming to me, and I actually just had a situa, a situation with a student the other day, um,
that came to me because, um, we have the therapy dog, and she was told that she was
going to have to pet the dog. And she was very upset, and she talked to her teacher about
it and so I went and talked to her, and I told her, I said “you did absolutely the right thing
by talking to me about this,” and I said „I will, you know, talk to the person, you know,
who said that, that you needed [soft voice], you needed to touch the dog, and explain to
them, because it was somebody who didn‟t realize that, you know, some of the students,
some of the Arabic students, are okay with touching the dog, and we‟ve talked about it
with parents to make sure it‟s okay, and some are not. And I said “you just have to be
sensitive to that.” And I, yeah, I think the students do like coming to me. Like, right now,
I‟m testing, so, I don‟t have my regular groups, and so I see the students in the hall out,
“when are you coming to get me? I wanna come back to your room!”[her voice when she
is imitating little students with moving her body and smile] so that makes me feel good,
(IR: yeah) that they enjoy coming here. I think, because it‟s less stressful, because
they‟re either, one on one with me, or, you know, there‟s three or four others in here, and
it‟s not the big classroom, and they feel like they‟re really getting individual attention.
They feel safe, where if they (..) you know, because maybe they aren‟t, they don‟t read as
well as some of the other kids in the class, well they‟re reading at the same level as the
ones that are in here. So I think that makes them feel good.
IR: Yeah. Uhm, um [cough], have you experienced any conflict in communicating with
ESL student? And how did you deal with?
P: Um [audible breath], I mean there have been students that (..) you know, they misbehave,
you know, just like any other student, (IR: yeah), they might kick somebody on the
playground, or they might, be refusing to do their work (IR: yeah), or. Most of the time
the teachers handle those situations, um, I have had times in here where, you know,
students will, I‟m trying to teach and they‟re talking, and just those little discipline
things. But I haven‟t had any real severe [emphasized on word], defiant behaviors that

I‟ve had to deal with. So I think for the most part I‟m pretty lucky {loudly laughs}you
know, but I think most, I mean if there‟s something that‟s, that we‟re concerned about, or,
um, I know there is a situation, um, in a classroom last year, with a couple of girls, and it
was a situation that happened here at school, and it was happening, cuz they were
neighbors, and they were friends outside of school, and it was just those little girl things,
where they argue, and they‟re friends [hands gestures]and they‟re not friends. And so we
had to get parents involved. (IR: laughs). You know those kinds of things, but, you
know, it‟s, it‟s good that those students feel like they could come to us, and, that, you
know, parents are very supportive too. So but, yeah, for the most part, I haven‟t, haven‟t
really had any, any problems (IR: laughs), pretty lucky {laugh a lot}. That‟s why I love
my job {laughs}
IR: Okay, what ah, suggestions do you have to improve communication with ESL
P: Hmm [deep breath]. Gosh, to improve communication with the students?[thinking with
moving her mouth] ….Hmm. I don‟t know, I feel like I, ….I feel like, I feel like I do a
fairly decent job at that. I mean, other than learning their language so I can be able to talk
to them in their language [she spoke with laughs]. But, ah, yeah, I just…. I don‟t really, I
haven‟t had any problems communicating. I mean, like I said before, if I, if they don‟t
understand me, then it‟s just a lot of, you know, [inaudible], having them, you know, look
at other students, and you know, do what they‟re doing, and, a lot of pictures, and those
kind of things. Um,
IR: Ah, maybe, if any other want to, ah, do as your job, what advice can give them?
P: If anybody wanted to do my job?
IR: Yeah, to, to improve communication with ESL…. Maybe this is the main idea of the
questions, suggestions.
P: To improve (..) I guess I‟m not understanding. If somebody wanted my job how can they
communicate with the students? Or…
IR: No, ah, what, I, again, what suggestions do you have to improve communication
with ESL student? So you did a lot, you communicate with the students in the.., ah,
in their class, here, in your class, in cafeteria, outside, so what else? (P: uhm) what,
what you can advise other, or you can improve your communication also?
P: Oh, Gosh. Oh [deep thinking]
IR: Something you did not, or you, you think it’s better to focus on.
P: Ah gosh. Um, ah, gosh, for me, I, you know, I‟m sure I could improve (IR: yeah), but I
don‟t know, I mean I guess I don‟t…. I‟m trying to figure out how to put this {laughs}
IR: {laughs}
P: You know I think, you know I, I kinda come at it like a classroom teacher, I think they
can always, improve communication, because they have, you know, twenty-five students

in their classroom. And sometimes, sometimes it‟s, [background sound “beeping”: school
bell]. Ah, time to go home {laughs}
IR: {laughs} good.
P: {laugh a lot } Um, I think sometimes, some teachers have a reservation on how they can
communicate, and, and I can see that. Because if you, if you have one student in your
classroom and they don‟t know the language, then, it‟s, you know, that‟s when they‟re
coming to me, “how do I teach them,” (IR: yeah) you know, those kind of things (IR:
yeah). Um, but I just think, you know, just for me, more knowledge about the students,
their families, their cultures, their backgrounds. I mean I could always improve on those
kinds of things, learning more about that, so I have a better understanding, you know, of,
you know, where they come from (..) you know, how they learned their first language,
you know, what is their literacy in their language, can they read and write in their own
language, so then I can build on those skills in, in English…. Um, but (..) yeah, there‟s
always room for growth, I can always do better {laughs{. And I think, you know, talking
with the other ESL teachers in the district(..), you know, what are you doing, you know,
network with my colleagues, to see what‟s, what‟s working over at Bergman, or over at
Lee School, and, you know, if I‟m struggling with a student, you know, have them, you
know, give me some ideas. I don‟t know if that answers you question {laughs}.
IR: {laughs}the last one, how do you technology, ah, make improve communication with
the ESL students?
P: Ah, I think [emphasized on word], (..) the iPad has been a really neat thing that we‟ve
had, you know, come in the classroom. And I, I have, well I have four iPads, that I can
use with students, so I would like to, to do more with that. And I think that will get them
communicating more. Like using the sock puppet apps, and doing book creator so that
they‟re actually, retelling stories, and they can have it on the iPad. Because, (..) you
know, technology is a motivator for students, they really….They would rather do
something on the iPad than open a, you know, a little book, and read from a book. So I
think the more I could incorporate technology, um…. and have it more interactive with
the students, so they‟re producing language, and not just, you know, looking for the
games to play on there. I think that will help their communication, so (..) hopefully I can
do more with that {laughs}.
IR: Yeah. Okay, I appreciate your support….
P: Oh, no problem {laughs}
IR: And everything. Thank you
P: You‟re very welcome, you‟re very welcome, I‟m glad you could come in today, that
worked out perfect. {laughs}
IR: {laughs}
P: {laughs}

IR: Because this is what I [crosstalk]
P: Okay {laughs} yeah, I let them feel safe, and know that, you know, when, when they
come in here we can have fun, but they know too my expectations are that we‟re going to
work hard, and to work, you know, we‟re going to work hard, we‟re gonna get our work
done, and then, you know, if they wanna, you know, get out the candy land game, and
play with the sight words. It‟s never just play a game, it always has to do with, you know,
learning too. But I just feel like, (a teacher enters the classroom and puts back chairs,[a
teacher entered to interviewee‟s room to return some chairs which made sounds, then she
replied] (P: oh thank you) I feel like, ah, that there, just, when I see them in the hall, I
mean, it‟s always, you know, go ah, give them a hug if they wanna hug [makes hug with
her hands], or just, you know, “I can‟t wait to see you tomorrow”, or “what are you doing
over spring break,” just those kind of things, just nurturing and, and showing them that I
genuinely care about them. You know, and it‟s, like, when my families move away, it‟s
like, oh, I have to have emails because I want to know, like I wanna to know. [Student‟s
name] has moved away, I wanna know how she‟s doing, you know. Ten years from now,
I wanna know where your girls are, and [student‟s name] and [student‟s name], it‟s like,
what are they doing? What did they do with their life? I mean it‟s like, I feel like I kind of
become, like we‟re kind of a, almost like a family. (IR: yeah). You know, because I, you
know, I do have these students for a long time, so I, I treat them like they‟re my own kids
[with soft lovely voice], (IR: Uhm, yeah), you know? So, and hopefully that‟s what
makes them wanna come here, because they know that I do care about them, and, go to
[crosstalk] and do what I can to help them learn and support them if, you know,
IR: You know, ah, students, feel with this, [talk across: sounds from outside room] all
what teachers do, the students feel what he want, to help them, support, like this (P:
right), respect, something like that, (P: Uhmm, yeah), safety.
P: And I think even, you know, even if, I have to get, you know, firm with a student, if
they‟re talking while I‟m trying to teach, and I have to say something to them, you know,
they know that I am correcting them out of care, that it‟s not I‟m mad at „em and being
mean (IR: yeah, yeah, exactly), that they, they‟re like, oh, you know, {laughs}, okay,
you know. So, I try to build that relationship with them, that, that they‟re gonna, I respect
them, they‟ll respect me [background sounds from school hall], and that, we‟re working
on this, we all want the same thing, and, so, hopefully {laughs}.
IR: Thank you a lot, thank you a lot.

P: Well, you‟re welcome! I appreciate you coming in, so that was fun {laughs} makes me
think, (IR: {laughs}) you know, I‟ll be thinking this weekend, how could I have
answered that differently, and how do I do that so {laughs}that will help me become a
better teacher, too, thinking about things like that, (IR: yeah) so, yeah, that‟s nice