CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the background of the study. It draws attention to the
investigation of structure of the jokes, the types of humorous interactions, and
social functions of the humor in Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy
performance. This chapter also provides the statements of problems, the aims of
the study, the scope of the study, the significance of the study, research methods,
data collection, data analysis, and organi"ation of the study
1.1 Background of The Study
#eople have various kinds of feelings and need many ways to e$press the
feelings. %umor is one of the ways that people commonly use to e$press such
feelings as a way of releasing. &lugel '()*+, -.)/ states that humor as the 0uality
in individuals that mediates the amusing, the comic, the laughable, the ludicrous,
the witty, and the funny. Through humor, the psychological burden that people get
from the routine life can be released by laughing. 1owadays, humors are often
used to critici"e the social issues developed among society, and the topics can be
various, such as economic, culture, religion, education, and others.
The humor study in its development was researched in many perspectives.
The pioneer of the research was igmund &reud '().*/ who was micro scoping
humor from its psychoanalytical aspects. &reud’s perspective towards humor was
psychological, based on the dynamic among id, ego, and superego. It was said in
1
his works '()23, ()4./ that humor the commanded superego so that it would slow
down the ego from seeking pleasure for the id, or to momentarily adapt itself to
the demands of reality.
A century ahead, the research of humor started to be analy"ed from its
register to produce an effective responds from the audiences of the jokes. 5ilbert
'2..+/ discovered that there were potential in delivering jokes effectively to the
audiences by doing self6deprecation of the comics in the tand !p comedy
performance.
In another perspective, humor was also analy"ed from pragmatics aspects,
especially by looking through 5rice’s cooperative principles. etiawan '2..*/,
described that some violations of 5rice’s cooperative principle and some ma$ims
could produce an effective laughter of the audiences.
In the recent research, humor was also analy"ed more specifically from its
types, such as jokes and conversational humor. 7ynel '2..)/ conducted research
on humor in another perspective by accounting the differences between jokes and
conversational humor. The basis of joke’s term covers a variety of semantic and
pragmatic types of humor, which happened many times and again in interpersonal
communication, whether real6life 'everyday conversations or T8 programs/ or
fictional 'film and book dialogues/.
In this study, some 0uite different perspectives towards humor are
described. This study proposes new research of Indonesian tand !p 9omedy
from its socio6pragmatics perspective.
2
In Indonesia, the studies of humor are still a few. The ranges of the
research are mostly concerned with the linguistic aspects. In Indonesia, the studies
of humor are mostly analy"ed from its pragmatics aspects, such as the ma$im
violations, politeness strategy, the cooperative principles, etc. The study of humor
is still developing in terms of its history, substance of the jokes and even its
application.
tand !p comedy is one of genre in delivering humor recently developed
in Indonesia. tand !p comedy is defined as a comedy that is presented by the
comic's/:performer's/ who stand on the stage in front of the direct audiences
verbally. The topics that are delivered in tand !p comedy are various, and the
ways of conveying the jokes are also distinctively clever; it could be observational,
impersonating the jokes in some figures of characters, gesturing, even in
improvisation. Thus, cognitive coordination added by the pragmatic knowledge of
the audiences are 0uite determining in grasping such as comedy.
At present in Indonesia, tand !p comedy has been an alternative
entertainment broadcasted in the television. Metro T8 as one of Indonesian T8
station even broadcasts at least three programs on tand !p 9omedy, namely
Open Mic, Galaunite, Stand Up Comedy Show. According to Rolling Stones
Indonesia Magazine, Stand Up Comedy Show of Metro T8 is rated (,< with -,3
share which means a very good parameter for its first episode. Additionally,
=ompas T8 as one of new T8 stations makes its own breakthrough by
broadcasting >tand !p 9omedy Indonesia 9ompetition?.
3
In Indonesia, tand !p 9omedy show is now still developing and in a
process to have more chances to be broadcasted in Television. #andji
#ragiwaksono and @aditya 7ika are two prominent figures who establish tand !p
9omedy in Indonesia these days. As time goes by, comics 'tand !p 9omedy
performers/ are dramatically popping up some potential names such as Mongol,
ammy, oleh olihun, 9ak Aontong, Abdel, Muhadkly Acho, etc. The last name
mentioned is one comic whose his jokes were analy"ed in this study, Muhadkly
Acho.
The objective of this study is to describe the general structure, types, and
social functions of the jokes of one Indonesian tand !p comedy comic named
Muhadkly Acho. Muhadkly Acho '<2/ is one of Indonesian >celebrity of Twitter?
that has more than <.,... followers in Twitter and is still increasing. %e is an
e$pert of IT, online media field, an active blogger, and a comic. %is twits on the
Twitter 'Bmuhadkly/ are e$traordinarily interesting, inspiring and triggering mind
to do the best of its capability in visuali"ing the words inside the head. Cy
conducting this research, it is hoped that the researcher can describe the general
structure, types, and social functions of one particular comic’s jokes, Muhadkly
Acho to enrich the socio6pragmatics of humor theory. This study can also be one
of references for the further researchers who are willing to e$pand the scope of the
research on this topic.
4
1.2 Statements of the Problems
&rom the preceding e$planation, this research is to answer these following
0uestions,
(/ %ow is the general structure of Muhadkly Acho’s jokesD
2/ Ehat are the most common types of the humorous interactions delivered in
Muhadkly Acho’s performanceD
3) Ehat are the social functions of Muhadkly Acho’s humorD
1.3 Aims of the Study
The aims of the study are,
1) To describe how is the general structures of Muhadkly Acho’s
jokes.
2) To investigate the most common types of humorous interactions in
Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy performance.
3) To describe the social functions of humor from Muhadkly Acho’s
tand !p comedy performances.
1.4 Scope of the Study
5
The research concerned only on the investigation of socio6pragmatics
analysis in Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy performances and the description
of the jokes general structure, types, and also social functions of the humor. The
data that were analy"ed were only taken from the transcribed te$ts from the videos
of Muhadkly’s tand !p 9omedy performance regardless the para6linguistics
elements of the comic.
1.5 Research Methods
This study was using 0ualitative approach whose the function was to serve
lived e$perience directly not through an abstract generali"ation 'Alwasilah,
2..2,+*/. Additionally, Ma$well '())4, 2-/ remarked that 0ualitative design was
to understand the meaning of the events, situations, and actions that the
participants in the study involved. ince there was a descriptive purpose in this
study, the researcher uses descriptive method here. 7escriptive method was
particularly applied to e$plain, analy"e and classify the data '5ay, ()3-, (<)/.
1.5.1 Data Collection
The data were collected by transcribing the utterances from four videos
downloaded from Foutube.com. The four videos of Muhadkly Acho performances
were performed in the different places and events. The transcriptions of the four
videos were generally identified in terms of the jokes, then were transcribed and
finally became the data to be analy"ed in the study.
1.5.2 Data Analysis
6
In analy"ing the data or the transcriptions, the first step was describing the
general structure of Muhadkly Acho’s jokes by capturing some of Muhadkly’s
jokes then identifying the jokes. The ne$t step was identifying the utterances based
on Attardo’s types of humorous interaction categories like joke telling,
conversational jokes, teasing, and ritual joking. &inally, the social functions of the
humor identified based on Attardo’s classes of humor social functions, such as
social management, decommitment, mediation, and defunctionali"ation.
1.6 Organization of the Study
This study is organi"ed in five chapters. 9hapter I is Introduction. It
provides the background of research, the statements of problems, the aims of the
study, the scope of the study, the significance of the study, research methods, data
collection, data analysis, clarification of terms, and organi"ation of the study.
9hapter II is Theoretical &oundation. It consists of some theories that are relevant
to the study. It includes speech acts, and politeness. It also includes tand !p
comedy trivial and previous study. 9hapter II is @esearch Method. This chapter
e$plains the theories applied in the study. It includes research 0uestions, research
method, data sources, and techni0ue of transcribing. 9hapter I8 is &indings and
7iscussions. This chapter serves the findings and discussions of the study. 9hapter
8 is 9onclusion and uggestions. It reports the conclusions of the study and
suggestions of the study.
7
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter provides the theoretical framework used in the present study.
There are several topics covered in this study. The first topic deals with some
e$planations about socio6pragmatic. The second is the humor in conte$t, and the
types, social functions, and the general structure of the jokes will be elaborated
further here. The third elucidates tand !p comedy general history. The fourth
e$pounds the previous research of the study related.
2.1 Socio-pragmatic
1owadays, it will be a little bit alien to hear the term of socio6pragmatic.
To illuminate the directions in reading the research it is needed some e$planation
towards this socio6pragmatic term. ocio6pragmatic competence in a language is
more than the parts of linguistics and le$ical knowledge that implies the speaker
knows how to change the strategies of speech acts according to the consideration
of the situational or social variables in the act of communication '%arlow, ())./.
%arlow '())./ also states that a communication is a subject to a social
appropriateness. ome factors that takes into account to form utterances such as
age, se$, and the relationship between the speaker and the hearer; also the
circumstances and setting in which the act of communication takes place.
8
2.2 Humor in Context
%umor in conte$t is discussing the relationship between the jokes and the
conte$t in which they emerge. In the humor in conte$t, the linguistic and social
aspects of the humor are more determined and emphasi"ed. Eithin the
elaboration, the section will discuss the general structure of tand !p 9omedy
jokes '2.(.(/. @egarding to the social aspects of the humor, the types of humor
interactions '2.(.2/ will also be discussed, and also the social functions of humor
'2.(.</ will be elaborated as the study has specified its material to be micro scoped
proposed by Attardo.
2.2.1 General Structures of Stand Up Comedy 1okes
There are at least three elements in tand !p 9omedy jokes’ regular structure
to be applied when a comic delivering the jokes according to Ale$ander '2..)/.
They are,
1) etup
The setup establishes the necessary background knowledge or info of the
joke to the audiences as the premise. The setup should be as brief as possible 'new
open mic comics tend to play on with unnecessary details/.
2) #unchline
9
The punchline is the laugh line. The setup leads the audience in one
direction, and the comics surprise them by suddenly going off in a different
direction. The twist or element of surprise is the punchlines. That incongruity is
the main ingredient.
3) Tags 'optional/
Tags are also known as toppers, tags are additional punchlines. ometimes
they build on the original, sometimes they twist and snap back and forth in
surprising new directions.
%ere are some e$amples that contain the basic elements of tand !p 9omedy
structure above,
(1) >I’m wondering why people are covering their mouth when they snee"e or
Setup
coughD 1ow, why don’t they do the same every time they fartD?
Punchline
(2) >%ey, do you like Thai cuisineD Ehat do you likeD %ahD MuaythaiD Gk, I
Setup Punchline
10
think we’re no longer friends, bro.?
Tag
2.2.2 Types of Humorous Interactions
%umor is the cheapest entertainment that everyone possibly gets. Most
people often take humor for granted. It is rarely to be thought that humor has
some scientific elements to be analy"ed. %umor has some communicative
functions and there are types of humor interactions within 'Attardo, ())+/.
2.2.2.1 1oke Telling
Hoke telling is the most unstructured and conte$tually independent types of
humor interactions. Ivery time people are meeting and doing some conversations
and the jokes are within, anyone can take the turn after ones turn, and continue it
with another jokes unrelated to the topic of the previous jokes. %owever, speakers
fre0uently choose the jokes by similarities among the jokes, by situational factors
such as the news, local events, the weather, etc. 'Attardo and @askin, ())(/, or by
social or interpersonal factors '9hiaro, ())2/. In that case, the wordings of the
jokes are likely to be occurred since it will be influenced by the conte$ts.
1evertheless, some structures in telling a joke are unnecessarily needed since
telling jokes is the simplest and most common humorous interaction. acks '()-3/
states that the participants of the conversation can be announced to be involved in
11
the joke telling session either implicitly or e$plicitly. uch e$pressions as J%ave
you heard the latestDJ or J7o you know the one ... J are often used by speakers to
e$plicitly declare that the narrative following the sentence is a joke, although, of
course, jokes can also be introduced in conversation without e$plicit markers.
2.2.2.2 Conversational 1okes
K In conversational jokes, conte$ts were essentially needed. Tannen opened
her discussion with what could be used as a humor researcherLs manifesto in
conversational analysis, JGne of the most distinctive aspects of any personLs style
is the use of humorJ 'Tannen ()3+, (<./. As one of the most prominent scientist
in researching conversational jokes, Tannen was focusing herself on analy"ing the
styles or registers in delivering jokes, for e$ample,
In his role as host, teve is fre0uently in the position of giving orders to
people and offering them food. %e fre0uently mocks his own behavior in
this role by affecting a stereotypical Hewish speech pattern. &or e$ample,
when someone offers to help him serve, he replies, LFou should sit and
rela$, dahlinkML %is use of the modal Lshould,L e$aggerated intonation, and
styli"ed voice 0uality and pronunciation are all patterned on the speech of
teveLs grandmother, who immigrated to the !nited tates from #oland.
Thus, he is mocking his own impulse to pattern his hosting behavior on
her model. 'Tannen ()3+, (<26(<</.
Cy applying some distinct registers from our ordinary style, or and using
an inappropriate style in situation, a comic may successfully inviting laughter as
an implication to that. Audiences would see that as a separated interpretation from
the literal interpretation in the case above. %ence, such register would invite
laughter in conversational jokes.
12
2.2.2.3 Teasing
Teasing is a type of humorous interactions that is 0uite distinct from the
others because of its >criticism? elements. Mulkay '()33, -)/ remarks teasing as
Ja device for reformulating othersL speech and actions, and thereby proposing an
alternative reality, without seriously doing so.J 7rew '()3-/ states that teasing is
playful yet aggressive. %owever, the reaction or the level of aggression is
gradable, people can take it totally humorous, part humorous, or even seriously.
Casically, teasing is not genuinely purposed to offend the hearer in the
conversational session. Teasing should be considered as framework that contains
humorous elements within and implicit way to convey some related possible
meanings about the subjects talk about. %ere are the e$amples below to illuminate
the previous e$planations,
(3) &emale, Fou manifest the #eter #an syndrome.
Male, And you have the 9aptain %ook syndrome. 'teasing/
&emale, There’s no such syndrome.
Male, Gbviously there is. Fou have itM 'teasing/
(4) &emale, Fou’re a thief and a liar.
Male, I only lied about being a thief, I don’t do that anymore. 'teasing/
&emale, tealD
Male, Aie. 'teasing/
'taken from 7ynel, 2..),), >Beyond a o!e" #ypes o$ Con%ersational &umour'/
2.2.2.4 Ritual 1oking
13
@itual joking is a type of humorous interactions that closely related to
Anthropological research. Thus, ritual joking is not 0uite relevant with the humor
research if it is looked from the socio6pragmatics perspective. @itual joking is very
culturally bounded; like in some rituali"ed situations of some regions, jokes are
allowed to be applied in some slots of utterances, either scripted or not. Apte
'()3*/ remarks that specific ethnographic research is needed to deal with the
different manifestations of a cultureLs choices of what conte$ts are appropriate for
humor. In several cultures, there are >jokers? to cast the figure of the ritual joking,
for instance (engser )*ah and (engser )m*u in undanese wedding ceremony in
Indonesia. The other is the habit of disturbing marriage ceremonies with practical
jokes is a related ritual, like a noisy mock serenade to the newlyweds known in
America as Jshivaree.J
2.2.3 The Social Functions of Humor
There are comple$ and numerous accounts regarding to the social
functions of humor. Attardo '())+/ divides the social functions of humor into two;
they are primary functions and secondary functions. #rimary functions are the
effects that the speakers may or wishfully get directly by using the humorous
segments from his:her discourse. econdary functions are the effects that are
grasped by the hearers either unintentionally or without knowledge.
2.2.3.1 The Primary Functions
Attardo '())+/ remarks that the primary functions of humor can be grouped
into four categories,
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1) ocial Management
2) 7ecommitment
3) Mediation
4) 7efunctionali"ation
Casically, all of the social functions of humor are used as the facilities to
connect the speakers’ intention within the utterances to the audiences. Iach one of
the primary functions will be e$plained one by one so that it will be easier to see
the distinctions.
2.2.3.1.1 Social Management
The social management function of humor is used to be a tool to strengthen
the in6group bonding, in6group interactions, and or even out6group rejection. %ere
are some e$amples of social management,
1) ocial control
The speaker uses humor as a social corrective 'Cergson ().(/ by
JembarassNingO' ... / or ' ... / intimidatNingOJ 'Aong and 5raesser ()33, *</
members of the group.
2) 9onveying social norms
15
The speaker uses humor to attract attention on taboos, unacceptable
behavior, etc. A. 1ilsen '()3<, ++4/ notes that Jwhite, middle6class,
suburban women ' ... / aim wit or sarcasm at each other to control se$ual
behavior.J
3) Ingratiation
The speaker tries to Jgarner attention and foster likingJ 'Aong and
5raesser ()33, *+/. Adelsward '()3)/ shows how mutual laughter shows
and builds consensus.
4) 7iscourse management
%umor can be used for Jinitiation, termination, passing 'e$change of
control/, topic shift, checkingJ 'Ibid., **/.
5) Istablish common ground
A speaker can use the hearerLs reaction to humor to establish his:her
Jattention, understanding, ' ... / degree of involvement.J 'Ibid., *-; see also
1orrick '()3+, 2.462.-/.
6) 9leverness
%umor re0uires e$tra processing, so producing and understanding it
connote cleverness. In general, humor has positive connotations in our
society.
7) ocial play
16
JThe comraderie generated through such play may function to
strenghten social bonds and foster group cohesivenessJ 'Aong and 5raesser
()33, *-/. %umor is Ja means of managing communality and intimacyJ for
women '=otthoff ()34, 22/, or as aggression and domination for men.
8) @epair
!npleasant situations may be defused by humorous comments,
connoting positive attitude, in6group bonding, and levity.
2.2.3.1.2 Decommitment
7ecommitment is used as a facility for the speakers to do the social
interactions. ome perspectives may say that ambiguity is the basis of social
function of humor. =ane et al. '()--, (</ remark JNbecauseO humour can be
interpreted in several different ways it allows the source NspeakerO, target NhearerO
or audience substantial fle$ibility of behaviour.J %ence, JdecommittmentJ is
defined as Jdenying any harmful intention for an actionJ '(+6(*/ and for the
speaker to declare Jthat he:she did not have any intention of maintaining or
carrying out or treating seriously an action that had been initially startedJ '(*/.
7ecommitment’s basis of the function is that humorous communication is
retractable, for e$ample, the speaker may back off from his:her utterance without
loss of face 'Crown and Aevinson '()-3, 22)//. They are two essential techni0ues
in decommitment, they are >probing? and >salvaging?. ome scopes of
communities may have different approval regarding some issues, moreover the
serious ones. Those two techni0ues are used when the speakers are not certain
17
about the hearers’ reactions towards the situation that might be considered
inappropriate. In that case, when that happens, the speaker will decommit
him:herself by salvaging the unpleasant situations. %ere are some separated
elaborations regarding >#robing? and >alvaging?,
1) #robing
There is a scenario made by =ane et al. while reporting the sociological
research on the social functions of humor,
tandards of propriety may prohibit a person from directly asking others
about Nthe value system of the groupO. A less direct approach would be to
make a humorous remark that communicates the sourceLs interest,
presumably, if the target laughs and later reciprocates with a similar form
of humour, the social relationship has moved towards more intimacy
without committing either party in such a way that he or she could be
called to account for their actions. '=ane et al. ()--, (+/.
%umor is used to convey some >serious? contents implicitly as stated by
Imerson '()4)/ and acks '()-3/. In this case, humorous interactions can be used
as the tool of negotiation in penetrating the audiences with the >serious? contents.
The topics that may be considered too threatening can be approved through the
using of these humorous interactions. %umorous interactions also can bring either
an agreement or disagreement to one group or individual through e$plicit
messages overtly delivered in aggressive humor.
2) alvaging
Gne speaker does not simply put himself in an unpleasant situations by
conveying some >serious? contents of humor in certain groups or individual but
18
also has made a ready6made e$cuse like >I did not mean that seriously.? It is based
on the notion proposed by =ane et al. '()--, (+6(*/ that says someone about to
e$perience an unpleasant social situation Jmay attempt to save the situation by
indicating that the proposed or past action was not serious, but was instead meant
as a joke.J
2.2.3.1.3 Mediation
To carry out potentially embarrassing or aggressive interactions, people are
usually using humor. %ence, humor is seen as a mediating device, while teasing is
seen as a device for critici"ing a person without an overt attack 'Mulkay ()33, -)/.
In the hospital, for instance, humorous interactions can be used as a >transitional
device? to introduce some strong topics like death. The other case is the study of
humorous interactions in the diner. A male costumer use humor approach as the
transitional device to try to pick up the waitresses. It is also e$changing the codes
of >se$ual availability? without risking personal feelings 'Mulkay ()33, 3-/.
This mediation function is used as the denial or retractability for the
speakers, so that he:she does not have a responsibility for what that has been said.
Ehen the circumstances become unpleasant in a sense, by using that mediating
function, he:she can deny the truthfulness of the utterances by saying that all of
them are only kidding. Thus, the burdens of conse0uences of the speakers are
decreasing, since humorous interaction is an accepted type of communication.
%owever, not all humorous utterances can be denied. It can be considered very
offensive when speakers deliver some aggressive jokes if he:she was not stating
19
some pree$isting e$cuses towards the jokes before delivering it. Another e$ample
is that it will be considered insulting to mock one community or party if he:she is
not one of the community or party famous supporter.
2.2.3.1.4 Defunctionalization
7efunctionali"ation is the last primary function of humorous interactions.
7efunctionali"ed language is language that is not used for transmission of
information 'its principal function/, but for playful 'ludic/ purposes 'Aong and
5raesser '()33, *-/ Jsocial playJ/. &ry '()4</ remarks that in the perspective
considering humor as >play with language?, it has changed the purpose of
communication in the first place for communicating to be ultimately seeing
language as ritual an art. 5enerally, metalanguage stops the conventional rules of
language. Cy seeing the freedom of metalinguistics in e$plaining the languages,
speakers can barely see the possibilities of the ludic of the language. In that case,
the speakers can take an advantage from those possibilities to use that as an
entertainment aim.
2.2.3.2 The Secondary Functions
Hokes have been claimed to be some informative aspects that can be used
by the hearers to unpack the information in the real life 'Phao, ()33/. The speakers
are able to deliver any kinds of topics, events and objects regardless any
boundaries to the hearers. The hearers will relate the information that are grasped
by its novelty and based on the hearers’ e$perience also. There are two ways for
20
the hearers in ac0uiring the information from the speakers. It can be e$plicitly
done, like when the te$ts introduced are totally new, unrelated, or alien for the
hearers. The other way is implicit way, it is by conveying the te$ts that are arrived
at by the hearer inferentially and added to his:her knowledge.
acks '()-3/ claims that this function of jokes is can be used to transmit
taboo matters. %ere is a te$t of joke that acks has been analy"ed in terms of this
function,
(5) Three sisters marry three young men on the same day and the mother of
the young women talks them into spending their first night at their home,
each in a room. The mother, after everyone has retired to their respective
rooms, listens at the closed doors. At the first one she hears an J!oo6ooo,J
at the second door an JFaaa,J but at the third door she hears nothing. The
following morning she asks the first daughter why she went J!oo6oooJ
and the daughter says JIt tickled.J he then asks the second daughter why
she went JFaaJ and she replies JIt hurt.J &inally she asks the third
daughter why she did not say anything. The daughter says JEell, you told
me it was always impolite to talk with my mouth full.J 'acks ()-3, 2*(/.
'Taken from Attardo, ())+,<.+, +(inguistics #heories o$ &umor'/
&rom the joke '</ it can be seen that the speaker of the joke is a twelve year
old little girl. In fact, the joke is told by her older brother, and the little girl is only
retelling the joke. Indirectly, in this perspective, the joke is informing the little girl
and her friends about se$ual practice, something that is taboo for their age.
Phao '()33/ states that the secondary function of humor is also used to tell the
hearers some information about the speakers to be revealed like, if he:she is in a
mood appropriate for joking, that he:she considers his:her choice of subject matter
appropriate for the situation, etc. In a sense, this kind of information has Jmeta6J
status or a sort of language for describing >another? language 'and not itself/.
21
2.3 The Brief History of Stand Up Comedy
In (3..s, the long history of tand !p 9omedy had began in its first form,
theatre. The theatre called >The Minstrel how? held by Thomas 7artmouth
>7addy? @ice was thrilling people in America right before the 9ivil Ear. The
theatre was taking its place in the heart of the middle6top class people at that time.
The theatre was containing, unfortunately, strong elements of racism, even the
comics would not hesitated to artificially blacken their skin merely to mock the
black people. At that time, microphone had not been invented, so the comics did
the >slapsticks? or did some physical jokes by >hurting? other comics physically to
invite laughter 'like we see now in Gpera 8an Hava in Indonesia/. %owever, the
theatre was still popular and holding its fame until the beginning of 2.
th
century.
>The Minstrel how? had two segments on its show in its development until
the beginning of 2.
th
century. The first segment included many shows like magic,
music, comedy, etc. The last segment was presenting two persons 0uipping the
politicians or might be only talking about daily regular life; and this segment is
called >The Glio.? o, from >The Glio? segment, the seeds of tand !p 9omedy
was born. If >The Minstrel how? was taking its place in the middle6top’s heart,
Curles0ue as the challenger had its own place in the middle6down’s. Cy adopting
>The Glio? segment where the comics did the monolog and some speeches and
with more little si"e of stage so that closer to the audiences, Curles0ue had
succeeded declared itself to be a competitive challenger.
22
After the invention of the microphone, 8audeville, a true contender of
Curles0ue reached its peak by the performance of the first political comic, Eill
@ogers. %owever, by the development of technology, people started to shift their
interest to the T8, life music performances, radio, etc. tand !p 9omedy were
only performed in some regular pubs or clubs; but with the high spirit of
resurrection, the comics succeeded to broadcast tand !p 9omedy through
television. There were programs that applied tand !p 9omedy format such as,
>The Id ullivan how?, >The Tonight how?, and JThe teve Allen how? in
()*). Through times, tand !p comedy developed and some comics with various
styles were born like, @obin Eilliams, 9hris @ock, Him 9arrey, @owan Atkinson,
Herry enfield, and many more. 1ow, the 0uipping tradition of tand !p 9omedy
show remains to live. The shows are still going on in many places around the
world, and the topics have been developed.
2.3.1 History of Indonesian Stand Up Comedy
In Indonesia, many people do not really know that the deceased Indonesian
comedian Taufik avalas was the first to introduce the concept of tand !p
9omedy to the public. In ()).s, he was performing tand !p 9omedy at 9omedy
9afQ, and @amon #apana as the owner of 9omedy 9afQ. Taufik’s efforts were not
successful enough to gain people attention for tand !p 9omedy as the same
efforts done by Iwel Eel with >Hayus #lis 7ong Ah.?
In 2.((, through Twitter movements and powers, two prominent figures of
social media with million followers combined together, #andji #ragiwaksono
23
'Bpandji/ and @aditya 7ika 'Bradityadika/ started to re6initiate the tand !p
9omedy performances in Indonesia. In the beginning, the performances were only
held in a small scale in the 9omedy 9afQ and some other cafes in =emang,
Hakarta. As time goes by, now tand !p 9omedy performances start to have its
own place in Indonesian people’s heart. T8 starts to broadcast some programs
e$posing the tand !p comedy styles, and some students of !niversities also start
to make some communities of tand !p comedy.
2.4 Previous Research
ome previous research regarding humor would be elaborated in this chapter.
In its development, the studies of humor were researched in so many perspectives.
The study of humor was pioneered by &reud '().*/ in his book, +o!es and #heir
Relation to the Unconscious.' The purpose of the study was to investigate humor
in interactions looking through the unconscious perspective of human. The study
applied psychoanalytical tools, and also some economic perspectives in analy"ing
it. The result showed that jokes were worked unconsciously in the human brain,
and in humorous interactions it would be needed the presence of the third party.
There were three clusters of the research, there were analytical, synthetic, and
theoretical.
Meanwhile, in another perspective, 5ilbert '2..+/ in her study, +,er$orming
Marginality" &umor, Gender, and Cultural Criti-ue' described the potentials of
subversive us of self6deprecation strategy of one comic to invite laughter of the
audience. he used the &eminism approach to analy"e the performances of one
24
female comic of tand !p 9omedy. The result of the research was showing that
the strategy of self6deprecation was one huge potential strategy for a comic to
produce the laughter of the audience. In other words, it was better to be a
masochist 'hurting yourself to as a matter of jokes/ rather than being a sadist
'hurting others as a matter of jokes/.
Another research of humor was done by etiawan '2..*/ that described the
effectiveness of violations of 5rice’s cooperative principle and some ma$ims in
producing laughter from the mystery maga"ine jokes for readers. etiawan used
the pragmatic approach in analy"ing the research. The result showed that some
violations of the principles and ma$ims could produce laughter of the readers
because by doing so, the senses of funniness were e$posed.
Aditionally, 7ynel '2..)/ conducted a study of humor aimed to characteri"e
some semantic and pragmatic characteristics of verbal humor. 7ynel employed the
approach of semantic, pragmatic, cognitive, and sociolinguistics. The result of the
research showed that there were multifarious characteristics of conversational
humor and a number of categories recurring in linguistic literature on the topic
were able to be familiari"ed.
The ne$t chapter would be discussing the methodology of the study. The
elaboration would focus on some aspects such as the data collection, data analysis,
research method, research procedure, object of investigation, and so on.
25
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents research design of the study, data collection, and data
analysis to solve the problems of the research. The data collection e$plains the
process of how the data were gained, and elaborated. Ehile data analysis is
justifying of how the data were analy"ed in the frame of the theories accounted in
the previous chapter.
3.1 Research Problems
This research is geared to answer these following 0uestions,
(/ %ow is the general structure of Muhadkly Acho’s jokesD
2/ Ehat are the most common types of the humorous interactions delivered in
Muhadkly Acho’s performanceD
3) Ehat are the social functions of Muhadkly Acho’s humorD
3.2 Research Design
The study employed the descriptive 0ualitative research design. It was
aimed to describe the general structure of tand !p 9omedy jokes, types of
humorous interactions, the social functions of humor. The focus of this approach
26
was a particular phenomenon that had internal validity and conte$tual
understanding, rather than generali"ability and comparability 'Alwasilah, 2...,
(+</. In that case, it means that the researcher is to describe rather than proving the
relations of the phenomenon to some aspects related without being tied up with the
structured approach and design.
The approach and design employed in the study were appropriate to the
present research. As Eolcott '())+/ states that 0ualitative research is
fundamentally interpretive where researchers make an interpretation of the data.
This includes developing a description of an individual or setting, analy"ing data
for themes or categories, and finally making an interpretation or drawing
conclusions about its meaning personally and theoretically, stating the lessons
learned, and offering further 0uestions to be asked. Thus, it is relevant to use the
approach and design e$plained previously.
3.3 Data Collection
The data used in the study are some videos of Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p
9omedy performances that are downloaded from Foutube.com. The transcriptions
of the videos are the subjects of analysis. The videos are chosen based on the
consideration of its length and also its occasions that are different in times, but
they are all in the same informal setting. ome details information can be seen in
the table below,
27
Table. 1 The Selected Videos
Title (length) Source Date
Taken
Download Links
Acho at 8irtual
9onsulting '3,(./
Foutube ():2:2.(2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=_o!"#$%&ew
tand !p 9omedy
how Metro Tv, 4
Gctober 2.((
'4,(*/
Foutube ():2:2.(2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v='()*y+31,-.
Muhadkly Acho6
7angdut, ilat
dan =oteka '*,23/
Foutube (.:-:2.(2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=(9yu/'#$_9.
Muhadkly Acho6
Aady 5aga dan
yahwat '-,.</
Foutube (.:-:2.(2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=0$upv12w+3
3.3.2 Procedure of The Study
In conducting the research, the researcher had been doing some processes
to pass on. Aibrary research was the first process to be done. This process dealt
with reading the literature to find and build the relevant theoretical framework for
the materials to be analy"ed.
The second process was downloading the four videos. The downloaded
videos were some tand !p 9omedy performances from one comic named
Muhadkly Acho in four different occasions.
28
The third was deciding the issues. The data were descriptively analy"ed
through the aspects of its types, the general structure of the tand !p 9omedy
jokes, and the social functions. The issues were chosen based on the consideration
of the willingness of the researcher to reveal such a new perspective towards
humor research especially in Indonesia.
The fourth process was transcribing and analy"ing the data. The
transcribing process was done by simultaneously watching the videos and typing
it. The analysis was based on the theory of alvatore Attardo '())+/.
The last process was concluding and suggesting. The conclusion was based
from the findings and discussions of the research. It is to pull the red line of the
research. Ehile suggestions were proposed for the better research to be conducted
in the future especially regarding the area of the present research.
The weaknesses of these procedures are the disability of capturing the
para6linguistics aspects such as facial e$pressions, gestures, etc; and it is prone of
some typos in the transcriptions because it needs a great amount of concentration
to simultaneously transcribe the data. There is no particular way to minimi"e the
weaknesses of the procedures. The certain thing to be done is to focus on
simultaneously transcribing the data. Cesides, the data that are produced from such
procedures are the appropriate data that this research needs. %ence, it is
unnecessary to worry about the inability of capturing the para6linguistics aspects
from the data.
29
The relevance of the procedures with the problems of the research is
located in its parameter of analysis that is only scoping on the general structures of
the jokes, types of the humorous interactions, and the social functions of the
humor. %ence, capturing pictures or providing anything else rather that the
transcription of the data is inappropriate since the para6linguistics aspects are not
the part of this research’s aims to be described so that it is relevant to provide the
transcription.
3.4 Data Analysis
The data analysis of the research was using the framework proposed by
alvatore Attardo '())+/. Attardo '())+/ states that humor in conte$t is the
enormous umbrella from all of it, but specifically the aspects that were analy"ed in
this research were the general structure of the jokes, the types, and the social
functions. These aspects were closely related to the socio6pragmatic sense. There
were social aspects within the analysis to be considered based on the theory’s
accounts.
In this descriptive research, to unfold the enigma of the research 0uestions,
the researcher was presenting the data using the tables that were certainly
proceeded by the elaboration of the discussion and interpretation. It was a te$tual
analysis of the transcribed data together with some codes and the e$planations of
the tables. ome simple percentages were also presented to indicate some re0uired
considerations to answer the research problems, and it was completing the tables.
Cy coding, elaborating the data, and also presented some tables it was easier and
30
more efficient for the readers to distinguish the different aspects processed from
the data.
3.4.1 General Structures of Stand Up Comedy 1okes
This section describes the general structure of tand !p 9omedy Hokes.
The general structure of tand !p 9omedy jokes was analy"ed per utterances and
the data were classified based on the classification proposed by Ale$ander '2..)/.
ee the following e$ample,
Table. 2 The General Structure of Stand Up Comedy 1okes
No Utterances Setu
p
Punchlin
e
Tags
1. Gua seneng *anget bisa diundang lagi ke sini.
Ini 8irtual 9onsulting adalah perusahaan yang
paling konsisten !alo ulang tahun ya; padahal
tahun !emaren dia udah ulang tahun, sekarang
dia ulang tahun lagi, luar biasa.
v v v
Notes:
Fellow , Setup
@ed , Punchline
31
Tur0uoise , Tags
3.4.2 Types of Humorous Interactions
The types of humorous interactions were also presented in a table to be
easily distinguished. ee the e$ample,
Table. 3 Types of Humorous Interactions
No. Data Code
1. Gua seneng *anget bisa diundang lagi
ke sini. Ini 8irtual 9onsulting adalah
perusahaan yang paling konsisten !alo
ulang tahun ya; padahal tahun !emaren
dia udah ulang tahun, sekarang dia
ulang tahun lagi, luar biasa.
(V1/TOHI 1)
Table < above shows the e$ample of the classification that had been the
focus of the study. It consisted on three columns, the first column was the
numbers, ne$t was the column of the primary data as the objects of the research,
and then the code column as the data’s code of research. In the code column there
were (V1/TOHI 1). The meanings of that were Video 1÷V1, and Type of
32
Humorous Interaction 1/1oke Telling. The total of the videos used in the study
were four videos; it would be V1, V2, V3, and V4 come up; the details would be
accounted later on.
3.4.3 The Social Functions of Humor
This section will also present a table that display the social functions of
humor of Muhadkly Acho tand !p 9omedy jokes. ee the e$ample,
Table. 4 The Primary Functions of Humor
No. Data Code
1. Gua seneng *anget bisa diundang lagi ke sini.
Ini 8irtual 9onsulting adalah perusahaan yang
paling konsisten !alo ulang tahun ya; padahal
tahun !emaren dia udah ulang tahun, sekarang
dia ulang tahun lagi, luar biasa.
(V1/PSFH 1)
imilar to the previous e$planation, this table also shows the display the
social functions of humor. There are (V1/PSFH 1:1), V1÷Video 1, and PSFOH
1÷Primary Social Function of Humor 1/Social Management. There are also
secondary social functions of humor, and all of detailed e$planation will be
accounted further.
3.4.4 The Clarification of Terms
33
This section contains some terms that are related to this study to be cleared
and defined. ome terms maybe found for the first time by some readers. %ere are
some terms to be clarified,
• ocio6pragmatic , A knowledge of language that is
more that solely linguistics and le$ical knowledge to cover, but also
regarding with the situational and social factors to influence the alteration
of the speech acts strategies being used.
• %umor , The ability to find things funny, the way in
which people see that some things are funny or the 0uality of being funny.
• 9omedy , A 'type of/ film, play or book which
is intentionally funny either in its characters or its action.
• Hoke , omething, such as a funny story or trick
that is said or done in order to make people laugh.
• tand !p 9omedy , 9omedy performed by a single
person telling jokes.
34

• 9omic , omeone who entertains people by telling
jokes.
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter presents the data collection and analysis to find the answer of
the problems of the research. This chapter includes findings on the general
structure of tand !p 9omedy jokes, types of humorous interaction, and the social
functions of humor. The findings are generally served in tables so that they can be
35
read more efficiently and effectively, and also they are provided with some
elaborations.
4.1 Findings on General Structure of Stand Up Comedy 1okes
The general structure of jokes used to analy"e the data was proposed by
Ale$ander '2..)/ as mentioned in the 9hapter <. The data of four video
transcriptions produced total *< utterances of jokes. There were <. utterances of
Acho’s jokes that contained the >Tags? in it. As mentioned earlier in the theory
that >tags? was an optional part to be attached in the jokes. Automatically, the *<
utterances of jokes contained the >etup? and >#unchline?, meaning that 2<
utterances of jokes were not containing the >Tags.? %ere are some e$amples taken
from the data of general structure of the jokes 'The entire utterances can be seen in
Appendi$ I/,
• Setup-Punchline
(6) 7an gua sempet tanya ke *o!ap gua gitu, >emang >Muhadkly? itu
artinya apaD?, dan gua langsung shoc!ed !arna nama gua itu singkatan.
Imangnya gua partai gitu dising!at.sing!at/
• Setup-Punchline-Tags
36
(7) 7an yang gua bingung, ini komentator kita ini sotoy.sotoy
semuanya gitu. Misalnya, dia nyalahin katanya, >)h, pemain kita, Cung,
tendangan bebasnya tidak masuk.? Fa namanya juga >Tendangan Cebas?
gitu !an, terserah dong pemain mau gol apa engga, gitu. =ecuali namanya
+#endangan 0ardu', !alo +#endangan 0ardu' harus masuk gitu, !alo ga
masuk harom. Itu makanya, >Tendangan Cebas? ya bebas gitu.
Notes:
Fellow , Setup
@ed , Punchline
Tur0uoise , Tags
The distribution table of the general structure of Muhadkly Acho’s jokes could be
seen on the table below,
Table. 5 The Distribution of The General Structure of Muhadkly Acho`s
1okes
General Structure Total Count º Rank
37
etup6#unchline
2<
+<.+
R 2
etup6#unchline6Tags
<.
*4.4
R (
Total Utterances *< (..R
&rom Table. *, it is seen that all of the elements of the general structure
proposed by Ale$ander '2..)/ are provided in Muhadkly Acho tand !p comedy
jokes. &or the regular structure of jokes, Muhadkly Acho uses only +<.+R or 2< of
*< jokes in his total four performances. This structure 'etup6#unchline/ is the
default structure in building a joke according to Ale$ander '2..)/. Mike Cent
'2.(2/ states that the set6up and punchline is a simple yet effective format like you
state a fact or opinion, then give it a comedic twist.
In addition, it is seen from Table. * that Muhadkly Acho mostly uses
>Tags? in his jokes as seen in numbers for <. of *< or *4.4R. As mentioned in
9hapter 2 that >Tags? usage is optional as the additional >#unchline?, and
Muhadkly Acho is likely using this option as seen from the findings. It can be
assumed that Muhadkly Acho is a comic that is likely to prolong his punchline of
the jokes. *4.4R of all of his jokes in the data that uses tags shows a great
indication that he is intentionally planning to do the e$tension of the jokes. It is
said intentionally because the materials of the jokes are written by the comic.
38
4.2 Findings on Types of Humorous Interactions
The types of humorous interactions theory used to analy"e the data were
proposed by Attardo '())+/. Types of humorous interactions according to Attardo
'())+/ are joke telling, conversational jokes, teasing, and ritual joking. After
analy"ing the data, it was found that not all of those humorous interactions
mentioned before popped up in the data. &rom *< utterances of jokes, there were
*( joke telling and 2 conversational jokes identified from the data. The distribution
table of types of humorous interactions of Muhadkly Acho’s jokes can be seen
below,
Table. 6 The Distribution of Types of Humorous Interactions
Types of Humorous Interactions Total Count º Rank
Hoke Telling *( )4.2
R
(
9onversational Hokes 2 <.3R 2
Teasing - - -
@itual Hoking - - -
Total Utterances 53 100º
&rom Table. 4, it is seen that the types of humorous interaction number one
or joke telling is the most used and fre0uent to be appeared in Muhadkly Acho’s
jokes. *( utterances or )4.2R is a significant number to justify that joke telling is
the most type that is used. It is understandable that Muhadkly Acho only uses 2
39
utterances or <.3R conversational jokes in his four performances remembering the
stand !p comedy performance’s concept itself is a comedy performed by a single
person telling jokes according to 9ambridge Advance Aearners’ 7ictionary '2..3/.
ince tand !p comedy performances of the four videos were held in
casual settings, attended by various kind of people looking for entertainment, it is
believed that joke telling is the most appropriate type of humorous interaction
rather than conversational joke that needs some structures; teasing that is too
critical, or ritual joking that needs a special ritual occasion to be done in the
performances. %owever, after seeing that tags are fre0uently used in Muhadkly
Acho’s jokes, it is assumed that the comic has some fears that the audiences will
not get the jokes in one attempt of generic form 'setup6punchline/. Thus, the tags
are added to be attached to some jokes and some repetitions of the punchline are
inevitable since the tags are the e$tension of the punchline.
4.3 Findings on the Social Functions of Humor
The social functions of humor theory used in this research were also
proposed by Attardo '())+/. Attardo '())+/ divides the social functions of humor
into primary social functions of humor, and secondary social functions of humor.
In the Appendi$ <, it can be seen that the categori"ation for both primary and
40
secondary social functions are merged in a table. 9onsidering the efficiency factor,
thus, the merge is done. &rom the *< utterances of jokes in terms of the social
functions of humor found from the data; there are 2 defunctionali"ation, <
mediation, ( secondary function and the rest is +- social management. %ere is the
distribution table of social functions of humor,
Table. 7 The Distribution of Social Functions of Humor
Social Functions of Humor Total Count º Rank
ocial Management +- 33.-R (
7ecommitment 6 6 6
Mediation < *.-R 2
7efunctionali"ation 2 <.3R <
econdary ocial &unction of
%umor
( (.3R +
Total Utterances *< (..R
It is seen in the Table. - that the social functions of humor contained in
Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy jokes are social management, mediation,
defunctionali"ation, and the secondary social function of humor. It is also seen that
the social management function is the most function that is used in every
humorous jokes of Muhadkly Acho. Attardo '())+/ says that the social
management function is used to be a tool to strengthen the in6group bonding, in6
group interactions, and or even out6group rejection.
41
The social management function itself is consisted in some sub6points such as,
social control, conveying social norms, ingratiation, discourse management,
establish common ground, cleverness, social play, and repair. Ehat have been
served in the table are some general pictures of the social functions of humor, to be
more detailed, the elaboration of the social management sub6points are presented
here.
It can be seen in Appendi$ < that most likely the sub6points that are attached to
the jokes of Muhadkly Acho are social control, conveying social norms, establish
common ground, and cleverness. The social control is used to bond the closeness
by the comic by embarrassing or intimidating the members of the group 'Aong and
5raesser ()33,*</. %ere is the e$ample taken from Appendi$ <,
(8) +Gua seneng 1adi alumni di sini, dari jaman dulu yang masih di
9yber ya, ya kantornya kecil ya. ekarang enak, *i!in program *isa
pa!e .php, !alo dulu kita bikin we*site itu dari tepung terigu gitu ya, masih
manual banget gitu. ?
&rom the e$ample '3/ it can be seen that the comic seems embarrassing the
firm where he used to work, and at same time is the firm that invites him to
perform the tand !p comedy performance in the firm’s birthday. It is
embarrassing the group as the comic says, >ya kantornya kecil ya. ekarang enak,
*i!in program *isa pa!e .php, !alo dulu kita bikin we*site itu dari tepung terigu
gitu ya, masih manual banget gitu. ? or >yes, the office was so little. 1ow is
different, you can make a program using .php, I was even making a website using
42
a flour since it was very manual a long time ago.? It is assumed that Muhadkly
Acho embarrassing the firm of having a little office and an archaic technology to
make a website, but it was a long time ago. It is not relevant to the present
situation of such situation. %ence, the audiences laugh after hearing and
embarrassing jokes because they feel imagine the past unsophisticated situation
the comic had been through and in the same time feel bonded as the same
colleagues.
Muhadkly Acho also often uses the function of conveying the social norms.
The comic uses humor to attract attention on taboos, unacceptable behavior, etc.
1ielsen '()3<, ++4/ notes that some social norms that can be conveyed such as a
white, middle6class, suburban women do a wit or sarcasm to other women to
control se$ual behavior. In Muhadkly Acho’s case, here are some e$amples to be
considered as such function,
(9) 5a6 78ot (tu a9a&ah (6o0 9a8( %u6abum(: yah . Emak-emak ya0/ jago
mempe8be3a8 a&at 6e&am(0..... 5a6 78ot tuh : 9(6a3(h iPhone m(3a&0ya yah :
(tu kan iPhone (tu touch screen yah 9(3e0tuh dielu 3+ elu 3 whoa &ama+&ama
gede “dhuar!” -a9( gede, jadi iPad ye .
(10) Gua ga ngerti 6e0apa 6o03e8 9a0/9ut (tu 9( 6ampu0/+6ampu0/
gitu yah : 3e8(0/6a&( 8u3uh: 8u3uh apa aja &a/u0ya 8u3uh.
The e$ample ')/ will be the e$ample about conveying the norms regarding the
taboo matters. It is stated, >5a6 78ot (tu a9a&ah (6o0 9a8( %u6abum(: yah . Emak-
emak ya0/ jago mempe8be3a8 a&at 6e&am(0...... 5a6 78ot tuh : 9(6a3(h iPhone
m(3a&0ya yah : (tu kan iPhone (tu touch screen yah 9(3e0tuh dielu 3+ elu 3 whoa
&ama+&ama gede “dhuar!” -a9( gede, jadi iPad ye ; o8 <5a6 78ot (3 the (co0 o=
43
%u6abum(: 3he>3 a0 o&9 woma0 who ca0 up3()e the ma&e>3 /e0(ta&?.= you /(ve
5a6 78ot a0 (2ho0e: (t (3 a touch 3c8ee0 pho0e: the 3he touch (t /e0t&y ove8 a09
ove8 a/a(0 a09 <9hua8@; (t>3 /ett(0/ b(//e8 a09 be(0/ a0 (2a9.; Talking about an
old woman who can upsi"e male’s genital is generally considered taboo in the
society, but here, Acho can wrap up the joke with the strong taboo sense neatly in
a very humorous way.
In the other hand, e$ample '(./ shows the e$ample of conveying the social
norm in terms of unacceptable behavior. t (3 3tate9: <Gua ga ngerti 6e0apa
6o03e8 9a0/9ut (tu 9( 6ampu0/+6ampu0/ gitu yah : 3e8(0/6a&( 8u3uh: 8u3uh apa
aja &a/u0ya 8u3uh. ; o8 < 9o0>t /et (t why 9a0/9ut co0ce8t3 he&9 (0 the v(&&a/e3 a8e
o=te0 chaot(c: whateve8 the 3o0/3 (t mu3t be chaot(c.; Acho shares his hesitation
about why is it a >7angdut? concert often cause a chaotic situation whatever the
songs. Although it is a calm love song or funny song sang in a >7angdut? concert,
the people under the stage often starting to be wild and uncontrolled to punch and
kick each other, which are Acho’s concern. It is assumed that watching a music
concert should be one way of looking for entertainments instead of delivering our
own lives in such chaotic crowd that ruins all the comforts.
The other sub6points are establish common ground and cleverness. Istablish
common ground means a speaker use the hearer’s reaction to humor to establish
his or her attention, understanding, or degree of understanding 'Attardo, ())+/.
Ehile Attardo '())+/ states that cleverness is something that re0uires e$tra
processing in producing and comprehending its connotative senses. %ere are the
e$ample for the two distinct functions,
44
(11) Ae&um &a/(: gua -u ga ga ngerti : a9a 6o03ep 3eta0 0ama0ya:
<%u3te8 B/e3ot;. Gimana coba lu -a9( 3eta0 kalo lu -a&a0 aja 3u3ah: gitu .
Cpa ya0/ lu ha8ap6a0 9a8( 3eta0 ya0/ mem(&(6( 6ete8bata3a0 =(3(6?
(12) Da0 t(p3 buat elu kalo 9(6e-a8 %u3te8 B/e3ot lu ga usah baca
Ea3(0: lu ga usah pake bawa0/ put(h: lu teba8 aja pa6u payu0/. %u&(t buat
9(a buat be&o6+be&o6.
I$ample '((/ is the e$ample for the establish common ground function.
There, Muhadkly Acho utters his concern and criticism to the general concept of a
ghost namely >uster 1gesot.? #eople are commonly grasping the general concept
of this kind of ghost, but Acho tries to establish a differentiation to that common
ground. It is said, <Ae&um &a/(: gua -u ga ga ngerti : a9a 6o03ep 3eta0 0ama0ya:
<%u3te8 B/e3ot;. Gimana coba lu -a9( 3eta0 kalo lu -a&a0 aja 3u3ah: gitu . Cpa
ya0/ lu ha8ap6a0 9a8( 3eta0 ya0/ mem(&(6( 6ete8bata3a0 =(3(6? ; o8 < 9o0>t /et the
co0cept o= the /ho3t 0ame9 <%u3te8 B/e3ot.; Fow cou&9 you be a /ho3t w(th a
9(3ab(&(ty o= wa&6(0/? ,hat 9o you eGpect =8om a /ho3t w(th a 9(3ab(&(ty?;
Muhadkly Acho tries to bend a common ground of people about >uster 1gesot?
to be mutual as his. %e tells audiences not to be scared to the ghosts generally,
specifically the >uster 1gesot? who he considers the disable ghost. Then mutual
laugh comes from the mutual common ground after the audiences get the logic
and accept it.
Gn the other hand, e$ample '(2/ is the e$ample for the cleverness function. It
is stated, <Da0 t(p3 buat elu kalo 9(6e-a8 %u3te8 B/e3ot lu ga usah baca Ea3(0: lu
ga usah pake bawa0/ put(h: lu teba8 aja pa6u payu0/. %u&(t buat 9(a buat be&o6+
be&o6.; o8 <C09 he8e>3 the t(p: (= you>8e cha3e9 by %u3te8 B/e3ot you 9o0>t have to
8ea9 the ho&y Ea3(0: 0o 0ee9 o0(o03: -u3t 3p8ea9 3ome 0a(&3. t w(&& be 9(==(cu&t =o8
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he8 to move )(/+)a/.; The cleverness that Acho brings here is to connotate >uster
1gesot? manuver with the manuver of vehicle in the dailly life. After being
conveyed such logic, the audiences will 0uickly imagine the >uster 1gesot?
inability to move "ig6"ag as vehicle and it produces laugh. It shows how homor
has positive connotations in our society.
Along the analy"ing process, it is found that the social functions of humor in
the jokes mostly can be easily identified in the punchline of the jokes, though it is
not always. ome distinguishable social functions of humor are provided in the
initial or another part of the jokes, just not in the punchline.
To sum up, Muhadkly Acho’s jokes are structured generally with setup and
punchline. ome of the jokes are attached by tags as an addition. This shows that
Muhadkly Acho is likely to give more stresses to the jokes he utters. The types of
humorous interactions he uses the most it the joke telling in which it is
unstructured and conte$tual independent. The social functions of humor that are
attached on Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy jokes are social management,
mediation, defunctionali"ation, and the secondary function of humor.
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter elaborates two points, they are the conclusion and the
suggestions of the research. The conclusion is taken based on the findings and
46
discussion. The suggestions are given so that in the future the research that will be
done in the same field or concentration will be better than this present research and
reach some better e$planations and results also.
5.1 Conclusion
The objectives of this research are to describe how the general structures of
Muhadkly Acho’s jokes, to investigate the most common types of humorous
interactions in Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy performance, and to describe
the social functions of humor from Muhadkly Acho’s tand !p comedy
performances. The theories that are employed to unfold the research problems are
Ale$ander '2..)/ theory is used for the general structure of tand !p comedy
jokes. The general structure of the jokes consists of setup, punchline and tags
'optional/.
The other theory that is used is the types of humorous interactions and the
social functions of humor theory proposed by Attardo '())+/ like joke telling,
conversational jokes, teasing, and ritual joking for the types of humorous
interactions. The social functions of humor 'Attardo, ())+/ are divided in two, the
primary functions and the secondary function. The primary functions are social
management, decommitment, mediation, and defucntionali"ation. Ehile the
secondary function is standing independently.
It is found *< utterances of jokes from the total of the data. In terms of the
general structure of the jokes, all of the utterances are all containing the setup and
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the punchline as the generic form of the jokes. It is also found that some jokes are
attached by the tags part that is optional.
Answering the 0uestion of what are the most common types of humorous
interaction in Muhadkly Acho performances, it is found that joke telling is the
result. *( of *< jokes or )4.2R of Muhadkly Acho are found as jokes telling. ince
joke telling is the simplest type of humorous interaction, it is assumed that it is the
most appropriate type to be used in the tand !p comedy performances that are
the setting is informal. In the leisure time and in the moment of looking for some
entertainments people are not willing to seek something that is more complicated
than a joke telling
The social functions of humor that are found in the research are social
management, mediation, defunctionali"ation, and the secondary function of
humor. Hokes are not only jokes to take for granted, as it is found in the research
that social management is the most sensed in the data. Muhadkly Acho delivers the
sub6points of social management, such as social control, conveying social norms,
establish common ground, and cleverness.
The conclusion can be drawn that all of Muhadkly Acho tand !p comedy
jokes contain the general structure of the jokes of setup, punchline, and tags
'optional/. The generic form of setup and punchline is a certain form that can be
seen in all of Muhadkly Acho’s jokes; and the interesting thing is some tags are
found in more than a half of his jokes in percentage. It can be assumed that the
comic is purposefully designing his jokes to prolong the punchline by adding
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many tags. ubjectively observing, there is a fear from the comic that the audience
will not get the jokes directly after hearing solely the punchline. %ence, tags are
added to some jokes, since tags are the e$tensive punchline so that repetition
sometimes is inevitable.
Aooking from the types of humorous interactions used in the jokes, it is
seen that Muhadkly Acho understands the audiences he is confronting on. There
must be plenty of considerations of choosing the simplest type humorous
interaction as the tool in delivering his ideas. In order to make his ideas mingle in
the miscellaneous audiences, it is assumed that he chooses the simplest way of
humorous interactions as the most humble way for all. The setting of all the
performances is also informal, thus it is understandable to use such type of
humorous interactions.
Ehile the social functions of humor that is revealed from Muhadkly
Acho’s jokes showing that jokes are not to take for granted. Hokes can the essential
tool to deliver social issues, social norms, and etc. &ortunately, from the data it is
seen that Muhadkly Acho put so many social norms wrapped up by his cleverness
in delivering his ideas and concepts in building the social control. Taboo matters
are also one of the themes that can be acceptable delivered through the jokes. This
is how jokes can be beneficial and contributive for the society, as the medium or a
tool.
5.2 Suggestions
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This is considered as a relatively simple research. It is said so because of the
data are only the transcription of four downloaded videos; it employs solely a few
theories of the e$perts, for e$ample the general structure of humor, types of
humorous interactions, and the social functions of humor. The comparison to the
other previous research is also not provided in the research. %ence, some
suggestions are needed for the brighter future research.
&irstly, it is highly recommended for the further researchers to do the pre6
research from a very long time before the research time. It is needed for the further
researchers so that they will find the deeper theory regarding the humor research,
and also more relevant. The theory proposed by Attardo '())./ that is used by this
research is good, but it is admitted that they are still so many overlaps concerning
to some aspects in the theory. That issue makes the theory weak to be applied to
the data, in other words the analysis is unable to be e$plored so deep especially in
the sense of pragmatic. %owever, if the social aspect is the main concern to be
e$plored, the theory can be 0uite useful.
econdly, try to e$plore the para6linguistic aspects for the further research.
#ara6linguistic aspects can lead the future researchers to e$plore deeper and more
various results, but it is recommended also to use tand !p comedy as the subject
of the research.
Thirdly, if the future researchers do the second suggestions, it is highly
believed that they can also provide some comparisons to the previous research
since there were research about para6linguistic aspects had been done. The
50
comparison to the previous research is not provided in this research because it is
rare in Indonesia for researchers to do such research, and after doing long
secondary research it is found that this research is the first research ever using
Attardo '())+/ theory.
&inally, it is hoped that the further research will be still concerned with
tand !p comedy as the specific subject to be analy"ed, and humor generally.
ince there is still rare for such research in Indonesia, it is strongly wished that
future researchers will be succeeded to encourage themselves in enriching the
hori"on of this field of research.
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